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Food Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040186/cloning-the-putative-gene-of-vinyl-phenol-reductase-of-dekkera-bruxellensis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Diego Romano, Federica Valdetara, Paolo Zambelli, Silvia Galafassi, Valerio De Vitis, Francesco Molinari, Concetta Compagno, Roberto Foschino, Ileana Vigentini
Vinylphenol reductase of Dekkera bruxellensis, the characteristic enzyme liable for "Brett" sensory modification of wine, has been recently recognized to belong to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductases family. Indeed, a preliminary biochemical characterisation has conferred to the purified protein a dual significance acting as superoxide dismutase and as a NADH-dependent reductase. The present study aimed for providing a certain identification of the enzyme by cloning the VPR gene in S. cerevisiae, a species not producing ethyl phenols...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040185/fate-of-the-microbial-population-and-the-physico-chemical-parameters-of-sanganel-a-typical-blood-sausages-of-the-friuli-a-north-east-region-of-italy
#2
Lucilla Iacumin, Marisa Manzano, Simone Stella, Giuseppe Comi
In Friuli, a Northeastern region of Italy, a blood sausage called Sanganel is produced by farmers, butchers, shops, and factories. This sausage is made with pork meat, boiled blood, lard, spices, and salt. It is stored at 4 ± 2 °C and usually eaten fresh or boiled within 14 days of its manufacture. Little is known about its microbial populations and safety for consumption. The aim of this study is to characterise the microbial populations and the physico-chemical parameters of Sanganel to establish its quality and the safety of consuming it...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040184/effect-of-osmotic-dehydration-of-olives-as-pre-fermentation-treatment-and-partial-substitution-of-sodium-chloride-by-monosodium-glutamate-in-the-fermentation-profile-of-kalamata-natural-black-olives
#3
Stamatoula Bonatsou, Vasilis Iliopoulos, Athanasios Mallouchos, Eleni Gogou, Vasiliki Oikonomopoulou, Magdalini Krokida, Petros Taoukis, Efstathios Z Panagou
This study examined the effect of osmotic dehydration of Kalamata natural black olives as pre-fermentation treatment in combination with partial substitution of NaCl by monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the fermentation profile of olives. Osmotic dehydration was undertaken by immersing the olives in 70% (w/w) glucose syrup overnight at room temperature. Further on, three different mixtures of NaCl and MSG with/without prior osmotic dehydration of olives were investigated, namely (i) 6.65% NaCl - 0.35% MSG (5% substitution), (ii) 6...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040183/detection-of-premature-stop-codons-leading-to-truncated-internalin-a%C3%A2-among-food-and-clinical-strains-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#4
Margarida Ferreira da Silva, Vânia Ferreira, Rui Magalhães, Gonçalo Almeida, Artur Alves, Paula Teixeira
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen responsible for outbreaks and sporadic cases of listeriosis, a severe invasive disease. Internalin A (InlA) a protein encoded by inlA has a key role in the mechanism of pathogenesis in L. monocytogenes infection, specifically in the invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells. Studies on inlA have shown that mutations leading to premature stop codons (PMSCs) occur naturally and are associated with impaired virulence of L. monocytogenes strains. Increasing evidence suggests that inlA PMSCs mutations are frequent in strains from foods, but rare among clinical isolates...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040182/effects-of-exposure-to-quaternary-ammonium-based-biocides-on-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-tolerance-to-physical-stresses-in-bacteria-from-organic-foods
#5
Rebeca Gadea, Miguel Ángel Fernández Fuentes, Rubén Pérez Pulido, Antonio Gálvez, Elena Ortega
In the present study, a collection of 76 biocide-sensitive bacterial strains isolated from organically produced food were adapted by repeated exposure to increasing concentrations of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) benzalkonium chloride (BC) and hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP). The sensitivity of both wildtype strains and their corresponding QAC-adapted strains to other biocides and to antibiotics was studied. QAC tolerance increased in 88.2% of strains for BC and in 30.3% of strains for HDP, with increases in minimum inhibitory concentrations between 2 and over 100 fold...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040181/genome-comparison-and-physiological-characterization-of-eight-streptococcus-thermophilus-strains-isolated-from-italian-dairy-products
#6
Veronica Vendramin, Laura Treu, Stefano Campanaro, Angiolella Lombardi, Viviana Corich, Alessio Giacomini
Eight Streptococcus thermophilus strains of dairy origin isolated in Italy were chosen to investigate autochthonous bacterial diversity in this important technological species. In the present study a comparative analysis of all the 17 S. thermophilus genomes publicly available was performed to identify the core and the variable genes, which vary among strains from 196 to 265. Additionally, correlation between the isolation site and the genetic distance was investigated at genomic level. Results highlight that the phylogenetic reconstruction differs from the geographical strain distribution...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040180/characterization-of-microbial-population-of-breba-and-main-crops-ficus-carica-during-cold-storage-influence-of-passive-modified-atmospheres-map-and-antimicrobial-extract-application
#7
María Del Carmen Villalobos, Manuel Joaquín Serradilla, Alberto Martín, Alejandro Hernández-León, Santiago Ruíz-Moyano, María de Guía Córdoba
