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Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651102/niosomes-as-nano-delivery-systems-in-the-pharmaceutical-field
#1
Cristal Cerqueira-Coutinho, Elisabete P Dos Santos, Claudia Regina E Mansur
Nanosystems used in the pharmaceutical field aim to guarantee a controlled release and efficacy boost with dose reduction of the drug. The same active ingredient could be vehiculated in different concentrations in distinct nanosystems. Among these nanostructures, the vesicular ones present a versatile delivery system that could be applied to encapsulate lipophilic, amphiphilic, and hydrophilic compounds. Liposomes are the most well-known vesicular nanosystems; however, there are others, such as niosomes, that are composed of nonionic surfactants that are polymeric or conventional...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651101/plga-nanoparticles-and-their-versatile-role-in-anticancer-drug-delivery
#2
Iliyas Khan, Avinash Gothwal, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Prashant Kesharwani, Lokesh Gupta, Arun K Iyer, Umesh Gupta
Nanotechnological advancement has become a key standard for the diagnosis and treatment of several complex disorders such as cancer by utilizing the enhanced permeability and retention effect and tumor-specific targeting. Synthesis and designing the formulation of active agents in terms of their efficient delivery is of prime importance for healthcare. The use of nanocarriers has resolved the undesirable characteristics of anticancer drugs such as low solubility and poor permeability in cells. Several types of nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed with the use of various polymers along or devoid of surface engineering for targeting tumor cells...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651100/chitosan-nanoparticles-prepared-by-ionotropic-gelation-an-overview-of-recent-advances
#3
Kashappa Goud Desai
The objective of this review is to summarize recent advances in chitosan nanoparticles prepared by ionotropic gelation. Significant progress has occurred in this area since the method was first reported. The gelation technique has been improved through a number of creative methodological modifications. Ionotropic gelation via electrospraying and spinning disc processing produces nanoparticles with a more uniform size distribution. Large-scale manufacturing of the nanoparticles can be achieved with the latter approach...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279339/microsponges-a-pioneering-tool-for-biomedical-applications
#4
Amrita Kumari, Ankit Jain, Pooja Hurkat, Amit Verma, Sanjay Kumar Jain
Microparticulate drug delivery systems have been explored across the globe due to their various advantages. In 1987, Won developed microsponge systems (Micsys), also known as solid-phase porous microspheres, having numerous interconnected voids, which serve as non-collapsible residence for bioactive compounds. A Micsys particle ranges from 5 to 300 μm in size and shows a wide range of entrapment efficiency with desired release rates. This topical drug delivery system bestows a controlled release of bioactive compounds into the skin with reduced systemic side effects...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279338/the-effective-role-of-hydroxyapatite-based-composites-in-anticancer-drug-delivery-systems
#5
Samaneh Saber-Samandari, Nader Nezafati, Saeed Saber-Samandari
Tumors consist of a heterogeneous population of cancer cells carrying multiple genetic mutations. During the past few decades, efforts have focused on curing cancer using various methods. However, traditional cancer therapies still carry some drawbacks, such as limited application for only a few cancer types, killing of normal cells, poor specificity, and associated toxicity. To overcome these disadvantages, drug-delivery methods that emphasize biomaterials have been developed and applied to optimize cancer treatments...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279337/current-trends-in-self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-systems-seddss-to-enhance-the-bioavailability-of-poorly-water-soluble-drugs
#6
Rohit Karwal, Tarun Garg, Goutam Rath, Tanmay S Markandeywar
The main object of the self-emulsifying drug-delivery system (SEDDS) is oral bioavailability (BA) enhancement of a poorly water-soluble drug. Low aqueous solubility and low oral BA are major concerns for formulation scientists. As many drugs are lipophilic in nature, their lower solubility and dissolution are major drawbacks for their successful formulation into oral dosage forms. More than 60% of drugs have a lipophilic nature and exhibit poor aqueous solubility. Various strategies are reported in the literature to improve the solubility and enhance BA of lipophilic drugs, including the formation of a cyclodextrin complex, solid dispersions, and micronization...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559552/emerging-potential-of-nanosuspension-enabled-drug-delivery-an-overview
#7
REVIEW
Silki, Vivek Ranjan Sinha
Poor aqueous solubility is one of the key concerns of the majority of new drug molecules. One of the important problems associated with such drugs is that they often lead to low bioavailability. Researchers have used various techniques, but little success has been achieved due to poor stability and industrial viability, including technique cost. Of the numerous techniques, nanosuspensions (NSs) have drawn interest in improving solubility. NSs are dispersions of nanosized drug particles stabilized with the aid of appropriate agents...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559551/nanostructured-delivery-systems-augmenting-the-delivery-of-antiretroviral-drugs-for-better-management-of-hiv-aids
