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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956342/cerebral-disorders-of-the-adult-ruminant
#1
REVIEW
John R Middleton
Although clinical impression suggests that cerebral disorders of adult ruminants are not very common, an understanding of the common differential diagnoses is important to maintaining animal and human health. The most common causes of cerebral dysfunction are metabolic, toxic, or infectious. Many of the diseases and disorders cannot be easily differentiated based on clinical signs or antemortem diagnostic tests alone. Knowing which diseases can be easily ruled in or out and how, will help the practitioner make case management decisions and have broader impact through recognizing index cases of emergent diseases and reducing exposure to zoonotic pathogens...
December 9, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956341/brainstem-and-cranial-nerve-disorders-of-ruminants
#2
REVIEW
Mélanie J Boileau, John Gilliam
Asymmetrical signs of brainstem disease occur relatively infrequently in ruminants. The most common differential diagnoses include listeriosis, otitis media/interna, and pituitary abscess syndrome. Although these conditions produce signs of brainstem dysfunction, the diseases can usually be differentiated based on historical findings and subtle clinical differences. Basic laboratory diagnostic tests are often not specific in the definitive diagnosis but may be supportive. Advanced imaging techniques have proven to be useful in the diagnosis of otitis media/interna...
December 9, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939221/cerebral-disorders-of-calves
#3
REVIEW
Vincent Dore, Geof Smith
Neurologic diseases of the cerebrum are relatively common in cattle. In calves, the primary cerebral disorders are polioencephalomalacia, meningitis, and sodium toxicity. Because diagnostic testing is not always readily available, the practitioner must often decide on a course of treatment based on knowledge of the likely disease, as well as his or her own clinical experience. This is particularly true with neurologic diseases in which the prognosis is often poor and euthanasia may be the most humane outcome...
December 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939220/a-practitioners-guide-to-diseases-and-conditions-leading-to-neurologic-dysfunction-in-the-ruminant
#4
EDITORIAL
Kevin Eugene Washburn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914745/localization-of-neurologic-lesions-in-ruminants
#5
REVIEW
Kevin E Washburn
As stated many times throughout this issue, localization of the origin of neurologic deficits in ruminants is paramount to successful diagnosis and prognosis. This article serves as a guide to answer 2 questions that should be asked when presented with a ruminant with neurologic dysfunction: Is the lesion rostral or caudal to the foramen magnum? and Does the animal have primary neurologic disease? The answers to these 2 broad questions begin the thought processes to more specifically describe the location and nature of the dysfunction...
November 30, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719770/ruminant-surgery
#6
EDITORIAL
Andrew J Niehaus, David E Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719769/surgical-management-of-the-teat-and-the-udder
#7
REVIEW
Pierre-Yves Mulon
Lacerations of the teat should be treated as emergency. First-intention repair should be attempted under sedation in lateral or dorsal recumbency. Surgeons should pay attention to the atraumatic manipulation of the tissue and the anatomic reconstruction using small-diameter absorbable suture material. Hand milking should be prohibited for 10 days postoperatively after laceration repair; prognosis is overall good. Ultrasound evaluation of the teat allows excellent understanding of the internal lesions and should be performed before planning any elective surgery...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719768/surgery-of-the-distal-limb
#8
REVIEW
Karl Nuss
Diseases of the bovine digit remain the major cause of painful lameness in cattle and commonly constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Prompt surgical wound revision is critical in acute injuries. Deep infections may be treated with debridement, resection of tendons, synovioscopy, joint lavage, arthrotomy and facilitated joint ankylosis. Postoperative care is more involved, lameness persists longer, and cost of treatment is higher after salvage techniques than after amputation of the digit...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719767/surgical-procedures-of-the-genital-organs-of-cows
#9
REVIEW
Tulio M Prado, Jim Schumacher, Lionel J Dawson
Reproductive surgical techniques are considered by practitioners/clinicians of theriogenology to be the most beneficial reproductive management that can be performed to treat conditions of cows that may affect fertility. Conditions affecting the reproductive tract can cause pathologic changes that may result in substantial economic and genetic losses to beef and dairy producers. Some injuries and diseases are amenable to surgical treatment. Surgical restoration of fertility preserves genetic potential and economic productivity...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719766/surgical-procedures-of-the-genital-organs-of-bulls
#10
REVIEW
Tulio M Prado, Lionel J Dawson, Jim Schumacher
Reproductive surgical techniques are considered by practitioners of theriogenology to be the best method to manage infertility-causing conditions or diseases of the bull. Injury or diseases of the reproductive tract may cause abnormalities that may result in substantial losses to the producers of beef and dairy cattle. The most cost-effective method of dealing with reproductive conditions or diseases of the bull is culling and replacement. Some injuries, diseases, or conditions are amenable to surgical management...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719765/urolithiasis
#11
REVIEW
Ricardo Videla, Sarel van Amstel
Urolithiasis is the most common urinary problem in male ruminants, and one of the most common emergencies in male goats and sheep. This disease has substantial welfare implications because it causes severe pain and it has a high fatality rate. The expense associated with veterinary care and loss of affected animals has a strong economic impact on pet owners and farmers.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719764/surgery-of-the-forestomach
