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Glycoconjugate Journal

Monika Franczyk, Jacek Wawrzykowski, Marta Kankofer
Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan which is involved in multiple biological functions mainly as a structural and signaling molecule. Due to its biological properties in connective tissue, decorin may participate in remodeling of ECM during attachment and detachment of placenta within the course of pregnancy and at parturition in cows. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of decorin protein in bovine placental tissues and to evaluate its profile during pregnancy and at parturition. Placental tissues from healthy pregnant cows (2-5 month) were collected in abattoir (n = 10), while parturient tissues were obtained during caesarian section at physiological term (n = 6)...
July 19, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Kazuchika Nishitsuji
Highly sulfated domains of heparan sulfate (HS), also known as HS S-domains, consist of repeated trisulfated disaccharide units [iduronic acid (2S)-glucosamine (NS, 6S)-]. The expression of HS S-domains at the cell surface is determined by two mechanisms: tightly regulated biosynthetic machinery and enzymatic remodeling by extracellular endoglucosamine 6-sulfatases, Sulf-1 and Sulf-2. Intracellular or extracellular deposits of misfolded and aggregated proteins are characteristic of protein aggregation diseases...
July 12, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Zhong-Qun Wang, Le-le Jing, Jin-Chuan Yan, Zhen Sun, Zheng-Yang Bao, Chen Shao, Qi-Wen Pang, Yue Geng, Li-Li Zhang, Li-Hua Li
The formation of advanced glycation end-products(AGEs) is an important cause of metabolic memory in diabetic patients and a key factor in the formation of atherosclerosis(AS) plaques in patients with diabetes mellitus. Related studies showed that AGEs could disrupt hemodynamic steady-state and destroy vascular wall integrity through the endothelial barrier damage, foam cell(FC) formation, apoptosis, calcium deposition and other aspects. At the same time, AGEs could initiate oxidative stress and inflammatory response cascade via receptor-depended and non-receptor-dependent pathways, promoting plaques to develop from a steady state to a vulnerable state and eventually tend to rupture and thrombosis...
July 10, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yasuhiko Kizuka, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Bisecting GlcNAc, a branch structure in N-glycan, has unique functions and is involved in several diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we provide an overview of the biosynthesis of bisecting GlcNAc and its physiological and pathological functions, particularly in the nervous system where bisecting GlcNAc is most highly expressed. The biosynthetic enzyme of bisecting GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-III (GnT-III). Overexpression, knockdown, and knockout of GnT-III have so far revealed various functions of bisecting GlcNAc, which are mediated by regulating the functions of key carrier proteins...
June 16, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Archana Shubhakar, Poh-Choo Pang, Daryl L Fernandes, Anne Dell, Daniel I R Spencer, Stuart M Haslam
Glycosylation is considered one of the most complex and structurally diverse post-translational modifications of proteins. Glycans play important roles in many biological processes such as protein folding, regulation of protein stability, solubility and serum half-life. One of the ways to study glycosylation is systematic structural characterizations of protein glycosylation utilizing glycomics methodology based around mass spectrometry (MS). The most prevalent bottleneck stages for glycomic analyses is laborious sample preparation steps...
June 16, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Bi-Shan Guo, Feng Zheng, Lucy Crouch, Zhi-Peng Cai, Meng Wang, David N Bolam, Li Liu, Josef Voglmeir
A putative GH35 β-galactosidase gene from the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila was successfully cloned and further investigated. The recombinant enzyme with the molecular mass of 74 kDa was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterised. The optimum temperature of the enzyme was 42 °C, and the optimum pH was determined to be pH 3.5. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) reduced the enzyme's activity significantly. The addition of Mg2+ -ions decreased the activity of the β-galactosidase, whereas other metal ions or EDTA showed no inhibitory effect...
