Read by QxMD icon Read

Toxicology and Industrial Health

Dalita Gsm Cavalcante, Andressa S Gomes, Elton Ap Dos Reis, Caroline S Danna, Leandra E Kerche-Silva, Eidi Yoshihara, Aldo E Job
A novel composite material has been developed from natural rubber and leather waste, and a corresponding patent has been filed. This new material may be incorporated into textile and footwear products. However, as leather waste contains chromium, the biocompatibility of this new material and its safety for use in humans must be investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of chromium in this new material, determine the amount of each form of chromium present (trivalent or hexavalent), and evaluate the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the novel composite in two cell lines...
November 3, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Sané Jansen Van Rensburg, Anja Franken, Jeanetta Du Plessis, Johannes Lodewykus Du Plessis
Workers in precious metals refineries are at risk of exposure to salt compounds of the platinum group metals through inhalation, as well as through the skin. Rhodium salt permeation through the skin has previously been proven using rhodium trichloride (RhCl3) dissolved in synthetic sweat at a pH of 6.5. However, the skin surface pH of refinery workers may be lower than 6.5. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pH 6.5 and 4.5 on the in vitro permeation of rhodium through intact Caucasian skin using Franz diffusion cells...
November 3, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Michał Dobrakowski, Marta Boroń, Sławomir Kasperczyk, Agnieszka Kozłowska, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Anna Płachetka, Natalia Pawlas
The aim of the present study was to compare a group of workers with stable lead levels with a group of workers with fluctuating lead levels in terms of selected hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters. The examined group included male workers occupationally exposed to lead. Blood lead (PbB) levels were measured every 3 months during the 5-year observation. Based on standard deviation of mean PbB levels, the examined population was divided into two groups: low level of fluctuation (L-SD) and high level of fluctuation (H-SD) groups...
November 2, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Kalist Shagirtha, Nazima Bashir, Selvaraj MiltonPrabu
The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of hesperetin (Hp) against cadmium (Cd)-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Cadmium (3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), subcutaneous) administration for 3 weeks demonstrated neurotoxicity in rats by the decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase in the brain. The oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls) were significantly increased with decreased enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, total sulphydryl groups and vitamin C)...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ricardo I Peraza-Vega, América N Castañeda-Sortibrán, Mahara Valverde, Emilio Rojas, Rosario Rodríguez-Arnaiz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of the herbicide diuron in the wing-spot test and a novel wing imaginal disk comet assay in Drosophila melanogaster The wing-spot test was performed with standard (ST) and high-bioactivation (HB) crosses after providing chronic 48 h treatment to third instar larvae. A positive dose-response effect was observed in both crosses, but statistically reduced spot frequencies were registered for the HB cross compared with the ST. This latter finding suggests that metabolism differences play an important role in the genotoxic effect of diuron...
October 24, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Adesina O Odewabi, Martins Ekor
Recent studies have indicated an increased incidence of toxic neuropathies among waste management workers (WMW) possibly linked to increased detection of heavy metals in municipal solid wastes. The present study evaluated serum levels of some heavy and essential trace metals in relation to oxidant/antioxidant status of WMW. One hundred and twenty-six WMW and 84 non-WMW (control) were recruited. Metal/element concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and oxidant/antioxidant markers were determined using standard procedures...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Neelam Pandey, Sarbani Giri, Samrat Das, Puja Upadhaya
Even though there are contradictory reports regarding the cellular and molecular changes induced by mobile phone emitted radiofrequency radiation (RFR), the possibility of any biological effect cannot be ruled out. In view of a widespread and extensive use of mobile phones, this study evaluates alterations in male germ cell transformation kinetics following RFR exposure and after recovery. Swiss albino mice were exposed to RFR (900 MHz) for 4 h and 8 h duration per day for 35 days. One group of animals was terminated after the exposure period, while others were kept for an additional 35 days post-exposure...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ceylan Bal, Erol Rauf Ağış, Meşide Gündüzöz, Murat Büyükşekerci, Murat Alışık, Orhan Şen, Engin Tutkun, Ömer Hınç Yılmaz
Lead is a toxic heavy metal, and prevention of human exposure to lead has not been accomplished yet. The toxicity of lead is continually being investigated, and the molecular mechanisms of its toxicity are still being revealed. In this study, we used a novel method to examine thiol (SH)/disulfide homeostasis in workers who were occupationally exposed to lead. A total of 80 such workers and 70 control subjects were evaluated, and their native and total SH values were measured in serum using a novel method; their blood lead levels were also assessed...
October 3, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Victory Fabian Edem, Kikelomo Akintunde, Yewande Adeola Adelaja, Sarah O Nwozo, Mabel Charles-Davies
Zinc (Zn) is known to interact with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) reversing their toxicity and reducing their concentrations. However, lactating women are at high risk of developing Zn deficiency, which may result in Pb and Cd intoxication or increased exposure of breast-fed infants to Pb and Cd from breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations and examine their relationship in serum and breast milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ninety-two lactating women were recruited into this study...
