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Maria Viviana Carlino, Fiorella Paladino, Alfonso Sforza, Claudia Serra, Filomena Liccardi, Giovanni de Simone, Costantino Mancusi
BACKGROUND: Acute dyspnea is one of the main reasons for admission to Emergency Department (ED). Availability of ultraminiaturized pocket ultrasound devices (PUD) adds diagnostic power to the clinical examination. The aim of this study was to identify an integrated ultrasound approach for diagnosis of acute heart failure (acute HF), using PUD and combining evaluation from lung, heart and inferior vena cava (IVC). METHODS: We included 102 patients presenting to the ED of "Antonio Cardarelli" Hospital in Naples (Italy) for acute dyspnea (AD)...
March 9, 2018: Echocardiography
Nikolaus Jander, Susanne Wienecke, Stephan Dorfs, Philipp Ruile, Franz-Josef Neumann, Gregor Pache, Jan Minners
AIM: Two-dimensional, transthoracic echocardiography does not account for the noncircular anatomy of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and may therefore underestimate LVOT area. Fusion of computed tomography (CT)-derived LVOT area and Doppler-derived flow data has been proposed to improve assessment of aortic valve area (AVA) and classification of aortic stenosis severity. For hemodynamic reasons, effective AVA has to be smaller than anatomic AVA. The aim of the study was to test the "fusion approach" by comparing effective CT-derived AVA with anatomic AVA from CT planimetry...
March 9, 2018: Echocardiography
Grace Koo, Neha Goyal, Jeanne M DeCara, Roberto M Lang, Karima Addetia
Good-quality chest compressions improve outcomes in cardiac arrest. While manual chest compressions are suboptimal in this regard, the LUCAS device has been shown to improve the effectiveness of chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The complication rate associated with mechanical CPR, however, has not been adequately studied. Limited evidence suggests no difference in internal injury between manual and mechanical CPR. We report the case of a patient on anticoagulation who developed a mediastinal hematoma post mechanical CPR and on whom subtle findings on initial echocardiography could have alerted the clinician to this complication early during the clinical course...
March 6, 2018: Echocardiography
Qingqing Wang, Kaibin Tan, Hongmei Xia, Yunhua Gao
AIMS: The aims of the current study were to analyze and compare the left ventricular (LV) structure and function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with or without hyperlipidemia using conventional echocardiography and real-time three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) and to determine the variables that could affect LV strain values in these patients. METHODS: Eighty-one T2DM patients with normal LVEF (≥55%) were included, 41 of whom had hyperlipidemia as comorbidity...
March 6, 2018: Echocardiography
Giovanni Masoero, Alexandros Papachristidis, Konstantinos C Theodoropoulos, Derek Harries, Mark J Monaghan, Daniel M Sado
Contrast echocardiography with agitated saline is used to assess mainly the existence of interatrial communication. We report a case of a 26-year-old woman, with a "port-a-cath" central venous line, who had an unusual finding in agitated saline contrast echocardiography. Multimodality imaging revealed occlusion of superior vena cava and a systemic-to-pulmonary venous shunt.
March 6, 2018: Echocardiography
Biagio Castaldi, Giulia Bordin, Valentina Favero, Daniel Nardo, Francesca Previati, Sabrina Salvadori, Eugenio Baraldi, Ornella Milanesi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preterm newborns undergo hemodynamic challenges in the postnatal period. The aim of this study was to investigate myocardial mechanics changes in the postnatal period in preterm infants using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-nine preterm infants ≤34 weeks' gestation underwent cardiac ultrasound evaluation during the first 96 hours of life. A repeated echocardiogram at 3 weeks of age was performed. Echocardiographic assessment involved left ventricular ejection fraction, mitral E/A ratio, S' and E' velocities, E/E' ratio, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), left atrium-to-aorta ratio, ductal diameter and ductal shunt pattern...
