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Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

Amrita Chakraborty, Pubali Dhar
In neo-age research, nano-materials have emerged as potential tools for the revolution of diagnostic and therapeutic field because of their nano-scale effects, increased surface area-volume ratio, and other beneficial properties. For the last few decades, protein has been regarded as the most attractive and versatile natural bio-macromolecule among all of the available biopolymers. Protein is largely exploited as a nano-carrier system in the pharmaceutical industry due to its low cytotoxocity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, abundant renewable sources, significant attaching ability, clinically useful targeting, and site-specific efficient uptake...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Mei Shao, Zahid Hussain, Hnin Ei Thu, Shahzeb Khan, Marcel de Matas, Victoria Silkstone, Hua-Li Qin, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
Chronic wounds which include diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), pressure ulcer, and arterial or venous ulcers compel a significant burden to the patients, healthcare providers, and the healthcare system. Chronic wounds are characterized by an excessive persistent inflammatory phase, prolonged infection, and the failure of defense cells to respond to environmental stimuli. Unlike acute wounds, chronic nonhealing wounds pose a substantial challenge to conventional wound dressings, and the development of novel and advanced wound healing modalities is needed...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Ashana Puri, Arunprasad Sivaraman, Wei Zhang, Meredith R Clark, Ajay K Banga
Constant efforts for HIV prevention using antiretroviral drugs, pre- and postexposure prophylactic agents, and microbicides are being made by researchers. Drug-delivery systems such as oral tablets and coitally dependent vaginal gels are short acting, require daily application, and are associated with user adherence issues, whereas the coitally independent systems such as injectables and biodegradable implants are long acting, lasting several months, during which time the termination of prophylaxis is impractical in case of adverse effects...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Ritu Gupta
The clinical success of investigational pharmaceuticals remains doubtful due to an unacceptable level of attrition during clinical drug development and declining clinical approval rates. Countless molecules are being withdrawn during drug discovery and clinical trial phases due to poor pharmacokinetics (ADME), lack of safety and efficacy, commercial interests, market competition, and patent protection expiry. Consequently, the novel drug pipelines are running dry. Because huge capital is involved in different clinical trial phases, the task of bringing a new drug or drug formulation to the market is a very costly venture...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Ranjeet Prasad Dash, Manika Kala, Manish Nivsarkar, R Jayachandra Babu
Plant-derived active ingredients with hepatoprotective activity have been used extensively in the treatment of various liver diseases. These compounds are used either in their natural form or the chemical constituents present therein serve as templates for the development of synthetic-based therapeutic entities. Current research interests are focused on formulation development and pharmacokinetic studies of herbal medicines. This article provides a comprehensive review on formulation influences on the preclinical/clinical pharmacokinetics of selected hepatoprotectants such as silymarin, curcumin, glycyrrhizin, andrographolide, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, and picroside I and II...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Gajanand Sharma, Kanika Thakur, Kaisar Raza, Bhupinder Singh, Om Parkash Katare
Topical drug delivery offers many advantages over oral delivery, such as avoidance of first-pass metabolism, targeting of the active ingredients for a local effect, and patient compliance. However, the achievement of dermal and transdermal delivery needs to conciliate difficulties in permeation across skin barrier at different levels (skin surface, epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis). Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are recently invented second-generation lipidic carriers. The present article intends to provide an insight of composition, production, and application of these carriers in topical delivery for local and systemic effects...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Riaz, Erum Yasmeen, Muhammad Zubair Yousaf
Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. The silent activation of cellular factors responsible for deviation from normal regulatory pathways leads to the development of cancer. Nano-biotechnology is a novel drug-delivery system with high potential of efficacy and accuracy to target lethal cancers. Various biocompatible nanoparticle (NP)-based drug-delivery systems such as liposomes, dendrimers, micelles, silica, quantum dots, and magnetic, gold, and carbon nanotubes have already been reported for successful targeted cancer treatment...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Mahfoozur Rahman, Sarwar Beg, Firoz Anwar, Vikas Kumar, Ruhi Ubale, Richard T Addo, Raisuddin Ali, Sohail Akhter
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a very painful severe autoimmune disease with complex pathology characterized by progressive chronic inflammation, and devastation of the synovium, cartilage, and other joint-associated structures. Significant advances in research in the area of pathophysiology, diagnosis, drug development, and targeted delivery have led to improved RA therapy and better patient compliance. Targeted drug delivery using liposomal nanomedicines significantly alleviate the challenges with conventional anti-RA medications such as off-target effects, short biological half-life, poor bioavailability, high dose-related toxicity, etc...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
S Cunha, M H Amaral, J M Sousa Lobo, Ana C Silva
Studies on the development of drug delivery systems have increased because these systems have particular characteristics that allow them to improve therapeutics. Among these, lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles, SLNs; and nanostructured lipid carriers, NLCs) have demonstrated suitability for drug targeting. The nasal administration of drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles showed effectiveness in treating central nervous system (CNS) disorders, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, because the nasal route (also called intranasal route) allows direct nose-to-brain drug delivery by means of lipid nanoparticles...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Bhupinder Singh, Rajneet Kaur Khurana, Babita Garg, Sumant Saini, Ranjot Kaur
With the advent of "intelligent" polymeric systems, the use of stimuli-responsive in situ gelling systems has been revolutionized. These interesting polymers exist as free-flowing aqueous solutions before administration and undergo a phase transition to form a viscoelastic gel in a physiological environ through various stimuli such as temperature, pH, solvent, biochemical, magnetic, electric, ultrasound, and photo-polymerization. These smart polymers are endowed with numerous merits such as ease of administration, sustained release, reduced frequent administration with improved patient compliance, and targeted and spatial delivery of a drug with reduced frequency of side effects...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
