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Toxicology and Industrial Health

Yongming Liu, Chen Shen, Xihui Zhang, Huan Yu, Fujun Wang, Yangyun Wang, Leshuai W Zhang
Metal nanoparticles or metal-based compounds have drawn attention in various fields ranging from industry to medicine because of their unique physicochemical properties. Bismuth (Bi) compounds and nanomaterials have been commonly used in alloys, electronic industry, batteries, and as flame retardants as well as for anti- Helicobacter pylori therapy, while the nanomaterial form has great potential for computed tomography imaging and thermotherapy, both of which will be introduced in this review. Although Bi was used for several decades, there is a lack of detailed information concerning their toxicity and mechanisms on human health...
March 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Elena S González Rendón, Gumaro Gutierrez Cano, M Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Tania Garibay-Huarte, Teresa I Fortoul
Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal that plays an unknown biological role and is very toxic even at low concentrations. The main sources of Pb are Pb-contaminated areas in industrial areas or landfills. Inhalation is one of the most common routes of exposure to this metal, but there is little information on its effect on the liver. Thirty male mice were exposed to 0.1 M Pb acetate by inhalation for 8 weeks, twice a week for 1h. A recovery group was free of exposure for 4 weeks. Histological evaluation showed an increase in the inflammatory infiltrate and in the percentage of meganuclei in the liver...
February 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Hyun-Ki Cho, Chang-Gyun Park, Han-Jae Shin, Ki-Hong Park, Heung-Bin Lim
Ultrafine particles (UFPs, < 2.5 µm) in air pollutants have been identified as a major cause of respiratory diseases, since they can affect the lung alveoli through the bronchus. In particular, if toxicants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in UFPs, they can cause diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. This study compared in vitro toxicity of various particulate matter including UFPs from combustion particles of diesel (diesel exhaust particles (DEP)), rice straw (RS), pine stem (PS) and coal (CC), and road dust particles from tunnel (TD) and roadside (RD)...
February 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Murat Uysal, Serhat Karaman
Malathion can be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin, but acute toxicity is maximized when administered orally. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) treatment is used as a new therapeutic method in cases of systemic toxicity caused by some lipid soluble agents. This study aimed to examine the potential treatment effect of ILE on rat lung tissue in a toxicokinetic model of malathion exposure. Twenty-one adult Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. The groups were organized as group I (control), group II (malathion), and group III (malathion + ILE treatment)...
February 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Heba Khodary Allam, Shaimaa Soliman, Tamer Wasfy, Ahmed Ghoneim, Yasser Serag, Grace Sembajwe
PURPOSE: Organic solvents are widely used in many industries, and usually, exposure occurs with mixtures of solvents. Organic solvent mixtures are known for their ability to affect tissues of high lipid content including the myelin sheath in the nervous system. The purpose of this work was to study the evidence that long-term (more than 10 years) exposure to organic solvent mixtures among painters can induce neuro-ophthalmological effects on the function of retinal ganglion cells and the optic tract...
February 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Zhansai Zhang, Yanfang Zhao, Gang Chen, Ruoming Li, Jun Yang, Daoyuan Sun
The objective of this study was to assess the lung toxicity induced by the inhalation of different hard metal constituents and silica powder and screen for potential toxicity biomarkers. Rats were randomly divided into saline, cobalt, tungsten carbide, silica, and hard metal (HM) groups and were administered a single 10-mg dose of the respective treatments. After 8 weeks, the lung tissue structure in the HM group was deformed, numerous nucleated giant and epithelial-like cells appeared in the stroma, and the computed tomography scanning images appeared abnormal...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Maryam Hormozi, Ramazan Mirzaei, Alireza Nakhaee, Shahrokh Izadi, Javid Dehghan Haghighi
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) on markers of oxidative stress in glazers in tile industries. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the blood of 80 subjects, including 40 glazers and 40 nonexposed subjects. Mean levels of blood Cd (8.90 ± 2.80 µg/L) and blood Pb (62.90 ± 38...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Yahui Tang, Lufeng Hu, Guangliang Hong, Dahai Zhong, Jiaxing Song, Guangju Zhao, Zhongqiu Lu
Complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most extensively used tests in clinical practice. In order to determine the diagnostic value of the CBC in paraquat (PQ) and organophosphorus (OPPs) poisoning, the CBC indices of PQ- and OPPs-poisoned patients were investigated in this study. A total of 96 PQ poisoning patients, 90 OPPs poisoning patients, and 188 healthy subjects were included in this study. The PQ- and OPPs-poisoned patients were divided into different groups according to their clinical symptoms. All CBC indices were analyzed by Fisher discriminant, partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), variance analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Anita Tewari, R S Banga, Jps Gill
The hazards of dietary exposure to environmentally relevant levels of deltamethrin are poorly understood though studies enunciate the acute toxicity hazards. In this study, prolonged exposure to low levels of deltamethrin in mice was investigated. The mice were exposed daily via gavage method for 60 days. Four doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.01, and 0.005 mg/kg bwt/d) were selected, which are equal to or less than the maximum residue limits for deltamethrin permitted in animal food/feed. Liver, kidney, lungs, spleen, and testes were collected on day 61 for histology, residue, and biochemical analysis (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), total bilirubin (TBIL), total proteins (TPs), cholesterol (CHOL), urea, and creatinine)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Cristiane Ps Andrade, Cláudio J Souza, Eduardo Sn Camerini, Isabela S Alves, Hélio C Vital, Matthew Jf Healy, Edson Ramos De Andrade
