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Glycoconjugate Journal

Wenhong Zhao, Hui Chen, Ligen Wu, Weibin Ma, Yanli Xie
In this study, four main components of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs),FOs-1, FOs-2, FOs-3 and FOs-4,were isolated from wheat bran by use of Amberlite XAD-2 and Sephadex LH-20. Structural characterization of FOs was determined by use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Antioxidant properties were investigated in vitro. Average degrees of polymerization (DP) of the four components (FOs-1, FOs-2, FOs-3 and FOs-4) were approximately 10...
October 20, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Chunyang Cao, Shuang Song, Bin Liu, Chunqing Ai, Zhenjun Zhu, Lilong Wang, Sufeng Wu
Acidic polysaccharides are attractive functional ingredients in shellfish which are consumed as delicious and nutritious foods world widely. In the present study, acidic polysaccharides from 21 species of edible shellfish were characterized and quantified by analyzing their repeated disaccharides using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of triple quadrupole mass spectrometer upon acid degradation and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. A total of 6 glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and 8 non-GAGs with repeated disaccharide units of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexosamine or a hexose were detected...
October 15, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Mamta Sharma, Prajna Hegde, Kavita Hiremath, Vishwanath Reddy H, A S Kamalanathan, Bale M Swamy, Shashikala R Inamdar
Plant lectins are gaining interest because of their interesting biological properties. Several Adenia species, that are being used in traditional medicine to treat many health ailments have shown presence of lectins or carbohydrate binding proteins. Here, we report the purification, characterization and biological significance of N-Acetyl galactosamine specific lectin from Adenia hondala (AHL) from Passifloraceae family. AHL was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin Sepharose 4B column, characterized and its fine sugar specificity determined by glycan array analysis...
October 10, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Sulav Sharma, Yan Ding, Ken F Jarrell, Inka Brockhausen
Archaea are ubiquitous single-cell microorganisms that have often adapted to harsh conditions and play important roles in biogeochemical cycles with potential applications in biotechnology. Methanococcus maripaludis, a methane-producing archaeon, is motile through multiple archaella on its cell surface. The major structural proteins (archaellins) of the archaellum are glycoproteins, modified with N-linked tetrasaccharides that are essential for the proper assembly and function of archaella. The aglW gene, encoding the putative 4-epimerase AglW, plays a key role in the synthesis of the tetrasaccharide...
October 6, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Ayaka Noda, Miki Kato, Shota Miyazaki, Mamoru Kyogashima
We introduce the principle of a new technique to isolate glycosphingolipids (GSLs) from phospholipids. Neutral and acidic GSLs in organic solvent bind to titanium dioxide under neutral pH and can be eluted with 5 mg/ml of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid in methanol. This special property is applicable for eliminating phospholipids, including sphingomyelin, which cannot be eliminated by a typical mild alkaline treatment. By using this technique, we demonstrated the rapid separation of minor components of GSLs, namely sulfatide and gangliosides from rabbit serum and liver, respectively...
October 4, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Tripti Raghavendra, Saniya Patil, Raju Mukherjee
Peptidoglycan, a major glycoconjugate in the mycobacterial cell envelope provides strength to resist osmotic stress and plays a pivotal role in maintaining the cellular morphology. Several unique growth stage specific structural alterations occur in its constituent monosaccharides and peptides that allow Mycobacterium to survive nutrient starvation and environmental stress. Here, we discuss the enzymes involved in its intricate biosynthesis that are novel targets for therapeutic intervention and provide an opportunity for potential antibiotic adjuvants...