The purpose of this work was to study the changes of bacterial and fungal population of breba fruits such as 'Banane' and 'San Antonio' as well as 'Cuello Dama Negro', 'Cuello Dama Blanco' and 'San Antonio' fig cultivars stored in passive modified atmospheres (MAP) by the use of three different microperforated films (M10 with 16 holes; M30 with five holes and M50 with three holes). Moreover the effects of the application of aqueous soy polyphenolic antimicrobial extract (APE), alone or combined with MAP, were also studied for 'Cuello Dama Negro' and 'Cuello Dama Blanco' fig cultivars...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040179/the-effect-of-bacteriophages-on-the-acidification-of-a-vegetable-juice-medium-by-microencapsulated-lactobacillus-plantarum
#8
Claude P Champagne, Sylvain Moineau, Sonia Lafleur, Tony Savard
Starter cultures are increasingly being used for the production of sauerkraut, kimchi and other fermented vegetables. The goal of this study was to determine whether the microencapsulation of a bacterial culture can prevent phage infection during vegetable fermentation. Lactobacillus plantarum HER1325 was microencapsulated in alginate beads. Some beads were used without further processing, while others were freeze-dried prior to testing. Fresh beads (diameter of 2 mm) and dried cultures of the lactobacilli (particle size of 53-1000 μm) were added to a vegetable juice medium (VJM) at 1 × 10(7) CFU/mL...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040178/blueberry-proanthocyanidins-against-human-norovirus-surrogates-in-model-foods-and-under-simulated-gastric-conditions
#9
Snehal Joshi, Amy B Howell, Doris H D'Souza
Blueberry proanthocyanidins (B-PAC) are known to decrease titers of human norovirus surrogates in vitro. The application of B-PAC as therapeutic or preventive options against foodborne viral illness needs to be determined using model foods and simulated gastric conditions in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiviral effect of B-PAC in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% reduced fat milk) and simulated gastrointestinal fluids against cultivable human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus; FCV-F9 and murine norovirus; MNV-1) over 24 h at 37 °C...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040177/regulation-of-the-synthesis-of-pulp-degrading-enzymes-in-bacillus-isolated-from-cocoa-fermentation
#10
Honoré G Ouattara, Sylvie Reverchon, Sébastien L Niamke, William Nasser
Pectin degrading enzymes are essential for quality of product from cocoa fermentation. Previously, we studied purified pectate lyases (Pel) produced by Bacillus strains from fermenting cocoa and characterized the cloned pel genes. This study aims to search for biological signals that modulates Pel production and regulators that influence pel gene expression. Strains were grown to the end of exponential phase in media containing various carbon sources. Pel enzymes production in Bacillus was unaffected by simple sugar content variation up to 2%...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040176/rapid-and-sensitive-method-to-assess-human-viral-pollution-in-shellfish-using-infectious-f-specific-rna-bacteriophages-application-to-marketed-products
#11
Cédric Hartard, Sandrine Banas, Romain Rivet, Nicolas Boudaud, Christophe Gantzer
F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPH) have been used as indicators of environmental fecal pollution for many years. While FRNAPH subgroup I (FRNAPH-I) are not host specific, some FRNAPH-II and -III strains appear specific to human pollution. Because a close relationship has been observed between FRNAPH-II genome and human norovirus (NoV) in shellfish, and because FRNAPH infectivity can easily be investigated unlike that of NoV, the detection of human infectious FRNAPH could therefore provide a valuable tool for assessing viral risk...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040175/impact-of-nacl-reduction-on-lactic-acid-bacteria-during-fermentation-of-nocellara-del-belice-table-olives
#12
Paola Zinno, Barbara Guantario, Giuditta Perozzi, Gianni Pastore, Chiara Devirgiliis
Table olives are widely consumed worldwide but, due to the presence of NaCl in fermenting brines, they contain high levels of sodium. A promising strategy to lower sodium content is the reduction or substitution of NaCl in brines with other chlorides. However, these procedures may impact safety, spoilage, as well as quality and technological properties, including the evolution and final composition of the fermenting microbiota. In the present work the effects of partially replacing NaCl with KCl in fermenting brines on the microbiological quality of Nocellara del Belice olives produced by Spanish style (Sivigliano) or Castelvetrano methods have been analyzed...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040174/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-beef-slaughter-line-interventions-by-quantifying-the-six-major-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serogroups-using-real-time-multiplex-pcr
#13
Kaushi S T Kanankege, Kelly S Anklam, Catherine M Fick, Megan J Kulow, Charles W Kaspar, Barbara H Ingham, Andrew Milkowski, Dörte Döpfer
Six major Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups: O26, O103, O145, O111, O121, and O45 have been declared as adulterants in federally inspected raw beef in the USA effective June 4th, 2012 in addition to the routinely tested STEC O157: H7. This study tests a real-time multiplex PCR assay and pooling of the samples to optimize the detection and quantification (prevalence and contamination) of six major non-O157 STEC, regardless of possessing Shiga toxins. To demonstrate the practicality, one large-scale slaughter plant (Plant LS) and one small-scale slaughter plant (Plant SS) located in the Mid-Western USA were sampled, in 2011, before the establishment of 2013 USDA laboratory protocols...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040173/application-of-low-frequency-pulsed-ohmic-heating-for-inactivation-of-foodborne-pathogens-and-ms-2-phage-in-buffered-peptone-water-and-tomato-juice
