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Toxicology and Industrial Health

N K Nirmal, K K Awasthi, P J John
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates for various applications including biomedical purposes. Owing to their remarkable physical, mechanical, electrical and chemical properties, CNTs have become an area of intense research and industrial activity in recent years. Therefore, toxicity and risk assessment studies are becoming increasingly important. The present study was designed to assess the effects of hydroxyl-functionalized multiwalled CNTs (OH-f MWCNTs) on sperm health and testes of adult Wistar rats...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Lucyna Polak-Juszczak
BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly toxic compound that traverses the blood-brain barrier with deleterious effects to the central nervous system. Exposure is generally through the ingestion of contaminated fish. Fish are a main source of MeHg. Goals and methods: The aim of this study was to determine the dependence of MeHg concentrations on fish species and age, the percentage of MeHg in total mercury (THg) and risk assessment depending on the size of fish. Assays of THg and MeHg were performed on the muscle tissues of 18 species of fish...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Hasibur Rehman, Al Thbiani Aziz, Shalini Saggu, Adam L VanWert, Nahla Zidan, Sundeep Saggu
Exposure to natural and man-made environmental toxins concurrently can pose a greater threat to multiple organs. In the present work, we investigated interactions between deltamethrin (DM) and cadmium (Cd), whose mechanisms of action in humans are poorly understood. Albino mice were randomly divided into four groups, each containing six mice: saline as control, DM-treated, cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated, and CdCl2 plus DM treated. After 2 weeks of treatment biochemical and hematological effects, total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, humoral-mediated immune responses, and histopathological studies were conducted...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Dalita Gsm Cavalcante, Andressa S Gomes, Elton Ap Dos Reis, Caroline S Danna, Leandra E Kerche-Silva, Eidi Yoshihara, Aldo E Job
A novel composite material has been developed from natural rubber and leather waste, and a corresponding patent has been filed. This new material may be incorporated into textile and footwear products. However, as leather waste contains chromium, the biocompatibility of this new material and its safety for use in humans must be investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of chromium in this new material, determine the amount of each form of chromium present (trivalent or hexavalent), and evaluate the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the novel composite in two cell lines...
November 3, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Sané Jansen Van Rensburg, Anja Franken, Jeanetta Du Plessis, Johannes Lodewykus Du Plessis
Workers in precious metals refineries are at risk of exposure to salt compounds of the platinum group metals through inhalation, as well as through the skin. Rhodium salt permeation through the skin has previously been proven using rhodium trichloride (RhCl3) dissolved in synthetic sweat at a pH of 6.5. However, the skin surface pH of refinery workers may be lower than 6.5. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pH 6.5 and 4.5 on the in vitro permeation of rhodium through intact Caucasian skin using Franz diffusion cells...
November 3, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Michał Dobrakowski, Marta Boroń, Sławomir Kasperczyk, Agnieszka Kozłowska, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Anna Płachetka, Natalia Pawlas
The aim of the present study was to compare a group of workers with stable lead levels with a group of workers with fluctuating lead levels in terms of selected hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters. The examined group included male workers occupationally exposed to lead. Blood lead (PbB) levels were measured every 3 months during the 5-year observation. Based on standard deviation of mean PbB levels, the examined population was divided into two groups: low level of fluctuation (L-SD) and high level of fluctuation (H-SD) groups...
November 2, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Kalist Shagirtha, Nazima Bashir, Selvaraj MiltonPrabu
The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of hesperetin (Hp) against cadmium (Cd)-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Cadmium (3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), subcutaneous) administration for 3 weeks demonstrated neurotoxicity in rats by the decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase in the brain. The oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls) were significantly increased with decreased enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, total sulphydryl groups and vitamin C)...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ricardo I Peraza-Vega, América N Castañeda-Sortibrán, Mahara Valverde, Emilio Rojas, Rosario Rodríguez-Arnaiz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of the herbicide diuron in the wing-spot test and a novel wing imaginal disk comet assay in Drosophila melanogaster The wing-spot test was performed with standard (ST) and high-bioactivation (HB) crosses after providing chronic 48 h treatment to third instar larvae. A positive dose-response effect was observed in both crosses, but statistically reduced spot frequencies were registered for the HB cross compared with the ST. This latter finding suggests that metabolism differences play an important role in the genotoxic effect of diuron...
October 24, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Gary A Rockwood, David E Thompson, Ilona Petrikovics
In the present studies, the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of a novel cyanide countermeasure, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), were evaluated. DMTS is a sulfur-based molecule found in garlic, onion, broccoli, and similar plants. DMTS was studied for effectiveness as a sulfur donor-type cyanide countermeasure. The sulfur donor reactivity of DMTS was determined by measuring the rate of the formation of the cyanide metabolite thiocyanate. In experiments carried out in vitro in the presence of the sulfurtransferase rhodanese (Rh) and at the experimental pH of 7...
December 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Mohamed El-Helaly, Hanan H Balkhy, Khan Waseem, Sahdia Khawaja
Previous cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to cleaning chemicals among health-care workers (HCWs) is associated with respiratory disorders and ventilatory function changes. This study aimed to further explore this association using a longitudinal approach. A prospective 2-year follow-up study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia from June 2012 to June 2014 among 56 nurses who were responsible for disinfection and sterilization of medical instruments and equipment. The workplaces of the participants were assessed for engineering, environmental, and safety control measures...
December 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Erico R Carmona, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Laura Rubio, Ricard Marcos
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) are manufactured on a large scale and can be found in a variety of consumer products, such as sunscreens, lotions, paints and food additives. Few studies have been carried out on its genotoxic potential and related mechanisms in whole organisms. In the present study, the in vivo genotoxic activity of ZnONP and its bulk form was assayed using the wing-spot test and comet assay in Drosophila melanogaster Additionally, a lipid peroxidation analysis using the thiobarbituric acid assay was also performed...
