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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457599/corkscrew-claw
#1
REVIEW
Sarel R van Amstel
Corkscrew claw (CSC) is a conformational abnormality of the digit and affecting mostly but not exclusively the claws of the back leg, first reported during the 1950s in Dutch black and white cattle. The affected claws are longer and narrower than the claw and have an inward and upward spiral rotation of the toe. Similarly, the bearing surface of the wall is displaced inward. The animal starts to bear weight on the abaxial wall surface, particularly the caudal segment, and the sole may become completely non-weight bearing...
April 27, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442154/pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-sole-ulcers-and-white-line-disease
#2
REVIEW
Jan K Shearer, Sarel R van Amstel
Sole ulcers and white line disease are 2 of the most common claw horn lesions in confined dairy cattle. Predisposing causes include unbalanced weight bearing, and metabolic, enzymatic, and hormonal changes. The white line serves as the junction between the sole and axial and abaxial wall. It is vulnerable to trauma and separation, permitting organic matter to become entrapped. Colonization contributes to retrograde movement of the infection to the solar and perioplic corium, where an abscess forms resulting in pain and lameness...
April 22, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434607/a-review-of-the-design-and-management-of-footbaths-for-dairy-cattle
#3
REVIEW
Nigel B Cook
This article summarizes current footbath practices, questions the mechanism by which footbaths function, and reviews the available scientific literature testing footbaths in the field. Copper sulfate appears the most efficacious agent to include in a footbath program, but disposal concerns should limit the frequency of its use. Other agents such as formaldehyde have some merit when used with care. Use of water alone in a flush bath appears to have minimal impact. Footbaths should be used as infrequently as possible to achieve lameness prevention goals for the herd...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392188/the-impact-of-lameness-on-welfare-of-the-dairy-cow
#4
REVIEW
Helen Rebecca Whay, Jan K Shearer
The five freedoms offer a framework for discussion of lameness and its impact on the welfare of cows. Altered feeding behavior is a cause of reduced body condition, smaller digital cushion, and lameness. Providing a comfortable environment is critical to recovery and welfare. Pain associated with injury or disease of feet or legs is manifested by lameness. Pain management is an important part of therapy. In cases of severe lameness, euthanasia may be preferred. Lameness interferes with an animal's ability to exhibit natural behaviors by altering lying time, social interaction, ovarian activity and estrus intensity, and rumination behavior...
April 6, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377041/the-relationship-of-cow-comfort-and-flooring-to-lameness-disorders-in-dairy-cattle
#5
REVIEW
Marcia I Endres
Cow comfort and flooring contribute to lameness incidence in dairy herds. The trigger factors for lameness can all be exacerbated by poor cow comfort. Reduced cow comfort influences lameness incidence by increasing the risk for development of new cases and the time it takes for a cow to recover. Reduction in resting time will increase the cow's exposure to hard flooring surfaces. Many factors are associated with lameness prevalence. Housing and management factors should be optimized to reduce lameness incidence on dairy farms...
April 1, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579051/bovine-lameness
#6
EDITORIAL
J K Shearer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579050/an-update-on-the-assessment-and-management-of-pain-associated-with-lameness-in-cattle
#7
REVIEW
Johann F Coetzee, J K Shearer, Matthew L Stock, Michael D Kleinhenz, Sarel R van Amstel
Lameness affects the cattle industry via both economic losses and welfare considerations. In addition to production deficits, the pain and distress associated with lameness have been documented. Evaluation and prevalence of lame cattle are among the primary factors in third-party welfare audit programs. Mean lameness prevalence in herds has been reported to be as high as 36.8%, although a less than 10% prevalence of lame cattle was reported by some producers. Note that lameness is usually underreported by producers compared with independent observers, potentially because of a decreased sensitivity in detecting lame cattle...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579049/treatment-options-for-lameness-disorders-in-organic-dairies
#8
REVIEW
Pablo Pinedo, Juan Velez, Diego Manriquez, Hans Bothe
Animal welfare is an essential aspect of organic dairying. Consequently, adequate lameness control should be a central component of on-farm health monitoring programs. The combination of organic management practices, including grazing requirements that are combined with different types of housing, results in unique features determining the cows' feet and legs health condition. Because the use of therapeutic resources is limited, preventive management and early detection of lameness is critical in organic dairies...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579048/a-review-of-the-relationship-between-hoof-trimming-and-dairy-cattle-welfare
#9
REVIEW
Grant C Stoddard, Gerard Cramer
A narrative integrative review on the evidence for hoof trimming found 16 articles on efficacy, frequency, and associations with behavior and physiologic parameters. Review of these studies revealed (1) hoof trimming is associated with behavior and physiologic changes; (2) increasing the frequency of hoof trimming seems to decrease the incidence of hoof lesions; (3) there is limited research to support any particular technique; and (4) descriptions of the hoof trimming techniques used is inadequate in most articles...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579047/surgical-procedures-of-the-distal-limb-for-treatment-of-sepsis-in-cattle
#10
REVIEW
David E Anderson, André Desrochers, Sarel R van Amstel
With a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the foot, and basic surgical instruments, digit surgery can be performed in field situations. Sepsis of the distal interphalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints should be treated surgically because conservative treatment is often ineffective. Most of the diseases described in this article are chronic and often the animals have been suffering for some time. Perioperative analgesia is important to alleviate the pain of those animals. All those procedures should be performed under local or regional anesthesia...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579046/pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-toe-lesions-in-cattle-including-nonhealing-toe%C3%A2-lesions
#11
REVIEW
Johann Kofler
Toe lesions in cattle include apical white line disease, thin soles, toe ulcers, toe necrosis, digital dermatitis-associated toe ulcers/toe necrosis, and fracture of the claw capsule and the apex of the distal phalanx. For anatomic reasons, the early stages of toe abnormalities (thin sole, apical white line disease, toe ulcer) are at risk of developing into a bone infection. The prevalence of toe lesions differs in dairy herds and feedlots: it is low at the animal level in feedlots and dairies; however, the herd prevalence of toe lesions can reach 50% in dairy herds with endemic digital dermatitis infection...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579045/traumatic-lesions-of-the%C3%A2-sole
#12
REVIEW
J K Shearer, Sarel R van Amstel
Traumatic lesions of the sole are a common cause of lameness in beef and dairy cattle. This article provides a brief description of traumatically induced conditions with specific attention to underlying causes, treatment, and prevention. Lameness, traumatic lesions of the sole, sole punctures, thin soles, thin sole toe ulcers, toe tip necrosis syndrome, and toe abscesses are discussed.