May 12, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Joseph J Otto, Crystal L Daniels, Lindsay N Schambeau, Brittany N Williams, Jana M Rocker, Lewis K Pannell
A promising approach capitalizing on the specific and highly sensitive characteristics of the body's own immune system is demonstrated in the context of revealing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cancer (PDAC). IgA from a local biofluid called gastrointestinal lavage fluid (GLF) is used to investigate glycan reactivity to show the potential of this approach. IgA antibody responses, just as with IgG, result in amplification of a small signal which aids in detecting changes from a healthy state. IgA from GLF was screened against glycan arrays containing 609 glycan structures to investigate differential binding patterns associated with the disease...
June 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Alena Wiegandt, Henning N Behnken, Bernd Meyer
Prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) is a glycoprotein found in body secretions from exocrine glands like saliva and seminal plasma. Important biological functions of PIP concentrations have been demonstrated, e.g. in tumor diagnosis and progression. PIP quantity has been also found useful to determine the success of chemotherapy of mammary carcinoma. Here, we present the analysis of the N-glycosylation of PIP isolated from different sources by LC-MS(/MS) and 1 H-NMR. We found a very uncommon N-type glycosylation of PIP in healthy individuals from both, seminal fluid and saliva...
June 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yuta Fujii, Yasushi Makino, Masaaki Sato
It is widely known that sulfate ion at high concentration serves like an allosteric activator of glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Based on the crystallographic studies on GP, it has been assumed that the sulfate ion is bound close to the phosphorylatable Ser14 site of nonactivated GP, causing a conformational change to catalytically-active GP. However, there are also reports that sulfate ion inhibits allosterically-activated GP by preventing the phosphate substrate from attaching to the catalytic site. In the present study, using a high concentration of sulfate ion, significant enhancement of GP activity was observed when macromolecular glycogen was used as substrate but not when smaller maltohexaose was used...
June 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Xin Jin, Qingpan Bu, Yingying Zou, Yunpeng Feng, Min Wei
Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is an important C-type lectin and plays a critical role in the recognition of pathogens and self-antigens. It has recently been shown that DC-SIGN directly interacts with acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cells. However, the mechanism regulating DC-SIGN-dependent DC association as well as related functions is still elusive. Here we showed that DC-SIGN preferentially bound to a set of malignant T lymphocytes, including Jurkat, CCRF-HSB2 and CCRF-CEM...
April 18, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Daniel C Bennett, Aurelie Cazet, Jon Charest, Joseph N Contessa
N-linked glycosylation (NLG) is a co-translational modification that is essential for the folding, stability, and trafficking of transmembrane (TM) and secretory glycoproteins. Efficient NLG requires the stepwise synthesis and en bloc transfer of a 14-sugar carbohydrate known as a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO). The genetics of LLO biosynthesis have been established in yeast and Chinese hamster systems, but human models of LLO biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we report that Kato III human gastric cancer cells represent a model of deficient LLO synthesis, possessing a homozygous deletion of the LLO biosynthesis factor, MPDU1...
April 18, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Tadasu Urashima, Emi Yamaguchi, Takeharu Ohshima, Kenji Fukuda, Tadao Saito
In this study on milk saccharides of the raccoon (Procyonidae: Carnivora), free lactose was found to be a minor constituent among a variety of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides, which predominated over lactose. The milk oligosaccharides were isolated from the carbohydrate fractions of each of four samples of raccoon milk and their chemical structures determined by 1 H-NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopies. The structures of the four neutral milk oligosaccharides were Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc (2'-fucosyllactose), Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-fucopentaose IV), Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (fucosyl para lacto-N-neohexaose) and Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)[Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (difucosyl lacto-N-neohexaose)...
April 11, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Zejian Zhang, Manfred Wuhrer, Stephanie Holst
Cancer is a major cause of death in both developing and developed countries. Early detection and efficient therapy can greatly enhance survival. Aberrant glycosylation has been recognized to be one of the hallmarks of cancer as glycans participate in many cancer-associated events. Cancer-associated glycosylation changes often involve sialic acids which play important roles in cell-cell interaction, recognition and immunological response. This review aims at giving a comprehensive overview of the literature on changes of sialylation in serum of cancer patients...
