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Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

Mohammed Maniruzzaman, Ali Nokhodchi
Polymeric implantable drug delivery systems have remarkable potential for systemic delivery of various therapeutic agents. Generally, drug-loaded implants do not require a vehicle for delivery and can be used to attain prolonged delivery into the systemic circulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with enhanced drug bioavailability. Furthermore, implants can provide drug release ranging from months to years, which improves patient compliance, especially for poorly bioavailable and rapidly metabolized compounds...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Nandhakumar Sathyamoorthy, Magharla Dasaratha Dhanaraju
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) defends the body against the invasion of microorganisms by phagocytosis. In the presence of opsonins, the invading matter is readily recognized by phagocytes because of the interaction between receptors on the phagocytic cell surfaces and the modified conformation of opsonins. The particulate carriers, which are otherwise capable of optimizing drug delivery, are subjected to opsonization and phagocytosis by the MPS immediately following intravenous administration. These drug carriers should remain in the bloodstream in order to spatially locate the drug to the target site and temporally control the drug's release from there on; however, they are devastated by opsonization by serum proteins...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Veenu Mundada, Mitali Patel, Krutika Sawant
A "submicron emulsion" is an isotropic mixture of drug, lipids, and surfactants, usually with hydrophilic cosolvents and with droplet diameters ranging from 10 to 500 nm. Submicron emulsions are of increasing interest in medicine due to their kinetic stability, high solubilizing capacity, and tiny globule size. Because of these properties, they have been applied in various fields, such as personal care, cosmetics, health care, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Submicron emulsions are by far the most advanced nanoparticulate systems for the systemic delivery of biologically active agents for controlled drug delivery and targeting...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Zahid Hussain, Shariza Sahudin, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Endang Kumolosasi
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Preventive interventions such as educational programs, avoidance of allergens, and exclusive care toward the skin could play a partial role in suppressing the symptoms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Shaivad Shabee Hulhasan Abadi, Afrasim Moin, Gangadharappa Hosahalli Veerabhadrappa
Microparticles are polymeric bodies ranging 1-1000 µm that constitute a variety of forms such as microcapsules, microspheres, microcages, microshells, microrods, biosensors microparticles, radiolabeled microparticles, and so forth. This review focuses on general microparticles, mainly microcapsules and microspheres. Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the mostcommonly prescribed medications in the world. Most of the NSAIDs available have severe side effects. With increased awareness of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, safety has become a priority in treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases with NSAIDs...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Shivani Saraf, Ankit Jain, Pooja Hurkat, Sanjay Kumar Jain
Topotecan (TPT), a potent anticancer camptothecin analog, is well described for the treatment of ovarian cancer, but has also anticancer activity against small-cell and non-small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and acute leukemia. Various nanocarriers, including liposomes, have been exploited for targeted delivery of TPT. However, there are a number of challenges with TPT delivery using TPT liposomes (TLs), such as low encapsulation efficiency, physiological pH labile E ring (hydrolysis), accelerated blood clearance, multidrug resistance, and cancer metastases...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Sankalp A Gharat, Munira Momin, Chintan Bhavsar
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer; it involves damage to oral epithelial cells due to accumulation of multiple genetic mutations in the cells. OSCC remains major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancers. Tobacco, smoking, alcohol consumption alone or with chewing tobacco, and betel quid are potential carcinogens contributing to the high occurrence of OSCC. Current treatment modalities for OSCC like chemoradiotherapy, surgery, EGFR inhibitors and COX-2 inhibitors, and photodynamic therapy have led to the major problems related to non-specific cell death...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Swarna Bale, Amit Khurana, A Shiva Shankar Reddy, Mandip Singh, Chandraiah Godugu
Research in novel drug delivery systems is being explored competitively in order to attain maximum therapeutic effect while minimizing the adverse effects. Despite several advancements in pharmaceutical formulations, one of the major challenges still persisting is sustained drug release. Microencapsulation enacts as an intelligent approach with a strong therapeutic impact and is in demand globally in medical technology due to its specific and attractive properties, including biocompatibility, stability, target specificity, uniform encapsulation, better compliance, and controlled and sustained release patterns that are responsible for diminishing the toxicity and dosage frequency...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Cristal Cerqueira-Coutinho, Elisabete P Dos Santos, Claudia Regina E Mansur
Nanosystems used in the pharmaceutical field aim to guarantee a controlled release and efficacy boost with dose reduction of the drug. The same active ingredient could be vehiculated in different concentrations in distinct nanosystems. Among these nanostructures, the vesicular ones present a versatile delivery system that could be applied to encapsulate lipophilic, amphiphilic, and hydrophilic compounds. Liposomes are the most well-known vesicular nanosystems; however, there are others, such as niosomes, that are composed of nonionic surfactants that are polymeric or conventional...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Iliyas Khan, Avinash Gothwal, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Prashant Kesharwani, Lokesh Gupta, Arun K Iyer, Umesh Gupta
