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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719770/ruminant-surgery
#1
EDITORIAL
Andrew J Niehaus, David E Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719769/surgical-management-of-the-teat-and-the-udder
#2
REVIEW
Pierre-Yves Mulon
Lacerations of the teat should be treated as emergency. First-intention repair should be attempted under sedation in lateral or dorsal recumbency. Surgeons should pay attention to the atraumatic manipulation of the tissue and the anatomic reconstruction using small-diameter absorbable suture material. Hand milking should be prohibited for 10 days postoperatively after laceration repair; prognosis is overall good. Ultrasound evaluation of the teat allows excellent understanding of the internal lesions and should be performed before planning any elective surgery...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719768/surgery-of-the-distal-limb
#3
REVIEW
Karl Nuss
Diseases of the bovine digit remain the major cause of painful lameness in cattle and commonly constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Prompt surgical wound revision is critical in acute injuries. Deep infections may be treated with debridement, resection of tendons, synovioscopy, joint lavage, arthrotomy and facilitated joint ankylosis. Postoperative care is more involved, lameness persists longer, and cost of treatment is higher after salvage techniques than after amputation of the digit...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719767/surgical-procedures-of-the-genital-organs-of-cows
#4
REVIEW
Tulio M Prado, Jim Schumacher, Lionel J Dawson
Reproductive surgical techniques are considered by practitioners/clinicians of theriogenology to be the most beneficial reproductive management that can be performed to treat conditions of cows that may affect fertility. Conditions affecting the reproductive tract can cause pathologic changes that may result in substantial economic and genetic losses to beef and dairy producers. Some injuries and diseases are amenable to surgical treatment. Surgical restoration of fertility preserves genetic potential and economic productivity...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719766/surgical-procedures-of-the-genital-organs-of-bulls
#5
REVIEW
Tulio M Prado, Lionel J Dawson, Jim Schumacher
Reproductive surgical techniques are considered by practitioners of theriogenology to be the best method to manage infertility-causing conditions or diseases of the bull. Injury or diseases of the reproductive tract may cause abnormalities that may result in substantial losses to the producers of beef and dairy cattle. The most cost-effective method of dealing with reproductive conditions or diseases of the bull is culling and replacement. Some injuries, diseases, or conditions are amenable to surgical management...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719765/urolithiasis
#6
Ricardo Videla, Sarel van Amstel
Urolithiasis is the most common urinary problem in male ruminants, and one of the most common emergencies in male goats and sheep. This disease has substantial welfare implications because it causes severe pain and it has a high fatality rate. The expense associated with veterinary care and loss of affected animals has a strong economic impact on pet owners and farmers.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719764/surgery-of-the-forestomach
#7
REVIEW
Joseph W Lozier, Andrew J Niehaus
Indications for rumen surgery include rumen tympany (bloat), toxic plant ingestion, to provide enteral nutrition, to perform elective cannula placement, and to access other forestomach compartments (reticulum/omasum). The rumen is a highly contaminated viscus and special care should be taken to avoid peritoneal contamination from rumen contents. Diseases causing forestomach dysfunction and surgical procedures on the forestomach compartments are discussed here.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719763/surgery-of-the-sinuses-and-eyes
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer A Schleining
Conditions of the head requiring surgery in cattle are not uncommon when considering the incidence of conditions such as ocular squamous cell carcinoma and requests for surgical dehorning. Surgery involving the eyes in cattle is relatively common, whereas surgery of the paranasal sinuses is less common. Generally speaking, however, surgery for conditions of the head tend to have a more favorable prognosis when there is early intervention.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719762/local-regional-and-spinal-anesthesia-in-ruminants
#9
REVIEW
Misty A Edmondson
Local, regional, and spinal anesthesias are safe, effective, often more desirable procedures for ruminants than general anesthesia. Many procedures can be performed safely and humanely in ruminants using a combination of physical restraint, mild sedation, and local, regional, or spinal anesthesia. This article focuses on the use of local anesthetics for providing anesthesia for dehorning, procedures of the nose and eye, laparotomy, reproductive procedures, teat repair, and procedures on the distal limb. Local, regional, and spinal anesthesia techniques are safe effective methods for providing anesthesia for common surgical procedures and analgesia for painful conditions in cattle and small ruminants...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618571/surgical-management-of-septic-arthritis
#10
REVIEW
Pierre-Yves Mulon, André Desrochers, David Francoz
Lameness related to synovial infection needs to be addressed promptly because rapid degradation of the synovial homeostasis results in permanent cartilage alterations detrimental to complete recovery. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, synovial fluid analysis, and imaging. Commonly affected joints are the fetlock, carpus, tarsus, and stifle; shoulder, elbow, and hip may also be infected. Knowing the source of infection is essential in cases of remote septic arthritis. Antimicrobials should be administered; local delivery systems may be used...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614777/intestinal-surgery
#11
REVIEW
André Desrochers, David E Anderson
