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Glycoconjugate Journal

Tripti Raghavendra, Saniya Patil, Raju Mukherjee
Peptidoglycan, a major glycoconjugate in the mycobacterial cell envelope provides strength to resist osmotic stress and plays a pivotal role in maintaining the cellular morphology. Several unique growth stage specific structural alterations occur in its constituent monosaccharides and peptides that allow Mycobacterium to survive nutrient starvation and environmental stress. Here, we discuss the enzymes involved in its intricate biosynthesis that are novel targets for therapeutic intervention and provide an opportunity for potential antibiotic adjuvants...
September 19, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Chengjian Wang, Meifang Yang, Xi Gao, Cheng Li, Zihua Zou, Jianli Han, Linjuan Huang, Zhongfu Wang
Despite the great significance of release and analysis of glycans from glycoproteins, the existing N-glycan release methods are undermined by some limitations and deficiencies. The traditional enzymatic protocols feature high N-glycan release specificity but are generally costly and inefficient for some types of N-glycans. The existing chemical methods require harsh reaction conditions or are accompanied by the remarkable formation of by-products. Herein, we describe a versatile chemical method for the release and analysis of N-glycans from glycoproteins...
September 8, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yasunobu Yoshida, Jun-Ichi Furukawa, Shoichi Naito, Kenichi Higashino, Yoshito Numata, Yasuro Shinohara
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the major subtype of primary liver cancer, and is typically diagnosed late in its course. Considering the limitations and the reluctance of patients to undergo a liver biopsy, a reliable, noninvasive diagnostic marker that predicts and assesses the treatment and prognosis of HCC is needed. With recent technological advances of mass spectrometry, glycomics is gathering momentum and holds substantial potential to discover new glycan markers in cancer research. Here, to discover specific glycan markers for the early diagnosis of HCC, we analyzed the glycan profiles of gel-separated serum proteins of progressive liver disease model mice...
September 8, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Sandro Sonnino, Alessandro Prinetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Seanghai Hor, Takumi Kodama, Nobuo Sugiura, Hikaru Kondou, Mio Yanagida, Keiya Yanagisawa, Aoki Shibasawa, Bunta Tsuzuki, Naoto Fukatsu, Kazuya Nagao, Kenji Yamana, Kazuya I P J Hidari, Hideto Watanabe, Osami Habuchi, Hirofumi Nakano
Chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E) plays a crucial role in diverse processes ranging from viral infection to neuroregeneration. Its regiospecific sulfation pattern, generated by N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (GalNAc4S-6ST), is the main structural determinant of its biological activity. Inhibitors of GalNAc4S-6ST can serve as powerful tools for understanding physiological functions of CS-E and its potential therapeutic leads for human diseases. A family of new 4-acylamino-β-GalNAc derivatives and 4-azido-β-GalNAc derivatives were synthesized for their potential application as inhibitors of GalNAc4S-6ST...
September 1, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Massimo Aureli, Maura Samarani, Nicoletta Loberto, Elena Chiricozzi, Laura Mauri, Sara Grassi, Domitilla Schiumarini, Alessandro Prinetti, Sandro Sonnino
Sphingolipid metabolism is an intricate network of several interdependent and co-regulated pathways. In addition to the mainstream biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, several processes, even if less important in contributing to the final tissue sphingolipid composition from the quantitative point of view, might become relevant when sphingolipid metabolism is for any reason dysregulated and concur to the onset of neuronal pathologies. The main subcellular sites involved in the mainstream metabolic pathway are represented by the Golgi apparatus (for the biosynthesis) and by the lysosomes (for catabolism)...
August 25, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Alexey V Pshezhetsky, Mila Ashmarina
The sialylated glyconjugates (SGC) are found in abundance on the surface of brain cells, where they form a dense array of glycans mediating cell/cell and cell/protein recognition in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Metabolic genetic blocks in processing and catabolism of SGC result in development of severe storage disorders, dominated by CNS involvement including marked neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, the pathophysiological mechanisms of which are still discussed. SGC patterns in the brain are cell and organelle-specific, dynamic and maintained by highly coordinated processes of their biosynthesis, trafficking, processing and catabolism...
