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Toxicology and Industrial Health

Erbao Guo, Henggen Shen, Lei He, Jiawen Zhang
In November 2015, the PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter (PM) levels in platforms, station halls, and rail areas of the Shangcheng and Jiashan Road Station were monitored to investigate air pollution in the Shanghai subway system. The results revealed that in subway stations, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were significantly higher than those in outdoor environments. In addition, particle concentrations in the platforms exceeded maximum levels that domestic safety standards allowed. Particularly on clear days, PM2...
July 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Marcela Fátima Medina, María Celeste Arrieta, Marcela Noemí Villafañe, Sandra María Roxana Klyver, Iris María Aybar Odstrcil, María Elina González
The cadmium (Cd) concentration in the environment has increased as a consequence of anthropogenic activity. The objective of this study was to determine early signs of Cd toxicity in testes and sperm as possible biomarkers. The dose orally administered to Wistar rats was within the range where chronic toxicity can appear. At the light microscopic level, gonads presented preserved cytoarchitecture throughout treatment; however, after the second month, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed disruption of the blood-testis barrier...
July 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Iwona Sidorkiewicz, Kamil Zaręba, Sławomir Wołczyński, Jan Czerniecki
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that can cause disturbances in the endocrine system and have multiple harmful effects on health by targeting different organs and systems in the human body. Mass industrial production and widespread use of EDCs have resulted in worldwide contamination. Accumulating evidence suggest that human exposure to EDCs is related to the impairment of male reproductive function and can interrupt other hormonally regulated metabolic processes, particularly if exposure occurs during early development...
July 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Sharyn Gaskin, Linda Heath, Dino Pisaniello, John W Edwards, Michael Logan, Christina Baxter
Accidental or intentional releases of toxic gases or vapors are the most common occurrence in hazardous material (HAZMAT) incidents that result in human injuries. The most serious hazard from exposure to gases or vapors is via the respiratory system. Dermal uptake, as a secondary route, is still a concern, most acutely for the unprotected public. There is a limited evidence base describing skin absorption of toxic gases and vapors in HAZMAT exposure scenarios, which are relatively brief compared with traditional test periods for skin absorption studies...
July 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Canan Kursungoz, Sadık Taşkın Taş, Mustafa F Sargon, Yıldırım Sara, Bülend Ortaç
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most commonly used nanoparticles (NPs) in medicine, industry and cosmetics. They are generally considered as biocompatible. However, contradictory reports on their biosafety render them difficult to accept as 'safe'. In this study, we evaluated the neurotoxicity of direct AgNP treatment in rat hippocampal slices. We produced pure uncoated AgNPs by a pulsed laser ablation method. NP characterization was performed by Ultraviolet (UV) visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy...
July 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Sohair R Fahmy, Dawlat A Sayed
More research is needed to understand the interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with aquatic organisms and their mechanism of toxic action. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are the most used engineered metal oxide NPs in consumer products. The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and digestive gland (DG) as well as gill histopathology of the freshwater molluscan bivalve Coelatura aegyptiaca following exposure to ZnONPs (2, 10 and 50 mg/L) for 6 consecutive days. Exposure to ZnONPs (10 and 50 mg/L) induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide with a concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase levels in the haemolymph, DG and gills of the treated mussels...
July 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Neelam Pandey, Sarbani Giri, Samrat Das, Puja Upadhaya
Even though there are contradictory reports regarding the cellular and molecular changes induced by mobile phone emitted radiofrequency radiation (RFR), the possibility of any biological effect cannot be ruled out. In view of a widespread and extensive use of mobile phones, this study evaluates alterations in male germ cell transformation kinetics following RFR exposure and after recovery. Swiss albino mice were exposed to RFR (900 MHz) for 4 h and 8 h duration per day for 35 days. One group of animals was terminated after the exposure period, while others were kept for an additional 35 days post-exposure...
