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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457599/corkscrew-claw
#1
REVIEW
Sarel R van Amstel
Corkscrew claw (CSC) is a conformational abnormality of the digit and affecting mostly but not exclusively the claws of the back leg, first reported during the 1950s in Dutch black and white cattle. The affected claws are longer and narrower than the claw and have an inward and upward spiral rotation of the toe. Similarly, the bearing surface of the wall is displaced inward. The animal starts to bear weight on the abaxial wall surface, particularly the caudal segment, and the sole may become completely non-weight bearing...
April 27, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442154/pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-sole-ulcers-and-white-line-disease
#2
REVIEW
Jan K Shearer, Sarel R van Amstel
Sole ulcers and white line disease are 2 of the most common claw horn lesions in confined dairy cattle. Predisposing causes include unbalanced weight bearing, and metabolic, enzymatic, and hormonal changes. The white line serves as the junction between the sole and axial and abaxial wall. It is vulnerable to trauma and separation, permitting organic matter to become entrapped. Colonization contributes to retrograde movement of the infection to the solar and perioplic corium, where an abscess forms resulting in pain and lameness...
April 22, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434607/a-review-of-the-design-and-management-of-footbaths-for-dairy-cattle
#3
REVIEW
Nigel B Cook
This article summarizes current footbath practices, questions the mechanism by which footbaths function, and reviews the available scientific literature testing footbaths in the field. Copper sulfate appears the most efficacious agent to include in a footbath program, but disposal concerns should limit the frequency of its use. Other agents such as formaldehyde have some merit when used with care. Use of water alone in a flush bath appears to have minimal impact. Footbaths should be used as infrequently as possible to achieve lameness prevention goals for the herd...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392188/the-impact-of-lameness-on-welfare-of-the-dairy-cow
#4
REVIEW
Helen Rebecca Whay, Jan K Shearer
The five freedoms offer a framework for discussion of lameness and its impact on the welfare of cows. Altered feeding behavior is a cause of reduced body condition, smaller digital cushion, and lameness. Providing a comfortable environment is critical to recovery and welfare. Pain associated with injury or disease of feet or legs is manifested by lameness. Pain management is an important part of therapy. In cases of severe lameness, euthanasia may be preferred. Lameness interferes with an animal's ability to exhibit natural behaviors by altering lying time, social interaction, ovarian activity and estrus intensity, and rumination behavior...
April 6, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377041/the-relationship-of-cow-comfort-and-flooring-to-lameness-disorders-in-dairy-cattle
#5
REVIEW
Marcia I Endres
Cow comfort and flooring contribute to lameness incidence in dairy herds. The trigger factors for lameness can all be exacerbated by poor cow comfort. Reduced cow comfort influences lameness incidence by increasing the risk for development of new cases and the time it takes for a cow to recover. Reduction in resting time will increase the cow's exposure to hard flooring surfaces. Many factors are associated with lameness prevalence. Housing and management factors should be optimized to reduce lameness incidence on dairy farms...
April 1, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166937/diagnostics-and-ancillary-tests-of-neurologic-dysfunction-in-the-ruminant
#6
REVIEW
Dusty W Nagy
A variety of diagnostic tests can be used to help further characterize and diagnose neurologic disease in ruminant species. Cerebrospinal fluid is easily collected, and analysis can help in defining the broad category of disease. Diagnostic imaging, including radiography, myelography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and MRI, have all been used to varying degrees in ruminants. Advanced cross-sectional imaging techniques have the capacity to aid greatly in diagnosis, but their cost can often be prohibitive...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166936/cerebellar-disease-of-ruminants
#7
REVIEW
Philippa Gibbons
Cerebellar disease can be congenital or acquired. Clinical signs of cerebellar disease include hypermetric gait in all limbs, normal to increased muscle tone, wide-based stance, swaying, intention tremor, and convulsions. Vestibular signs may be observed. Differential diagnoses for etiology include congenital (hypoplasia, abiotrophy, and lysosomal storage diseases), viral, bacterial, and toxic plants. Animals may present aborted as fetuses or stillborn, be affected at birth, develop disease at a few months old, or acquire the disease later in life...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166935/toxicoses-of-the-ruminant-nervous-system
#8
REVIEW
Gene A Niles
This article discusses the etiology, mechanism of action, clinical signs, and diagnostic tests used to identify toxic agents that affect the nervous system of ruminants. The article is not intended to be an exhaustive review of each agent, but a reference for establishing a differential diagnosis when toxic agents are suspected as the cause of central nervous system disease in ruminants. The initial focus of the article is on agents that cause brain lesions consistent with polioencephalomalacia. Other neurotoxic disease agents include bovine bonkers, urea, organophosphate, organochlorine, cyanobacteria, zinc, aluminum, phosphide, metaldehyde, strychnine, botulism, tetanus, clostridium perfringens, and poisonous plants...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166934/spinal-cord-and-peripheral-nerve-abnormalities-of-the-ruminant
#9
REVIEW
Amanda K Hartnack
In food animals, spinal cord damage is most commonly associated with infection or trauma. Antemortem diagnosis is based on clinical signs, history, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and imaging. As clinical signs are often severe, and prognosis is grave, necropsy may provide a postmortem diagnosis. Peripheral nerve abnormalities are most often the result of trauma. Calving paralysis or paresis is the most common condition affecting the sciatic or obturator nerve and often concurrently involves the peroneal branch of the sciatic...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166933/neurologic-examination-of-the-ruminant