#8
REVIEW
Gurinder Singh, Roopa S Pai, Sanaul Mustafa
In the last two decades, HIV-1, the retrovirus associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is globally one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, existing approaches for interventions are not able to suppress the progression of infection due to this virus. Of the many obstacles, viral entry into the mono-nuclear phagocyte system encompassing monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells is a major concern. Viral infection is also responsible for the subsequent distribution of the virus into various tissues throughout the organism...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559550/quantum-dots-and-their-potential-role-in-cancer-theranostics
#9
REVIEW
S K Tripathi, Gurvir Kaur, Rajneet Kaur Khurana, Sonia Kapoor, Bhupinder Singh
The emergence of cancer nanomedicine is the result of fruitful advances in the fields of nanotechnology, bioimaging, formulation development, and molecular biology. Quantum dots (QDs) are the luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) that provide a multifunctional platform for imaging the biosystems following controlled delivery of therapeutic drugs, proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides, and genes. These engineered fluorescent probes with integrated imaging and carrier functionalities have become excellent tools for molecular diagnostics and delivery of therapeutics molecules...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559434/myriad-molecules-to-overcome-efflux-drug-transporters-and-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-a-journey-from-synthetic-to-natural
#10
REVIEW
Karan Mittal, Riddhish Patadia, Chintan Vora, Rajashree Mashru
A vast range of prescribed drugs suffers from low and variable bioavailability mainly because of metabolism and permeation complications. This issue of bioavailability is a key problem that has been ongoing for many years. Various tactics have been introduced that have been quite beneficial for improving the bioavailability of poorly bioavailable drugs. Some of these tactics are targeted on cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes and the permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump. Strategies include small-molecule inhibitors, novel drug-delivery systems, pharmaceutical synthetic excipients, and natural bioenhancers...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559433/nanotechnology-based-photodynamic-therapy-concepts-advances-and-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Tarun Garg, Nitin K Jain, Goutam Rath, Amit Kumar Goyal
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photoactive process that uses the combination of photosensitizers (PSs) and specific wavelengths of light for the treatment of solid tumors and other diseases. PDT received increased attention after regulatory approval of several photosensitizing drugs and light applicators worldwide. With the advent of newer PSs, the role of PDT in the treatment of cancer and other diseases has been revolutionized. In addition, various targeting strategies developed for site-specific delivery of PSs will be helpful for avoiding phototoxicity to normal tissues...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559432/oral-absorption-promoters-opportunities-issues-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Chetan Yewale, Sushilkumar Patil, Atul Kolate, Girish Kore, Ambikanandan Misra
Transport of a drug across the biological membrane of the gastrointestinal tract has turned out to be a critical barrier against the success of any oral drug delivery technology. The unique advantages of the oral route, along with need for an oral substitute of invasive parenteral formulations and the reduction of intersubject variability in plasma profiles, has been an incentive for the use of excipients with absorption-enhancing properties to boost the bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. The development of such excipients is not a simple task, so understanding enhancement mechanisms in relation to physiology can facilitate the identification of structure-function relationships as well as the development of newer agents for customary applications...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26080926/atopic-dermatitis-drug-delivery-approaches-in-disease-management
#13
REVIEW
Manisha Lalan, Jitendra Baweja, Ambikanandan Misra
In this review, we describe the very basic of atopic dermatitis (AD), the established management strategies, and the advances in drug delivery approaches for successful therapeutic outcomes. The multifactorial pathophysiology of AD has given rise to the clinician's paradigm of topical and systemic therapy and potential combinations. However, incomplete remission of skin disorders like AD is a major challenge to be overcome. Recurrence is thought to be due to genetic and immunological etiologies and shortcomings in drug delivery...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26080925/scaffolds-a-novel-carrier-and-potential-wound-healer
#14
REVIEW
Chetan Chaudhary, Tarun Garg
