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Toxicology and Industrial Health

Avdulla J Alija, Nikolaus Bresgen, Ekramije Bojaxhi, Margit Krenn, Ismet D Bajraktari, Peter M Eckl
The actual stage of the development of Kosovo is characterized by the concerning levels of environmental pollution and the serious health problems attributed to the emission of pollutants into air, soil and water. In this context, river pollution is one of the main threats due to the discharge of untreated urban and industrial waste waters that affect the quality of surface and ground water. In addition, urban and agricultural discharges are affecting the river water quality. In this article, we are presenting data on the cyto- and genotoxic potential of water samples from three rivers (Sitnica, Drenica and Lepenci) in the Kosovo as determined in the cultures of primary rat hepatocytes...
August 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ayse Günes-Bayir, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Eray Metin Güler
Phenolic compounds of essential oils from the family Lamiaceae are commonly used substances in the food industry because of their flavouring, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. In this context, it has become important to have healthy and safe products for consumers who are exposed to these phenolic compounds. The present study was aimed to investigate the toxic effects of carvacrol, thymol and their mixture on human gastric carcinoma (AGS) cells. Cells were analyzed after 24 h of exposure to different concentrations of carvacrol, thymol and their mixture by the ATP cell viability, 2',7' dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA), reducte glutatione/oxide glutathione ((GSH)/GSSG-Glo) and comet assays...
August 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Nisha Bara, Gautam Kaul
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are important nanomaterials with myriad applications and in widespread use. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the direct effect of ZnO NPs on steroidogenesis by considering mouse testicular Leydig cells (TM3) as an in vitro model system. The uptake, intracellular behaviour, cytotoxicity and morphological changes induced by ZnO NPs (0-200 µg/ml) in a time-dependent manner in the TM3 were assessed. A significant ( p < 0.05) decrease in TM3 viability was observed at 2 µg/ml ZnO NP after a 1-h incubation time period...
August 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Nisha Bara, M Eshwarmoorthy, Kesavan Subaharan, Gautam Kaul
The increasing use of nanomaterials has naturally caused heightened concerns about their potential risks to human and animal health. We investigated the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) on steroidogenesis in the corpus luteum (CL) of pregnant mice and testis of male offspring. Pregnant albino mice were exposed to ZnO NPs and MSN for 2 days on alternate days, gestation days 15-19. Hepatic injury marker enzymes increased in the higher concentration of NM-exposed mother mice, but histological examination revealed no changes in the placenta of pregnant mice, whereas testis of male offspring showed gross pathological changes...
August 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Oguzhan Yavuz, Handan Hilal Arslan, Cagatay Esin, Yavuz Kursad Das, Abdurrahman Aksoy
The aim of this study was the determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cats and dogs and evaluation of their prevalence and possible effects. The concentrations of nine OCPs, such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT), 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDE and 16 PCBs (PCB-28, -52, -70, -74, -81, -99, -101, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, -180, -183, -187 and -208) were evaluated in the plasma samples of pet cats ( n = 15) and dogs ( n = 21)...
August 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Anna Machoń-Grecka, Michał Dobrakowski, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Ewa Birkner, Ilona Korzonek-Szlacheta, Sławomir Kasperczyk
The present study was designed to evaluate soluble receptors as potential targets for lead (Pb). Analyses included the serum levels of soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors 2 (sVEGFR-2), soluble Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (sEGFR), soluble Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 (sHER-2/neu), and soluble Interleukin 6 Receptors (sIL-6R) in the groups of chronically and subchronically occupationally exposed workers. The first group consisted of 56 male workers chronically exposed to Pb. The second group (control) comprised 24 male administrative workers...
