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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847418/disorders-of-rumen-distension-and-dysmotility
#1
REVIEW
Derek Foster
Rumen distension and hypomotility are common clinical findings in ruminants. A thorough physical examination to assess the rumen shape and consistency of rumen contents are critical to determining the underlying pathology. Most cases can be classified into 1 of the 4 types of vagal indigestion. Type 1 is characterized by gas distension of the rumen dorsally on the left side. Types 2, 3, and 4 will often appear similar on physical examination with fluid distension of the rumen on the left and ventrally on the right...
August 25, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847417/diagnosis-and-management-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-in-dairy-herds
#2
REVIEW
Garrett R Oetzel
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a common problem in lactating dairy cows that causes chronic health problems, impairs feed efficiency, and increases the environmental impact of milk production. Low ruminal pH appears to be the main instigator of the pathophysiology of SARA, although other metabolites produced in the rumen may be involved. Inflammatory responses to SARA are variable but important determinants of a cow's response to SARA. SARA can be diagnosed at the herd level by integrating information about clinical signs and on-farm measures of ruminal pH...
August 25, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823879/diagnosis-and-management-of-rumen-acidosis-and-bloat-in-feedlots
#3
REVIEW
Nathan F Meyer, Tony C Bryant
Ruminal acidosis and ruminal bloat represent the most common digestive disorders in feedlot cattle. Ruminants are uniquely adapted to digest and metabolize a large range of feedstuffs. Although cattle have the ability to handle various feedstuffs, disorders associated with altered ruminal fermentation can occur. Proper ruminal microorganism adaptation and a consistent substrate (ration) help prevent digestive disorders. Feed bunk management, sufficient ration fiber, consistent feed milling, and appropriate response to abnormal weather are additional factors important in prevention of digestive disorders...
August 17, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823878/diagnostic-approach-to-forestomach-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Dusty W Nagy
Primary diseases of the forestomach are caused by disruptions in the ruminal wall and contraction cycle or by a disruption in the normal flora and fermentation processes. Secondary disease of the reticulorumen is caused by abnormalities in rumen contraction and/or fermentation secondary to other systemic illnesses. Rumen function is complex, and the contraction cycle and fermentation are inter-related, which allows for overlapping results in diagnostic tests. Physical examination, combined with diagnostic tests such as rumen fluid analysis, radiography, and ultrasonography, can be used to categorize and diagnose ruminant forestomach disease...
August 17, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807475/temporary-rumenostomy-for-the-treatment-of-forestomach-diseases-and-enteral-nutrition
#5
REVIEW
Robert J Callan, Tanya J Applegate
Temporary rumenostomy is a useful procedure for the treatment, management, and support of patients with forestomach disease of various types. The rumenostomy provides a mechanism for relief of chronic rumen tympany or distention, removal of rumen contents and lavage of the rumen, removal of some rumen foreign bodies, administration of rumen fluid transfaunation, and administration of enteral nutrition or other medications. When the rumenostomy is no longer necessary, it can be allowed to close by second intention or by surgical resection...
August 11, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807474/rumen-function-and-development
#6
REVIEW
Ransom L Baldwin, Erin E Connor
The ruminal epithelium is a complex tissue that serves as an important protective barrier as well as a metabolically important tissue for whole-animal energy metabolism. Up to 70% of the energetic needs of mature animals are absorbed as short-chain fatty acids through the stratified squamous epithelium, and it serves as the primary producer of ketones in fed animals. Both physical and metabolic development are incomplete at birth and are triggered by short-chain fatty acids. Regulatory control of the proliferation and differentiation necessary for normal development is a useful model for the scientific investigation of nutrient-gene interactions...
August 11, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764865/rumen-microbiome-probiotics-and-fermentation-additives
#7
REVIEW
Joshua C McCann, Ahmed A Elolimy, Juan J Loor
Fermentation of a variety of feedstuffs by the ruminal microbiome is the distinctive feature of the ruminant digestive tract. The host derives energy and nutrients from microbiome activity; these organisms are essential to survival. Advances in DNA sequencing and bioinformatics have redefined the rumen microbial community. Current research seeks to connect our understanding of the rumen microbiome with nutritional strategies in ruminant livestock systems and their associated digestive disorders. These efforts align with a growing number of products designed to improve ruminal fermentation to benefit the overall efficiency of ruminant livestock production and health...
July 29, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743473/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hardware-disease
#8
REVIEW
Matt D Miesner, Emily J Reppert
Eating habits in cattle are less discriminant than other ruminants, and they more often accidentally ingest strange objects while feeding. Penetrating foreign bodies may cause mild to severe peritonitis, penetrate the diaphragm to cause pleuritis or pericarditis, or cause localized abscesses in the thorax or abdomen. Because these objects are most often metal, a common term for this problem is hardware disease. An accurate history and thorough physical examination often yields a diagnosis; however, ancillary diagnostics can enhance accuracy and disease magnitude before exploratory surgery...
July 22, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743472/digestive-disorders-of-the-ruminant-forestomach
#9
EDITORIAL
Robert J Callan, Meredyth L Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743471/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-clinical-rumen-acidosis
#10
REVIEW
Emily Snyder, Brent Credille
Clinical rumen acidosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both large and small ruminants. Feeding and management practices that lead to the consumption of large amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates precipitate clinical disease. The fermentation of carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids and lactate causes acidosis (local and systemic), rumen ulceration, cardiovascular compromise, and organ dysfunction. Animals affected with acidosis can suffer from numerous sequelae. Treatment of animals with clinical rumen acidosis is focused on addressing plasma volume deficits, correcting acid-base disturbances, and restoring a normal rumen microenvironment...
