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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810039/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Marco A Coutinho da Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810038/modern-techniques-for-semen-evaluation
#2
REVIEW
Charles C Love
Stallion semen evaluation is an important part of the breeding soundness evaluation. The results of the semen evaluation cannot be interpreted without a thorough knowledge of the mare and management effects that may have played a role or may affect the potential fertility of the stallion evaluated. There are considerations and limitations that the clinician should understand about each test. Any sperm quality test must be interpreted with a clear understanding of how it relates to fertility.
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810037/endometritis-diagnostic-tools-for-infectious-endometritis
#3
REVIEW
Ryan A Ferris
Infectious endometritis is among the leading causes of subfertility in the mare. However, the best way to reliably diagnose these cases of infectious endometritis can be confusing to the veterinary practitioner. The goal of this article is to describe how to perform various sample collection techniques, what analyses can be performed on these samples, and how to interpret the results of these analysis. Additionally, future technologies will be presented that are not currently used in equine reproduction practice...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810036/endometritis-managing-persistent-post-breeding-endometritis
#4
REVIEW
Igor F Canisso, Jamie Stewart, Marco A Coutinho da Silva
Endometritis was rated as the third most common medical problem encountered in adult horses in North America. It is the leading cause of subfertility in broodmares and is a major contributor to economic loss in the horse breeding industry, with pregnancy rates reported to be as low as 21% in mares with severe endometritis. Endometritis may be categorized as: endometrosis (chronic degenerative endometritis), acute, chronic, active, dormant, subclinical, clinical, and persistent post-breeding. These classifications are not mutually exclusive, and mares may change categories within breeding seasons or estrous cycles or may fit in multiple classifications...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810035/hormone-therapy-in-clinical-equine-practice
#5
REVIEW
Patrick M McCue
A wide variety of hormone therapies are used in clinical practice in the reproductive management of horses. The goal of this article is to review therapeutic options for a variety of clinical indications.
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726992/advances-in-diagnostics-and-therapeutic-techniques-in-breeding-behavior-disorders-in-stallions
#6
REVIEW
Sue M McDonnell
Despite the suboptimal aspects of domestic breeding conditions compared with the natural conditions under which their reproductive behavior evolved, most domestic stallions can adapt to management and breeding programs. Most respond adequately or quickly learn to safely abide the restraint and direction of a human handler, and can adapt to changes in methods of breeding for semen collection. If not, the problems can range from inadequate or variable sexual interest and response to overenthusiastic or aggressive response beyond the ability of the handlers to safely direct and control...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726991/strategies-for-processing-semen-from-subfertile-stallions-for-cooled-transport
#7
REVIEW
Dickson D Varner
Subfertility can be a confusing term because some semen of good quality can have reduced fertility following cooled transport if the semen is processed in an improper manner. General procedures aimed at processing stallion semen for cooled transport are well described. An array of factors could exist in reduced fertility of cool-transported semen. This article focuses on centrifugation techniques that can be used to maximize sperm quality of stallions whose semen is intended for cooled transport. Clinical cases are also provided for practical application of techniques...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726990/intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-embryo-culture-and-transfer-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-produced-blastocysts
#8
REVIEW
Kindra Rader, Young-Ho Choi, Katrin Hinrichs
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is becoming a common clinical procedure in the horse, but little information is available on techniques for its performance. Each laboratory uses different procedures and different media for the steps involved with in vitro embryo production. This article outlines the procedures used in the Clinical Equine Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Program at Texas A&M University for in vitro blastocyst production during the past 3 years.