#12
REVIEW
Joseph W Lozier, Andrew J Niehaus
Indications for rumen surgery include rumen tympany (bloat), toxic plant ingestion, to provide enteral nutrition, to perform elective cannula placement, and to access other forestomach compartments (reticulum/omasum). The rumen is a highly contaminated viscus and special care should be taken to avoid peritoneal contamination from rumen contents. Diseases causing forestomach dysfunction and surgical procedures on the forestomach compartments are discussed here.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719763/surgery-of-the-sinuses-and-eyes
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer A Schleining
Conditions of the head requiring surgery in cattle are not uncommon when considering the incidence of conditions such as ocular squamous cell carcinoma and requests for surgical dehorning. Surgery involving the eyes in cattle is relatively common, whereas surgery of the paranasal sinuses is less common. Generally speaking, however, surgery for conditions of the head tend to have a more favorable prognosis when there is early intervention.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719762/local-regional-and-spinal-anesthesia-in-ruminants
#14
REVIEW
Misty A Edmondson
Local, regional, and spinal anesthesias are safe, effective, often more desirable procedures for ruminants than general anesthesia. Many procedures can be performed safely and humanely in ruminants using a combination of physical restraint, mild sedation, and local, regional, or spinal anesthesia. This article focuses on the use of local anesthetics for providing anesthesia for dehorning, procedures of the nose and eye, laparotomy, reproductive procedures, teat repair, and procedures on the distal limb. Local, regional, and spinal anesthesia techniques are safe effective methods for providing anesthesia for common surgical procedures and analgesia for painful conditions in cattle and small ruminants...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618571/surgical-management-of-septic-arthritis
#15
REVIEW
Pierre-Yves Mulon, André Desrochers, David Francoz
Lameness related to synovial infection needs to be addressed promptly because rapid degradation of the synovial homeostasis results in permanent cartilage alterations detrimental to complete recovery. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, synovial fluid analysis, and imaging. Commonly affected joints are the fetlock, carpus, tarsus, and stifle; shoulder, elbow, and hip may also be infected. Knowing the source of infection is essential in cases of remote septic arthritis. Antimicrobials should be administered; local delivery systems may be used...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614777/intestinal-surgery
#16
REVIEW
André Desrochers, David E Anderson
A wide variety of disorders affecting the intestinal tract in cattle may require surgery. Among those disorders the more common are: intestinal volvulus, jejunal hemorrhage syndrome and more recently the duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus. Although general principles of intestinal surgery can be applied, cattle has anatomical and behavior particularities that must be known before invading the abdomen. This article focuses on surgical techniques used to optimize outcomes and discusses specific disorders of small intestine...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614776/field-sedation-and-anesthesia-of-ruminants
#17
REVIEW
Reza Seddighi, Thomas J Doherty
Many surgical procedures on ruminants can be performed humanely and safely using local or regional anesthesia and physical restraint, but sedation and general anesthesia are necessary in order to perform some procedures. Although anesthesia-associated risks are greater in ruminants than monogastrics, ruminants can be anesthetized relatively safely in a field setting if the risks are understood, and adequate planning and precautions are in place. This article discusses the important features impacting sedation and anesthesia of cattle and small ruminants, and describes some commonly used drug protocols...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614775/surgical-management-of-abomasal-disease
#18
REVIEW
Andrew J Niehaus
Abomasal diseases are common in cattle. Many of these diseases can be managed surgically. This article briefly discusses the various surgical diseases affecting the abomasum. The pathogenesis, surgical procedures, and prognosis are reviewed. Abomasal displacements in cattle are a focus, because surgical correction of these conditions represents the bulk of abomasal surgeries in ruminants. Surgical principles of conventional surgery as well as minimally invasive techniques for correction of abomasal displacements are discussed...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614774/surgical-management-of-fractures-and-tendons
#19
REVIEW
Rebecca Pentecost, Andrew J Niehaus, David E Anderson
Long bone fractures and disorders of tendons and ligaments represent a significant proportion of surgical orthopedic cases presented to ruminant veterinarians. The presentation of these patients, their diagnostic work-up, surgical treatment, and expected outcome will be discussed. The outcome of these cases depends largely on the presenting problem; however, accurate diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention can greatly improve the outcome of many of these cases.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614773/surgery-of-the-umbilicus-and-related-structures
#20
REVIEW
Aubrey N Baird
Ruminants of all types requiring umbilical surgery can be affected by a number of different conditions. However, the practitioner should be able to correct any of these conditions surgically, especially in young animals, as a field procedure if appropriate restraint and environment are available. Like other aspects of veterinary practice, the individual must decide what services he or she wishes to offer clients in their practice and which ones will be referred. The objective of this article is to equip veterinarians who wish to treat umbilical masses surgically with the information they need...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
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