A scaffold is comprised of the polymeric central components, which are used to deliver cells, drugs, and genes into the body. Wounds, which lead to a loss of integrity of the skin and skin mortality, are common challenges encountered in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The primary goals of treatment are rapid closure, restoration of function, and aesthetic satisfaction. A paradigm shift is taking place in medicine from using synthetic implants and tissue grafts to a tissue-engineering approach that uses degradable porous material scaffolds integrated with biological cells or molecules to regenerate tissues...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26080810/polymeric-drug-delivery-systems-role-in-p-gp-efflux-system-inhibition
#15
REVIEW
Preeti Gupta, Tarun Garg, M Tanmay, Saahil Arora
Permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), a multispecific drug transporter belonging to the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene subfamily, is mainly responsible for efflux of diffused intracellular drugs, resulting in poor drug bioavailability. P-gp is overexpressed in the blood-brain barrier, gastrointestinal tract (GIT), kidney, liver, pancreas, and cancerous cells, leading to multidrug resistance and failure of therapy. Because P-gp is transported into cells by way of receptor-mediated endocytosis (in contrast to diffusion for free drug), polymeric efflux pump modulators can have a major role in efficient drug delivery...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26080809/polymer-drug-conjugates-for-anticancer-drug-delivery
#16
REVIEW
Saurabh Wadhwa, Russell J Mumper
Polymer-drug conjugates (PDCs) are drug delivery systems where one or more drug(s) are covalently attached to the functional groups of the polymer directly or through a spacer. Several anticancer drugs that have been used to synthesize PDCs are currently under clinical trials. PDCs have shown enhanced tumor accumulation, increased therapeutic index, and prolonged circulation, accompanied by a sustained release of the bound drug. Distinct cell uptake mechanisms make PDCs less sensitive to efflux pumps associated with the development of multi-drug resistance...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26080808/inflammatory-bowel-disease-pathogenesis-causative-factors-issues-drug-treatment-strategies-and-delivery-approaches
#17
REVIEW
Deependra Singh, Shikha Srivastava, Madhulika Pradhan, Jagat R Kanwar, Manju Rawat Singh
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an incessant, reverting, inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract encompassing two entities, namely, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Numerous protocols have been explored to treat these dreadful diseases, including the use of different IBD drugs with different modes of action and routes of administration. Constant progression in the development of newer formulations, chemical modifications, stimuli-responsive systems, and novel approaches using colloidal and cellular carriers have led to effective treatments of gastric inflammation...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25955883/ligand-appended-bbb-targeted-nanocarriers-labtns
#18
REVIEW
Ankit Jain, Sanjay K Jain
Delivering therapeutics across the blood brain barrier (BBB) remains the rate-limiting step in brain medicine research. Three main categories of endogenous transportation at BBB that can be used for targeting brain are carrier-mediated transport, active efflux transport, and receptor-mediated transport. Various approaches using nanocarriers such as liposomes, niosomes, micelles, and nanoparticles with manifested surface modifications using either covalent or noncovalent methods to append suitable ligands are being intensively explored to achieve drug delivery to the brain...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25955882/colloidal-drug-delivery-systems-current-status-and-future-directions
#19
REVIEW
Tarun Garg, Goutam Rath, Amit Kumar Goyal
In this paper, we provide an overview an extensive range of colloidal drug delivery systems with special focus on vesicular and particulates systems that are being used in research or might be potentially useful as carriers systems for drug or active biomolecules or as cell carriers with application in the therapeutic field. We present some important examples of commercially available drug delivery systems with applications in research or in clinical fields. This class of systems is widely used due to excellent drug targeting, sustained and controlled release behavior, higher entrapment efficiency of drug molecules, prevention of drug hydrolysis or enzymatic degradation, and improvement of therapeutic efficacy...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25746205/top-down-and-bottom-up-approaches-in-3d-printing-technologies-for-drug-delivery-challenges
#20
REVIEW
Prakash Katakam, Baishakhi Dey, Fathi H Assaleh, Nagiat Tayeb Hwisa, Shanta Kumari Adiki, Babu Rao Chandu, Analava Mitra
3-Dimensional printing (3DP) constitutes a raft of technologies, based on different physical mechanisms, that generate a 3-dimensional physical object from a digital model. Because of its rapid fabrication and precise geometry, 3DP has gained a prominent focus in biomedical and nanobiomaterials research. Despite advancements in targeted, controlled, and pulsatile drug delivery, the achievement of site-specific and disease-responsive drug release and stringent control over in vivo biodistribution, are still some of the important, challenging areas for pharmaceutical research and development and existing drug delivery techniques...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
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