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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935724/responding-to-natural-disasters-and-emergencies-in-beef-production
#1
EDITORIAL
Christine B Navarre, Daniel U Thomson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935723/mental-health-during-environmental-crisis-and-mass-incident-disasters
#2
REVIEW
Erin Wasson, Audry Wieman
Veterinarians responding to animal health-related incidents are in the same class as first responders and should be aware of similar mental health concerns. Cultivating resiliency, identifying symptoms, and linking individuals to support systems are practical strategies to provide positive outcomes for veterinarians facing difficult experiences. This article explores veterinarians as first responders and farm stress; an overview of mental health responses to trauma; strategies and interventions for individuals, families, communities, and veterinarians; a discussion of boundaries and threshold for managing crisis; barriers and considerations for service provision; and a summary and discussion of future research and curriculum opportunities...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935722/humane-euthanasia-and-carcass-disposal
#3
REVIEW
Jan K Shearer, Dee Griffin, Scott E Cotton
Euthanasia is ending life in a way that minimizes or eliminates pain and distress. It requires techniques that induce loss of consciousness followed by cardiac and respiratory arrest and loss of brain function. Although euthanasia is the objective for uncontrollable animal suffering, it is not always possible. Euthanasia of animals using barbiturates or barbituric acid derivatives is impractical for situations that require mass euthanasia of multiple animals. Selection of the most appropriate disposal method depends on number of carcasses, potential environmental impact, climatic conditions, and other factors...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935721/foreign-animal-disease-outbreaks
#4
REVIEW
Danelle A Bickett-Weddle, Michael W Sanderson, Elizabeth J Parker
A foreign animal disease (FAD) infecting beef cattle can have a negative impact on producers and the veterinarians who serve them. A veterinarian's ability to recognize FADs is a significant responsibility, as is aiding clients and local community in preparing for and responding to an outbreak. Knowledge of local livestock operations, markets, and resources provides valuable insight to managing officials and speeds response. Business continuity for clients and veterinarians will be affected by movement controls...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935720/managing-heat-stress-episodes-in-confined-cattle
#5
REVIEW
Kevin F Sullivan, Terry L Mader
Feedlot cattle consuming large amounts of feed and gaining weight rapidly generate significant amounts of metabolic heat. In summer, failure to dissipate this heat leads to heat accumulation and heat stress. Respiratory rates, panting scores, and behavioral changes are useful indicators of heat stress in cattle. Ceasing cattle movement, providing supplementary water tanks in the pens, cooling the pen surface, and manipulation of nutrition and feeding management should be considered to mitigate the risk and manage a heat stress crisis...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935719/preparation-and-response-for-flooding-events-in-beef-cattle
#6
REVIEW
Wesley Bissett, Carla Huston, Christine B Navarre
Flooding appears to be occurring at an increased frequency and severity, resulting in significant losses to the beef cattle industry. Responding to the needs of beef cattle is a resource-intense occurrence and beyond that provided by most local jurisdictions. It is incumbent on livestock producers to develop continuity of operations or emergency plans designed to limit the financial losses and compromised animal welfare that occur when livestock are exposed to flood conditions. Livestock producers and the veterinary medical profession should also encourage and participate in the development of public emergency plans focused on limiting losses in this critical industry...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935718/preparation-and-response-to-truck-accidents-on-highways-involving-cattle
#7
REVIEW
Lisa Pederson, Jerry Yates, Audry Wieman
Annually, in the United States, more than 50 million head of cattle are transported. Most are transported via semitrailer. As the number of livestock transported via motor vehicles has increased, so has the number of accidents involving livestock transport. Most livestock transport accidents in the United States involved semitrailers carrying cattle. Before the Bovine Emergency Response Program, no standard operating procedures existed for accidents involving livestock transport in the United States. The Bovine Emergency Response Plan provides a framework for veterinarians, emergency responders, and law enforcement to better address accidents involving cattle transport...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935717/wildfire-response-in-range-cattle
#8
REVIEW
David N Rethorst, Randall K Spare, John L Kellenberger
The manner in which the producers and communities affected by the Starbuck fire dealt with the aftermath and recovery is the focus of this article. Ranchers, as stewards of the cattle, had to assess and attend to the welfare of survivors, euthanize the severally damaged, dispose of the dead, and deal with inadequate federal assistance and insurance claims. Veterinarians acted as coordinators of the community relief effort and supported the ranchers. The practical and psychological effects, and more humane possible future scenarios, are described...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935716/management-of-confined-cattle-in-blizzard-conditions
#9
REVIEW
David B Sjeklocha
Preparation and prioritization are essential to managing confined cattle through a severe winter storm. Water, feed, and cattle comfort are the top priorities for cattle after a blizzard, and making sure employees understand those priorities and how to address them will help to minimize cattle stress and losses.
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935715/blizzards-and-range-cattle-management-before-during-and-after-the-storm
#10
REVIEW
Russ Daly, Cynthia Marshall Faux
Numerous factors contribute to the outcome and recovery for range cattle affected by blizzard. Consequences and impact on the producer depend on the timing of the storm relative to the herd's production cycle, access to shelter, duration and intensity of the storm, and post-storm emergency management. Critical planning efforts by the producer include clear animal identification methods, identification of sheltering options, and consideration of animal indemnity and insurance requirements. Including range animals in local and state disaster planning efforts facilitates response and recovery efforts...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935714/tornado-preparation-and-response-in-feedlot-cattle
#11
REVIEW
Samantha L Boyajian, Nels N Lindberg, David P Gnad
Encouraging operations to develop emergency protocols is one of the best steps one can take as a veterinarian who may be called upon to help once disaster strikes. Poor plans yield slow progress, and in times of tornado damage, efficiency in recovery is critical for an operation. A veterinarian is a key player in animal stewardship as well as human health and safety during natural disasters.