#14
Sang-Soon Kim, Won Choi, Dong-Hyun Kang
The purpose of this study was to inactivate foodborne pathogens effectively by ohmic heating in buffered peptone water and tomato juice without causing electrode corrosion and quality degradation. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were used as representative foodborne pathogens and MS-2 phage was used as a norovirus surrogate. Buffered peptone water and tomato juice inoculated with pathogens were treated with pulsed ohmic heating at different frequencies (0.06-1 kHz)...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040172/reassessment-of-the-succession-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-in-commercial-cucumber-fermentations-and-physiological-and-genomic-features-associated-with-their-dominance
#15
I M Pérez-Díaz, J Hayes, E Medina, K Anekella, K Daughtry, S Dieck, M Levi, R Price, N Butz, Z Lu, M A Azcarate-Peril
A compositional re-assessment of the microbiota present in commercial cucumber fermentation using culture independent and dependent methods was conducted, with emphasis on lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Two commercial cucumber fermentation tanks were monitored by measuring pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature, and used as sources of samples for microbial plating, genomic DNA extraction and measurement of organic acids and carbohydrates by HPLC. Six additional commercial tanks were included to identify the dominant microorganisms using molecular methods...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040171/comparison-of-pcr-assays-targeting-the-multi-copy-targets-b1-gene-and-529%C3%A2-bp-repetitive-element-for-detection-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-swine-muscle
#16
Fabrizia Veronesi, Azzurra Santoro, Giovanni Luigi Milardi, Manuela Diaferia, Raffaella Branciari, Dino Miraglia, Attilia Cioffi, Simona Gabrielli, David Ranucci
The comparison of the sensitivities of two molecular assays designed to target the multi-copy sequences of the Toxoplasma gondii genomic B1 region and 529 bp-RE respectively, in detecting T. gondii in swine muscle was assessed. Diaphragm pillars were obtained from 498 slaughtered pigs managed in intensive farms in Central Italy. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tissues and T. gondii-B1 and 529 bp-RE sequences were amplified by specific PCR protocols. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 165 samples (33...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040170/hanseniaspora-uvarum-prolongs-shelf-life-of-strawberry-via-volatile-production
#17
Xiaojie Qin, Hongmei Xiao, Xu Cheng, Hailian Zhou, Linyuan Si
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea led to severe postharvest losses for strawberry industry. In recent years, some studies have shown that postharvest diseases of strawberry can be controlled by using bacterial, fungal and yeast strains. The yeast strain Hanseniaspora uvarum was shown as an effective antagonist against B. cinerea growth. Here, we further investigated the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production of H. uvarum and how this could impact on postharvest gray mold control of strawberry. A total of 28 VOCs were detected by GC-MS in the headspace of H...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040169/high-pressure-inactivation-of-brettanomyces-bruxellensis-in-red-wine
#18
Sanelle van Wyk, Filipa V M Silva
Brettanomyces bruxellensis ("Brett") is a major spoilage concern for the wine industry worldwide, leading to undesirable sensory properties. Sulphur dioxide, is currently the preferred method for wine preservation. However, due to its negative effects on consumers, the use of new alternative non-thermal technologies are increasingly being investigated. The aim of this study was to determine and model the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) conditions and yeast strain on the inactivation of "Brett" in Cabernet Sauvignon wine...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040168/performance-evaluation-of-volatile-organic-compounds-by-antagonistic-yeasts-immobilized-on-hydrogel-spheres-against-gray-green-and-blue-postharvest-decays
#19
Lucia Parafati, Alessandro Vitale, Cristina Restuccia, Gabriella Cirvilleri
Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Aureobasidium pullulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts were tested for their ability to survive and synthesize antifungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both in vitro and in vivo conditions when immobilized on commercial hydrogel spheres. The results showed a good survival of all yeasts on hydrogel spheres up to 10 days of incubation. Moreover, VOCs produced in vitro by tested yeasts inhibited Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum radial growth and conidial germination, with the highest antagonistic activity reported for W...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040167/genetic-diversity-safety-and-technological-characterization-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-artisanal-pico-cheese
#20
M F P Domingos-Lopes, C Stanton, P R Ross, M L E Dapkevicius, C C G Silva
A total of 114 lactic acid bacteria were isolated at one and 21 days of ripening from a traditional raw cow's milk cheese without the addition of starter culture, produced by three artisanal cheese-makers in Azores Island (Pico, Portugal). Identification to species and strain level was accomplished by16S rRNA gene and PFGE analysis. Carbohydrate utilization profiles were obtained with the relevant API kits. Isolates were evaluated according to safety and technological criteria. The most frequently observed genus identified by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis was Enterococcus, whereas API system mostly identified Lactobacillus...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
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