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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276097/abomasal-and-third-compartment-ulcers-in-ruminants-and-south-american-camelids
#1
REVIEW
Alexandra Hund, Thomas Wittek
Abomasal ulcers are frequent incidental findings in necropsies of domestic ruminants and South American Camelids (SAC) or in slaughter animals and are a frequent cause of death in the most affected group of cattle, veal calves. Their true prevalence and significance is unknown owing to limitations in diagnosing the condition in live animals. This article discusses types of ulcers, possible causes of ulceration, and the clinical consequences, symptoms, and differential diagnoses, as well as further diagnostics in cattle, small ruminants and SAC...
December 21, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275033/paratuberculosis-in-cattle
#2
REVIEW
Marie-Eve Fecteau
Paratuberculosis remains one of the most important diseases of cattle worldwide. In cattle, the disease is debilitating and is characterized by weight loss and chronic diarrhea in the later stages of infection. However, cattle in the subclinical stages of the disease often show decreased milk production and are at higher risk for development of other common production diseases. Infections with Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis are difficult to control because of long incubation periods, the absence of clinical signs until advanced stages of the disease, and the lack of completely reliable diagnostic methods in the preclinical stages of the disease...
December 20, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275032/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-infectious-enteritis-in-neonatal-and-juvenile-ruminants
#3
REVIEW
Meera C Heller, Munashe Chigerwe
Common causes of infectious enteritis in neonate and juvenile ruminants include viral, bacterial, and protozoal pathogens. The most common presenting sign in ruminants with infectious enteritis is diarrhea. Diagnosis of the cause of enteritis has important zoonotic and herd health implications. Severity of clinical signs with similar pathogens may differ between calves and small ruminants. Treatment of enteritis involves supportive care to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances, provision of nutritional support for neonates, prevention and treatment of endotoxemia or sepsis, and pathogen-specific treatments when relevant and available...
December 20, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249602/surgical-management-of-abomasal-and-small-intestinal-disease
#4
REVIEW
Sylvain Nichols, Gilles Fecteau
A bovine practitioner should master abdominal exploratory surgery (laparotomy). Several gastrointestinal (GI) problems require surgical correction to save the animal's life and to keep it in production. This article reviews the surgical preparation, procedures, and the postoperative care of several conditions affecting the GI tract of cattle.
December 14, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249601/coccidiosis-in-large-and-small-ruminants
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Tammy Nicole Keeton, Christine B Navarre
Coccidiosis is an important parasitic disease of young ruminant livestock caused by the protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria. Infection with Eimeria can lead to subclinical production losses and clinical disease. The most common clinical sign is diarrhea. Control of coccidiosis in cattle, sheep, and goats is based on sound management, the use of preventive medications, and treatment of clinical cases as necessary.
December 14, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248200/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-infectious-enteritis-in-adult-ruminants
#6
REVIEW
Munashe Chigerwe, Meera C Heller
Infectious enteritis in adult ruminants is often a result of 1 or more viral, bacterial, or parasitic pathogens. Diagnosis of etiologic agents causing enteritis is important when considering herd implications and zoonotic potential of some etiologies. Differential diagnoses for enteritis in adult ruminants is not simple based on clinical signs alone. Diagnostic samples include feces, blood, and antemortem and postmortem tissues. Treatment of infectious enteritis is aimed at correcting dehydration and electrolyte imbalances secondary to diarrhea...
December 13, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233583/diagnostic-approach-to-the-acute-abdomen
#7
REVIEW
Gilles Fecteau, André Desrochers, David Francoz, Sylvain Nichols
The acute abdomen is a term used to characterize an animal presented as an emergency, in a more or less severe critical state, and for which medical and possibly surgical treatment will be necessary. To succeed, the clinician should use a systematic approach, have an excellent knowledge of the bovine abdominal anatomy, and have a good understanding of the pathophysiology of abdominal pain. Good clinical judgment, critical analysis, and good client communication skills are also essential. This article presents and discusses those necessary skills in the context of field practice...
December 9, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224803/salmonella-in-dairy-cattle
#8
REVIEW
Chelsea L Holschbach, Simon F Peek
As an infectious, contagious pathogen, Salmonella is probably rivaled by only bovine viral diarrhea virus in its ability to cause clinical disease, such as enteritis, septicemia, pneumonia, and reproductive losses. The increasing prevalence of Salmonella, particularly Salmonella Dublin, on dairies presents new challenges to producers and veterinarians. No current discussion of bovine salmonellosis is complete without acknowledging the increasing public health concern. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among enteric pathogens brings the use of antimicrobials by veterinarians and producers under ever stricter scrutiny...
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224802/digestive-disorders-of-the-abomasum-and-intestines
#9
EDITORIAL
Robert J Callan, Meredyth L Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203192/herd-level-monitoring-and-prevention-of-displaced-abomasum-in-dairy-cattle
#10
REVIEW
Luciano S Caixeta, Julia A Herman, Greg W Johnson, Jessica A A McArt
Displaced abomasum (DA) is a postpartum disease that causes significant economic losses in the dairy industry. Abomasal atony and excessive production of gas have been reported as prerequisites for the development of DA. The exact cause of DA is unknown, yet infectious and metabolic disease, diet composition and physical form, cow comfort, and management of dairy cows during the transition period have been associated with the occurrence of this disorder. This review article discusses different factors that lead to the development of DA and strategies for monitoring DA and its comorbidities at the herd level...