October 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yasunobu Yoshida, Jun-Ichi Furukawa, Shoichi Naito, Kenichi Higashino, Yoshito Numata, Yasuro Shinohara
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the major subtype of primary liver cancer, and is typically diagnosed late in its course. Considering the limitations and the reluctance of patients to undergo a liver biopsy, a reliable, noninvasive diagnostic marker that predicts and assesses the treatment and prognosis of HCC is needed. With recent technological advances of mass spectrometry, glycomics is gathering momentum and holds substantial potential to discover new glycan markers in cancer research. Here, to discover specific glycan markers for the early diagnosis of HCC, we analyzed the glycan profiles of gel-separated serum proteins of progressive liver disease model mice...
October 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Seanghai Hor, Takumi Kodama, Nobuo Sugiura, Hikaru Kondou, Mio Yanagida, Keiya Yanagisawa, Aoki Shibasawa, Bunta Tsuzuki, Naoto Fukatsu, Kazuya Nagao, Kenji Yamana, Kazuya I P J Hidari, Hideto Watanabe, Osami Habuchi, Hirofumi Nakano
Chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E) plays a crucial role in diverse processes ranging from viral infection to neuroregeneration. Its regiospecific sulfation pattern, generated by N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (GalNAc4S-6ST), is the main structural determinant of its biological activity. Inhibitors of GalNAc4S-6ST can serve as powerful tools for understanding physiological functions of CS-E and its potential therapeutic leads for human diseases. A family of new 4-acylamino-β-GalNAc derivatives and 4-azido-β-GalNAc derivatives were synthesized for their potential application as inhibitors of GalNAc4S-6ST...
October 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Shyamasree Ghosh
Sialic acids are negatively charged nine carbon monosaccharides located terminally on glycoproteins and glycolipids that control cellular physiological processes. Sialylation is a post translational modification (ptm) regulated by enzymes and has been studied in prokaryotes including bacteria, dueterostomes including vertebrates, Cephalochordates, Ascidians, Echinoderms and protostomes including Molluscs and Arthropods and Plant. Although diverse structures of sialylated molecules have been reported in different organisms, unravelling sialylation in insect biology is a completely new domain...
October 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Guiqiang Zhang, Peiyuan Jia, Hongtao Liu, Tao Hu, Yuguang Du
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated diseases have led to huge economic losses in pig industry. Our laboratory previously found that conjugation of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) enhanced the immunogenicity of PCV2 vaccine against infectious pathogens. In this study, an effective adjuvant system was developed by covalent conjugation of COS via a carrier protein (Ovalbumin, OVA) to further increase the immunogenicity of vaccine. Its effect on dendritic cells maturation was assessed in vitro and its immunogenicity was investigated in mice...
October 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Monika Franczyk, Jacek Wawrzykowski, Marta Kankofer
Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan which is involved in multiple biological functions mainly as a structural and signaling molecule. Due to its biological properties in connective tissue, decorin may participate in remodeling of ECM during attachment and detachment of placenta within the course of pregnancy and at parturition in cows. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of decorin protein in bovine placental tissues and to evaluate its profile during pregnancy and at parturition. Placental tissues from healthy pregnant cows (2-5 month) were collected in abattoir (n = 10), while parturient tissues were obtained during caesarian section at physiological term (n = 6)...
October 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Chengjian Wang, Meifang Yang, Xi Gao, Cheng Li, Zihua Zou, Jianli Han, Linjuan Huang, Zhongfu Wang
Despite the great significance of release and analysis of glycans from glycoproteins, the existing N-glycan release methods are undermined by some limitations and deficiencies. The traditional enzymatic protocols feature high N-glycan release specificity but are generally costly and inefficient for some types of N-glycans. The existing chemical methods require harsh reaction conditions or are accompanied by the remarkable formation of by-products. Herein, we describe a versatile chemical method for the release and analysis of N-glycans from glycoproteins...
