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Mirko Mutalipassi, Chingoileima Maibam, Valerio Zupo
Sex reversal is a process observed in several marine organisms, including some lineages of caridean shrimps. We investigated the gonopore shape and size, to study the sex reversal using Hippolyte inermis as a model. A method was developed which can be applied to identify the sex in juveniles of H. inermis , especially, useful when the standard method of sex assessment is not applicable. The position and the shape of gonopores was recorded under a light macroscope. The sex of mature individuals was then determined by observing the presence/absence of the appendix masculina ...
2018: Zoomorphology
Thomas Schwaha
Phylactolaemate bryozoans are the sister-group to all remaining bryozoan taxa. Consequently, their study is essential to reveal and analyze ancestral traits of Phylactolaemata and Bryozoa in general. They are the only bryozoans to possess an epistome which traditionally has been regarded as shared with phoronids and brachiopods. Contrary to older observations, an epistome was recently reported to be missing in the early branching phylactolaemate Lophopus crystallinus . In this study, the ontogeny of the lophophoral base and also its three-dimensional structure in adult specimens was reinvestigated to assess whether an epistome is never formed during ontogeny and absent in adult specimens...
2018: Zoomorphology
Krzysztof Kolenda, Anna Najbar, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Ewa Serwa, Tomasz Skawiński
Sharpey's fibres are known mainly as providing anchorage between tooth and the periodontal ligament but they occur also in other types of bones. In the postcranial skeleton these fibres are usually present at the muscle or tendon attachment sites. They were reported in all major groups of extant vertebrates, as well as in putative lissamphibian ancestors-temnospondyls and lepospondyls. However, it was recently stated that their presence was very rarely described in extant amphibians. In limbs, they were reported predominantly from proximal bones...
2018: Zoomorphology
Jakub Goczał, Robert Rossa, Adam Tofilski
Beetles are one of the largest and most diverse groups of animals in the world. Conversion of forewings into hardened shields is perceived as a key adaptation that has greatly supported the evolutionary success of this taxa. Beetle elytra play an essential role: they minimize the influence of unfavorable external factors and protect insects against predators. Therefore, it is particularly interesting why some beetles have reduced their shields. This rare phenomenon is called brachelytry and its evolution and implications remain largely unexplored...
2018: Zoomorphology
Barbara Franielczyk-Pietyra, Tytus Bernas, Hanna Sas-Nowosielska, Piotr Wegierek
The present study describes the relationship between the morphology of the forewing axillary sclerites and the way the wings fold among 24 aphid genera as compared to a representative of coccids. Architecture of the forewing base was imaged with scanning electron and optical (fluorescence) microscopy. Significant differences in morphology of axillary sclerites between aphid species were observed, despite their belonging to one infraorder. Detailed description of 41 features of axillary sclerites was made. There was no difference between axillaries of viviparous (Aphididae) and oviparous ( Adelges sp...
2018: Zoomorphology
Mikołaj Kaczmarski, Anna Maria Kubicka, Martin Hromada, Piotr Tryjanowski
Co-existence between potentially competing newt species can lead to niche differentiation (e.g., in terms of diet shifts). This may cause adaptive responses involving changes in head shape. Here, we tested the hypothesis: the head shape of Lissotriton montandoni is different in conditions of co-occurrence with Ichthyosaura alpestris than in conditions in which other newt species are absent. We analysed images depicting head shape of specimens of I. alpestris and L. montandoni from a museum collection. All specimens of I...
2017: Zoomorphology
Barbara Franielczyk-Pietyra, Piotr Wegierek
Dorsal and ventral sides of the forewing of Aphis fabae (Scopoli 1763) (Sternorrhyncha, Hemiptera) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Reinforcement elements on their surface as well as scale-like elements were described. Using histological methods, cross-sections of the material were done. They showed a two-layered membrane with a circular foramen inside. The course of veins and places of their bifurcation were followed. Common stem of radius (R), media (M), and cubitus anterior (CuA) veins were composed of separate tracheae, which ran separately at the beginning, then continued in a single tunnel, and finally disappeared...
2017: Zoomorphology
A Nowińska, J Brożek
The external morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of 21 species from five families of semiaquatic bugs (Gerromorpha) were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Nine main types were distinguished based on their morphological structure: sensilla trichoidea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla leaflike, sensilla campaniformia, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla ampullacea, sensilla basiconica, sensilla placoidea and sensilla bell-mouthed. The specific morphological structure of one type of sensilla (bell-mouthed sensilla) was observed only in Aquarius paludum...
2017: Zoomorphology
Paweł Szydłowski, Jan Paweł Madej, Marta Mazurkiewicz-Kania
This paper describes the relationship between the arrangement of dermal chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) skin and the formation of wild-type colouration, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of chromatophores. The samples of the tokay gecko skin were collected from wild-type colouration adult specimens. Morphology and distribution of chromatophores was determined by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The present study revealed that orange/red coloured skin of G. gecko contained erythrophores, which were located under basement membrane, and usually comprised deeper situated iridophores and melanophores which were form single layer with iridophores or were occupying the deepest region of dermis...
2017: Zoomorphology
E Mróz, D Kertowska, A Nowińska, B Baran, P Węgierek, Ł Depa
Existing literature data report the lack of stomach and crenated intestine in the aphid species Geoicasetulosa (Passerini, 1860), a representative of subfamily Eriosomatinae. This odd anatomical feature seemed remarkable, due to the presence of fully developed intestine in closely related genera and mutualistic relationship with ants of this genus. The study aimed at repeated anatomical research of Geoicautricularia (Passerini 1856), in order to confirm what seemed to be a generic feature. Standard histological methods were applied, with addition of oblique light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
2016: Zoomorphology
Luc Janssens, Rebecca Miller, Stefan Van Dongen
The domestication of wolves is currently under debate. Where, when and from which wolf sub-species dogs originated are being investigated both by osteoarchaeologists and geneticists. While DNA research is rapidly becoming more active and popular, morphological methods have been the gold standard in the past. But even today morphological details are routinely employed to discern archaeological wolves from dogs. One such morphological similarity between Canis lupus chanco and dogs was published in 1977 by Olsen and Olsen...
