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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551288/routine-trimming-and-therapeutic-farriery-in-foals
#1
REVIEW
Stephen E O'Grady
Hoof care in the first few months of life is serious business and should never be taken lightly. Farriery plays a vital role in both the development of the hoof and the conformation of the limb. Management of the feet and limbs during this period will often dictate the success of the foal as a sales yearling or mature sound athlete. A sound foot care program is time-consuming, whereas assembly-line trimming is quick and easy, but the former is much more beneficial.
May 25, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551287/osteochondritis-dissecans-development
#2
REVIEW
Stacy A Semevolos
This article reviews current knowledge of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) development in horses, including normal cartilage development, early osteochondrosis pathogenesis, and factors that result in healing or advancement to OCD fragments. Discussion includes current theories, detection, and therapeutic options.
May 25, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551286/flexural-limb-deformities-of-the-carpus-and-fetlock-in-foals
#3
REVIEW
Earl M Gaughan
Early recognition and treatment of congenital and acquired flexural deformities of the carpi and fetlocks of foals can lead to conformation correction and an athletic future. Treatment is often based on rigid external coaptation assisted by systemic medical treatment. Foals that readily respond to treatment and correct conformation faults can have normal adult athletic expectations.
May 25, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487011/orthopedic-conditions-of-the-premature-and-dysmature-foal
#4
REVIEW
Michelle C Coleman, Canaan Whitfield-Cargile
Incomplete ossification of the cuboidal bones is a common finding in premature and dysmature foals, and possibly in foals with hypothyroidism. Radiographs of the carpus and tarsus should be performed in any high-risk foal to obtain a diagnosis. Goals of treatment include limiting weight bearing and exercise. The prognosis is guarded depending on the degree of incomplete ossification.
May 6, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687100/prelude-to-an-equine-athlete-foal-orthopedics
#5
EDITORIAL
Ashlee E Watts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687099/diagnosis-and-treatment-considerations-for-nonphyseal-long-bone-fractures-in-the-foal
#6
REVIEW
Kati Glass, Ashlee E Watts
Many long bone fractures that are not considered repairable in the adult horse are repairable in the foal. This is largely because of reduced patient size and more rapid healing in the foal. When there is no articular communication, the long-term prognosis for athletic function can be very good. Emergency care and transport of the foal with a long bone fracture is different than the adult.
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687098/physeal-fractures-in-foals
#7
REVIEW
David G Levine, Maia R Aitken
Physeal fractures are common musculoskeletal injuries in foals and should be included as a differential diagnosis for the lame or nonweightbearing foal. Careful evaluation of the patient, including precise radiographic assessment, is paramount in determining the options for treatment. Prognosis mostly depends on the patient's age, weight, and fracture location and configuration.
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687097/foal-fractures-osteochondral-fragmentation-proximal-sesamoid-bone-fractures-sesamoiditis-and-distal-phalanx-fractures
#8
REVIEW
Heidi L Reesink
Foals are susceptible to many of the same types of fractures as adult horses, often secondary to external sources of trauma. In addition, some types of fractures are specific to foals and occur routinely in horses under 1 year of age. These foal-specific fractures may be due to the unique musculoskeletal properties of the developing animal and may present with distinct clinical signs. Treatment plans and prognoses are tailored specifically to young animals. Common fractures not affecting the long bones in foals are discussed in this article, including osteochondral fragmentation, proximal sesamoid bone fractures/sesamoiditis, and distal phalanx fractures...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687096/surgical-management-of-osteochondrosis-in-foals
#9
REVIEW
Kyla F Ortved
Osteochondrosis is common in young, athletic horses. Some lesions respond to conservative therapy. Surgical management is the mainstay of treatment. Arthroscopic debridement is useful in the femoropatellar joint, tarsocrural joint, fetlock joint, and shoulder joint. Debridement is associated with good outcomes, except in the shoulder joint. Osteochondrosis lesions in the elbow may be difficult to access arthroscopically, thereby transosseous debridement. Surgical management of subchondral cystic lesions of the medial femoral condyle consists of debridement, debridement with grafting, transcondylar screws, and intralesional corticosteroid injection...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687095/angular-limb-deformities-growth-retardation
#10
REVIEW
Taralyn M McCarrel
Angular limb deformities are common in foals; however, the importance of the deformity and if treatment is required depend on the degree of deformity relative to normal conformation for stage of growth, the breed and discipline expectations, age, and response to conservative therapies. This article addresses the importance of the foal conformation examination to determine which foals need surgical intervention to correct an angular deformity and when. Techniques for surgical growth retardation include the transphyseal staple, screw and wire transphyseal bridge, and transphyseal screw...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687094/angular-limb-deformities-growth-augmentation
#11
REVIEW