March 6, 2018: Echocardiography
Yemei He, Baixue Zhang, Fang Zhu, Zheyu Hu, Jia Zhong, Wenhui Zhu
AIMS: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) commonly recurs after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). This study aimed to assess left atrial appendage (LAA) volume and function by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and to explore its value in predicting PAF recurrence after RFCA. METHODS: Eighty patients with PAF were recruited. The left atrial (LA) and LAA volume and function were measured by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and TEE before ablation...
March 6, 2018: Echocardiography
Juan Pablo Costabel, Enrique Galve, María Terricabras, Clara Ametrano, Ricardo Ronderos, Adrian Baranchuk, Arturo Evangelista, Gustavo Avegliano
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs in about 20%-25% of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and is associated with increased risk of cardioembolism and heart failure impacting on patients' morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify echocardiographic predictors of AF in a cohort of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: Patients were recruited from 2 centers: Buenos Aires Cardiovascular Institute and the Hospital Vall d'Hebron of Barcelona which were analyzed together...
March 5, 2018: Echocardiography
Martin Koestenberger, Alexander Avian, Hannes Sallmon, Andreas Gamillscheg, Gernot Grangl, Stefan Kurath-Koller, Sabrina Schweintzger, Ante Burmas, Georg Hansmann
OBJECTIVE: The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is pivotal for adequate RV function and known to be adversely affected by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) in adults with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Aim of this study was to determine the effects of increased RV pressure afterload in children with PH on RVOT size, function, and flow parameters. METHODS: We conducted a transthoracic echocardiographic study in 51 children with PH (median age: 5.3 years; range 1...
March 5, 2018: Echocardiography
Hiroki Usuku, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Hiromi Yoshimura, Ryusuke Tsunoda, Kazuhiro Nishigami, Masamichi Nakajima, Ryusuke Suzuki, Kenichi Tsujita
We detected symptomatic atrial fibrillation in a 64-year-old man who had undergone mitral valvuloplasty. While performing transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the left lateral decubitus position, we detected an isoechoic mass lesion at the bottom of the left atrial appendage (LAA). After changing the patient's position from left to right, the mass lesion dropped down from the bottom of the LAA, spread out into the left atrium, and appeared as a spontaneous echocardiographic contrast with mobility. We therefore diagnosed the mass lesion as not a thrombus but sludge...
March 5, 2018: Echocardiography
Xue Sun, Wenjia Lei, Yu Wang, Faiza Amber Siddiqui, Ying Zhang
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) is a rare malformation. We describe a case of PAPVC, in which the left pulmonary veins coursed to the left innominate vein through a vertical vein and finally drained into the right superior vena cava; the right pulmonary veins were connected to the left atrium. Tracing the origin and destination of abnormal vessels presented at the three-vessel and trachea view is useful for the diagnosis. Four-dimensional echocardiography with high-definition flow imaging and spatiotemporal image correlation facilitates the identification of the drainage of fetal pulmonary veins, which should be considered as a complementary modality in obstetric ultrasonic examination when cardiac abnormalities are suspected...
March 5, 2018: Echocardiography
Ioannis Felekos, Constantina Aggeli, Elias Gialafos, Vasileios Kouranos, Aggeliki Rapti, Petros Sfikakis, Nikolaos Koulouris, Dimitris Tousoulis
PURPOSE: Global longitudinal strain (GLS) is increasingly accepted as a predictor of mortality in various clinical settings. This study tested the hypothesis that GLS is associated with increased event rate in patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis, who have no overt symptoms of cardiovascular disease and preserved ejection fraction (EF). METHODS: We retrospectively studied 117 patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis and 45 age- and sex-matched controls, who underwent comprehensive echocardiographic study, while GLS was measured by an offline speckle tracking algorithm...
February 28, 2018: Echocardiography
Mateusz K Hołda, Agata Krawczyk-Ożóg, Mateusz Koziej, Danuta Sorysz, Jakub Hołda, Dariusz Dudek, Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that the left-sided septal pouch (SP) may increase the risk of cryptogenic stroke and act as an arrhythmogenic substrate. The aim of this study was to compare two transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) projections of the interventricular septum: mid-esophageal bicaval and short-axis views toward evaluating their ability to detect SPs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 146 patients with both bicaval and short-axis TEE views were included in this study...