R R Nair, S Padhee, T Das, R Green, M Howell, S S Mohapatra, Subhra Mohapatra
There have been remarkable improvements in our understanding of cancer biology. However, therapeutic improvements, with a few exceptions, have been minimal. Also, significant challenges remain in translating fundamental discoveries in cancer biology and genetics into effective drugs and cures. Traditional two-dimensional monolayer cell cultures lack predictive value, resulting in a >90% failure rate of compounds in clinical trials. A developing cancer is a symbiotic tissue consisting of cancer cells, including cancer stem cells (CSCs), and cohabitating with the components of its environment to form a tumor microenvironment (TME) niche...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Paola Ringhieri, Giancarlo Morelli, Antonella Accardo
Stimulated by the enormous success of the inorganic complex cisplatin in tumor treatment, interest in metal complexes has recently grown. Within cells, metal complexes can participate in reactions that are not possible with conventional organic substances, and most of them have promising efficacy as anticancer drugs. However, to be effective in vivo metal complexes need adequate delivery systems able to increase their water solubility, the in vivo bioavailability, and the safe delivery to target organs. The present review reports on the state of the art of these new, nonplatinum, anticancer metallodrugs delivered by nanosized vehicles...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Shikha Srivastava, Satish Patel, Deependra Singh, Manju Rawat Singh
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder distinguished by synovial inflammation followed by destruction of joint. The pathogenesis of arthritis involves immune imbalance of the endogenous system. Causative factors include immune imbalance, oxidative stress, genetics, and environment. Continued effort has been made to treat RA via chemical, enzymatic, genetic, and hormonal approaches. RA has been reported more in the aged and in women. Arthritis necessitates lifelong administration of drugs to maintain quality of life...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Sathish Dyawanapelly, Animesh Kumar, Manish K Chourasia
Currently, drug delivery systems have a high impact in cancer therapy and are receiving more attention than conventional cancer treatment modalities. Compared with current cancer therapies, gemcitabine (2', 2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine) has been proven to be an effective chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic, colon, bladder, breast, ovarian, non-small-cell lung, and head and neck cancers in combination with other anticancer agents. To improve the safety and efficacy of cytotoxic drugs, several drug delivery systems have been explored...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Estefany I Medina-Reyes, Danae Garcia-Viacobo, Franklin A Carrero-Martinez, Yolanda Irasema Chirino
Recent advances in nanotechnology have transformed the biomedicine field, in which the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has provided the foundation for novel applications. For this reason, the number of ENMs has increased rapidly, and here we provide a classification of ENMs based on chemical composition and biomedical applications, which include regenerative medicine, delivery systems, theranostics, and therapy. These have been identified as the most advanced and promising areas for further studies with humans...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Ashish Garg, Rajeev Sharma, Vikas Pandey, Vaibhav Patel, Awesh K Yadav
The combination of nanocarriers and biological molecules is of intense interest because of the synergistic properties offered by such newly synthesized composites. Heparin conjugated to nanomaterials has recently been investigated for its beneficial chemical and biological properties and its capacity to improve the biocompatibility of nanocarriers, increasing their performance in various biological applications. A variety of recent research combines heparin and nanomaterials for a myriad of uses. For example, heparin has been conjugated to the surface of magnetic and metallic nanoparticles, biodegradable and nondegradable synthetic polymers, nanocomposites, dendrimers, and the like...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Mohammed Maniruzzaman, Ali Nokhodchi
Polymeric implantable drug delivery systems have remarkable potential for systemic delivery of various therapeutic agents. Generally, drug-loaded implants do not require a vehicle for delivery and can be used to attain prolonged delivery into the systemic circulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with enhanced drug bioavailability. Furthermore, implants can provide drug release ranging from months to years, which improves patient compliance, especially for poorly bioavailable and rapidly metabolized compounds...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Nandhakumar Sathyamoorthy, Magharla Dasaratha Dhanaraju
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) defends the body against the invasion of microorganisms by phagocytosis. In the presence of opsonins, the invading matter is readily recognized by phagocytes because of the interaction between receptors on the phagocytic cell surfaces and the modified conformation of opsonins. The particulate carriers, which are otherwise capable of optimizing drug delivery, are subjected to opsonization and phagocytosis by the MPS immediately following intravenous administration. These drug carriers should remain in the bloodstream in order to spatially locate the drug to the target site and temporally control the drug's release from there on; however, they are devastated by opsonization by serum proteins...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Veenu Mundada, Mitali Patel, Krutika Sawant
A "submicron emulsion" is an isotropic mixture of drug, lipids, and surfactants, usually with hydrophilic cosolvents and with droplet diameters ranging from 10 to 500 nm. Submicron emulsions are of increasing interest in medicine due to their kinetic stability, high solubilizing capacity, and tiny globule size. Because of these properties, they have been applied in various fields, such as personal care, cosmetics, health care, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Submicron emulsions are by far the most advanced nanoparticulate systems for the systemic delivery of biologically active agents for controlled drug delivery and targeting...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Zahid Hussain, Shariza Sahudin, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Endang Kumolosasi
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Preventive interventions such as educational programs, avoidance of allergens, and exclusive care toward the skin could play a partial role in suppressing the symptoms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
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