August 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Hamzeh Mohammadi, Somayeh Farhang Dehghan, Alireza Tahamtan, Farideh Golbabaei
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential determinants of serum neopterin, malondialdehyde (MDA), and erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) as potential markers of oxidative stress, resulting in cellular immune response to inhaled silica particles. This descriptive analytical study was conducted on two groups of exposed workers ( n = 55) and unexposed office workers ( n = 38) of an insulator manufacturing plant. The sampling of airborne silica in the breathing zone of participants was done on the basis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Method 7601...
July 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Edouard Akono Nantia, Antoine S Kada, Faustin Pt Manfo, Nehemiah N Tangu, Kaghou M Mbifung, Desire H Mbouobda, Augustave Kenfack
Parastar is an insecticide formulation of lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid, and it is largely used for crop production improvement in Santa, North West Region of Cameroon. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of Parastar on reproductive parameters and testicular oxidative stress in adult albino Wistar male rats. Twenty rats (154 g ± 28 g) were divided into four groups of five animals each and treated daily with either distilled water (10 mL/kg), 1.25, 2.49 or 6.23 mg/kg of Parastar, respectively, for 35 days...
July 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Varol Sahinturk, Sedat Kacar, Djanan Vejselova, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu
OBJECTIVE: Acrylamide is a chemical utilized in various industries, and many studies have demonstrated its toxicity. The NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic cell line is the standard cell line of fibroblasts, which have a pivotal role with their versatile functions in the body. However, only two studies have attempted to investigate the effect of acrylamide on these crucial cells. To fill this knowledge gap, we aimed to determine the effects of acrylamide on NIH/3T3 cells. METHOD: First, we performed the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and calculated the IC50 dose of acrylamide...
July 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ahlem Soussi, Manel Gargouri, Abdelfattah El Feki
Lead (Pb) is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in Pb toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of zinc (Zn) supplement against lead acetate-induced kidney injury in rats. In this study, adults male rats were treated for 15 days with Pb (0.344 g/kg body weight (bw)) associated or not with Zn (10 mg/kg bw). Our study showed that supplementation with Zn prevented renal dysfunction as indicated by plasma biomarkers (urea, uric acid, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase levels) and oxidative stress-related parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyl, advanced oxidation protein product, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and vitamins (A, E)) in kidney tissue...
July 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Zhansai Zhang, Yanfang Zhao, Gang Chen, Ruoming Li, Jun Yang, Daoyuan Sun
The objective of this study was to assess the lung toxicity induced by the inhalation of different hard metal constituents and silica powder and screen for potential toxicity biomarkers. Rats were randomly divided into saline, cobalt, tungsten carbide, silica, and hard metal (HM) groups and were administered a single 10-mg dose of the respective treatments. After 8 weeks, the lung tissue structure in the HM group was deformed, numerous nucleated giant and epithelial-like cells appeared in the stroma, and the computed tomography scanning images appeared abnormal...
July 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Maryam Hormozi, Ramazan Mirzaei, Alireza Nakhaee, Shahrokh Izadi, Javid Dehghan Haghighi
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) on markers of oxidative stress in glazers in tile industries. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the blood of 80 subjects, including 40 glazers and 40 nonexposed subjects. Mean levels of blood Cd (8.90 ± 2.80 µg/L) and blood Pb (62.90 ± 38...
July 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Yahui Tang, Lufeng Hu, Guangliang Hong, Dahai Zhong, Jiaxing Song, Guangju Zhao, Zhongqiu Lu
Complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most extensively used tests in clinical practice. In order to determine the diagnostic value of the CBC in paraquat (PQ) and organophosphorus (OPPs) poisoning, the CBC indices of PQ- and OPPs-poisoned patients were investigated in this study. A total of 96 PQ poisoning patients, 90 OPPs poisoning patients, and 188 healthy subjects were included in this study. The PQ- and OPPs-poisoned patients were divided into different groups according to their clinical symptoms. All CBC indices were analyzed by Fisher discriminant, partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), variance analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC)...