December 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Maria Valeria Rosati, Lucio Montuori, Tiziana Caciari, Carmina Sacco, Mariasilvia Marrocco, Gianfranco Tomei, Barbara Scala, Angela Sancini, Vincenza Anzelmo, Sergio Bonomi, Francesco Tomei
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether exposure to low concentrations of cadmium (Cd) can have effects on the thyroid hormone level of outdoor workers exposed to urban pollutants. METHODS: The study was conducted on a final sample of 277 individuals (184 males and 93 females). The environmental monitoring of Cd was evaluated through the use of portable dosimeters, while the biological monitoring was achieved through the assessment of urinary Cd and thyroid hormones...
December 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ming Zhang, Yanrang Wang, Xiaojun Wang, Jing Liu, Jingshu Zhang, Qing Gu
Ethylbenzene is an important industrial chemical, but its potential toxicity is a recent concern. Our previous study investigated the renal toxicity of ethylbenzene in vivo Rat renal epithelial cells (NRK-52E cells) were incubated with 0, 30, 60, and 90 µmol/L of ethylbenzene for 24 h in vitro to investigate ethylbenzene-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor (erythroid 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The cell survival rate in the ethylbenzene-treated groups was significantly lower than the control group...
December 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Natalia Pawlas, Anna Płachetka, Agnieszka Kozłowska, Agnieszka Mikołajczyk, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Michał Dobrakowski, Sławomir Kasperczyk
The negative health effects caused by lead (Pb) exposure are widely recognized; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of occupational Pb exposure on telomere length and to investigate the potential mechanisms leading to telomere shortening. A cohort of 334 male Pb smelters (exposed group) and 60 age-adjusted males unexposed to Pb (control group) were examined. Assessments of relative telomere length (rTL) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression were performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions...
December 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Tugba Boyunegmez Tumer, Seda Savranoglu, Pelin Atmaca, Gulsum Terzioglu, Alaattin Sen, Sevki Arslan
In this study, we aimed to investigate the extent of genotoxic risk and the association between null GSTM1/GSTT1 and GSTP1 Ile105Val variants and cellular DNA damage, as measured by micronucleus (MN) assay in a group of agricultural workers from Denizli, Turkey. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 116 subjects, including 58 workers who were occupationally exposed to pesticides and 58 healthy unexposed controls. The MN frequencies of each individual were assessed by cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei assays on lymphocytes...
December 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Swati Kundu, Hiba Shabir, Seemi F Basir, Luqman A Khan
Exposure to arsenic and mercury is known to cause respiratory problems in both humans and animals. In this study, we elicit and compare maximum contraction caused by As(III) and Hg(II) when the pollutants are fully equilibrated with contractile machinery in resting mode. Hypercontraction of 27% and 69% was obtained following exposure of tracheal rings to 25 µM As(III) and 6 nM Hg(II) for 40 min, respectively. Co-incubation of tracheal rings with pollutants and verapamil, sodium nitroprusside or apocynin indicates that major contributors to As(III) and Hg(II) caused hypercontraction are reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation and nitric oxide (NO) depletion...
December 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Zahra Gholamnezhad, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Sediqa Amery, Nassim Vahedi, Abass Tabatabaei, Morteza Boskabady, Alireza Shahriary
Pulmonary complications of exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) gas range from no effect or mild symptoms to severe bronchial stenosis. In the present study, the protective effect of vitamin E on the lung inflammation of SM-exposed guinea pigs was examined. Guinea pigs (n = 5 for each group) were exposed to ethanol (control group), 40 mg/m(3) inhaled SM (SME group), SME treated with vitamin E (SME + E), SME treated with dexamethasone (SME + D), and SME treated with both treatments (SME + E + D). Pathological evaluation of the lung was done 14 days postexposure...
December 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Mansour Rezazadeh Azari, Raana Tayefeh-Rahimian, Mohamad Javad Jafari, Hamid Souri, Yasser Shokoohi, Alaheh Tavakol, Zahra Yazdanbakhsh
Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is widely used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. VCM is recognized as a confirmed human and animal carcinogenic compound. Recent studies have reported poor health of plastic workers, even having exposure at concentrations below the permissible limit to VCM. There has not been any study regarding exposed workers to VCM in Iran. Similarly, no information exists as to the biological monitoring of such workers. The main purpose of this study was to conduct a thorough occupational and biological monitoring of Iranian plastic workers exposed to VCM...
December 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ayşe Yavuz Kocaman, Sevcan Bucak
Flumetralin, a synthetic plant growth regulator with herbicidal activity belonging to the 2,6-dinitroaniline class of chemicals, has been evaluated for its ability to induce genotoxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). The potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flumetralin were investigated in vitro by chromosome aberration (CA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays. Human PBLs were treated with 125, 250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL flumetralin for 24 and 48 h. Flumetralin statistically significantly increased the frequency of structural CAs at the three highest concentrations (250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) for both treatment periods (24 and 48 h) when compared with both the negative and solvent controls...
December 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Adesina O Odewabi, Martins Ekor
Recent studies have indicated an increased incidence of toxic neuropathies among waste management workers (WMW) possibly linked to increased detection of heavy metals in municipal solid wastes. The present study evaluated serum levels of some heavy and essential trace metals in relation to oxidant/antioxidant status of WMW. One hundred and twenty-six WMW and 84 non-WMW (control) were recruited. Metal/element concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and oxidant/antioxidant markers were determined using standard procedures...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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