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Toxicology and Industrial Health

Ahmad Negintaji, Alireza Safahieh, Hossein Zolgharnein, Soheila Matroodi
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical that is widely used in plastics manufacturing. BPA enters in the aquatic environment mainly through urban and industrial sewage effluents, thereby posing a potential threat to organisms living in these ecosystems. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of BPA on VTG production with direct (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyarylamide gel electrophoresis) and indirect (alkali-labile phosphate (ALP), total plasma calcium and protein) methods in immature male yellowfin seabream ( Acanthopagrus latus) as a marine fish model...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Hyun-Ki Cho, Chang-Gyun Park, Han-Jae Shin, Ki-Hong Park, Heung-Bin Lim
Ultrafine particles (UFPs, < 2.5 µm) in air pollutants have been identified as a major cause of respiratory diseases, since they can affect the lung alveoli through the bronchus. In particular, if toxicants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in UFPs, they can cause diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. This study compared in vitro toxicity of various particulate matter including UFPs from combustion particles of diesel (diesel exhaust particles (DEP)), rice straw (RS), pine stem (PS) and coal (CC), and road dust particles from tunnel (TD) and roadside (RD)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Elena S González Rendón, Gumaro Gutierrez Cano, M Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Tania Garibay-Huarte, Teresa I Fortoul
Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal that plays an unknown biological role and is very toxic even at low concentrations. The main sources of Pb are Pb-contaminated areas in industrial areas or landfills. Inhalation is one of the most common routes of exposure to this metal, but there is little information on its effect on the liver. Thirty male mice were exposed to 0.1 M Pb acetate by inhalation for 8 weeks, twice a week for 1h. A recovery group was free of exposure for 4 weeks. Histological evaluation showed an increase in the inflammatory infiltrate and in the percentage of meganuclei in the liver...
February 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Murat Uysal, Serhat Karaman
Malathion can be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin, but acute toxicity is maximized when administered orally. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) treatment is used as a new therapeutic method in cases of systemic toxicity caused by some lipid soluble agents. This study aimed to examine the potential treatment effect of ILE on rat lung tissue in a toxicokinetic model of malathion exposure. Twenty-one adult Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. The groups were organized as group I (control), group II (malathion), and group III (malathion + ILE treatment)...
February 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Mark S Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Anthony L Kiorpes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Milica G Paunović, Miloš M Matić, Branka I Ognjanović, Zorica S Saičić
Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental pollutant, which exerts adverse effects mainly by inducing oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and vitamin E (VE), naturally occurring antioxidants, improve health condition by inactivating free radicals and enhancing antioxidative defence. The aim of our study was to investigate the protective role of CoQ10 and/or VE pretreatment against Cd-induced haematotoxicity. Wistar albino rats were intramuscularly injected with CoQ10 (20 mg/kg b.w.) and/or VE (20 IU/kg b.w.) or with saline (control group)...
October 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Bradford D Bagley, Shu-Ching Chang, David J Ehresman, Alan Eveland, George A Parker, Jeffrey M Peters, John L Butenhoff
Choline is an essential nutrient utilized for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and lipoprotein packaging and secretion. Recently, choline supplementation has been used by athletes and the public for weight loss. However, the potential toxicological impact of choline dietary supplementation requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were fed diets containing basal choline levels (control) or 5-, 10-, or 15-fold (5×, 10×, or 15×) basal diet concentration...
October 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Farah Md Chequer, Vinicius P Venancio, Mara R Almeida, Alexandre F Aissa, Maria Lourdes P Bianchi, Lusânia Mg Antunes
Erythrosine B (ErB) is a cherry pink food colorant and is widely used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. Quinoline yellow (QY) is a chinophthalon derivative used in cosmetic compositions for application to the skin, lips, and/or body surface. Previously, ErB and QY synthetic dyes were found to induce DNA damage in HepG2 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular basis underlying the genotoxicity attributed to ErB and QY using the RT(2) Profiler polymerase chain reaction array and by analyzing the expression profile of 84 genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair in HepG2 cells...
October 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Şöhret Yüksek Kaygisiz, İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci
In this study, the genotoxic potential of <50 nm, <100 nm iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles (IONPs) and ionic form were investigated using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and Allium and comet assays. In the SMART assay, different concentrations (1, 2, 5 and 10 mM) of NPs and ionic forms were fed to transheterozygous larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. No significant genotoxic effect was observed in <100 nm NPs and ionic form, while <50 nm IONPs showed genotoxicity at 1 and 10 mM concentrations...
October 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Maryam Ghooshchian, Parvin Khodarahmi, Farzaneh Tafvizi
Although not fully recognized, the neurotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are thought to occur through induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. To investigate the exact underlying molecular mechanism, we aimed to explore the apoptotic effects of intraperitoneal injection of Ag-NPs and investigated the possible attributed changes in the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes in the rat hippocampus. Two in vivo sets of experiments, one to demonstrate apoptosis and the other to assess gene expression, were conducted on male Wistar rats...