August 7, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yun Feng, Jintian Song, Zixuan Zhao, Feiyi Zhao, Lingjuan Yang, Chengjin Jiao
The potato lectin has been identified to consist of two chitin-binding modules, each containing twin hevein domains. Based on the thermotolerance of the hevein polypeptide, a simple, rapid, and effective protocol for the small-scale purification of the potato lectin has been developed in this study. The method involves only one anion exchange chromatographic step beyond the ammonium sulfate precipitation and the heating treatment. With this method, the potato lectin, a glycoprotein with molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa was found and purified to homogeneity with 9513...
August 7, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Shyamasree Ghosh
Sialic acids are negatively charged nine carbon monosaccharides located terminally on glycoproteins and glycolipids that control cellular physiological processes. Sialylation is a post translational modification (ptm) regulated by enzymes and has been studied in prokaryotes including bacteria, dueterostomes including vertebrates, Cephalochordates, Ascidians, Echinoderms and protostomes including Molluscs and Arthropods and Plant. Although diverse structures of sialylated molecules have been reported in different organisms, unravelling sialylation in insect biology is a completely new domain...
July 30, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Chihiro Sato, Masaya Hane
Mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, are challenging to manage, worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders is essential and required. Studies investigating such molecular mechanisms are well performed and important findings are accumulating apace. Based on the fact that these disorders are due in part to the accumulation of genetic and environmental risk factors, consideration of multi-molecular and/or multi-system dependent phenomena might be important...
July 30, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Guiqiang Zhang, Peiyuan Jia, Hongtao Liu, Tao Hu, Yuguang Du
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated diseases have led to huge economic losses in pig industry. Our laboratory previously found that conjugation of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) enhanced the immunogenicity of PCV2 vaccine against infectious pathogens. In this study, an effective adjuvant system was developed by covalent conjugation of COS via a carrier protein (Ovalbumin, OVA) to further increase the immunogenicity of vaccine. Its effect on dendritic cells maturation was assessed in vitro and its immunogenicity was investigated in mice...
July 26, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Monika Franczyk, Jacek Wawrzykowski, Marta Kankofer
Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan which is involved in multiple biological functions mainly as a structural and signaling molecule. Due to its biological properties in connective tissue, decorin may participate in remodeling of ECM during attachment and detachment of placenta within the course of pregnancy and at parturition in cows. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of decorin protein in bovine placental tissues and to evaluate its profile during pregnancy and at parturition. Placental tissues from healthy pregnant cows (2-5 month) were collected in abattoir (n = 10), while parturient tissues were obtained during caesarian section at physiological term (n = 6)...
July 19, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Kazuchika Nishitsuji
Highly sulfated domains of heparan sulfate (HS), also known as HS S-domains, consist of repeated trisulfated disaccharide units [iduronic acid (2S)-glucosamine (NS, 6S)-]. The expression of HS S-domains at the cell surface is determined by two mechanisms: tightly regulated biosynthetic machinery and enzymatic remodeling by extracellular endoglucosamine 6-sulfatases, Sulf-1 and Sulf-2. Intracellular or extracellular deposits of misfolded and aggregated proteins are characteristic of protein aggregation diseases...
July 12, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Zhong-Qun Wang, Le-le Jing, Jin-Chuan Yan, Zhen Sun, Zheng-Yang Bao, Chen Shao, Qi-Wen Pang, Yue Geng, Li-Li Zhang, Li-Hua Li
The formation of advanced glycation end-products(AGEs) is an important cause of metabolic memory in diabetic patients and a key factor in the formation of atherosclerosis(AS) plaques in patients with diabetes mellitus. Related studies showed that AGEs could disrupt hemodynamic steady-state and destroy vascular wall integrity through the endothelial barrier damage, foam cell(FC) formation, apoptosis, calcium deposition and other aspects. At the same time, AGEs could initiate oxidative stress and inflammatory response cascade via receptor-depended and non-receptor-dependent pathways, promoting plaques to develop from a steady state to a vulnerable state and eventually tend to rupture and thrombosis...
