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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857966/equine-manual-therapies-in-sport-horse-practice
#1
REVIEW
Kevin K Haussler
Manual therapies involve the application of the hands to the body, with a diagnostic or therapeutic intent. Touch therapies, massage, joint mobilization, and manipulation are all critical components in the management of muscular, articular, and neurologic components of select injuries in performance horses. Musculoskeletal conditions that are chronic or recurring, not readily diagnosed, or are not responding to conventional veterinary care may be indicators that manual therapy evaluation and treatment is needed...
May 29, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857965/endocrine-disorders-of-the-equine-athlete
#2
REVIEW
Nicholas Frank
Equine athletes are affected by 2 major endocrine/metabolic disorders, insulin dysregulation (ID) and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. ID is a risk factor for laminitis in horses, which poses the greatest threat to performance because of the damage that it causes to hoof structures. This article includes an in-depth discussion of ID and other risk factors for laminitis that are grouped together as equine metabolic syndrome. As horses age, the risk of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction increases, and this endocrine disorder may exacerbate preexisting ID and further increase the risk of laminitis...
May 29, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853158/muscle-conditions-affecting-sport-horses
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie J Valberg
Optimal function of skeletal muscle is essential for successful athletic performance. Even minor derangements in locomotor muscle function will impact power output, coordination, stamina, and desire to work during exercise. In this review, the presenting clinical signs, differential diagnoses, approach to diagnostic testing and treatment of muscle atrophy and weakness, focal muscle strain, and exertional myopathies are discussed. Exertional myopathies include polysaccharide storage myopathies, recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis, malignant hyperthermia, and myofibrillar myopathy...
May 28, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853157/diagnosis-of-soft-tissue-injury-in-the-sport-horse
#4
REVIEW
Kirstin A Bubeck, Stacie Aarsvold
For successful diagnosis of soft tissue injuries in the sport horse, localizing the area of injury during clinical and lameness evaluation will be followed in most cases by an ultrasonographic examination. With MRI more available in equine veterinary clinics, this modality can allow for a complete evaluation of soft tissue and osseous structures and is especially useful for evaluation of structures within the hoof capsule. This article discusses special ultrasonographic techniques, an overview of MRI image generation, and the use of contrast computed tomography for diagnosis of soft tissue injuries...
May 28, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853156/neck-back-and-pelvic-pain-in-sport-horses
#5
REVIEW
José M García-López
Pain localized to the neck, back, and or pelvis can result in a profound effect on the horse's performance. These conditions can present with a varied and nonspecific set of clinical signs. A careful and thorough examination of these areas by means of physical examination, lameness evaluation both in hand and under saddle, diagnostic anesthesia, and the use of multiple imaging modalities in combination is often necessary to have an accurate prognosis. Medical and surgical management where appropriate of the conditions highlighted in this article are discussed as well as their individual prognosis...
May 28, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803299/regenerative-medicine-and-rehabilitation-for-tendinous-and-ligamentous-injuries-in-sport-horses
#6
REVIEW
Kyla F Ortved
Tendon and ligament injuries are a common source of lameness in the athletic horse. Although tendons and ligaments have the ability to spontaneously heal, lesions tend to fill with biomechanically inferior fibrous tissue such that the horse is prone to reinjury. Regenerative medicine is used to improve quality of repair tissue and prevent reinjury. Platelet-rich plasma, stem cells, and autologous conditioned serum are the most commonly used orthobiologics in the horse. A tailored rehabilitation program is key to returning horses to athleticism following injury...
May 23, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793735/upper-airway-conditions-affecting-the-equine-athlete
#7
REVIEW
Eric J Parente
Many abnormalities of the upper airway that can inhibit performance are determined on a critical resting endoscopic evaluation. Some dynamic abnormalities can only be seen during an exercising endoscopic evaluation, which should be performed whenever the history of abnormal noise or performance limitations is not completely consistent with the resting endoscopic findings. Head and neck position may play a critical role in the evaluation process and the exact position during performance should be reproduced during the clinical examination to definitively define the abnormality...
May 21, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793734/management-and-rehabilitation-of-joint-disease-in-sport-horses
#8
REVIEW
Erin K Contino
Joint disease is one of the most common issues effecting sport horses. Because there is no cure for joint disease, treatment goals surround slowing progression of the disease, minimizing pain, increasing function, and optimizing performance. Accomplishing these goals often requires a multimodal approach that combines systemic medications or supplements; intra-articular therapies, such as corticosteroids or biologics; management considerations; and physical therapy exercises.
May 21, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534811/advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-equine-gastrointestinal-diseases
#9
EDITORIAL
Henry Stämpfli, Angelika Schoster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534810/advances-in-diagnostics-and-treatments-in-horses-and-foals-with-gastric-and-duodenal-ulcers
#10
REVIEW
Pilar Camacho-Luna, Benjamin Buchanan, Frank M Andrews
Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) primarily describes ulceration in the terminal esophagus, nonglandular squamous mucosa, glandular mucosa of the stomach, and proximal duodenum. EGUS is common in all breeds and ages of horses and foals. This article focuses on the current terminology for EGUS, etiologies and pathogenesis for lesions in the nonglandular and glandular stomach, diagnosis, and a comprehensive approach to the treatment and prevention of EGUS in adult horses and foals.