October 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Meltem Erol, Ismet Çok, Özlem Bostan Gayret, Pembegül Günes, Özgül Yigit, Elif Sayman, Aysegül Günes, Duygu Sultan Çelik, Sahin Hamilçikan, Serdar Altinay, Oya Ercan
Homosalate (HMS) and 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA) are ultraviolet filters. We aimed to investigate the effects of dermal exposure to HMS and OD-PABA during the prenatal, lactation, and early infancy periods on pubertal development and thyroid function in male and female rats. The thyroid glands, uteri, testes, prostate glands, and seminal vesicles were excised and weighed, the reproductive organs were analyzed histologically, and the serum hormone levels were measured. In the prenatal period, the thyroxine (T4) levels increased in the female rats in the exposed groups ( p < 0...
October 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Xiao Liang, Di Zhang, Wenjia Liu, Yingjie Yan, Fang Zhou, Weidong Wu, Zhen Yan
Inhaled zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) induce lung inflammation associated with oxidative stress. The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a pivotal role in the development of lung inflammation. However, the underlying effects of the NLRP3 inflammasome on ZnO-NPs-induced inflammation remain obscure. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 p10, and cytokines release of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 were determined after A549 cells were exposed to ZnO-NPs. The ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082, and NLRP3 inhibitor glibenclamide (GEL) were used to explore the mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation-induced by ZnO-NPs...
October 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Abida Farooqi, Jawairia Sultana, Noshin Masood
Release of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F(-)) species into groundwater is a serious health concern around the world. The present study was the first systematic baseline study conducted in Rahim Yar Khan district, Punjab, focusing on As and F(-) contamination in groundwater. A total of 51 representative groundwater samples comprising of 44 samples from agricultural suburbs and 7 from an industrial base were analysed. Statistical parameters, principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and health risk assessment model were used to investigate the hydro geochemistry, spatial patterns, interrelation, source contribution and associated health risks of high As and F(-) in groundwater of the study area...
August 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Mahmoud Abudayyak, Tuba Altincekic Gurkaynak, Gül Özhan
Cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles have applications in nanomedicine and nanotechnology; therefore, any possible adverse effects require thorough investigation. The present study investigated the effects of Co3O4 nanoparticles on four different cell lines: liver, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells; lung, A549 lung carcinoma cells; gastrointestinal, Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells; and nervous system, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. A difference was observed in cell sensitivity toward Co3O4 nanoparticles...
August 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Nazim Husain, Riaz Mahmood
The toxicity of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in biological systems is thought to be closely associated with the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. These species are produced when Cr(VI) is reduced to its trivalent form in the cell. This process results in oxidative stress due to an imbalance between the detoxifying ability of the cell and the production of free radicals. We have studied the effect of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), a [Cr(VI)] compound, on the antioxidant power of human erythrocytes and lymphocytes under in vitro conditions...
August 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Yasemin Aydin, Melike Erkan
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine function in biological systems, especially in the male reproductive system. Previous studies on the reproductive toxicity of PCBs have focused on the impairment of spermatogenesis, disruption of steroidogenesis, decreased sperm number, and infertility. Aroclor 1242 is a commercial mixture with an average of 42% chlorine by weight. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the hazardous effects of Aroclor 1242 on Leydig cells through an evaluation of cell viability, lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radicals, H2O2 production, antioxidant enzymes, and steroidogenic enzymes...
August 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Imen Ghorbel, Awatef Elwej, Mariem Chaabene, Ons Boudawara, Rim Marrakchi, Kamel Jamoussi, Tahya Sellami Boudawara, Najiba Zeghal
The present study investigates the toxic effects of acrylamide (ACR) administered to rats at two doses on (i) oxidative stress and disruption of pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance in hepatic cells and (ii) its correlation with metallothioneins (MTs) genes expression, DNA damage and histomorphological changes. Treated rats with 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight of ACR led to an increase in malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidation protein products, protein carbonyl levels as well as an alteration in the antioxidant status...
August 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Erbao Guo, Henggen Shen, Lei He, Jiawen Zhang
In November 2015, the PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter (PM) levels in platforms, station halls, and rail areas of the Shangcheng and Jiashan Road Station were monitored to investigate air pollution in the Shanghai subway system. The results revealed that in subway stations, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were significantly higher than those in outdoor environments. In addition, particle concentrations in the platforms exceeded maximum levels that domestic safety standards allowed. Particularly on clear days, PM2...
July 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Marcela Fátima Medina, María Celeste Arrieta, Marcela Noemí Villafañe, Sandra María Roxana Klyver, Iris María Aybar Odstrcil, María Elina González
The cadmium (Cd) concentration in the environment has increased as a consequence of anthropogenic activity. The objective of this study was to determine early signs of Cd toxicity in testes and sperm as possible biomarkers. The dose orally administered to Wistar rats was within the range where chronic toxicity can appear. At the light microscopic level, gonads presented preserved cytoarchitecture throughout treatment; however, after the second month, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed disruption of the blood-testis barrier...
July 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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