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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190614/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-use-in-horses
#1
REVIEW
Heather K Knych
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents and are arguably the most commonly used class of drugs in equine medicine. This article provides a brief review of the mechanism of action, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects associated with their use in horses. The use of COX-2 selective NSAIDs in veterinary medicine has increased over the past several years and special emphasis is given to the use of these drugs in horses. A brief discussion of the use of NSAIDs in performance horses is also included...
February 9, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190613/therapeutics-for-equine-endocrine-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Andy E Durham
Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply...
February 9, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161038/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-rhodococcus-equi
#3
REVIEW
Steeve Giguère
Pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi remains an important cause of disease and death in foals. The combination of a macrolide (erythromycin, azithromycin, or clarithromycin) with rifampin remains the recommended therapy for foals with clinical signs of infection caused by R equi. Most foals with small, subclinical ultrasonographic pulmonary lesions associated with R equi recover without therapy, and administration of antimicrobial agents to these subclinically affected foals does not hasten lesion resolution relative to administration of a placebo...
February 1, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161037/therapeutics-for-equine%C3%A2-protozoal-myeloencephalitis
#4
REVIEW
Nicola Pusterla, Thomas Tobin
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Sarcocystis neurona or Neospora hughesi. Affected horses routinely present with progressive and asymmetrical neurologic deficits. The diagnosis relies on the presence of neurologic signs, ruling out other neurologic disorders, and the detection of intrathecally derived antibodies to either S neurona and/or N hughesi. Recommended treatment is use of an FDA-approved anticoccidial drug formulation. Medical and supportive treatment is provided based on the severity of neurologic deficits and complications...
February 1, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325184/equine-pharmacology
#5
EDITORIAL
K Gary Magdesian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325183/antiherpetic-drugs-in-equine-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Lara K Maxwell
Since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. Drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. Oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for EHV-5 infection in the therapy of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325182/antimicrobial-pharmacology-for-the-neonatal-foal
#7
REVIEW
K Gary Magdesian
Neonatal foals are at high risk of developing sepsis, which can be life-threatening. Early antimicrobial use is a critical component of the treatment of sepsis. Because the neonatal foal has unique pharmacologic physiology, antimicrobial choice and dosing are often different than in adult horses. Broad-spectrum, bactericidal, and intravenous antimicrobials should be considered first-line therapy for septic foals. A combination of aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antimicrobial or third-generation cephalosporin is an excellent empirical first choice for treating septic foals, until culture and susceptibility results are available...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325181/inhalation-therapy-in-horses
#8
REVIEW
Mandy L Cha, Lais R R Costa
This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325180/compounding-of-veterinary-drugs-for-equine-practitioners
#9
REVIEW
Scott D Stanley, Krysta Moffitt, Valerie Wiebe
Equine practitioners should follow these recommendations when using compounded medications: (1) the decision must be veterinary driven, based on a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship and on evidence-based medicine; (2) compliance with the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994; and (3) use limited to (a) horses for which no other method or route of drug delivery is practical; (b) those drugs for which safety, efficacy, and stability have been demonstrated; or (c) disease conditions for which a quantifiable response to therapy or drug concentration can be monitored...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325179/pain-management-in-horses
#10
REVIEW
Alonso Guedes
There has been great progress in the understanding of basic neurobiologic mechanisms of pain, but this body of knowledge has not yet translated into new and improved analgesics. Progress has been made regarding pain assessment in horses, but more work is needed until sensitive and accurate pain assessment tools are available for use in clinical practice. This review summarizes and updates the knowledge concerning the cornerstones of pain medicine (understand, assess, prevent, and treat). It highlights the importance of understanding pain mechanisms and expressions to enable a rational approach to pain assessment, prevention, and management in the equine patient...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325178/corticosteroids-and-immune-suppressive-therapies-in-horses
#11
REVIEW
Mathilde Leclere
Immune suppressive therapies target exaggerated and deleterious responses of the immune system. Triggered by exogenous or endogenous factors, these improper responses can lead to immune or inflammatory manifestations, such as urticaria, equine asthma, or autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases. Glucocorticoids are the most commonly used immune suppressive drugs and the only ones supported by robust evidence of clinical efficacy in equine medicine. In some conditions, combining glucocorticoids with other pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, such as azathioprine, antihistamine, bronchodilators, environmental management, or desensitization, can help to decrease dosages and associated side effects...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325177/equine-cardiovascular-therapeutics
#12
REVIEW
Meg M Sleeper
Heart disease can be defined as any abnormality of the heart whether it is a cardiac dysrhythmia or structural heart disease, either congenital or acquired. Heart failure occurs when a cardiac abnormality results in the inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart disease can be present without leading to heart failure. Heart failure, however, is a consequence of heart disease. There are 4 main areas where the clinician can intervene to improve cardiac output with heart failure: preload, afterload, myocardial contractility, and heart rate...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325176/therapeutics-for-equine-gastric-ulcer-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Fereydon Rezazadeh Zavoshti, Frank M Andrews
Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955947/recent-equine-scientific-publications-of-interest-just-in-case-you-missed-them
#14
EDITORIAL
Thomas J Divers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810039/preface
#15
EDITORIAL
Marco A Coutinho da Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810038/modern-techniques-for-semen-evaluation
#16
REVIEW
Charles C Love
Stallion semen evaluation is an important part of the breeding soundness evaluation. The results of the semen evaluation cannot be interpreted without a thorough knowledge of the mare and management effects that may have played a role or may affect the potential fertility of the stallion evaluated. There are considerations and limitations that the clinician should understand about each test. Any sperm quality test must be interpreted with a clear understanding of how it relates to fertility.
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810037/endometritis-diagnostic-tools-for-infectious-endometritis
#17
REVIEW
Ryan A Ferris
Infectious endometritis is among the leading causes of subfertility in the mare. However, the best way to reliably diagnose these cases of infectious endometritis can be confusing to the veterinary practitioner. The goal of this article is to describe how to perform various sample collection techniques, what analyses can be performed on these samples, and how to interpret the results of these analysis. Additionally, future technologies will be presented that are not currently used in equine reproduction practice...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810036/endometritis-managing-persistent-post-breeding-endometritis
#18
REVIEW
Igor F Canisso, Jamie Stewart, Marco A Coutinho da Silva
Endometritis was rated as the third most common medical problem encountered in adult horses in North America. It is the leading cause of subfertility in broodmares and is a major contributor to economic loss in the horse breeding industry, with pregnancy rates reported to be as low as 21% in mares with severe endometritis. Endometritis may be categorized as: endometrosis (chronic degenerative endometritis), acute, chronic, active, dormant, subclinical, clinical, and persistent post-breeding. These classifications are not mutually exclusive, and mares may change categories within breeding seasons or estrous cycles or may fit in multiple classifications...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810035/hormone-therapy-in-clinical-equine-practice
#19
REVIEW
Patrick M McCue
A wide variety of hormone therapies are used in clinical practice in the reproductive management of horses. The goal of this article is to review therapeutic options for a variety of clinical indications.
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726992/advances-in-diagnostics-and-therapeutic-techniques-in-breeding-behavior-disorders-in-stallions
#20
REVIEW
Sue M McDonnell
Despite the suboptimal aspects of domestic breeding conditions compared with the natural conditions under which their reproductive behavior evolved, most domestic stallions can adapt to management and breeding programs. Most respond adequately or quickly learn to safely abide the restraint and direction of a human handler, and can adapt to changes in methods of breeding for semen collection. If not, the problems can range from inadequate or variable sexual interest and response to overenthusiastic or aggressive response beyond the ability of the handlers to safely direct and control...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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