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Animal Genetics

N Wu, U Gaur, Q Zhu, B Chen, Z Xu, X Zhao, M Yang, D Li
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a highly conserved class of small noncoding RNA about 19-24 nucleotides in length that function in a specific manner to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in organisms. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered a myriad of functions for miRNAs in various aspects, but a role for miRNAs in chicken ovarian tissue at 300 days of age has not hitherto been reported. In this study, we performed the first miRNA analysis of ovarian tissues in chickens with low and high rates of egg production using high-throughput sequencing...
October 26, 2016: Animal Genetics
Linqing Liu, Kun Qian, Chonglong Wang
Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the fat traits that has economic importance in the pork industry. Longissimus dorsi muscle contains IMF and is suitable for studying adipogenesis. To discover further potential regulatory miRNAs that may influence adipogenesis, we analyzed miRNA in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Yorkshire (YY, lean-type) and Chinese Wannanhua (WH, fatty) pigs using miRNA sequencing (miRNA-seq). From this dataset, we identified 598 unique miRNAs comprising 325 pre-miRNAs and 273 novel pre-miRNAs through comparison with known miRNAs in miRBase version 21...
October 24, 2016: Animal Genetics
L Ming, L Yi, R Sa, Z X Wang, Z Wang, R Ji
The Bactrian camel includes various domestic (Camelus bactrianus) and wild (Camelus ferus) breeds that are important for transportation and for their nutritional value. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure. Here, we studied these parameters by examining an 809-bp mtDNA fragment from 113 individuals, representing 11 domestic breeds, one wild breed and two hybrid individuals. We found 15 different haplotypes, and the phylogenetic analysis suggests that domestic and wild Bactrian camels have two distinct lineages...
October 24, 2016: Animal Genetics
B N Keel, J W Keele, W M Snelling
Copy number variations (CNVs) are large insertions, deletions or duplications in the genome that vary between members of a species and are known to affect a wide variety of phenotypic traits. In this study, we identified CNVs in a population of bulls using low coverage next-generation sequence data. First, in order to determine a suitable strategy for CNV detection in our data, we compared the performance of three distinct CNV detection algorithms on benchmark CNV datasets and concluded that using the multiple sample read depth approach was the best method for identifying CNVs in our sequences...
October 24, 2016: Animal Genetics
Marina Papaianni, Gianfranco Cosenza, Giorgia Borriello, Giorgio Galiero, Fernando Grasso, Bartolomeo Della Ventura, Marco Iannaccone, Rosanna Capparelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Animal Genetics
X Zhang, H Han, T Zhang, T Sun, Y Xi, N Chen, Y Huang, R Dang, X Lan, H Chen, C Lei
Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed abundant presence of multi-copy protein coding gene families on the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY). Copy number variations (CNVs) of several MSY genes are closely related to semen quality and male reproduction in cattle. However, the CNVs of MSY genes in water buffalo are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY of 298 buffaloes from 17 populations distributed in China, Vietnam and Laos using quantitative PCR...
October 14, 2016: Animal Genetics
J Kijas, N Elliot, P Kube, B Evans, N Botwright, H King, C R Primmer, K Verbyla
Farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a globally important production species, including in Australia where breeding and selection has been in progress since the 1960s. The recent development of SNP genotyping platforms means genome-wide association and genomic prediction can now be implemented to speed genetic gain. As a precursor, this study collected genotypes at 218 132 SNPs in 777 fish from a Tasmanian breeding population to assess levels of genetic diversity, the strength of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and imputation accuracy...
October 4, 2016: Animal Genetics
N A Gustafson, B Gandolfi, L A Lyons
The Burmese is a breed of domestic cat that originated in Southeast Asia and was further developed in the United States. Variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) causes common coat colour phenotypes in a variety of mammalian species but only limited colour variation in the domestic cat. Known as the extension (E) locus, melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) interacts with the agouti locus to produce the eumelanin and pheomelanin pigments. Recently, a novel reddish coloration, which is termed russet, was identified in the Burmese cat breed...
September 27, 2016: Animal Genetics
J Casellas, J J Cañas-Álvarez, A González-Rodríguez, A Puig-Oliveras, M Fina, J Piedrafita, A Molina, C Díaz, J A Baró, L Varona
Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is the departure from the expected Mendelian ratio in offspring, a poorly investigated biological phenomenon in livestock species. Given the current availability of specific parametric methods for the analysis of segregation data, this study focused on the screening of TRD in 602 402 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering all autosomal chromosomes in seven Spanish beef cattle breeds. On average, 0.13% (n = 786) and 0.01% (n = 29) of genetic markers evidenced sire- or dam-specific TRD respectively...
September 21, 2016: Animal Genetics
E O Melo, D M Cordeiro, R Pellegrino, Z Wei, Z J Daye, R C Nishimura, M A N Dode
Cumulus cells (CCs) have an important role during oocyte growth, competence acquisition, maturation, ovulation and fertilization. In an attempt to isolate potential biomarkers for bovine in vitro fertilization, we identified genes differentially expressed in bovine CCs from oocytes with different competence statuses, through microarray analysis. The model of follicle size, in which competent cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from bigger follicles (≥8.0 mm in diameter) and less competent ones from smaller follicles (1-3 mm), was used...