December 1, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847418/disorders-of-rumen-distension-and-dysmotility
#11
REVIEW
Derek Foster
Rumen distension and hypomotility are common clinical findings in ruminants. A thorough physical examination to assess the rumen shape and consistency of rumen contents are critical to determining the underlying pathology. Most cases can be classified into 1 of the 4 types of vagal indigestion. Type 1 is characterized by gas distension of the rumen dorsally on the left side. Types 2, 3, and 4 will often appear similar on physical examination with fluid distension of the rumen on the left and ventrally on the right...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847417/diagnosis-and-management-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-in-dairy-herds
#12
REVIEW
Garrett R Oetzel
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a common problem in lactating dairy cows that causes chronic health problems, impairs feed efficiency, and increases the environmental impact of milk production. Low ruminal pH appears to be the main instigator of the pathophysiology of SARA, although other metabolites produced in the rumen may be involved. Inflammatory responses to SARA are variable but important determinants of a cow's response to SARA. SARA can be diagnosed at the herd level by integrating information about clinical signs and on-farm measures of ruminal pH...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823879/diagnosis-and-management-of-rumen-acidosis-and-bloat-in-feedlots
#13
REVIEW
Nathan F Meyer, Tony C Bryant
Ruminal acidosis and ruminal bloat represent the most common digestive disorders in feedlot cattle. Ruminants are uniquely adapted to digest and metabolize a large range of feedstuffs. Although cattle have the ability to handle various feedstuffs, disorders associated with altered ruminal fermentation can occur. Proper ruminal microorganism adaptation and a consistent substrate (ration) help prevent digestive disorders. Feed bunk management, sufficient ration fiber, consistent feed milling, and appropriate response to abnormal weather are additional factors important in prevention of digestive disorders...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823878/diagnostic-approach-to-forestomach-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Dusty W Nagy
Primary diseases of the forestomach are caused by disruptions in the ruminal wall and contraction cycle or by a disruption in the normal flora and fermentation processes. Secondary disease of the reticulorumen is caused by abnormalities in rumen contraction and/or fermentation secondary to other systemic illnesses. Rumen function is complex, and the contraction cycle and fermentation are inter-related, which allows for overlapping results in diagnostic tests. Physical examination, combined with diagnostic tests such as rumen fluid analysis, radiography, and ultrasonography, can be used to categorize and diagnose ruminant forestomach disease...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807475/temporary-rumenostomy-for-the-treatment-of-forestomach-diseases-and-enteral-nutrition
#15
REVIEW
Robert J Callan, Tanya J Applegate
Temporary rumenostomy is a useful procedure for the treatment, management, and support of patients with forestomach disease of various types. The rumenostomy provides a mechanism for relief of chronic rumen tympany or distention, removal of rumen contents and lavage of the rumen, removal of some rumen foreign bodies, administration of rumen fluid transfaunation, and administration of enteral nutrition or other medications. When the rumenostomy is no longer necessary, it can be allowed to close by second intention or by surgical resection...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807474/rumen-function-and-development
#16
REVIEW
Ransom L Baldwin, Erin E Connor
The ruminal epithelium is a complex tissue that serves as an important protective barrier as well as a metabolically important tissue for whole-animal energy metabolism. Up to 70% of the energetic needs of mature animals are absorbed as short-chain fatty acids through the stratified squamous epithelium, and it serves as the primary producer of ketones in fed animals. Both physical and metabolic development are incomplete at birth and are triggered by short-chain fatty acids. Regulatory control of the proliferation and differentiation necessary for normal development is a useful model for the scientific investigation of nutrient-gene interactions...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764865/rumen-microbiome-probiotics-and-fermentation-additives
#17
REVIEW
Joshua C McCann, Ahmed A Elolimy, Juan J Loor
Fermentation of a variety of feedstuffs by the ruminal microbiome is the distinctive feature of the ruminant digestive tract. The host derives energy and nutrients from microbiome activity; these organisms are essential to survival. Advances in DNA sequencing and bioinformatics have redefined the rumen microbial community. Current research seeks to connect our understanding of the rumen microbiome with nutritional strategies in ruminant livestock systems and their associated digestive disorders. These efforts align with a growing number of products designed to improve ruminal fermentation to benefit the overall efficiency of ruminant livestock production and health...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743473/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hardware-disease
#18
REVIEW
Matt D Miesner, Emily J Reppert
Eating habits in cattle are less discriminant than other ruminants, and they more often accidentally ingest strange objects while feeding. Penetrating foreign bodies may cause mild to severe peritonitis, penetrate the diaphragm to cause pleuritis or pericarditis, or cause localized abscesses in the thorax or abdomen. Because these objects are most often metal, a common term for this problem is hardware disease. An accurate history and thorough physical examination often yields a diagnosis; however, ancillary diagnostics can enhance accuracy and disease magnitude before exploratory surgery...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743472/digestive-disorders-of-the-ruminant-forestomach
#19
EDITORIAL
Robert J Callan, Meredyth L Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743471/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-clinical-rumen-acidosis
#20
REVIEW
Emily Snyder, Brent Credille
Clinical rumen acidosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both large and small ruminants. Feeding and management practices that lead to the consumption of large amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates precipitate clinical disease. The fermentation of carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids and lactate causes acidosis (local and systemic), rumen ulceration, cardiovascular compromise, and organ dysfunction. Animals affected with acidosis can suffer from numerous sequelae. Treatment of animals with clinical rumen acidosis is focused on addressing plasma volume deficits, correcting acid-base disturbances, and restoring a normal rumen microenvironment...
November 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
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