April 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
A Noël, G Truchon, Y Cloutier, M Charbonneau, K Maghni, R Tardif
There is currently no consensus on the best exposure metric(s) for expressing nanoparticle (NP) dose. Although surface area has been extensively studied for inflammatory responses, it has not been as thoroughly validated for cytotoxicity or oxidative stress effects. Since inhaled NPs deposit and interact with lung cells based on agglomerate size, we hypothesize that mass concentration combined with aerosol size distribution is suitable for NP risk assessment. The objective of this study was to evaluate different exposure metrics for inhaled 5 nm titanium dioxide aerosols composed of small (SA < 100 nm) or large (LA > 100 nm) agglomerates at 2, 7, and 20 mg/m(3) on rat lung inflammatory, cytotoxicity, and oxidative stress responses...
April 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Yu Wu, Yiqing Wang, Miaomiao Wang, Na Sun, Chunping Li
Lead acts as an antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). GRIN2A encodes an important subunit of NMDARs and may be a critical factor in the mechanism of lead neurotoxicity. Changes in GRIN2A expression levels or gene variants may be mechanisms of lead-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, we hypothesized that GRIN2A might contribute to lead-induced neurotoxicity. A preliminary HEK293 cell experiment was performed to analyze the association between GRIN2A expression and lead exposure. In addition, in a population-based study, serum GRIN2A levels were measured in both lead-exposed and control populations...
April 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Babak Gholamine, Isaac Karimi, Amir Salimi, Parisa Mazdarani, Lora A Becker
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate neurobehavioral toxicity of single-walled (SWNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in mice. METHODS: Male NMRI mice were randomized into 5 groups ( n = 10 each): Normal control (NC) group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 7.8; ca. 1 mL), MW80 and MW800 groups were injected with either i.p. 80 or 800 mg kg(-1) MWNTs suspended in 1 mL of PBS and SW80 and SW800 groups were injected with either i...
April 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Chinnu Sugavanam Senthilkumar, Nand Kishore Sah, Narayanan Ganesh
Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is a toxic industrial chemical that is documented as a potent respiratory toxicant. We investigated cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in the MIC-exposed long-term survivors and their offspring born after the Bhopal gas-leak tragedy in 1984. Several earlier reports show inconsistency in the assessment of immunological effects of MIC on the human population. In these studies, important factors including lifestyle attributes were overlooked. We incorporated these factors also in our study of the basic cell-mediated immune function in the Bhopal MIC-affected population...
April 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Xue Luo, Lingjuan Ma, Peng Gao, Yanwen Zhang
The objective of the present study was to systematically determine the effects of 50 Hertz (Hz) magnetic fields (MFs) on biochemical parameters in rats. Sixty-four adult (5 weeks old, 140-165 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, 20 µTesla (µT), 100 µT, and 500 µT 50 Hz MF ( n = 16 in each group). The rats in the MF groups were exposed for 2 h daily for up to 4 weeks. Under these experimental conditions, body weight, organ coefficients, biochemical parameters (blood lipids, myocardial enzymes, liver function, and renal function) were measured...
April 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ahmed O Abdel-Zaher, Mostafa M Hamdy, Mahran S Abdel-Rahman, Doaa H Abd El-Hamid
The potential protective effect of citicoline on aluminum chloride-induced cognitive deficits was investigated in rats. In a Morris water maze, administration of aluminum chloride to rats for 90 days resulted in increased escape latency to reach the platform and decreased swimming speed in acquisition trials. Similarly, in probe trials, the time required to reach the hidden platform was increased and the time spent in the target quadrant was reduced. Also, administration of aluminum chloride to rats for 90 days increased the reference and working memory errors and time required to end the task in the radial arm maze...
April 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Farah Deeba, Irum Raza, Noor Muhammad, Hazir Rahman, Zia Ur Rehman, Azizullah Azizullah, Baharullah Khattak, Farman Ullah, M K Daud
Pesticides are one of the most potentially harmful chemicals introduced into the environment, and their adverse impacts on non-target organisms can be significant. The present study was conducted to shed light on effects of locally used insecticides chlorpyrifos (CPF) and lambda cyhalothrin (LCT) on oxidative stress biomarkers in human erythrocytes. The activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and protein contents as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and osmotic fragility (OF) were measured in human erythrocytes exposed to CPF at concentrations of 0, 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm and LCT at concentrations of 0, 100, 300, 600, and 800 ppm for 1 h and 3 h at 37°C...