September 21, 2016: Animal Genetics
Hua He, Si Chen, Wei Liang, Xiaolin Liu
To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism of bovine muscle development, we combined mass spectrometry characterization of proteins with Illumina deep sequencing of RNAs obtained from bovine longissimus muscle (LD) at prenatal and postnatal stages. For the proteomic study, each group of LD proteins was extracted and labeled using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method. Among the 1321 proteins identified from six samples, 390 proteins were differentially expressed in embryos at day 135 post-fertilization (Emb135d) vs...
September 19, 2016: Animal Genetics
Sungchul Shin, Changpyo Hong, Sanghoon Song, Kung Ahn, Euiryong Chung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2016: Animal Genetics
A M Martínez-Montes, A Fernández, D Pérez-Montarelo, E Alves, R M Benítez, Y Nuñez, C Óvilo, N Ibañez-Escriche, J M Folch, A I Fernández
RNA-Seq technology is widely used in quantitative gene expression studies and identification of non-annotated transcripts. However this technology also can be used for polymorphism detection and RNA editing in transcribed regions in an efficient and cost-effective way. This study used SNP data from an RNA-Seq assay to identify genes and mutations underlying production trait variations in an experimental pig population. The hypothalamic and hepatic transcriptomes of nine extreme animals for growth and fatness from an (Iberian × Landrace) × Landrace backcross were analyzed by RNA-Seq methodology, and SNP calling was conducted...
September 18, 2016: Animal Genetics
P Sudrajad, D W Seo, T J Choi, B H Park, S H Roh, W Y Jung, S S Lee, J H Lee, S Kim, S H Lee
The routine collection and use of genomic data are useful for effectively managing breeding programs for endangered populations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) using high-density DNA markers has been widely used to determine population structures and predict the genomic regions that are associated with economic traits in beef cattle. The extent of LD also provides information about historical events, including past effective population size (Ne ), and it allows inferences on the genetic diversity of breeds. The objective of this study was to estimate the LD and Ne in three Korean cattle breeds that are genetically similar but have different coat colors (Brown, Brindle and Jeju Black Hanwoo)...
September 18, 2016: Animal Genetics
Marie Abitbol, Philippe Bossé, Bénédicte Grimard, Lionel Martignat, Laurent Tiret
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Animal Genetics
T Iso-Touru, M Tapio, J Vilkki, T Kiseleva, I Ammosov, Z Ivanova, R Popov, M Ozerov, J Kantanen
Domestication in the near eastern region had a major impact on the gene pool of humpless taurine cattle (Bos taurus). As a result of subsequent natural and artificial selection, hundreds of different breeds have evolved, displaying a broad range of phenotypic traits. Here, 10 Eurasian B. taurus breeds from different biogeographic and production conditions, which exhibit different demographic histories and have been under artificial selection at various intensities, were investigated using the Illumina BovineSNP50 panel to understand their genetic diversity and population structure...
September 15, 2016: Animal Genetics
S Dahlgren, M Lund Ziener, F Lingaas
Symmetrical onychomadesis causes periodic loss of claws in otherwise healthy dogs. Genome-wide association analysis in 225 Gordon Setters identified a single region associated with symmetrical onychomadesis on chromosome 12 (spanning about 3.3 mb). A meta-analysis including also English Setters indicated that this genomic region predisposes for symmetrical onychomadesis in English Setters as well. The associated region spans most of the major histocompatibility complex and nearly 1 Mb downstream. Like many other autoimmune diseases, associations of symmetrical onychomadesis with DLA class II alleles have been reported...
September 14, 2016: Animal Genetics
S Ahlawat, P Sharma, R Sharma, R Arora, N K Verma, B Brahma, P Mishra, S De
Meiotic recombination contributes to augmentation of genetic diversity, exclusion of deleterious alleles and proper segregation of chromatids. PRDM9 has been identified as the gene responsible for specifying the location of recombination hotspots during meiosis and is also the only known vertebrate gene associated with reproductive isolation between species. PRDM9 encodes a protein with a highly variable zinc finger (ZF) domain that varies between as well as within species. In the present study, the ZF domain of PRDM9 on chromosome 1 was characterized for the first time in 15 goat breeds and 25 sheep breeds of India...
September 13, 2016: Animal Genetics
X Huang, T Huang, W Deng, G Yan, H Qiu, Y Huang, S Ke, Y Hou, Y Zhang, Z Zhang, S Fang, L Zhou, B Yang, J Ren, H Ai, L Huang
Prevalence of swine respiratory disease causes poor growth performance in and serious economic losses to the swine industry. In this study, a categorical trait of enzootic pneumonia-like (EPL) score representing the infection gradient of a respiratory disease, more likely enzootic pneumonia, was recorded in a herd of 332 Chinese Erhualian pigs. According to their EPL scores and the disease effect on weight gains, these pigs were grouped into controls (EPL score ≤ 1) and cases (EPL score > 1). The weight gain of the case group reduced significantly at days 180, 210, 240 and 300 as compared to the control group...
September 12, 2016: Animal Genetics
Izabela Szczerbal, Terence J Robinson, Assumpta Duran, Sewellyn C Davey, Magnus Andersson, Marek Switonski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2016: Animal Genetics
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