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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985985/corneal-response-to-injury-and-infection-in-the-horse
#1
REVIEW
Caryn E Plummer
This article describes the natural responses of the immune system and the cornea to injury and infection. The process of reepithelialization and reformation of stromal collagen is discussed, as are the clinical signs and manifestations of the effects of the healing response when it is routine and when it is pathologic. Excessive inflammatory or immune responses by host tissues can cause further damage that may be present from the antecedent injury or the effect of a pathogen. The clinical signs and manifestations of wound healing as well as potential therapeutic interventions are described...
October 3, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985984/advanced-imaging-of-the-equine-eye
#2
REVIEW
Brian C Gilger
This article reviews the literature for studies describing advanced imaging of the equine eye as a reference for practitioners to help in the selection of image modalities, describe how to use the instruments, and help interpret the image findings. Indications for, technique of, and image interpretation of advanced image modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, MRI, optical coherence tomography, confocal microscopy, and angiography are reviewed. The article is organized anatomically, not by instrument, so that the reader will be able to quickly research ways to image specific disease entities or anatomic locations that are affecting their equine patients...
October 3, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958862/antifungal-therapy-in-equine-ocular-mycotic-infections
#3
REVIEW
Eric C Ledbetter
Fungi are clinically important causes of ocular infections in the horse. Keratomycosis is the most common; however, a diverse range of mycotic infections, affecting numerous ocular tissues, may be encountered. Many equine mycoses are diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Prompt and appropriate treatment is essential to minimize morbidity and reduce the likelihood of vision loss. Knowledge of the characteristics and properties of equine ophthalmology antifungal medications is essential to selecting an optimal treatment strategy, including selection of appropriate medication and effective administration route...
September 25, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958861/neuro-ophthalmology-in-the-horse
#4
REVIEW
Kathern E Myrna
This article provides a brief, clinically relevant review of neurologic disorders of the eye. A description of the neuro-ophthalmic examination is provided. Stepwise descriptions of the most common neuro-ophthalmic abnormalities are provided along with common rule outs.
September 25, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103564/the-science-and-practice-of-equine-ophthalmology-a-quarter-century-later
#5
EDITORIAL
Mary Lassaline
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103563/genetic-testing-as-a-tool-to-identify-horses-with-or-at-risk-for-ocular-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca R Bellone
Advances in equine genetics and genomics resources have enabled the understanding of some inherited ocular disorders and ocular manifestations. These ocular disorders include congenital stationary night blindness, equine recurrent uveitis, multiple congenital ocular anomalies, and squamous cell carcinoma. Genetic testing can identify horses with or at risk for disease and thus can assist in clinical management. In addition, genetic testing can identify horses that are carriers and thus can inform breeding decisions...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103562/ocular-manifestations-of-systemic-disease-in-the-horse
#7
REVIEW
Kathryn L Wotman, Amy L Johnson
Many systemic diseases have ocular manifestations. In some cases, ocular abnormalities are the most obvious or first recognized sign of disease that prompts veterinary evaluation. In other cases, the systemic disease leads to secondary ocular changes that might lead to loss of vision or globe if not addressed. Therefore, recognition of ocular abnormalities that might result from systemic diseases is an essential skill for the equine practitioner. This article provides practitioners with information regarding the most common systemic diseases of horses in North America that have ocular manifestations, organized by ocular signs...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103561/periocular-neoplasia-in-the-horse
#8
REVIEW
Krista Estell
Periocular neoplasia is common in horses. Treatment of the periocular skin and ocular adnexal structures can be technically challenging. Common neoplastic conditions, a treatment algorithm, surgical principles, and therapeutic modalities are reviewed. Regardless of the type of neoplasia found or the treatment that is applied, success is most likely when the neoplastic tumor is small.