April 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Sharyn Gaskin, Linda Heath, Dino Pisaniello, Richard Evans, John W Edwards, Michael Logan, Christina Baxter
Accidental or intentional releases of toxic gases can have significant public health consequences and emergency resource demands. Management of exposed individuals during hazardous material incidents should be risk and evidence based, but there are knowledge gaps in relation to dermal absorption of gases and management advice for potentially exposed individuals. Using a modified Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in vitro toxicology protocol with human donor skin, this article reports on two common and odorous chemicals, hydrogen sulphide and phosphine...
April 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
M Reshma Anjum, P Madhu, K Pratap Reddy, P Sreenivasula Reddy
The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of zinc (Zn) in preventing lead (Pb)-induced reproductive toxicity in Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups, namely, control group, Pb group, Zn group, and Pb + Zn group. Animals were exposed to Pb (819 mg of Pb/L) or Zn (71 mg of Zn/L) or both through drinking water for 65 days. Rats exposed to Pb showed decreased weights of testes and accessory sex organs. Significant decrease in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, motility, viability, and number of hypoosmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in Pb-exposed rats...
March 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Xue Bai, Tianhua Chen, Yang Gao, Hao Li, Zhenzhong Li, Zhen Liu
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exist extensively in the environment as contaminants, in which 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) is the most abundant PBDE found in human samples. BDE-209 has been shown to cause neurotoxicity of primary sensory neurons with few effective therapeutic options available. Here, cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were used to determine the therapeutic effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on BDE-209-induced neurotoxicity. The results showed that IGF-1 promoted neurite outgrowth and cell viability of DRG neurons with BDE-209-induced neurotoxicity...
March 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Veruscka Leso, Ilaria Capitanelli, Erika Alessandra Lops, Walter Ricciardi, Ivo Iavicoli
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases that may originate from an interaction between genetic and lifestyle risk factors. However, the possible role of occupational chemical exposures in the disease development and progression remains unclear. Therefore, this review aimed to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the relationship between occupational exposure to specific chemical substances or industrial activities and DM morbidity and mortality outcomes. Although some positive findings may support the diabetogenic role of certain pesticides and dioxins in different workplaces, the variable conditions of exposure, the lack of quantitative environmental or biological monitoring data and the different outcomes evaluated do not allow defining a specific exposure-disease causality...
March 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Nitin Nanasaheb Pawar, Prarabdh Chandrakant Badgujar, Laxman Prasad Sharma, Avinash Gopal Telang, Karam P Singh
Lambda cyhalothrin (LCT), a broad-spectrum type II (α-cyano) synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, is widely employed in various agricultural and animal husbandry practices for the control of pests. Acute and chronic exposure to LCT can elicit several adverse effects including oxidative stress. With the objective to investigate nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity of LCT in mice, we evaluated oxidative stress parameters and histological changes in the kidney and brain of LCT exposed mice. Swiss albino mice were divided randomly into four groups ( n = 6 per group) as: (A) corn oil/vehicle control; (B) 0...
March 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Lisa M Franzi, Angela L Linderholm, Michelle Rabowsky, Jerold A Last
Proposition 2, which requires that egg-laying hens be confined only in ways that allow these animals to lie down, stand up, fully extend their limbs and turn around freely, was passed by the voters of California in 2008. These new housing requirements were introduced in the USA and European Union without considering the potential impact of changes in layer hen housing on the health of poultry workers in the new facilities. Particles were collected from ambient air inside a large layer hen complex featuring separate barns with conventional battery caging, enriched caging, or 'free range' (aviary) housing during winter, spring, and summer seasons over one year...
March 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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