April 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Elena Chiricozzi, Laura Mauri, Maria Grazia Ciampa, Alessandro Prinetti, Sandro Sonnino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Paweł Link-Lenczowski, Monika Bubka, Crina I A Balog, Carolien A M Koeleman, Terry D Butters, Manfred Wuhrer, Anna Lityńska
N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) is known to catalyze N-glycan "bisection" and thereby modulate the formation of highly branched complex structures within the Golgi apparatus. While active, it inhibits the action of other GlcNAc transferases such as GnT-IV and GnT-V. Moreover, GnT-III is considered as an inhibitor of the metastatic potential of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of GnT-III may be more diverse and depend on the cellular context. We describe the detailed glycomic analysis of the effect of GnT-III overexpression in WM266-4-GnT-III metastatic melanoma cells...
April 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Maristela P Rangel, Vanessa K de Sá, Tabatha Prieto, João Roberto M Martins, Eloísa R Olivieri, Dirce Carraro, Teresa Takagaki, Vera Luiza Capelozzi
Matrix proteoglycans (PGs) have shown promise as biomarker in malignancies. We employed agarose gel eletrophoresis, quantitative real- time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the content of sulfated glicosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate) and expression of PG (biglycan, glypican, perlecan, syndecan e versican) in patient-matched normal and tumor tissues obtained from resected specimens of lung cancer. A significant increase of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) concentrations was found in tumor tissue samples when compared to normal lung tissue samples...
April 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Ke-Xun Lian, Xiao-Qing Zhu, Jie Chen, Gang Liu, Xin-Li Gu
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for human beings and many other forms of life. Organic selenium from natural foods has greater bioavailability and is safer than inorganic selenium species. In this article, the structural properties and antioxidant activities of a Glycyrrhiza uralensis polysaccharide (GUP) after selenylation modification were investigated. The GUP was extracted by water decoction and ethanol precipitation and purified via protein elimination using the trichloroacetic acid method and column chromatography...
April 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Eugenia M Rapoport, Sergey V Khaidukov, Andrey M Gaponov, Galina V Pazynina, Svetlana V Tsygankova, Ivan M Ryzhov, Ivan M Belyanchikov, Panagiota Milona, Nicolai V Bovin, Kenneth C McCullough
Dendritic cells (DCs) play crucial roles in innate and adaptive immune response, for which reason targeting antigen to these cells is an important strategy for improvement of vaccine development. To this end, we explored recognition of DCs lectins by glycans. For selection of the glycan "vector", a library of 229 fluorescent glycoprobes was employed to assess interaction with the CD14low/- CD16+ CD83+ blood mononuclear cell population containing the DCs known for their importance in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes...
April 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Tania M Cortázar, Iain B H Wilson, Alba Hykollari, Edgar A Reyes, Nohora A Vega
The carbohydrate specificities of Dioclea grandiflora lectins DGL-I1 and DGL-II, and Galactia lindenii lectin II (GLL-II) were explored by use of remodeled glycoproteins as well as by the lectin hemagglutinating activity against erythrocytes from various species with different glycomic profiles. The three lectins exhibited differences in glycan binding specificity but also showed overlapping recognition of some glycotopes (i.e. Tα glycotope for the three lectins; IIβ glycotope for DGL-II and GLL-II lectins); in many cases the interaction with distinct glycotopes was influenced by the structural context, i...
April 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Tanim J Hossain, Shino Manabe, Yukishige Ito, Toshiya Iida, Saori Kosono, Kenji Ueda, Akira Hosomi, Daishi Inoue, Tadashi Suzuki
C-Mannosylation, a protein-modification found in various eukaryotes, involves the attachment of a single mannose molecule to selected tryptophan residues of proteins. Since C-mannosyl tryptophan (CMW) was detected in human urine, it is generally thought that CMW is not catabolized inside our body and instead is excreted via the urine. This paper reports enrichment of a bacterial consortium from soil that degrades CMW. The bacteria grew in minimal medium supplemented with CMW as the carbon source. Interestingly, even after successive clonal picks of individual colonies, several species were still present in each colony as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, indicating that a single species may not be responsible for this activity...
April 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
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