José M García-López
Angular limb deformities are seen in young foals and are defined as lateral or medial deviations of the limb in the frontal plane distal to a particular joint. Several factors can contribute to the development of an angular limb deformity. Early assessment of the level of ossification of the cuboidal bones is critical to avoid complications long term. Although most deviations self-correct with minimal intervention other than modifications in exercise and hoof trimming, some require surgical intervention in the form of growth acceleration or retardation...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687093/flexural-deformity-of-the-distal-interphalangeal-joint
#12
REVIEW
Fred J Caldwell
Flexural deformities in young horses are commonly referred to as contracted tendons, which is a term that is not consistent with what is currently understood about their cause. Flexural deformity of the distal interphalangeal joint can be either congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop at a later stage of growth typically between 1 and 6 months of age). These 2 manifestations are commonly managed differently depending on the cause, age of onset, severity, duration, complicating factors, and owner expectations...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687092/septic-arthritis-physitis-and-osteomyelitis-in-foals
#13
REVIEW
Kati Glass, Ashlee E Watts
Despite differences in etiology and diagnostics, the mainstay of therapy in the foal is similar to the adult: local lavage and/or debridement and local antimicrobial therapy. When musculoskeletal infection is concurrent with neonatal sepsis, the prognosis for survival is fair. When musculoskeletal infection is the primary problem, the prognosis is fair to good for survival of synovial, bony, and physeal infections with appropriate and aggressive local therapy. Recent literature may indicate that prognosis for survival and potential athleticism in foals that are treated expediently with local therapies and are without comorbidities may be more favorable than has been previously indicated...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687091/routine-orthopedic-evaluation-in-foals
#14
REVIEW
Robert J Hunt, William True Baker
In order to recognize abnormalities on the physical evaluation, it is mandatory to understand normal developmental variations of the musculoskeletal system. Many abnormalities are self-limiting and, therefore, it is important to recognize which problems require intervention for a successful outcome and which may be complicated by treatment. The importance of a complete and thorough physical evaluation cannot be overemphasized and is the most productive diagnostic tool for recognizing most abnormalities of the skeletal system whether as a component of an after-foaling examination or for lameness or conformation evaluation in foals of all ages...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325184/equine-pharmacology
#15
EDITORIAL
K Gary Magdesian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325183/antiherpetic-drugs-in-equine-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Lara K Maxwell
Since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. Drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. Oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for EHV-5 infection in the therapy of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325182/antimicrobial-pharmacology-for-the-neonatal-foal
#17
REVIEW
K Gary Magdesian
Neonatal foals are at high risk of developing sepsis, which can be life-threatening. Early antimicrobial use is a critical component of the treatment of sepsis. Because the neonatal foal has unique pharmacologic physiology, antimicrobial choice and dosing are often different than in adult horses. Broad-spectrum, bactericidal, and intravenous antimicrobials should be considered first-line therapy for septic foals. A combination of aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antimicrobial or third-generation cephalosporin is an excellent empirical first choice for treating septic foals, until culture and susceptibility results are available...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325181/inhalation-therapy-in-horses
#18
REVIEW
Mandy L Cha, Lais R R Costa
This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325180/compounding-of-veterinary-drugs-for-equine-practitioners
#19
REVIEW
Scott D Stanley, Krysta Moffitt, Valerie Wiebe
Equine practitioners should follow these recommendations when using compounded medications: (1) the decision must be veterinary driven, based on a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship and on evidence-based medicine; (2) compliance with the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994; and (3) use limited to (a) horses for which no other method or route of drug delivery is practical; (b) those drugs for which safety, efficacy, and stability have been demonstrated; or (c) disease conditions for which a quantifiable response to therapy or drug concentration can be monitored...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325179/pain-management-in-horses
#20
REVIEW
Alonso Guedes
There has been great progress in the understanding of basic neurobiologic mechanisms of pain, but this body of knowledge has not yet translated into new and improved analgesics. Progress has been made regarding pain assessment in horses, but more work is needed until sensitive and accurate pain assessment tools are available for use in clinical practice. This review summarizes and updates the knowledge concerning the cornerstones of pain medicine (understand, assess, prevent, and treat). It highlights the importance of understanding pain mechanisms and expressions to enable a rational approach to pain assessment, prevention, and management in the equine patient...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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