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726989/advances-in-stallion-semen-cryopreservation
#9
REVIEW
Marco Antonio Alvarenga, Frederico Ozanam Papa, Carlos Ramires Neto
The use of stallion frozen semen minimizes the spread of disease, eliminates geographic barriers, and preserves the genetic material of the animal for an unlimited time. Significant progress on the frozen thawed stallion semen process and consequently fertility has been achieved over the last decade. These improvements not only increased fertility rates but also allowed cryopreservation of semen from "poor freezers." This article reviews traditional steps and new strategies for stallion semen handling and processing that are performed to overcome the deleterious effects of semen preservation and consequently improve frozen semen quality and fertility...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726988/effects-of-common-equine-endocrine-diseases-on-reproduction
#10
REVIEW
Teresa A Burns
Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726987/advances-in-collection-transport-and-maturation-of-equine-oocytes-for-assisted-reproductive-techniques
#11
REVIEW
Elaine M Carnevale
Assisted reproductive techniques that are based on oocyte manipulations have gained acceptance in the equine industry. Methods to collect and handle immature or maturing oocytes have been developed, and systems to ship oocytes now allow for collection in one location and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in another. Subsequently, ICSI-produced embryos can be transferred onsite, shipped to another location, or cryopreserved. Methods for the collection, identification, culture, maturation, and shipment of equine oocytes are reviewed, with an emphasis on procedures from laboratories providing clinical services with documented success...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726986/breakthroughs-in-equine-embryo-cryopreservation
#12
REVIEW
Edward L Squires
Most equine embryos are collected from the donor mare and transferred immediately as fresh embryos or shipped cooled to a recipient station for transfer within 24 hours. Very few equine embryos are frozen despite the numerous advantages of embryo cryopreservation. There are 2 major hurdles: Only the small embryos (<300 μm) provide good pregnancy rates after freezing/thawing and transfer. Also there is no good procedure for superovulating mares; thus, extra embryos for freezing are not readily available...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726985/endometritis-nontraditional-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Charles F Scoggin
Endometritis is characterized by inflammation of the endometrial lining of the uterus and is a leading cause of subfertility in broodmares. When traditional therapies fall short, nonconventional means can be used either to supplement or in lieu of customary practices to manage endometritis. This article reviews alternative therapies available for use in broodmare practice and provides anecdotal and scientific evidence supporting their use.
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726984/biological-functions-and-clinical-applications-of-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-in-stallions-and-mares
#14
REVIEW
Anthony N J Claes, Barry A Ball
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays a major role in sexual differentiation, Leydig cell differentiation, and folliculogenesis. In addition, AMH has clinical value in equine practice. In stallions, AMH can serve as an endocrine marker for equine cryptorchidism and as an immunohistochemical marker for Sertoli cell tumors. Considering that AMH is also an ovarian specific product, intact mares can be differentiated from ovariectomized mares. Peripheral AMH concentrations reflect the follicular population in mares, and therefore, are useful in the assessment of ovarian reserve and reproductive life-span of aged mares...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449394/geriatric-medicine-aged-horse-health-management-and-welfare
#15
EDITORIAL
Catherine M McGowan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449393/welfare-quality-of-life-and-euthanasia-of-aged-horses
#16
REVIEW
Catherine M McGowan, Joanne L Ireland
Duration of ownership strengthens the human-horse bond, affecting decision-making about the horse's welfare, quality of life (QoL), and euthanasia. Most owners consider their geriatric horses to have good or excellent QoL; however, increasing age is negatively associated with QoL. Management factors are important. The most common reasons for euthanasia include musculoskeletal disorders or lameness, colic, and nonspecific chronic diseases. The decision to euthanize is difficult, so the advice of the veterinarian and QoL are important...
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449392/exercise-and-rehabilitation-of-older-horses
#17
REVIEW
Kenneth Harrington McKeever
An increasing percentage of the equine population is more than 15 years old, many performing various athletic activities into their 20s. Studies of aged humans have led to a fine tuning of exercise prescription to promote fitness while preventing adverse and potentially dangerous effects of excessive exercise. However, limited data exist regarding the exercise capacity of aged horses. This article presents an overview of published studies on aging-induced decreases in physiologic function and exercise capacity in the horse...
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449391/endocrine-disease-in-aged-horses
#18
REVIEW
Andy E Durham
Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases...
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449390/musculoskeletal-disease-in-aged-horses-and-its-management
#19
REVIEW
Paul René van Weeren, Willem Back
Musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent health problem in aging horses. They are not life threatening, but are painful and an important welfare issue. Chronic joint disease (osteoarthritis) and chronic laminitis are the most prevalent. Treating osteoarthritis in the elderly horse is similar to treating performance horses, but aims at providing a stable situation with optimal comfort. Immediate medical treatment of flare-ups, long-term pain management, and adaptation of exercise and living conditions are the mainstays of treatment...
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449389/dental-disease-in-aged-horses-and-its-management
#20
REVIEW
Victoria M Nicholls, Neil Townsend
Improved recognition of equine geriatric conditions has resulted in a surge in our aged population with a concurrent escalation of many age-related dental pathologies. Prevention of these disorder is the ultimate aim but early identification and appropriate management can increase an animal's oral comfort and maximise its masticatory ability. There is only a finite amount of tooth available for eruption in the horse and therefore as the teeth become worn and less efficient as a grinding unit, dietary modification becomes a paramount consideration to accommodate this...
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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