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Toxicology and Industrial Health

Adesina O Odewabi, Martins Ekor
Recent studies have indicated an increased incidence of toxic neuropathies among waste management workers (WMW) possibly linked to increased detection of heavy metals in municipal solid wastes. The present study evaluated serum levels of some heavy and essential trace metals in relation to oxidant/antioxidant status of WMW. One hundred and twenty-six WMW and 84 non-WMW (control) were recruited. Metal/element concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and oxidant/antioxidant markers were determined using standard procedures...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Neelam Pandey, Sarbani Giri, Samrat Das, Puja Upadhaya
Even though there are contradictory reports regarding the cellular and molecular changes induced by mobile phone emitted radiofrequency radiation (RFR), the possibility of any biological effect cannot be ruled out. In view of a widespread and extensive use of mobile phones, this study evaluates alterations in male germ cell transformation kinetics following RFR exposure and after recovery. Swiss albino mice were exposed to RFR (900 MHz) for 4 h and 8 h duration per day for 35 days. One group of animals was terminated after the exposure period, while others were kept for an additional 35 days post-exposure...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ceylan Bal, Erol Rauf Ağış, Meşide Gündüzöz, Murat Büyükşekerci, Murat Alışık, Orhan Şen, Engin Tutkun, Ömer Hınç Yılmaz
Lead is a toxic heavy metal, and prevention of human exposure to lead has not been accomplished yet. The toxicity of lead is continually being investigated, and the molecular mechanisms of its toxicity are still being revealed. In this study, we used a novel method to examine thiol (SH)/disulfide homeostasis in workers who were occupationally exposed to lead. A total of 80 such workers and 70 control subjects were evaluated, and their native and total SH values were measured in serum using a novel method; their blood lead levels were also assessed...
October 3, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Victory Fabian Edem, Kikelomo Akintunde, Yewande Adeola Adelaja, Sarah O Nwozo, Mabel Charles-Davies
Zinc (Zn) is known to interact with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) reversing their toxicity and reducing their concentrations. However, lactating women are at high risk of developing Zn deficiency, which may result in Pb and Cd intoxication or increased exposure of breast-fed infants to Pb and Cd from breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations and examine their relationship in serum and breast milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ninety-two lactating women were recruited into this study...
September 27, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Jijing Tian, Ye Ding, Ruiping She, Longhuan Ma, Fang Du, Kangkang Xia, Lili Chen
The health effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have become a great concern in recent years. In this study, the reproductive toxicity of BPA was investigated. Male CD-1 mice were orally administrated with BPA (0, 100, 300 and 600 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 56 consecutive days. Results showed that relative testis weight to total body weight was significantly lower in the high-dose group (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). Microscopic examination under light and transmission electron microscopes showed disorders of spermatogenesis after BPA exposure, including rough basal lamina of seminiferous tubules and damage of tight junctions between Sertoli cells...
August 29, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
A J Nair, M Nandini, S Adappa, C Mahabala
Currently, in India, air pollution is widespread in urban areas where vehicles are major contributors. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of exposure in traffic police officers exposed to vehicle exhaust for less than 8 h/day. The specific objective of the study was to determine the levels of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) in these officers. The effect of exposure for 8 h/day is known, but shorter durations of chronic exposure need to be investigated, and there is a need to explore the policy options in this exposed population...
August 4, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Turgut Deniz, Hayati Kandis, Oguz Eroglu, Harun Gunes, Meral Saygun, Ismail Hamdi Kara
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless and odourless gas appearing as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels. Many domestic or occupational poisonings are caused by CO exposure. Malfunctioning heating systems, improperly ventilated motor vehicles, generators, grills, stoves and residential fires may be listed in the common sources of CO exposure. The aim of this study was to emphasize the significance of early diagnosis of CO poisoning with non-invasive measurement of CO levels of the patients with non-specific symptoms using a pulse oximeter device in the triage...
