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Mikołaj Kaczmarski, Anna Maria Kubicka, Martin Hromada, Piotr Tryjanowski
Co-existence between potentially competing newt species can lead to niche differentiation (e.g., in terms of diet shifts). This may cause adaptive responses involving changes in head shape. Here, we tested the hypothesis: the head shape of Lissotriton montandoni is different in conditions of co-occurrence with Ichthyosaura alpestris than in conditions in which other newt species are absent. We analysed images depicting head shape of specimens of I. alpestris and L. montandoni from a museum collection. All specimens of I...
2017: Zoomorphology
Barbara Franielczyk-Pietyra, Piotr Wegierek
Dorsal and ventral sides of the forewing of Aphis fabae (Scopoli 1763) (Sternorrhyncha, Hemiptera) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Reinforcement elements on their surface as well as scale-like elements were described. Using histological methods, cross-sections of the material were done. They showed a two-layered membrane with a circular foramen inside. The course of veins and places of their bifurcation were followed. Common stem of radius (R), media (M), and cubitus anterior (CuA) veins were composed of separate tracheae, which ran separately at the beginning, then continued in a single tunnel, and finally disappeared...
2017: Zoomorphology
A Nowińska, J Brożek
The external morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of 21 species from five families of semiaquatic bugs (Gerromorpha) were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Nine main types were distinguished based on their morphological structure: sensilla trichoidea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla leaflike, sensilla campaniformia, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla ampullacea, sensilla basiconica, sensilla placoidea and sensilla bell-mouthed. The specific morphological structure of one type of sensilla (bell-mouthed sensilla) was observed only in Aquarius paludum...
2017: Zoomorphology
Paweł Szydłowski, Jan Paweł Madej, Marta Mazurkiewicz-Kania
This paper describes the relationship between the arrangement of dermal chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) skin and the formation of wild-type colouration, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of chromatophores. The samples of the tokay gecko skin were collected from wild-type colouration adult specimens. Morphology and distribution of chromatophores was determined by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The present study revealed that orange/red coloured skin of G. gecko contained erythrophores, which were located under basement membrane, and usually comprised deeper situated iridophores and melanophores which were form single layer with iridophores or were occupying the deepest region of dermis...
2017: Zoomorphology
E Mróz, D Kertowska, A Nowińska, B Baran, P Węgierek, Ł Depa
Existing literature data report the lack of stomach and crenated intestine in the aphid species Geoicasetulosa (Passerini, 1860), a representative of subfamily Eriosomatinae. This odd anatomical feature seemed remarkable, due to the presence of fully developed intestine in closely related genera and mutualistic relationship with ants of this genus. The study aimed at repeated anatomical research of Geoicautricularia (Passerini 1856), in order to confirm what seemed to be a generic feature. Standard histological methods were applied, with addition of oblique light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
2016: Zoomorphology
Luc Janssens, Rebecca Miller, Stefan Van Dongen
The domestication of wolves is currently under debate. Where, when and from which wolf sub-species dogs originated are being investigated both by osteoarchaeologists and geneticists. While DNA research is rapidly becoming more active and popular, morphological methods have been the gold standard in the past. But even today morphological details are routinely employed to discern archaeological wolves from dogs. One such morphological similarity between Canis lupus chanco and dogs was published in 1977 by Olsen and Olsen...
2016: Zoomorphology
Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Hanna Jackowiak
The domestic duck, as a representative of birds living in the water, is considered as a specialist filter-feeder. Behavioral observations of foraging revealed that these birds also use a terrestrial feeding mechanism such as grazing and pecking. This study examined the entirety of the lingual mucosa in relation to the structural adaptations required for this range of feeding activities. The structures on the lateral surfaces of the tongue, the conical and filiform papillae, constitute the food filtration apparatus...
2016: Zoomorphology
Luc Janssens, Inge Spanoghe, Rebecca Miller, Stefan Van Dongen
For more than a century, the orbital angle has been studied by many authors to distinguish dog skulls from their progenitor, the wolf. In early studies, the angle was reported to be different between dogs (49°-55°) and wolves (39°-46°). This clear difference was, however, questioned in a more recent Scandinavian study that shows some overlap. It is clear that in all studies several methodological issues were unexplored or unclear and that group sizes and the variety of breeds and wolf subspecies were small...
2016: Zoomorphology
Barbara Franielczyk, Piotr Wegierek
The forewing articulation of single species from each of the four subgroups of Sternorrhyncha (Aleyrodomorpha, Aphidomorpha, Coccomorpha, Psyllomorpha) was examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The species were compared with a species of Cixiidae (Fulgoromorpha), as an outgroup of Sternorrhyncha. We present the results of a comparative analysis of the forewing articulation in these five groups, propose a standardized terminology and compare our findings with those previously reported. The wing base of all examined species is composed of the following structures: anterior and posterior notal wing process, first, second, and third axillary sclerites, tegula, and axillary cord...