2016: Zoomorphology
Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Hanna Jackowiak
The domestic duck, as a representative of birds living in the water, is considered as a specialist filter-feeder. Behavioral observations of foraging revealed that these birds also use a terrestrial feeding mechanism such as grazing and pecking. This study examined the entirety of the lingual mucosa in relation to the structural adaptations required for this range of feeding activities. The structures on the lateral surfaces of the tongue, the conical and filiform papillae, constitute the food filtration apparatus...
2016: Zoomorphology
Luc Janssens, Inge Spanoghe, Rebecca Miller, Stefan Van Dongen
For more than a century, the orbital angle has been studied by many authors to distinguish dog skulls from their progenitor, the wolf. In early studies, the angle was reported to be different between dogs (49°-55°) and wolves (39°-46°). This clear difference was, however, questioned in a more recent Scandinavian study that shows some overlap. It is clear that in all studies several methodological issues were unexplored or unclear and that group sizes and the variety of breeds and wolf subspecies were small...
2016: Zoomorphology
Barbara Franielczyk, Piotr Wegierek
The forewing articulation of single species from each of the four subgroups of Sternorrhyncha (Aleyrodomorpha, Aphidomorpha, Coccomorpha, Psyllomorpha) was examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The species were compared with a species of Cixiidae (Fulgoromorpha), as an outgroup of Sternorrhyncha. We present the results of a comparative analysis of the forewing articulation in these five groups, propose a standardized terminology and compare our findings with those previously reported. The wing base of all examined species is composed of the following structures: anterior and posterior notal wing process, first, second, and third axillary sclerites, tegula, and axillary cord...
2016: Zoomorphology
Anders Ommundsen, Christoph Noever, Henrik Glenner
Anelasma squalicola is a barnacle found attached to deep-water lantern sharks of the family Etmopteridae and is the only known cirriped on fish hosts. While A. squalicola is equipped with mouth and thoracic appendages (cirri), which are used for suspension feeding in conventional barnacles, its attachment device (peduncle) appears to have evolved into a feeding device, embedded into the tissue of its host. Here we demonstrate, through comparisons of the feeding apparatuses between A. squalicola and conventional suspension-feeding barnacles, that mouthparts and cirri of A...
2016: Zoomorphology
Jolanta Brożek, Ewa Mróz, Dominika Wylężek, Łukasz Depa, Piotr Węgierek
Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were used to elucidate the morphology of labium and mandibular and maxillary stylets of the aphids Stomaphis quercus (L.) and S. graffii Cholodkovsky. The mechanism of labium shortening associated with feeding process was described as well. Stomaphis quercus and S. graffii have cone-shaped labium of 13 and 10 mm in length, respectively, that strongly extend behind the abdomen. The stylets bundle comprises a pair of mandibular and maxillary stylets which are on average as long as labium...
2015: Zoomorphology
Katarzyna Wołczuk, Julita Nowakowska, Dariusz Płąchocki, Tomasz Kakareko
Histological and histochemical features of the oesophagogastric segment of the alimentary canal as well as ultrastructure of gastric gland cells of freshwater tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris were examined. The studies revealed that despite the lack of anatomical distinction, the oesophagogastric segment is histologically divided into the oesophagus, oesogaster and stomach, which provides evidence for the functional compartmentation of this organ. The oesophagus was characterised by the presence of numerous goblet cells secreting mainly a mixture of neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides...
2015: Zoomorphology
Teresa Napiórkowska, Paweł Napiórkowski, Julita Templin
A range of leg anomalies was detected in embryos of the Tegenaria atrica spiders exposed to alternating temperatures of 14 and 32 °C. Multiple anomalies were observed in 13 individuals. This study is based on five individuals: two individuals affected by oligomely combined, respectively, with heterosymely and polymely, one affected by polymely with heterosymely, one by complicated polymely (accompanied by the reduction in length and malformations of the distal parts of the legs), and one individual with pure polymely...
2015: Zoomorphology
Håkon Gundersen, Christian Thaulow, Hans Petter Leinaas
The littoral Collembola Cryptopygus clavatus spends the summer submerged, grazing on algae under water, and the winter on dry land. The cuticles of Collembola are, in general, highly water repellent, often superhydrophobic; the cuticle of C. clavatus has, in contrast, been described as not water repellent. Wetting properties are closely tied to surface structuring, and previous studies of Collembola cuticles have used the pattern of cuticular granules to explain the superhydrophobic properties of these cuticles...
2015: Zoomorphology
Thierry Bourgoin, Rong-Rong Wang, Manfred Asche, Hannelore Hoch, Adeline Soulier-Perkins, Adam Stroiński, Sheryl Yap, Jacek Szwedo
Following recent advances in the morphological interpretations of the tegmen basal cell margins in the Paraneoptera, a standardized and homology-driven groundplan terminology for tegmina types, structures and vein patterns in Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha, including fossils, is proposed. Each term is listed with a morphological definition, compared and linked to the main systems of planthopper forewing description that have been reviewed. The importance of a standardized and homology-driven terminology is stressed to enhance the quality of data in taxonomic descriptions and to strengthen phylogenetic morphological analysis results...
2015: Zoomorphology
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