August 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Sandro Sonnino, Alessandro Prinetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Massimo Aureli, Maura Samarani, Nicoletta Loberto, Elena Chiricozzi, Laura Mauri, Sara Grassi, Domitilla Schiumarini, Alessandro Prinetti, Sandro Sonnino
Sphingolipid metabolism is an intricate network of several interdependent and co-regulated pathways. In addition to the mainstream biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, several processes, even if less important in contributing to the final tissue sphingolipid composition from the quantitative point of view, might become relevant when sphingolipid metabolism is for any reason dysregulated and concur to the onset of neuronal pathologies. The main subcellular sites involved in the mainstream metabolic pathway are represented by the Golgi apparatus (for the biosynthesis) and by the lysosomes (for catabolism)...
August 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Alexey V Pshezhetsky, Mila Ashmarina
The sialylated glyconjugates (SGC) are found in abundance on the surface of brain cells, where they form a dense array of glycans mediating cell/cell and cell/protein recognition in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Metabolic genetic blocks in processing and catabolism of SGC result in development of severe storage disorders, dominated by CNS involvement including marked neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, the pathophysiological mechanisms of which are still discussed. SGC patterns in the brain are cell and organelle-specific, dynamic and maintained by highly coordinated processes of their biosynthesis, trafficking, processing and catabolism...
August 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yun Feng, Jintian Song, Zixuan Zhao, Feiyi Zhao, Lingjuan Yang, Chengjin Jiao
The potato lectin has been identified to consist of two chitin-binding modules, each containing twin hevein domains. Based on the thermotolerance of the hevein polypeptide, a simple, rapid, and effective protocol for the small-scale purification of the potato lectin has been developed in this study. The method involves only one anion exchange chromatographic step beyond the ammonium sulfate precipitation and the heating treatment. With this method, the potato lectin, a glycoprotein with molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa was found and purified to homogeneity with 9513...
August 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Chihiro Sato, Masaya Hane
Mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, are challenging to manage, worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders is essential and required. Studies investigating such molecular mechanisms are well performed and important findings are accumulating apace. Based on the fact that these disorders are due in part to the accumulation of genetic and environmental risk factors, consideration of multi-molecular and/or multi-system dependent phenomena might be important...
August 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Kazuchika Nishitsuji
Highly sulfated domains of heparan sulfate (HS), also known as HS S-domains, consist of repeated trisulfated disaccharide units [iduronic acid (2S)-glucosamine (NS, 6S)-]. The expression of HS S-domains at the cell surface is determined by two mechanisms: tightly regulated biosynthetic machinery and enzymatic remodeling by extracellular endoglucosamine 6-sulfatases, Sulf-1 and Sulf-2. Intracellular or extracellular deposits of misfolded and aggregated proteins are characteristic of protein aggregation diseases...
July 12, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Zhong-Qun Wang, Le-le Jing, Jin-Chuan Yan, Zhen Sun, Zheng-Yang Bao, Chen Shao, Qi-Wen Pang, Yue Geng, Li-Li Zhang, Li-Hua Li
The formation of advanced glycation end-products(AGEs) is an important cause of metabolic memory in diabetic patients and a key factor in the formation of atherosclerosis(AS) plaques in patients with diabetes mellitus. Related studies showed that AGEs could disrupt hemodynamic steady-state and destroy vascular wall integrity through the endothelial barrier damage, foam cell(FC) formation, apoptosis, calcium deposition and other aspects. At the same time, AGEs could initiate oxidative stress and inflammatory response cascade via receptor-depended and non-receptor-dependent pathways, promoting plaques to develop from a steady state to a vulnerable state and eventually tend to rupture and thrombosis...
July 10, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yasuhiko Kizuka, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Bisecting GlcNAc, a branch structure in N-glycan, has unique functions and is involved in several diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we provide an overview of the biosynthesis of bisecting GlcNAc and its physiological and pathological functions, particularly in the nervous system where bisecting GlcNAc is most highly expressed. The biosynthetic enzyme of bisecting GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-III (GnT-III). Overexpression, knockdown, and knockout of GnT-III have so far revealed various functions of bisecting GlcNAc, which are mediated by regulating the functions of key carrier proteins...
June 16, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
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