July 22, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579051/bovine-lameness
#11
EDITORIAL
J K Shearer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579050/an-update-on-the-assessment-and-management-of-pain-associated-with-lameness-in-cattle
#12
REVIEW
Johann F Coetzee, J K Shearer, Matthew L Stock, Michael D Kleinhenz, Sarel R van Amstel
Lameness affects the cattle industry via both economic losses and welfare considerations. In addition to production deficits, the pain and distress associated with lameness have been documented. Evaluation and prevalence of lame cattle are among the primary factors in third-party welfare audit programs. Mean lameness prevalence in herds has been reported to be as high as 36.8%, although a less than 10% prevalence of lame cattle was reported by some producers. Note that lameness is usually underreported by producers compared with independent observers, potentially because of a decreased sensitivity in detecting lame cattle...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579049/treatment-options-for-lameness-disorders-in-organic-dairies
#13
REVIEW
Pablo Pinedo, Juan Velez, Diego Manriquez, Hans Bothe
Animal welfare is an essential aspect of organic dairying. Consequently, adequate lameness control should be a central component of on-farm health monitoring programs. The combination of organic management practices, including grazing requirements that are combined with different types of housing, results in unique features determining the cows' feet and legs health condition. Because the use of therapeutic resources is limited, preventive management and early detection of lameness is critical in organic dairies...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579048/a-review-of-the-relationship-between-hoof-trimming-and-dairy-cattle-welfare
#14
REVIEW
Grant C Stoddard, Gerard Cramer
A narrative integrative review on the evidence for hoof trimming found 16 articles on efficacy, frequency, and associations with behavior and physiologic parameters. Review of these studies revealed (1) hoof trimming is associated with behavior and physiologic changes; (2) increasing the frequency of hoof trimming seems to decrease the incidence of hoof lesions; (3) there is limited research to support any particular technique; and (4) descriptions of the hoof trimming techniques used is inadequate in most articles...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579047/surgical-procedures-of-the-distal-limb-for-treatment-of-sepsis-in-cattle
#15
REVIEW
David E Anderson, André Desrochers, Sarel R van Amstel
With a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the foot, and basic surgical instruments, digit surgery can be performed in field situations. Sepsis of the distal interphalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints should be treated surgically because conservative treatment is often ineffective. Most of the diseases described in this article are chronic and often the animals have been suffering for some time. Perioperative analgesia is important to alleviate the pain of those animals. All those procedures should be performed under local or regional anesthesia...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579046/pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-toe-lesions-in-cattle-including-nonhealing-toe%C3%A2-lesions
#16
REVIEW
Johann Kofler
Toe lesions in cattle include apical white line disease, thin soles, toe ulcers, toe necrosis, digital dermatitis-associated toe ulcers/toe necrosis, and fracture of the claw capsule and the apex of the distal phalanx. For anatomic reasons, the early stages of toe abnormalities (thin sole, apical white line disease, toe ulcer) are at risk of developing into a bone infection. The prevalence of toe lesions differs in dairy herds and feedlots: it is low at the animal level in feedlots and dairies; however, the herd prevalence of toe lesions can reach 50% in dairy herds with endemic digital dermatitis infection...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579045/traumatic-lesions-of-the%C3%A2-sole
#17
REVIEW
J K Shearer, Sarel R van Amstel
Traumatic lesions of the sole are a common cause of lameness in beef and dairy cattle. This article provides a brief description of traumatically induced conditions with specific attention to underlying causes, treatment, and prevention. Lameness, traumatic lesions of the sole, sole punctures, thin soles, thin sole toe ulcers, toe tip necrosis syndrome, and toe abscesses are discussed.
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579044/diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-common-disorders-involving-the-proximal-limb
#18
REVIEW
André Desrochers
Claw diseases are the principal cause of lameness in cattle. They can be easily diagnosed by examining the feet while the animal is in the trimming chute. Lameness originating from the proximal limb is more challenging because it is less visible. The author describes a systematic approach to diagnose upper limb lameness. The most common causes of lameness are reviewed with special emphasis on physical examinations and appropriate diagnostic tools.
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579043/mobility-scoring-of-finished-cattle
#19
REVIEW
Lily N Edwards-Callaway, Michelle S Calvo-Lorenzo, John A Scanga, Temple Grandin
Lameness is among the most important welfare and production issues affecting dairy cattle. Recently, it has received significant research emphasis. Certain events in 2013 within the cattle industry heightened the focus on mobility issues in finished cattle. Scoring systems are needed in the finished cattle industry to capture and measure mobility issues at packing facilities. The North American Meat Institute Animal Welfare Committee helped facilitate the creation of a scoring system to evaluate mobility of cattle at packing plants, providing the cattle industry with a tool to benchmark and improve the welfare of finished cattle...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579042/pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-bovine-foot%C3%A2-rot
#20
REVIEW
David C Van Metre
Bovine foot rot (BFR) is an infectious disease of the interdigital skin and subcutaneous tissues of beef and dairy cattle that occurs under a variety of management and environmental settings. The anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, and Prevotella intermedia are commonly isolated from lesions. A multitude of host, agent, and environmental factors contribute to the development of BFR. Initiation of systemic antimicrobial therapy early in the course of disease commonly leads to resolution...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
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