February 28, 2018: Echocardiography
Nirav Patel, Pavani Kolakalapudi, Garima Arora
The utility and role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as a non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality has been well recognized in the field of cardiovascular disease. Use of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has further enhanced CMR's ability to determine structural, functional, and prognostic information in various cardiovascular diseases. The delivery and distribution of gadolinium as an extracellular agent allows the detection of edema, fibrosis, and infiltration in the myocardium. The pattern of LGE in cardiomyopathies enables us to distinguish among various disease processes non-invasively...
February 23, 2018: Echocardiography
Mi-Na Kim, Jae-Min Shim, Jong-Il Choi, Seong-Mi Park, Young Hoon Kim, Wan Joo Shim
BACKGROUND: Female sex is a risk factor for thromboembolism (TE) in atrial fibrillation (AF); however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We postulated that left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) could be associated with increased thromboembolic risk in women. METHODS: From a retrospective cohort, 158 patients (female : male = 79:79) with nonvalvular AF were propensity score-matched for age, presence of diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, embolic history, AF type, and AF duration...
February 20, 2018: Echocardiography
Matan Shimron, Lynne Williams, Yevgeni Hazanov, Diab Ghanim, Wadia Kinany, Offer Amir, Shemy Carasso
BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction (DDFx) is the major underlying mechanism of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). Yet, the echocardiographic diagnosis of DDFx in patients in sinus rhythm is challenging and up to 25% of studies have discrepant measures making assessment of DDFx indeterminate. We aimed to describe the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of patients with indeterminate diastolic function compared to patients with definite normal and abnormal diastolic function...
February 19, 2018: Echocardiography
Edmund Kenneth Kerut, Robert Ascuitto, Nancy Ross-Ascuitto, James J McKinnie
An adult case of polyvalvular heart disease syndrome diagnosed in an adult is presented. The characteristic facies and echocardiographic features of this rare autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder are presented.
February 19, 2018: Echocardiography
Edoardo Sciatti, Enrico Vizzardi, Assunta Castiello, Francesca Valentini, Ivano Bonadei, Sandro Gelsomino, Roberto Lorusso, Marco Metra
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is strongly related to arterial stiffness in a cause-effect fashion. Diabetes mellitus is also thought to determine vascular damage, mostly by means of advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs). Aim of our study was to study the role of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as regard ascending aortic elastic properties in hypertensive patients. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled outpatients with hypertension (n = 99) and type 2 diabetes mellitus plus hypertension (n = 42) without cardiovascular events...
February 19, 2018: Echocardiography
María Cristina Saccheri, Tomás Francisco Cianciulli, Wilde Challapa Licidio, Jorge A Lax, Martín A Beck, Luis A Morita, Juan A Gagliardi
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are two diseases with a different pathophysiology, both cause left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and myocardial fibrosis. Although remodeling and systolic dysfunction of the left atrium (LA) are associated with atrial fibrillation and stroke in HCM, changes in the size and function of the LA have not been well studied in FD with LVH. METHODS: The following groups were studied prospectively, and their respective findings compared: 19 patients with non-obstructive HCM (Group I), 20 patients with a diagnosis of Fabry cardiomyopathy (Group II), and 20 normal subjects matched for sex and age (Group III)...
February 19, 2018: Echocardiography
Nicholas J Whitehead, Stuart Murch, James W Leitch, Rosemary A Hackworthy
A young woman presented with fulminant heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe left ventricular dysfunction with a mass adjacent to the basal anterior wall, near the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). The cause of the acute heart failure and mass was unclear. Transesophageal echocardiography, with contrast, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with thrombus near the LVOT. Cardiac biopsy suggested giant cell myocarditis. The patient was treated with anticoagulation, steroids, and heart failure medications with resolution of the thrombus...
February 19, 2018: Echocardiography
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