August 4, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Zorawar Singh, Pooja Chadha
Welding is used extensively in different industries. Welders are always at a risk of exposure to a number of gases and metal-containing fumes in their respective microenvironments in which they work. Welding fumes consist of a wide range of complex metal oxide particles which can deposit in different parts of their bodies causing serious health problems. In the present study, 35 welders (age: 33.80 ± 1.04 years) from two iron-based industries have been assessed for DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using single-cell gel electrophoresis...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Jian Ying Yang, Yong Fa Zhang, Yuan Xiao Li, Gui Ping Guan, Xiang Feng Kong, Ai Min Liang, Kai Wang Ma, Guang Da Li, Xue Fei Bai
T-2 toxin is one of the mycotoxins, a group of type A trichothecenes produced by several fungal genera including Fusarium species, which may lead to the decrease of testosterone secretion in primary Leydig cells derived from mouse testis. The previous study demonstrated T-2 toxin decrease the testosterone biosynthesis in the primary Leydig cells derived from the mouse testis directly. In this study, we further examined the direct biological effects of T-2 toxin on the process of steroidogenesis, primarily in Leydig cells of mice...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Bangeppagari Manjunatha, Gundala Harold Philip
This study was carried out to find out whether exposure to environmentally relevant concentration of chlorpyrifos (CP) modulates reproductive competence. To understand this, eight adult male and eight adult female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 200 µg/L of CP for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Vitellogenin levels did not show much change in female fish, whereas in male the levels increased with increasing exposure time thereby indicating estrogenecity of the toxicant. Attenuation of serum 11-ketotestosterone in male and serum 17β-estradiol in female was noticed in the exposed fish and thus signified interference of CP in the reproductive endocrine system...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Yanqiu Du, Jinghua Yang, Bo Yan, Yan Bai, Lifeng Zhang, Linlin Zheng, Yuan Cai
Lanthanum (La) appears to impair learning and memory and increase the toxicity of excitatory amino acids in the central nervous system. The mechanism underlying excitotoxicity induced by La is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hippocampal impairment of La exposure and possible mechanism involving the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-3'-5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. In this study, lactating rats were exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0% lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) in drinking water, respectively...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Claudia Regina Dos Santos, Carlos Sérgio da Silva, Elizabeth Souza Nascimento
OBJECTIVES: In this study, biological exposure indicators were used to assess the exposure of workers to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in nonferrous metal smelters. METHODS: A total of 273 male participants (178 exposed and 95 nonexposed control group), working in nonferrous metal foundries located in southern Brazil, were evaluated based on biological indicators, environmental levels, and different types of work performed by the participants...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Wen-Xu Hong, Aibo Huang, Sheng Lin, Xifei Yang, Linqing Yang, Li Zhou, Haiyan Huang, Desheng Wu, Xinfeng Huang, Hua Xu, Jianjun Liu
Trichloroethylene (TCE), a halogenated organic solvent widely used in industries, is known to cause severe hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanisms underlying TCE hepatotoxicity are still not well understood. It is predicted that membrane proteins are responsible for key biological functions, and recent studies have revealed that TCE exposure can induce abnormal levels of membrane proteins in body fluids and cultured cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the TCE-induced alterations of membrane proteins profiles in human hepatic L-02 liver cells...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Giovana Piva Peteffi, Luciano Basso da Silva, Marina Venzon Antunes, Camila Wilhelm, Eduarda Trevizani Valandro, Jéssica Glaeser, Djeine Kaefer, Rafael Linden
Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical widely used in the furniture industry and has been classified as a potential human carcinogen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occupational exposure of workers to FA at a furniture manufacturing facility and the relationship between environmental concentrations of FA, formic acid concentration in urine, and DNA damage. The sample consisted of 46 workers exposed to FA and a control group of 45 individuals with no history of occupational exposure. Environmental concentrations of FA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Tzu-Chieh Chou, Po-Chih Wang, Jyun-De Wu, Shiann-Cherng Sheu
Little research has been done on the relationships between chromium exposure, skin barrier function, and other hygienic habits in cement workers. Our purpose was to investigate chromium-induced skin barrier disruption due to cement exposure among cement workers. One hundred and eight cement workers were recruited in this study. Urinary chromium concentration was used to characterize exposure levels. The biological exposure index was used to separate high and low chromium exposure. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was used to assess the skin barrier function...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Wael M Ibrahim, Emad H Salim, Yahia A Azab, Abdel-Hamid M Ismail
Microcystins (MCs) are the most potent toxins that can be produced by cyanobacteria in drinking water supplies. This study investigated the abundance of toxin-producing algae in 11 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). A total of 26 different algal taxa were identified in treated water, from which 12% were blue green, 29% were green, and 59% were diatoms. MC levels maintained strong positive correlations with number of cyanophycean cells in raw and treated water of different DWTPs. Furthermore, the efficiency of various algal-based adsorbent columns used for the removal of these toxins was evaluated...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ping Li, Yang Li, Ji Zhang, Shan-Fa Yu, Zhi-Liang Wang, Guang Jia
The concentration of chromium in the blood (CrB) has been confirmed as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure, but its biological exposure indices (BEIs) are still unclear, so we collected data from the years 2006 and 2008 (Shandong Province, China) to analyze the relationship between the concentration of chromium in the air (CrA) of the workplaces and CrB to establish a reference value of CrB for biological monitoring of occupational workers. The levels of the indicators for nasal injury, kidney (β2 microglobulin (β2-MG)), and genetic damages (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and micronucleus (MN)) were measured in all subjects of the year 2011 (Henan Province, China) to verify the protective effect in this reference value of CrB...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Venerando Rapisarda, Caterina Ledda, Margherita Ferrante, Maria Fiore, Salvatore Cocuzza, Massimo Bracci, Concettina Fenga
Several studies have explored the hypothesis that low blood lead (PbB) and high noise levels may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. To assess the possible relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and noise and elevated blood pressure, we studied 105 workers (age: 41.27 ± 6.25 years and length of employment: 4.12 ± 5.33 years) employed in a Pb battery recycling plant by measuring A-weighted equivalent sound level, PbB, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP)...
October 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Dilek Akyıl, Yasin Eren, Muhsin Konuk, Aykut Tepekozcan, Esra Sağlam
In this study, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanomaterial were assessed using two standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and the in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay. Seven different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/plate) of this nanomaterial were tested using the Ames test on the TA98 and TA100 strains in the presence and absence of the S9 mixture. At all the concentrations tested, this substance did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies compared with the control with or without S9 mixture...
September 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ton Yoisungnern, Joydeep Das, Yun-Jung Choi, Rangsun Parnpai, Jin-Hoi Kim
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is an environmental contaminant that is associated with reproductive abnormalities in both humans and animals. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of Cr(VI) on sperm function and subsequent embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Sperm obtained from BDF1 male mice were treated with potassium dichromate (0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 μM) for 3 h. Cr(VI) significantly decreased sperm viability and acrosome reaction with increasing dose. These Cr(VI)-treated sperms were further used for IVF of oocytes obtained from BDF1 female mice...
September 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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