2016: Zoomorphology
Anders Ommundsen, Christoph Noever, Henrik Glenner
Anelasma squalicola is a barnacle found attached to deep-water lantern sharks of the family Etmopteridae and is the only known cirriped on fish hosts. While A. squalicola is equipped with mouth and thoracic appendages (cirri), which are used for suspension feeding in conventional barnacles, its attachment device (peduncle) appears to have evolved into a feeding device, embedded into the tissue of its host. Here we demonstrate, through comparisons of the feeding apparatuses between A. squalicola and conventional suspension-feeding barnacles, that mouthparts and cirri of A...
2016: Zoomorphology
Jolanta Brożek, Ewa Mróz, Dominika Wylężek, Łukasz Depa, Piotr Węgierek
Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were used to elucidate the morphology of labium and mandibular and maxillary stylets of the aphids Stomaphis quercus (L.) and S. graffii Cholodkovsky. The mechanism of labium shortening associated with feeding process was described as well. Stomaphis quercus and S. graffii have cone-shaped labium of 13 and 10 mm in length, respectively, that strongly extend behind the abdomen. The stylets bundle comprises a pair of mandibular and maxillary stylets which are on average as long as labium...
2015: Zoomorphology
Katarzyna Wołczuk, Julita Nowakowska, Dariusz Płąchocki, Tomasz Kakareko
Histological and histochemical features of the oesophagogastric segment of the alimentary canal as well as ultrastructure of gastric gland cells of freshwater tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris were examined. The studies revealed that despite the lack of anatomical distinction, the oesophagogastric segment is histologically divided into the oesophagus, oesogaster and stomach, which provides evidence for the functional compartmentation of this organ. The oesophagus was characterised by the presence of numerous goblet cells secreting mainly a mixture of neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides...
2015: Zoomorphology
Teresa Napiórkowska, Paweł Napiórkowski, Julita Templin
A range of leg anomalies was detected in embryos of the Tegenaria atrica spiders exposed to alternating temperatures of 14 and 32 °C. Multiple anomalies were observed in 13 individuals. This study is based on five individuals: two individuals affected by oligomely combined, respectively, with heterosymely and polymely, one affected by polymely with heterosymely, one by complicated polymely (accompanied by the reduction in length and malformations of the distal parts of the legs), and one individual with pure polymely...
2015: Zoomorphology
Håkon Gundersen, Christian Thaulow, Hans Petter Leinaas
The littoral Collembola Cryptopygus clavatus spends the summer submerged, grazing on algae under water, and the winter on dry land. The cuticles of Collembola are, in general, highly water repellent, often superhydrophobic; the cuticle of C. clavatus has, in contrast, been described as not water repellent. Wetting properties are closely tied to surface structuring, and previous studies of Collembola cuticles have used the pattern of cuticular granules to explain the superhydrophobic properties of these cuticles...
2015: Zoomorphology
Thierry Bourgoin, Rong-Rong Wang, Manfred Asche, Hannelore Hoch, Adeline Soulier-Perkins, Adam Stroiński, Sheryl Yap, Jacek Szwedo
Following recent advances in the morphological interpretations of the tegmen basal cell margins in the Paraneoptera, a standardized and homology-driven groundplan terminology for tegmina types, structures and vein patterns in Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha, including fossils, is proposed. Each term is listed with a morphological definition, compared and linked to the main systems of planthopper forewing description that have been reviewed. The importance of a standardized and homology-driven terminology is stressed to enhance the quality of data in taxonomic descriptions and to strengthen phylogenetic morphological analysis results...
2015: Zoomorphology
Jolanta Brożek, Thierry Bourgoin
Internal morphological structures of Cixiidae mouthparts are described and compared in various representatives of the Cixiidae and several other representatives of hemipterans. The morphological study shows that the mouthpart structures have not evolved uniformly and reveals the great disparity of these structures. Particularly, the connecting system of the mouthparts, localisation of salivary canal and shape of the mandibular and maxillar stylets provide together a new set of 17 new characters. A parsimonious analysis to evaluate the phylogenetic interest carried by these 17 selected characters shows that mouthpart structures have not evolved anarchically, but that they indeed carry some phylogenetic information that will be useful to be included in further morphological phylogenetic analysis...
2013: Zoomorphology
Robert C Drewes, Stanley S Hillman, Michael S Hedrick, Philip C Withers
Lymphatic return to the circulation in anurans is dependent upon the interaction of a number of skeletal muscles and lung deflation. We define character states and describe variation of these putative lymphatic skeletal muscles: the M. cutaneus pectoris (CP), M. cutaneus dorsi (CD), M. piriformis (P), M. sphincter ani cloacalis (SAC), and the complex of the M. gracilis minor/M. abdominal crenator (GM/AC). We include examination of over 400 specimens of 377 species belonging to 40 of the 42 currently recognized anuran families...
2013: Zoomorphology
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