September 27, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Zorawar Singh, Pooja Chadha
Welding is used extensively in different industries. Welders are always at a risk of exposure to a number of gases and metal-containing fumes in their respective microenvironments in which they work. Welding fumes consist of a wide range of complex metal oxide particles which can deposit in different parts of their bodies causing serious health problems. In the present study, 35 welders (age: 33.80 ± 1.04 years) from two iron-based industries have been assessed for DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using single-cell gel electrophoresis...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Jian Ying Yang, Yong Fa Zhang, Yuan Xiao Li, Gui Ping Guan, Xiang Feng Kong, Ai Min Liang, Kai Wang Ma, Guang Da Li, Xue Fei Bai
T-2 toxin is one of the mycotoxins, a group of type A trichothecenes produced by several fungal genera including Fusarium species, which may lead to the decrease of testosterone secretion in primary Leydig cells derived from mouse testis. The previous study demonstrated T-2 toxin decrease the testosterone biosynthesis in the primary Leydig cells derived from the mouse testis directly. In this study, we further examined the direct biological effects of T-2 toxin on the process of steroidogenesis, primarily in Leydig cells of mice...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Bangeppagari Manjunatha, Gundala Harold Philip
This study was carried out to find out whether exposure to environmentally relevant concentration of chlorpyrifos (CP) modulates reproductive competence. To understand this, eight adult male and eight adult female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 200 µg/L of CP for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Vitellogenin levels did not show much change in female fish, whereas in male the levels increased with increasing exposure time thereby indicating estrogenecity of the toxicant. Attenuation of serum 11-ketotestosterone in male and serum 17β-estradiol in female was noticed in the exposed fish and thus signified interference of CP in the reproductive endocrine system...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Yanqiu Du, Jinghua Yang, Bo Yan, Yan Bai, Lifeng Zhang, Linlin Zheng, Yuan Cai
Lanthanum (La) appears to impair learning and memory and increase the toxicity of excitatory amino acids in the central nervous system. The mechanism underlying excitotoxicity induced by La is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hippocampal impairment of La exposure and possible mechanism involving the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-3'-5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. In this study, lactating rats were exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0% lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) in drinking water, respectively...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Claudia Regina Dos Santos, Carlos Sérgio da Silva, Elizabeth Souza Nascimento
OBJECTIVES: In this study, biological exposure indicators were used to assess the exposure of workers to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in nonferrous metal smelters. METHODS: A total of 273 male participants (178 exposed and 95 nonexposed control group), working in nonferrous metal foundries located in southern Brazil, were evaluated based on biological indicators, environmental levels, and different types of work performed by the participants...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Wen-Xu Hong, Aibo Huang, Sheng Lin, Xifei Yang, Linqing Yang, Li Zhou, Haiyan Huang, Desheng Wu, Xinfeng Huang, Hua Xu, Jianjun Liu
Trichloroethylene (TCE), a halogenated organic solvent widely used in industries, is known to cause severe hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying TCE hepatotoxicity are still not well understood. It is predicted that membrane proteins are responsible for key biological functions, and recent studies have revealed that TCE exposure can induce abnormal levels of membrane proteins in body fluids and cultured cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the TCE-induced alterations of membrane proteins profiles in human hepatic L-02 liver cells...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Giovana Piva Peteffi, Luciano Basso da Silva, Marina Venzon Antunes, Camila Wilhelm, Eduarda Trevizani Valandro, Jéssica Glaeser, Djeine Kaefer, Rafael Linden
Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical widely used in the furniture industry and has been classified as a potential human carcinogen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occupational exposure of workers to FA at a furniture manufacturing facility and the relationship between environmental concentrations of FA, formic acid concentration in urine, and DNA damage. The sample consisted of 46 workers exposed to FA and a control group of 45 individuals with no history of occupational exposure. Environmental concentrations of FA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Tzu-Chieh Chou, Po-Chih Wang, Jyun-De Wu, Shiann-Cherng Sheu
Little research has been done on the relationships between chromium exposure, skin barrier function, and other hygienic habits in cement workers. Our purpose was to investigate chromium-induced skin barrier disruption due to cement exposure among cement workers. One hundred and eight cement workers were recruited in this study. Urinary chromium concentration was used to characterize exposure levels. The biological exposure index was used to separate high and low chromium exposure. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was used to assess the skin barrier function...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Wael M Ibrahim, Emad H Salim, Yahia A Azab, Abdel-Hamid M Ismail
Microcystins (MCs) are the most potent toxins that can be produced by cyanobacteria in drinking water supplies. This study investigated the abundance of toxin-producing algae in 11 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). A total of 26 different algal taxa were identified in treated water, from which 12% were blue green, 29% were green, and 59% were diatoms. MC levels maintained strong positive correlations with number of cyanophycean cells in raw and treated water of different DWTPs. Furthermore, the efficiency of various algal-based adsorbent columns used for the removal of these toxins was evaluated...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ping Li, Yang Li, Ji Zhang, Shan-Fa Yu, Zhi-Liang Wang, Guang Jia
The concentration of chromium in the blood (CrB) has been confirmed as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure, but its biological exposure indices (BEIs) are still unclear, so we collected data from the years 2006 and 2008 (Shandong Province, China) to analyze the relationship between the concentration of chromium in the air (CrA) of the workplaces and CrB to establish a reference value of CrB for biological monitoring of occupational workers. The levels of the indicators for nasal injury, kidney (β2 microglobulin (β2-MG)), and genetic damages (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and micronucleus (MN)) were measured in all subjects of the year 2011 (Henan Province, China) to verify the protective effect in this reference value of CrB...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Venerando Rapisarda, Caterina Ledda, Margherita Ferrante, Maria Fiore, Salvatore Cocuzza, Massimo Bracci, Concettina Fenga
Several studies have explored the hypothesis that low blood lead (PbB) and high noise levels may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. To assess the possible relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and noise and elevated blood pressure, we studied 105 workers (age: 41.27 ± 6.25 years and length of employment: 4.12 ± 5.33 years) employed in a Pb battery recycling plant by measuring A-weighted equivalent sound level, PbB, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP)...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"