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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534811/advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-equine-gastrointestinal-diseases
#1
EDITORIAL
Henry Stämpfli, Angelika Schoster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534810/advances-in-diagnostics-and-treatments-in-horses-and-foals-with-gastric-and-duodenal-ulcers
#2
REVIEW
Pilar Camacho-Luna, Benjamin Buchanan, Frank M Andrews
Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) primarily describes ulceration in the terminal esophagus, nonglandular squamous mucosa, glandular mucosa of the stomach, and proximal duodenum. EGUS is common in all breeds and ages of horses and foals. This article focuses on the current terminology for EGUS, etiologies and pathogenesis for lesions in the nonglandular and glandular stomach, diagnosis, and a comprehensive approach to the treatment and prevention of EGUS in adult horses and foals.
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534809/practical-fluid-therapy-and-treatment-modalities-for-field-conditions-for-horses-and-foals-with-gastrointestinal-problems
#3
REVIEW
C Langdon Fielding
With advances in technology and owner education, field management in equine veterinary medicine continues to evolve. Equine gastrointestinal disease is one of the most common types of emergencies evaluated by equine practitioners, and many of these patients can be effectively managed in the field. Although the equine veterinarian must make numerous decisions, fluid therapy, pain management, and antimicrobial use are 3 of the major choices that must be addressed when initiating field treatment of equine gastrointestinal disease...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426711/enteral-parenteral-nutrition-in-foals-and-adult-horses-practical-guidelines-for-the-practitioner
#4
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Carr
Nutritional support is an important adjunct to medical therapy in the sick, injured, or debilitated equine patient. What is not clear is the optimal route, composition, or amounts of support. The enteral route should be chosen whenever possible to maximize the benefits to the gastrointestinal tract and the patient as a whole. Complete or partial parenteral nutrition is most useful as a bridge during recovery and transition to enteral feeding in the horse. The reader is encouraged to consider nutritional support whether enteral or parenteral in any anorexic, chronically debilitated, or sick equine patient...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426710/diagnostics-and-treatments-in-chronic-diarrhea-and-weight-loss-in-horses
#5
REVIEW
Olimpo Oliver-Espinosa
Chronic diarrhea in the horse is defined as diarrhea present for more than several days with little if any improvement. The diagnosis and treatment of horses with chronic diarrhea usually present a great challenge to the clinician. There are many limitations to treatment of these patients given the limited numbers in which a final diagnosis can be achieved. The lack of knowledge of the alterations of horse microbiota during chronic diarrhea and the multiplicity of causes also make treatment challenging. A poor prognosis is often attached to chronic diarrhea, particularly in cases with neoplasia and inflammatory bowel disease...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426709/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-undifferentiated-and-infectious-acute-diarrhea-in-the-adult-horse
#6
REVIEW
Sarah D Shaw, Henry Stämpfli
Acute, infectious, diarrhea in adult horses is a major cause of morbidity and is associated with numerous complications. Common causes include salmonellosis, clostridiosis, Coronavirus, and infection with Neorickettsia risticii (Potomac horse fever). Treatment is empirical and supportive until results of specific diagnostic tests are available. Supportive care is aimed at restoring hydration, correcting electrolyte imbalances, and limiting the systemic inflammatory response. The mainstays of therapy are intravenous fluid therapy, electrolyte supplementation where necessary, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and nutritional support...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426708/new-perspectives-in-equine-intestinal-parasitic-disease-insights-in-monitoring-helminth-infections
#7
REVIEW
Kurt Pfister, Deborah van Doorn
Regular anthelmintic treatment has contributed to anthelmintic resistance in horse helminths. This mass anthelmintic treatment was originally developed owing to a lack of larvicidal drugs against Strongylus vulgaris. The high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance and shortening of strongyle egg reappearance period after avermectins/moxidectins requires epidemiologically appropriate and sustainable measures. Selective anthelmintic treatment is a much-needed deworming approach: More than 50% of adult horses manifest no strongyle egg excretion...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402481/techniques-and-accuracy-of-abdominal-ultrasound-in-gastrointestinal-diseases-of-horses-and-foals
#8
REVIEW
Nicola C Cribb, Luis G Arroyo
Diagnostic ultrasonography has been used as a test to determine the presence or absence of gastrointestinal disease in horses and foals. General techniques and anatomic landmarks are reviewed. Many clinical reports that have included diagnostic ultrasound as part of their diagnostic process and accuracy studies are necessary to determine the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in clinical practice.
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402480/understanding-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Marcio Carvalho Costa, Jeffrey Scott Weese
This article provides readers with the basic concepts necessary to understand studies using recent molecular methods performed in intestinal microbiome assessment, with special emphasis on the high throughput sequencing. This review also summarizes the current knowledge on this topic and discusses future insights on the interaction between the intestinal microbiome and equine health.