A wide variety of disorders affecting the intestinal tract in cattle may require surgery. Among those disorders the more common are: intestinal volvulus, jejunal hemorrhage syndrome and more recently the duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus. Although general principles of intestinal surgery can be applied, cattle has anatomical and behavior particularities that must be known before invading the abdomen. This article focuses on surgical techniques used to optimize outcomes and discusses specific disorders of small intestine...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614776/field-sedation-and-anesthesia-of-ruminants
#12
REVIEW
Reza Seddighi, Thomas J Doherty
Many surgical procedures on ruminants can be performed humanely and safely using local or regional anesthesia and physical restraint, but sedation and general anesthesia are necessary in order to perform some procedures. Although anesthesia-associated risks are greater in ruminants than monogastrics, ruminants can be anesthetized relatively safely in a field setting if the risks are understood, and adequate planning and precautions are in place. This article discusses the important features impacting sedation and anesthesia of cattle and small ruminants, and describes some commonly used drug protocols...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614775/surgical-management-of-abomasal-disease
#13
REVIEW
Andrew J Niehaus
Abomasal diseases are common in cattle. Many of these diseases can be managed surgically. This article briefly discusses the various surgical diseases affecting the abomasum. The pathogenesis, surgical procedures, and prognosis are reviewed. Abomasal displacements in cattle are a focus, because surgical correction of these conditions represents the bulk of abomasal surgeries in ruminants. Surgical principles of conventional surgery as well as minimally invasive techniques for correction of abomasal displacements are discussed...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614774/surgical-management-of-fractures-and-tendons
#14
REVIEW
Rebecca Pentecost, Andrew J Niehaus, David E Anderson
Long bone fractures and disorders of tendons and ligaments represent a significant proportion of surgical orthopedic cases presented to ruminant veterinarians. The presentation of these patients, their diagnostic work-up, surgical treatment, and expected outcome will be discussed. The outcome of these cases depends largely on the presenting problem; however, accurate diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention can greatly improve the outcome of many of these cases.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614773/surgery-of-the-umbilicus-and-related-structures
#15
Aubrey N Baird
Ruminants of all types requiring umbilical surgery can be affected by a number of different conditions. However, the practitioner should be able to correct any of these conditions surgically, especially in young animals, as a field procedure if appropriate restraint and environment are available. Like other aspects of veterinary practice, the individual must decide what services he or she wishes to offer clients in their practice and which ones will be referred. The objective of this article is to equip veterinarians who wish to treat umbilical masses surgically with the information they need...
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614772/respiratory-surgery
#16
REVIEW
Sylvain Nichols
This article is a review of the most frequent disorders affecting the upper airway of cattle that are suitable for surgery. Information regarding the clinical signs, diagnostic methods, and the chemical restraint of cattle in respiratory distress are highlighted. Surgeries that can be performed in a field setting are thoroughly described.
November 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324453/management-and-prevention-of-dystocia
#17
REVIEW
Bethany J Funnell, W Mark Hilton
Dystocia is an inevitable challenge in the livestock industries, particularly with primiparous female animals. Prevention and appropriate management will decrease cow and calf morbidity and mortality, which will improve the economic status of the beef or dairy operation. Early identification and proper intervention improves outcomes, and the use of selection tools to decrease the potential for dystocia will have positive returns. Assisted reproductive technologies present a unique set of challenges to the calving process that both the producer and practitioner should be prepared to address...
July 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324452/yearling-bull-breeding-soundness-examination-special-considerations
#18
REVIEW
Nora Schrag, Robert L Larson
Accurate assessment of yearling bulls is important for the bottom line of all interested parties: the buyer, the seller, and the veterinarian performing the BSE. Special considerations and current research are highlighted and their application to the evaluation of yearling bulls is discussed.
July 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324451/management-of-reproductive-disease-in%C3%A2-dairy-cows
#19
REVIEW
Robert O Gilbert
Postpartum diseases are common in dairy cows, and their incidence contributes to reduced fertility and increased risk of culling, making their prevention and management extremely important. Reproductive efficiency has a major impact on economic success of any dairy production unit. Optimizing reproductive efficiency contributes to overall efficiency of production units, minimizing environmental impacts and contributing to sustainability of food production. Additionally, control of reproductive diseases is important for maintenance of health and welfare of dairy cows; for minimizing use of antibiotics; and ensuring a wholesome, safe, and nutritious product...
July 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324450/reproductive-systems-for-north-american-dairy-cattle-herds
#20
REVIEW
Ricardo C Chebel, Eduardo S Ribeiro
Reproductive inefficiency compromises the profitability of dairy herds and the health and longevity of individual cows. In the average dairy herd, the combination of estrus detection and ovulation synchronization protocols yields the best economic return. Genomic selection of animals is particularly profitable in situations in which little is known about their genetic potential. Biosensor systems in milking parlors may allow for the design of reproductive strategies tailored for cows according to their physiologic needs while optimizing economic return...
July 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
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