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935713/feeding-and-watering-beef-cattle-during-disasters
#12
REVIEW
Justin W Waggoner, K C Olson
Animal care, feeding, and nutrition in the wake of a natural disaster or emergency situation are difficult and require resourcefulness. Immediately following the event, the most basic needs essential for survival of cattle (ie, water, feed, rest, and recovery) should be addressed. Once these basic needs have been addressed, the primary objective then becomes to maintain the present condition of the animals to reduce the potential for negative production outcomes. The objective of this article is to provide a general overview of feeding and managing cattle immediately following a natural disaster or emergency situation...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935712/cattle-assessment-on-site-during-emergencies
#13
REVIEW
Arthur Lee Jones, Renée Dawn Dewell, Joanna Davis
Veterinary assessment of the condition and needs of livestock and their owners in an emergency is an essential element of the disaster response. The emergency response for livestock has 4 critical components: assessing the need for and attending to the immediate medical needs of injured or affected livestock, determining the resources available to meet the needs, including feed and facilities, identifying any ongoing threats or potential hazards to livestock health and welfare, and appropriate documentation of damages and actions by responders...
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935711/communication-and-working-with-authorities-during-natural-disasters
#14
REVIEW
Dee Ellis, Rebecca McConnico, Jimmy Tickel
Keeping people and animals out of harm's way, preventing property loss, and working together in the community with other animal stakeholders and officials are important in building community resilience during disasters. Developing plans for neighbors helping each other evacuate animals is important. Producer helping producer, veterinarian helping veterinarian, and community helping community build resilience by preventing loss, responding to needs, and recovering and restoring livelihoods.
July 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421029/gastrointestinal-nematodes-diagnosis-and-control
#15
REVIEW
Thomas M Craig
Disease caused by nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle is primarily economic and the effect of treatment is cattle grow larger faster because of increased feed intake. The disease, control measures, and drugs used must be focused on different ages and environments. Different drugs should be used against the parasites most likely affected by the specific drug and administered how and when it will accomplish the best sustainable control. Management needs to ensure that at-risk animals are exposed to sufficient worms to stimulate their immunologic response but not overwhelm it...
March 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421028/clostridial-abomasitis-and-enteritis-in-ruminants
#16
REVIEW
Katharine M Simpson, Robert J Callan, David C Van Metre
Clostridial abomasitis and enteritis are important alimentary diseases observed in all domestic ruminant species. These diseases most commonly result from overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens types A, B, C, D, and E with the associated release of bacterial exotoxins that result in necrosis of the abomasal or intestinal mucosa. Clostridium difficile may also be associated with enteritis in calves but is much less common than disease caused by C perfringens. This article reviews the causes, pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of clostridial gastrointestinal diseases in ruminants...
March 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421027/enteric-immunity-happy-gut-healthy-animal
#17
REVIEW
Christopher C L Chase
In this article, key concepts important for enteric immunity are discussed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest immune organ of the body. The mucosal barrier, the tight junctions and the "kill zone," along with the gut mucosa and maintaining an "anti-inflammatory" state are essential for "good gut health." The microbiome, the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract, which has more cells then the entire animal's body, is essential for immune development, immune response, and maximizing ruminant productivity...
March 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276097/abomasal-and-third-compartment-ulcers-in-ruminants-and-south-american-camelids
#18
REVIEW
Alexandra Hund, Thomas Wittek
Abomasal ulcers are frequent incidental findings in necropsies of domestic ruminants and South American Camelids (SAC) or in slaughter animals and are a frequent cause of death in the most affected group of cattle, veal calves. Their true prevalence and significance is unknown owing to limitations in diagnosing the condition in live animals. This article discusses types of ulcers, possible causes of ulceration, and the clinical consequences, symptoms, and differential diagnoses, as well as further diagnostics in cattle, small ruminants and SAC...
March 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275033/paratuberculosis-in-cattle
#19
REVIEW
Marie-Eve Fecteau
Paratuberculosis remains one of the most important diseases of cattle worldwide. In cattle, the disease is debilitating and is characterized by weight loss and chronic diarrhea in the later stages of infection. However, cattle in the subclinical stages of the disease often show decreased milk production and are at higher risk for development of other common production diseases. Infections with Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis are difficult to control because of long incubation periods, the absence of clinical signs until advanced stages of the disease, and the lack of completely reliable diagnostic methods in the preclinical stages of the disease...
March 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275032/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-infectious-enteritis-in-neonatal-and-juvenile-ruminants
#20
REVIEW
Meera C Heller, Munashe Chigerwe
Common causes of infectious enteritis in neonate and juvenile ruminants include viral, bacterial, and protozoal pathogens. The most common presenting sign in ruminants with infectious enteritis is diarrhea. Diagnosis of the cause of enteritis has important zoonotic and herd health implications. Severity of clinical signs with similar pathogens may differ between calves and small ruminants. Treatment of enteritis involves supportive care to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances, provision of nutritional support for neonates, prevention and treatment of endotoxemia or sepsis, and pathogen-specific treatments when relevant and available...
March 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
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