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402479/advances-in-diagnostics-and-treatments-in-horses-with-acute-colic-and-postoperative-ileus
#10
REVIEW
Megan Burke, Anthony Blikslager
Differentiating between medical and surgical causes of colic is one of the primary goals of the colic workup, because early surgical intervention improves prognosis in horses requiring surgery. Despite the increasing availability of advanced diagnostics (hematologic analyses, abdominal ultrasound imaging, etc), the most accurate indicators of the need for surgery remain the presence of moderate to severe signs of abdominal pain, recurrence of pain after appropriate analgesic therapy, and the absence of intestinal borborygmi...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402478/probiotic-use-in-equine-gastrointestinal-disease
#11
REVIEW
Angelika Schoster
Probiotics are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine due to their postulated positive effects on overall and specifically gastrointestinal health. Although some beneficial effects have been shown in several human diseases, a general beneficial effect of probiotics is currently not supported. In horses, well-designed studies to date are few, results are conflicting, and the effects of probiotics are questionable. Adverse effects are rare; however, intestinal adverse effects (diarrhea) have been reported in foals...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398183/equine-dysautonomia
#12
REVIEW
Bruce C McGorum, R Scott Pirie
Equine dysautonomia (ED; also known as equine grass sickness) is a neurological disease of unknown cause, which primarily affects grazing adult horses. The clinical signs reflect degeneration of specific neuronal populations, predominantly within the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, with disease severity and prognosis determined by the extent of neuronal loss. This review is primarily focused on the major clinical decision-making processes in relation to ED, namely, (1) clinical diagnosis, (2) selection of appropriate ancillary diagnostic tests, (3) obtaining diagnostic confirmation, (4) selection of treatment candidates, and (5) identifying appropriate criteria for euthanasia...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397222/toxic-causes-of-intestinal-disease-in-horses
#13
REVIEW
Bryan L Stegelmeier, T Zane Davis
Because most poisonings occur by toxin ingestion, the gastrointestinal system is the first exposed and, in most cases, it is exposed to the highest toxin concentrations. Consequently, enterocyte damage is common. However, because many toxins produce organ-specific damage, and enterocyte necrosis is easily confused with autolysis, many gastrointestinal lesions are overlooked or overshadowed by other clinical and pathologic changes. The objective of this work is to review several common toxins and poisonous plants that produce primarily gastrointestinal disease...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395727/foal-diarrhea-established-and-postulated-causes-prevention-diagnostics-and-treatments
#14
REVIEW
Olimpo Oliver-Espinosa
Diarrhea is one of the most important diseases in young foals and may occur in more than half of foals until weaning age. Several infectious and noninfectious underlying causes have been implicated but scientific evidence of pathogenesis is evolving. It is important to investigate all known potential causes and identify infectious agents to avoid outbreaks, evaluate the level of systemic compromise, and establish adequate therapy. It is crucial to differentiate foals that can be managed in field conditions from those that should be sent to a referral center...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103564/the-science-and-practice-of-equine-ophthalmology-a-quarter-century-later
#15
EDITORIAL
Mary Lassaline
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103563/genetic-testing-as-a-tool-to-identify-horses-with-or-at-risk-for-ocular-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca R Bellone
Advances in equine genetics and genomics resources have enabled the understanding of some inherited ocular disorders and ocular manifestations. These ocular disorders include congenital stationary night blindness, equine recurrent uveitis, multiple congenital ocular anomalies, and squamous cell carcinoma. Genetic testing can identify horses with or at risk for disease and thus can assist in clinical management. In addition, genetic testing can identify horses that are carriers and thus can inform breeding decisions...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103562/ocular-manifestations-of-systemic-disease-in-the-horse
#17
REVIEW
Kathryn L Wotman, Amy L Johnson
Many systemic diseases have ocular manifestations. In some cases, ocular abnormalities are the most obvious or first recognized sign of disease that prompts veterinary evaluation. In other cases, the systemic disease leads to secondary ocular changes that might lead to loss of vision or globe if not addressed. Therefore, recognition of ocular abnormalities that might result from systemic diseases is an essential skill for the equine practitioner. This article provides practitioners with information regarding the most common systemic diseases of horses in North America that have ocular manifestations, organized by ocular signs...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103561/periocular-neoplasia-in-the-horse
#18
REVIEW
Krista Estell
Periocular neoplasia is common in horses. Treatment of the periocular skin and ocular adnexal structures can be technically challenging. Common neoplastic conditions, a treatment algorithm, surgical principles, and therapeutic modalities are reviewed. Regardless of the type of neoplasia found or the treatment that is applied, success is most likely when the neoplastic tumor is small.
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103560/equine-glaucoma
#19
REVIEW
Tammy Miller Michau
Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative ocular disease leading to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons that form the optic nerve, causing blindness. Knowledge of the pathogenesis and development of equine glaucoma is in its infancy compared with human glaucoma. Glaucoma occurs most commonly secondary to uveitis and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in horses suffering from uveitis. Recognition and clinical diagnosis of glaucoma in the horse is improved with clinician awareness and the availability of handheld tonometers...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103559/the-equine-fundus
#20
REVIEW
Gil Ben-Shlomo
Fundus is an anatomic term referring to the portion of an organ opposite from its opening, and the fundus of the eye is the back portion of the posterior segment of the globe, including the optic nerve, retina, and choroid. Clinically, the fundus can be visualized by direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. Understanding the normal anatomy and appearance of the equine fundus is crucial for differentiating normal variations from abnormalities. This article reviews the normal anatomy and appearance of the equine fundus and discusses basic and advanced examination techniques...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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