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534809/practical-fluid-therapy-and-treatment-modalities-for-field-conditions-for-horses-and-foals-with-gastrointestinal-problems
#11
REVIEW
C Langdon Fielding
With advances in technology and owner education, field management in equine veterinary medicine continues to evolve. Equine gastrointestinal disease is one of the most common types of emergencies evaluated by equine practitioners, and many of these patients can be effectively managed in the field. Although the equine veterinarian must make numerous decisions, fluid therapy, pain management, and antimicrobial use are 3 of the major choices that must be addressed when initiating field treatment of equine gastrointestinal disease...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426711/enteral-parenteral-nutrition-in-foals-and-adult-horses-practical-guidelines-for-the-practitioner
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Carr
Nutritional support is an important adjunct to medical therapy in the sick, injured, or debilitated equine patient. What is not clear is the optimal route, composition, or amounts of support. The enteral route should be chosen whenever possible to maximize the benefits to the gastrointestinal tract and the patient as a whole. Complete or partial parenteral nutrition is most useful as a bridge during recovery and transition to enteral feeding in the horse. The reader is encouraged to consider nutritional support whether enteral or parenteral in any anorexic, chronically debilitated, or sick equine patient...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426710/diagnostics-and-treatments-in-chronic-diarrhea-and-weight-loss-in-horses
#13
REVIEW
Olimpo Oliver-Espinosa
Chronic diarrhea in the horse is defined as diarrhea present for more than several days with little if any improvement. The diagnosis and treatment of horses with chronic diarrhea usually present a great challenge to the clinician. There are many limitations to treatment of these patients given the limited numbers in which a final diagnosis can be achieved. The lack of knowledge of the alterations of horse microbiota during chronic diarrhea and the multiplicity of causes also make treatment challenging. A poor prognosis is often attached to chronic diarrhea, particularly in cases with neoplasia and inflammatory bowel disease...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426709/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-undifferentiated-and-infectious-acute-diarrhea-in-the-adult-horse
#14
REVIEW
Sarah D Shaw, Henry Stämpfli
Acute, infectious, diarrhea in adult horses is a major cause of morbidity and is associated with numerous complications. Common causes include salmonellosis, clostridiosis, Coronavirus, and infection with Neorickettsia risticii (Potomac horse fever). Treatment is empirical and supportive until results of specific diagnostic tests are available. Supportive care is aimed at restoring hydration, correcting electrolyte imbalances, and limiting the systemic inflammatory response. The mainstays of therapy are intravenous fluid therapy, electrolyte supplementation where necessary, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and nutritional support...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426708/new-perspectives-in-equine-intestinal-parasitic-disease-insights-in-monitoring-helminth-infections
#15
REVIEW
Kurt Pfister, Deborah van Doorn
Regular anthelmintic treatment has contributed to anthelmintic resistance in horse helminths. This mass anthelmintic treatment was originally developed owing to a lack of larvicidal drugs against Strongylus vulgaris. The high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance and shortening of strongyle egg reappearance period after avermectins/moxidectins requires epidemiologically appropriate and sustainable measures. Selective anthelmintic treatment is a much-needed deworming approach: More than 50% of adult horses manifest no strongyle egg excretion...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402481/techniques-and-accuracy-of-abdominal-ultrasound-in-gastrointestinal-diseases-of-horses-and-foals
#16
REVIEW
Nicola C Cribb, Luis G Arroyo
Diagnostic ultrasonography has been used as a test to determine the presence or absence of gastrointestinal disease in horses and foals. General techniques and anatomic landmarks are reviewed. Many clinical reports that have included diagnostic ultrasound as part of their diagnostic process and accuracy studies are necessary to determine the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in clinical practice.
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402480/understanding-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Marcio Carvalho Costa, Jeffrey Scott Weese
This article provides readers with the basic concepts necessary to understand studies using recent molecular methods performed in intestinal microbiome assessment, with special emphasis on the high throughput sequencing. This review also summarizes the current knowledge on this topic and discusses future insights on the interaction between the intestinal microbiome and equine health.
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402479/advances-in-diagnostics-and-treatments-in-horses-with-acute-colic-and-postoperative-ileus
#18
REVIEW
Megan Burke, Anthony Blikslager
Differentiating between medical and surgical causes of colic is one of the primary goals of the colic workup, because early surgical intervention improves prognosis in horses requiring surgery. Despite the increasing availability of advanced diagnostics (hematologic analyses, abdominal ultrasound imaging, etc), the most accurate indicators of the need for surgery remain the presence of moderate to severe signs of abdominal pain, recurrence of pain after appropriate analgesic therapy, and the absence of intestinal borborygmi...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402478/probiotic-use-in-equine-gastrointestinal-disease
#19
REVIEW
Angelika Schoster
Probiotics are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine due to their postulated positive effects on overall and specifically gastrointestinal health. Although some beneficial effects have been shown in several human diseases, a general beneficial effect of probiotics is currently not supported. In horses, well-designed studies to date are few, results are conflicting, and the effects of probiotics are questionable. Adverse effects are rare; however, intestinal adverse effects (diarrhea) have been reported in foals...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398183/equine-dysautonomia
#20
REVIEW
Bruce C McGorum, R Scott Pirie
Equine dysautonomia (ED; also known as equine grass sickness) is a neurological disease of unknown cause, which primarily affects grazing adult horses. The clinical signs reflect degeneration of specific neuronal populations, predominantly within the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, with disease severity and prognosis determined by the extent of neuronal loss. This review is primarily focused on the major clinical decision-making processes in relation to ED, namely, (1) clinical diagnosis, (2) selection of appropriate ancillary diagnostic tests, (3) obtaining diagnostic confirmation, (4) selection of treatment candidates, and (5) identifying appropriate criteria for euthanasia...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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