July 10, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yasuhiko Kizuka, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Bisecting GlcNAc, a branch structure in N-glycan, has unique functions and is involved in several diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we provide an overview of the biosynthesis of bisecting GlcNAc and its physiological and pathological functions, particularly in the nervous system where bisecting GlcNAc is most highly expressed. The biosynthetic enzyme of bisecting GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-III (GnT-III). Overexpression, knockdown, and knockout of GnT-III have so far revealed various functions of bisecting GlcNAc, which are mediated by regulating the functions of key carrier proteins...
June 16, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Archana Shubhakar, Poh-Choo Pang, Daryl L Fernandes, Anne Dell, Daniel I R Spencer, Stuart M Haslam
Glycosylation is considered one of the most complex and structurally diverse post-translational modifications of proteins. Glycans play important roles in many biological processes such as protein folding, regulation of protein stability, solubility and serum half-life. One of the ways to study glycosylation is systematic structural characterizations of protein glycosylation utilizing glycomics methodology based around mass spectrometry (MS). The most prevalent bottleneck stages for glycomic analyses is laborious sample preparation steps...
June 16, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Joseph J Otto, Crystal L Daniels, Lindsay N Schambeau, Brittany N Williams, Jana M Rocker, Lewis K Pannell
A promising approach capitalizing on the specific and highly sensitive characteristics of the body's own immune system is demonstrated in the context of revealing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cancer (PDAC). IgA from a local biofluid called gastrointestinal lavage fluid (GLF) is used to investigate glycan reactivity to show the potential of this approach. IgA antibody responses, just as with IgG, result in amplification of a small signal which aids in detecting changes from a healthy state. IgA from GLF was screened against glycan arrays containing 609 glycan structures to investigate differential binding patterns associated with the disease...
June 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Alena Wiegandt, Henning N Behnken, Bernd Meyer
Prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) is a glycoprotein found in body secretions from exocrine glands like saliva and seminal plasma. Important biological functions of PIP concentrations have been demonstrated, e.g. in tumor diagnosis and progression. PIP quantity has been also found useful to determine the success of chemotherapy of mammary carcinoma. Here, we present the analysis of the N-glycosylation of PIP isolated from different sources by LC-MS(/MS) and 1 H-NMR. We found a very uncommon N-type glycosylation of PIP in healthy individuals from both, seminal fluid and saliva...
June 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yuta Fujii, Yasushi Makino, Masaaki Sato
It is widely known that sulfate ion at high concentration serves like an allosteric activator of glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Based on the crystallographic studies on GP, it has been assumed that the sulfate ion is bound close to the phosphorylatable Ser14 site of nonactivated GP, causing a conformational change to catalytically-active GP. However, there are also reports that sulfate ion inhibits allosterically-activated GP by preventing the phosphate substrate from attaching to the catalytic site. In the present study, using a high concentration of sulfate ion, significant enhancement of GP activity was observed when macromolecular glycogen was used as substrate but not when smaller maltohexaose was used...
June 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Xin Jin, Qingpan Bu, Yingying Zou, Yunpeng Feng, Min Wei
Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is an important C-type lectin and plays a critical role in the recognition of pathogens and self-antigens. It has recently been shown that DC-SIGN directly interacts with acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cells. However, the mechanism regulating DC-SIGN-dependent DC association as well as related functions is still elusive. Here we showed that DC-SIGN preferentially bound to a set of malignant T lymphocytes, including Jurkat, CCRF-HSB2 and CCRF-CEM...
June 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
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