A radiological dispersive device (RDD) spreads radioactive material, complicates the treatment of physical injuries, raises cancer risk, and induces disproportionate fear. Simulating such an event enables more effective and efficient utilization of the triage and treatment resources of staff, facilities, and space. Fast simulation can give detail on events in progress or future events. The resources for triage and treatment of contaminated trauma victims can differ for pure exposure individuals, while discouraging the "worried well" from presenting in the crisis phase by media announcement would relieve pressure on hospital facilities...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Xiaoliang Li, Wei Sun, Lei An
Manufactured metal nanoparticles and their applications are continuously expanding because of their unique characteristics while their increasing use may predispose to potential health problems. Several studies have reported the adverse effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) relative to ecotoxicity and cell toxicity, whereas little is known about the neurotoxicity of nano-CuO. The present study aimed to examine its effects on spatial cognition, hippocampal function, and the possible mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were used to establish an animal model, and nano-CuO was administered at a dose of 0...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
R G Ahmed, G H Walaa, F S Asmaa
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of neonatal bisphenol A (BPA) administration on neuroendocrine features (the thyroid-brain axis). BPA (20 or 40 µg/kg) was orally administered to juvenile male albino rats ( Rattus norvegicus) from postnatal days (PNDs) 15 to 30. Both doses resulted in lower serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and growth hormone levels and higher thyrotropin level than the control levels at PND 30. In the neonatal cerebellum and cerebrum, vacuolation, pyknosis, edema, degenerative changes, and reductions in the size and number of the cells were observed in both treated groups...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Saeed Naderi, Hakimeh Zare, Nima Taghavinia, Azam Irajizad, Mahmoud Aghaei, Mojtaba Panjehpour
INTRODUCTION: Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), especially those containing cadmium, have undergone marked improvements and are now widely used nanomaterials in applicable biological fields. However, great concerns exist regarding their toxicity in biomedical applications. Because of the lack of sufficient data regarding the toxicity mechanism of QDs, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three types of QDs: CdTe QDs, high yield CdTe QDs, and CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs on two human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB468 and MCF-7...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Iztleuov Marat, Mamyrbayev Arstan, Yeleuov Galymzhan, Jarkenov Timur, Iztleuov Yerbolat, Yeleuov Almasbek
The purpose of this research is to study the process of mutagenesis and the reproductive function in male rats under separate and combined exposure to chromium and boron compounds. The experiment was conducted on two groups of animals. The first group was used to assess the ability of potassium dichromate and boric acid to induce mutation in germ and somatic cells under isolated and combined administration with the use of the dominant lethal mutations test and the micronuclei test in the polychromatophilic erythrocytes of the bone marrow...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Bence Somoskői, Melinda Kovács, Sándor Cseh
In the temperate region, most common mycotoxins are members of fusariotoxins. It often happens that food and forage are contaminated with two or more fusariotoxins at the same time. Effects of co-contamination are poorly documented, especially in the field of reproduction. The aim of our study was to assess the combined effect of the two common fusariotoxins, T-2 toxin (T-2) and Fumonisin B1 on early mouse embryo development in vitro. Embryo culture media contained either (1) 0.5 ng/ml T-2; 1, 2, or 10 ng/ml FB1 (group A, B, and C, respectively); or (2) 0...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Halil Asci, Onur Erol, Hamit Yasar Ellidag, Esra Nur Tola, Mehtap Savran, Ozlem Ozmen
Cigarette smoking (CS) has some detrimental effects that occur via oxidative stress (OS). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the pathological and immunohistochemical effects of CS and the protective effects of a strong antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on CS-induced genital system changes in a rat model. Twenty-eight female rats were randomly allocated to three groups as control, CS-exposed, and CS-exposed and ALA-treated. Reproductive tract organs were collected for biochemical and pathological examinations...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Mine Şenyildiz, Adem Kilinc, Sibel Ozden
Neonicotinoids are a relatively new type of insecticide to control a variety of pests. Although they are generally considered to be safe, they can lead to harmful effects on human and environmental health. We aimed to investigate possible effects of common neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) on cytotoxicity and DNA damage in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Our results indicated that 50% of inhibitory concentration values of neonicotinoids are in the range of 0...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Benjamin S Walker, Alexander G Kramer, Christopher S Lassiter
Atrazine is a commonly used herbicide that has previously been implicated as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Previous studies have shown that estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compounds affect the development of the heart, cartilage, and bone in zebrafish ( Danio rerio). To determine whether atrazine has effects similar to other endocrine disruptors, zebrafish embryos were treated with a range of atrazine concentrations. Atrazine treatment at a low concentration of 0.1 µM resulted in significant differences in craniofacial cartilage elements, while concentrations ≥1 µM led to decreased survival and increased heart rates...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Neelam Pandey, Sarbani Giri
Increasing male infertility of unknown aetiology can be associated with environmental factors. Extensive use of mobile phones has exposed the general population to unprecedented levels of radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) that may adversely affect male reproductive health. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of RFR Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) type, 900 MHz and melatonin supplementation on germ cell development during spermatogenesis. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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