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579044/diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-common-disorders-involving-the-proximal-limb
#13
REVIEW
André Desrochers
Claw diseases are the principal cause of lameness in cattle. They can be easily diagnosed by examining the feet while the animal is in the trimming chute. Lameness originating from the proximal limb is more challenging because it is less visible. The author describes a systematic approach to diagnose upper limb lameness. The most common causes of lameness are reviewed with special emphasis on physical examinations and appropriate diagnostic tools.
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579043/mobility-scoring-of-finished-cattle
#14
REVIEW
Lily N Edwards-Callaway, Michelle S Calvo-Lorenzo, John A Scanga, Temple Grandin
Lameness is among the most important welfare and production issues affecting dairy cattle. Recently, it has received significant research emphasis. Certain events in 2013 within the cattle industry heightened the focus on mobility issues in finished cattle. Scoring systems are needed in the finished cattle industry to capture and measure mobility issues at packing facilities. The North American Meat Institute Animal Welfare Committee helped facilitate the creation of a scoring system to evaluate mobility of cattle at packing plants, providing the cattle industry with a tool to benchmark and improve the welfare of finished cattle...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579042/pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-bovine-foot%C3%A2-rot
#15
REVIEW
David C Van Metre
Bovine foot rot (BFR) is an infectious disease of the interdigital skin and subcutaneous tissues of beef and dairy cattle that occurs under a variety of management and environmental settings. The anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, and Prevotella intermedia are commonly isolated from lesions. A multitude of host, agent, and environmental factors contribute to the development of BFR. Initiation of systemic antimicrobial therapy early in the course of disease commonly leads to resolution...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579041/clinical-perspectives-of-digital-dermatitis-in-dairy-and-beef-cattle
#16
REVIEW
Paul J Plummer, Adam Krull
Digital dermatitis is a polybacterial disease process of dairy and beef cattle. Lesions are most commonly identified on the plantar aspect of the interdigital cleft of the hind limbs. Treponema spp are routinely present in large numbers of active lesions. Lesions are painful to the touch and can result in clinical lameness. The infectious nature generally results in endemic infection of cattle herds and management requires a comprehensive and integrated multipronged approach. This article provides current perspectives regarding management and treatment of digital dermatitis on dairy and beef cattle operations and provides a review for clinicians dealing with a clinical outbreak...
July 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166937/diagnostics-and-ancillary-tests-of-neurologic-dysfunction-in-the-ruminant
#17
REVIEW
Dusty W Nagy
A variety of diagnostic tests can be used to help further characterize and diagnose neurologic disease in ruminant species. Cerebrospinal fluid is easily collected, and analysis can help in defining the broad category of disease. Diagnostic imaging, including radiography, myelography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and MRI, have all been used to varying degrees in ruminants. Advanced cross-sectional imaging techniques have the capacity to aid greatly in diagnosis, but their cost can often be prohibitive...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166936/cerebellar-disease-of-ruminants
#18
REVIEW
Philippa Gibbons
Cerebellar disease can be congenital or acquired. Clinical signs of cerebellar disease include hypermetric gait in all limbs, normal to increased muscle tone, wide-based stance, swaying, intention tremor, and convulsions. Vestibular signs may be observed. Differential diagnoses for etiology include congenital (hypoplasia, abiotrophy, and lysosomal storage diseases), viral, bacterial, and toxic plants. Animals may present aborted as fetuses or stillborn, be affected at birth, develop disease at a few months old, or acquire the disease later in life...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166935/toxicoses-of-the-ruminant-nervous-system
#19
REVIEW
Gene A Niles
This article discusses the etiology, mechanism of action, clinical signs, and diagnostic tests used to identify toxic agents that affect the nervous system of ruminants. The article is not intended to be an exhaustive review of each agent, but a reference for establishing a differential diagnosis when toxic agents are suspected as the cause of central nervous system disease in ruminants. The initial focus of the article is on agents that cause brain lesions consistent with polioencephalomalacia. Other neurotoxic disease agents include bovine bonkers, urea, organophosphate, organochlorine, cyanobacteria, zinc, aluminum, phosphide, metaldehyde, strychnine, botulism, tetanus, clostridium perfringens, and poisonous plants...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166934/spinal-cord-and-peripheral-nerve-abnormalities-of-the-ruminant
#20
REVIEW
Amanda K Hartnack
In food animals, spinal cord damage is most commonly associated with infection or trauma. Antemortem diagnosis is based on clinical signs, history, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and imaging. As clinical signs are often severe, and prognosis is grave, necropsy may provide a postmortem diagnosis. Peripheral nerve abnormalities are most often the result of trauma. Calving paralysis or paresis is the most common condition affecting the sciatic or obturator nerve and often concurrently involves the peroneal branch of the sciatic...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
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