July 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Anita Tewari, H S Banga, Jps Gill
The hazards of dietary exposure to environmentally relevant levels of deltamethrin are poorly understood though studies enunciate the acute toxicity hazards. In this study, prolonged exposure to low levels of deltamethrin in mice was investigated. The mice were exposed daily via gavage method for 60 days. Four doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.01, and 0.005 mg/kg bwt/d) were selected, which are equal to or less than the maximum residue limits for deltamethrin permitted in animal food/feed. Liver, kidney, lungs, spleen, and testes were collected on day 61 for histology, residue, and biochemical analysis (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), total bilirubin (TBIL), total proteins (TPs), cholesterol (CHOL), urea, and creatinine)...
June 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Cristiane Ps Andrade, Cláudio J Souza, Eduardo Sn Camerini, Isabela S Alves, Hélio C Vital, Matthew Jf Healy, Edson Ramos De Andrade
A radiological dispersive device (RDD) spreads radioactive material, complicates the treatment of physical injuries, raises cancer risk, and induces disproportionate fear. Simulating such an event enables more effective and efficient utilization of the triage and treatment resources of staff, facilities, and space. Fast simulation can give detail on events in progress or future events. The resources for triage and treatment of contaminated trauma victims can differ for pure exposure individuals, while discouraging the "worried well" from presenting in the crisis phase by media announcement would relieve pressure on hospital facilities...
June 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Xiaoliang Li, Wei Sun, Lei An
Manufactured metal nanoparticles and their applications are continuously expanding because of their unique characteristics while their increasing use may predispose to potential health problems. Several studies have reported the adverse effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) relative to ecotoxicity and cell toxicity, whereas little is known about the neurotoxicity of nano-CuO. The present study aimed to examine its effects on spatial cognition, hippocampal function, and the possible mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were used to establish an animal model, and nano-CuO was administered at a dose of 0...
June 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
R G Ahmed, G H Walaa, F S Asmaa
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of neonatal bisphenol A (BPA) administration on neuroendocrine features (the thyroid-brain axis). BPA (20 or 40 µg/kg) was orally administered to juvenile male albino rats ( Rattus norvegicus) from postnatal days (PNDs) 15 to 30. Both doses resulted in lower serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and growth hormone levels and higher thyrotropin level than the control levels at PND 30. In the neonatal cerebellum and cerebrum, vacuolation, pyknosis, edema, degenerative changes, and reductions in the size and number of the cells were observed in both treated groups...
June 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Iztleuov Marat, Mamyrbayev Arstan, Yeleuov Galymzhan, Jarkenov Timur, Iztleuov Yerbolat, Yeleuov Almasbek
The purpose of this research is to study the process of mutagenesis and the reproductive function in male rats under separate and combined exposure to chromium and boron compounds. The experiment was conducted on two groups of animals. The first group was used to assess the ability of potassium dichromate and boric acid to induce mutation in germ and somatic cells under isolated and combined administration with the use of the dominant lethal mutations test and the micronuclei test in the polychromatophilic erythrocytes of the bone marrow...
June 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Halil Asci, Onur Erol, Hamit Yasar Ellidag, Esra Nur Tola, Mehtap Savran, Ozlem Ozmen
Cigarette smoking (CS) has some detrimental effects that occur via oxidative stress (OS). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the pathological and immunohistochemical effects of CS and the protective effects of a strong antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on CS-induced genital system changes in a rat model. Twenty-eight female rats were randomly allocated to three groups as control, CS-exposed, and CS-exposed and ALA-treated. Reproductive tract organs were collected for biochemical and pathological examinations...
June 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Mine Şenyildiz, Adem Kilinc, Sibel Ozden
Neonicotinoids are a relatively new type of insecticide to control a variety of pests. Although they are generally considered to be safe, they can lead to harmful effects on human and environmental health. We aimed to investigate possible effects of common neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) on cytotoxicity and DNA damage in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Our results indicated that 50% of inhibitory concentration values of neonicotinoids are in the range of 0...
June 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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