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103560/equine-glaucoma
#9
REVIEW
Tammy Miller Michau
Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative ocular disease leading to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons that form the optic nerve, causing blindness. Knowledge of the pathogenesis and development of equine glaucoma is in its infancy compared with human glaucoma. Glaucoma occurs most commonly secondary to uveitis and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in horses suffering from uveitis. Recognition and clinical diagnosis of glaucoma in the horse is improved with clinician awareness and the availability of handheld tonometers...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103559/the-equine-fundus
#10
REVIEW
Gil Ben-Shlomo
Fundus is an anatomic term referring to the portion of an organ opposite from its opening, and the fundus of the eye is the back portion of the posterior segment of the globe, including the optic nerve, retina, and choroid. Clinically, the fundus can be visualized by direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. Understanding the normal anatomy and appearance of the equine fundus is crucial for differentiating normal variations from abnormalities. This article reviews the normal anatomy and appearance of the equine fundus and discusses basic and advanced examination techniques...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103558/disease-and-surgery-of-the-equine-lens
#11
REVIEW
Wendy M Townsend
Examination of the lens is critical, particularly when evaluating horses with visual impairment or performing prepurchase examinations. To adequately evaluate the lens, the pupil must be pharmacologically dilated. A cataract is any lens opacity. The size, density, and position of a cataract determine the impact on vision. Cataracts may be congenital or inherited or occur secondary to trauma or equine recurrent uveitis. Surgical removal is the only treatment option for vision impairing cataracts, but careful selection of surgical candidates is critical for successful outcomes...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985983/medical-and-surgical-management-of-equine-recurrent-uveitis
#12
REVIEW
Richard Joseph McMullen, Britta Maria Fischer
Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is characterized by recurrent bouts of inflammation interrupted by periods of quiescence that vary in duration. There is little consensus on the clinical manifestations, the underlying causes, or the management. The 3 commonly recognized syndromes of ERU (classic, insidious, and posterior) do not accurately separate the clinical manifestations of disease into distinct categories. An accurate diagnosis and early intervention are essential to minimizing the effects of disease and preserving vision...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687100/prelude-to-an-equine-athlete-foal-orthopedics
#13
EDITORIAL
Ashlee E Watts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687099/diagnosis-and-treatment-considerations-for-nonphyseal-long-bone-fractures-in-the-foal
#14
REVIEW
Kati Glass, Ashlee E Watts
Many long bone fractures that are not considered repairable in the adult horse are repairable in the foal. This is largely because of reduced patient size and more rapid healing in the foal. When there is no articular communication, the long-term prognosis for athletic function can be very good. Emergency care and transport of the foal with a long bone fracture is different than the adult.
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687098/physeal-fractures-in-foals
#15
REVIEW
David G Levine, Maia R Aitken
Physeal fractures are common musculoskeletal injuries in foals and should be included as a differential diagnosis for the lame or nonweightbearing foal. Careful evaluation of the patient, including precise radiographic assessment, is paramount in determining the options for treatment. Prognosis mostly depends on the patient's age, weight, and fracture location and configuration.
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687097/foal-fractures-osteochondral-fragmentation-proximal-sesamoid-bone-fractures-sesamoiditis-and-distal-phalanx-fractures
#16
REVIEW
Heidi L Reesink
Foals are susceptible to many of the same types of fractures as adult horses, often secondary to external sources of trauma. In addition, some types of fractures are specific to foals and occur routinely in horses under 1 year of age. These foal-specific fractures may be due to the unique musculoskeletal properties of the developing animal and may present with distinct clinical signs. Treatment plans and prognoses are tailored specifically to young animals. Common fractures not affecting the long bones in foals are discussed in this article, including osteochondral fragmentation, proximal sesamoid bone fractures/sesamoiditis, and distal phalanx fractures...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687096/surgical-management-of-osteochondrosis-in-foals
#17
REVIEW
Kyla F Ortved
Osteochondrosis is common in young, athletic horses. Some lesions respond to conservative therapy. Surgical management is the mainstay of treatment. Arthroscopic debridement is useful in the femoropatellar joint, tarsocrural joint, fetlock joint, and shoulder joint. Debridement is associated with good outcomes, except in the shoulder joint. Osteochondrosis lesions in the elbow may be difficult to access arthroscopically, thereby transosseous debridement. Surgical management of subchondral cystic lesions of the medial femoral condyle consists of debridement, debridement with grafting, transcondylar screws, and intralesional corticosteroid injection...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687095/angular-limb-deformities-growth-retardation
#18
REVIEW
Taralyn M McCarrel
Angular limb deformities are common in foals; however, the importance of the deformity and if treatment is required depend on the degree of deformity relative to normal conformation for stage of growth, the breed and discipline expectations, age, and response to conservative therapies. This article addresses the importance of the foal conformation examination to determine which foals need surgical intervention to correct an angular deformity and when. Techniques for surgical growth retardation include the transphyseal staple, screw and wire transphyseal bridge, and transphyseal screw...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687094/angular-limb-deformities-growth-augmentation
#19
REVIEW
José M García-López
Angular limb deformities are seen in young foals and are defined as lateral or medial deviations of the limb in the frontal plane distal to a particular joint. Several factors can contribute to the development of an angular limb deformity. Early assessment of the level of ossification of the cuboidal bones is critical to avoid complications long term. Although most deviations self-correct with minimal intervention other than modifications in exercise and hoof trimming, some require surgical intervention in the form of growth acceleration or retardation...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687093/flexural-deformity-of-the-distal-interphalangeal-joint
#20
REVIEW
Fred J Caldwell
Flexural deformities in young horses are commonly referred to as contracted tendons, which is a term that is not consistent with what is currently understood about their cause. Flexural deformity of the distal interphalangeal joint can be either congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop at a later stage of growth typically between 1 and 6 months of age). These 2 manifestations are commonly managed differently depending on the cause, age of onset, severity, duration, complicating factors, and owner expectations...
August 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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