#10
REVIEW
Gilles Fecteau, Joane Parent, Lisle W George
In this article, the neurologic examination of ruminants is reviewed. The proposed approach is simple, although thorough and methodical. The bovine veterinary practitioner should be able to efficiently assess the nervous system to rule out a primary neurologic disorder. Simple observations and procedures are suggested to allow evaluation of the nervous system. The appropriate method and interpretation are reviewed as well as the danger of misinterpretation.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956342/cerebral-disorders-of-the-adult-ruminant
#11
REVIEW
John R Middleton
Although clinical impression suggests that cerebral disorders of adult ruminants are not very common, an understanding of the common differential diagnoses is important to maintaining animal and human health. The most common causes of cerebral dysfunction are metabolic, toxic, or infectious. Many of the diseases and disorders cannot be easily differentiated based on clinical signs or antemortem diagnostic tests alone. Knowing which diseases can be easily ruled in or out, and how, will help the practitioner make case management decisions and have broader impact through recognizing index cases of emergent diseases and reducing exposure to zoonotic pathogens...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956341/brainstem-and-cranial-nerve-disorders-of-ruminants
#12
REVIEW
Mélanie J Boileau, John Gilliam
Asymmetrical signs of brainstem disease occur relatively infrequently in ruminants. The most common differential diagnoses include listeriosis, otitis media/interna, and pituitary abscess syndrome. Although these conditions produce signs of brainstem dysfunction, the diseases can usually be differentiated based on historical findings and subtle clinical differences. Basic laboratory diagnostic tests are often not specific in the definitive diagnosis but may be supportive. Advanced imaging techniques have proven to be useful in the diagnosis of otitis media/interna...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939221/cerebral-disorders-of-calves
#13
REVIEW
Vincent Dore, Geof Smith
Neurologic diseases of the cerebrum are relatively common in cattle. In calves, the primary cerebral disorders are polioencephalomalacia, meningitis, and sodium toxicity. Because diagnostic testing is not always readily available, the practitioner must often decide on a course of treatment based on knowledge of the likely disease, as well as his or her own clinical experience. This is particularly true with neurologic diseases in which the prognosis is often poor and euthanasia may be the most humane outcome...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914745/localization-of-neurologic-lesions-in-ruminants
#14
REVIEW
Kevin E Washburn
As stated many times throughout this issue, localization of the origin of neurologic deficits in ruminants is paramount to successful diagnosis and prognosis. This article serves as a guide to answer 2 questions that should be asked when presented with a ruminant with neurologic dysfunction: is the lesion rostral or caudal to the foramen magnum, and does the animal have primary neurologic disease? The answers to these 2 broad questions begin the thought processes to more specifically describe the location and nature of the dysfunction...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939220/a-practitioners-guide-to-diseases-and-conditions-leading-to-neurologic-dysfunction-in-the-ruminant
#15
EDITORIAL
Kevin Eugene Washburn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719770/ruminant-surgery
#16
EDITORIAL
Andrew J Niehaus, David E Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719769/surgical-management-of-the-teat-and-the-udder
#17
REVIEW
Pierre-Yves Mulon
Lacerations of the teat should be treated as emergency. First-intention repair should be attempted under sedation in lateral or dorsal recumbency. Surgeons should pay attention to the atraumatic manipulation of the tissue and the anatomic reconstruction using small-diameter absorbable suture material. Hand milking should be prohibited for 10 days postoperatively after laceration repair; prognosis is overall good. Ultrasound evaluation of the teat allows excellent understanding of the internal lesions and should be performed before planning any elective surgery...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719768/surgery-of-the-distal-limb
#18
REVIEW
Karl Nuss
Diseases of the bovine digit remain the major cause of painful lameness in cattle and commonly constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Prompt surgical wound revision is critical in acute injuries. Deep infections may be treated with debridement, resection of tendons, synovioscopy, joint lavage, arthrotomy and facilitated joint ankylosis. Postoperative care is more involved, lameness persists longer, and cost of treatment is higher after salvage techniques than after amputation of the digit...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719767/surgical-procedures-of-the-genital-organs-of-cows
#19
REVIEW
Tulio M Prado, Jim Schumacher, Lionel J Dawson
Reproductive surgical techniques are considered by practitioners/clinicians of theriogenology to be the most beneficial reproductive management that can be performed to treat conditions of cows that may affect fertility. Conditions affecting the reproductive tract can cause pathologic changes that may result in substantial economic and genetic losses to beef and dairy producers. Some injuries and diseases are amenable to surgical treatment. Surgical restoration of fertility preserves genetic potential and economic productivity...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719766/surgical-procedures-of-the-genital-organs-of-bulls
#20
REVIEW
Tulio M Prado, Lionel J Dawson, Jim Schumacher
Reproductive surgical techniques are considered by practitioners of theriogenology to be the best method to manage infertility-causing conditions or diseases of the bull. Injury or diseases of the reproductive tract may cause abnormalities that may result in substantial losses to the producers of beef and dairy cattle. The most cost-effective method of dealing with reproductive conditions or diseases of the bull is culling and replacement. Some injuries, diseases, or conditions are amenable to surgical management...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
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