Nanotechnological advancement has become a key standard for the diagnosis and treatment of several complex disorders such as cancer by utilizing the enhanced permeability and retention effect and tumor-specific targeting. Synthesis and designing the formulation of active agents in terms of their efficient delivery is of prime importance for healthcare. The use of nanocarriers has resolved the undesirable characteristics of anticancer drugs such as low solubility and poor permeability in cells. Several types of nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed with the use of various polymers along or devoid of surface engineering for targeting tumor cells...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Kashappa Goud Desai
The objective of this review is to summarize recent advances in chitosan nanoparticles prepared by ionotropic gelation. Significant progress has occurred in this area since the method was first reported. The gelation technique has been improved through a number of creative methodological modifications. Ionotropic gelation via electrospraying and spinning disc processing produces nanoparticles with a more uniform size distribution. Large-scale manufacturing of the nanoparticles can be achieved with the latter approach...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Amrita Kumari, Ankit Jain, Pooja Hurkat, Amit Verma, Sanjay Kumar Jain
Microparticulate drug delivery systems have been explored across the globe due to their various advantages. In 1987, Won developed microsponge systems (Micsys), also known as solid-phase porous microspheres, having numerous interconnected voids, which serve as non-collapsible residence for bioactive compounds. A Micsys particle ranges from 5 to 300 μm in size and shows a wide range of entrapment efficiency with desired release rates. This topical drug delivery system bestows a controlled release of bioactive compounds into the skin with reduced systemic side effects...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Samaneh Saber-Samandari, Nader Nezafati, Saeed Saber-Samandari
Tumors consist of a heterogeneous population of cancer cells carrying multiple genetic mutations. During the past few decades, efforts have focused on curing cancer using various methods. However, traditional cancer therapies still carry some drawbacks, such as limited application for only a few cancer types, killing of normal cells, poor specificity, and associated toxicity. To overcome these disadvantages, drug-delivery methods that emphasize biomaterials have been developed and applied to optimize cancer treatments...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Rohit Karwal, Tarun Garg, Goutam Rath, Tanmay S Markandeywar
The main object of the self-emulsifying drug-delivery system (SEDDS) is oral bioavailability (BA) enhancement of a poorly water-soluble drug. Low aqueous solubility and low oral BA are major concerns for formulation scientists. As many drugs are lipophilic in nature, their lower solubility and dissolution are major drawbacks for their successful formulation into oral dosage forms. More than 60% of drugs have a lipophilic nature and exhibit poor aqueous solubility. Various strategies are reported in the literature to improve the solubility and enhance BA of lipophilic drugs, including the formation of a cyclodextrin complex, solid dispersions, and micronization...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Silki, Vivek Ranjan Sinha
Poor aqueous solubility is one of the key concerns of the majority of new drug molecules. One of the important problems associated with such drugs is that they often lead to low bioavailability. Researchers have used various techniques, but little success has been achieved due to poor stability and industrial viability, including technique cost. Of the numerous techniques, nanosuspensions (NSs) have drawn interest in improving solubility. NSs are dispersions of nanosized drug particles stabilized with the aid of appropriate agents...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Gurinder Singh, Roopa S Pai, Sanaul Mustafa
In the last two decades, HIV-1, the retrovirus associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is globally one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, existing approaches for interventions are not able to suppress the progression of infection due to this virus. Of the many obstacles, viral entry into the mono-nuclear phagocyte system encompassing monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells is a major concern. Viral infection is also responsible for the subsequent distribution of the virus into various tissues throughout the organism...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
S K Tripathi, Gurvir Kaur, Rajneet Kaur Khurana, Sonia Kapoor, Bhupinder Singh
The emergence of cancer nanomedicine is the result of fruitful advances in the fields of nanotechnology, bioimaging, formulation development, and molecular biology. Quantum dots (QDs) are the luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) that provide a multifunctional platform for imaging the biosystems following controlled delivery of therapeutic drugs, proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides, and genes. These engineered fluorescent probes with integrated imaging and carrier functionalities have become excellent tools for molecular diagnostics and delivery of therapeutics molecules...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Karan Mittal, Riddhish Patadia, Chintan Vora, Rajashree Mashru
A vast range of prescribed drugs suffers from low and variable bioavailability mainly because of metabolism and permeation complications. This issue of bioavailability is a key problem that has been ongoing for many years. Various tactics have been introduced that have been quite beneficial for improving the bioavailability of poorly bioavailable drugs. Some of these tactics are targeted on cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes and the permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump. Strategies include small-molecule inhibitors, novel drug-delivery systems, pharmaceutical synthetic excipients, and natural bioenhancers...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Tarun Garg, Nitin K Jain, Goutam Rath, Amit Kumar Goyal
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photoactive process that uses the combination of photosensitizers (PSs) and specific wavelengths of light for the treatment of solid tumors and other diseases. PDT received increased attention after regulatory approval of several photosensitizing drugs and light applicators worldwide. With the advent of newer PSs, the role of PDT in the treatment of cancer and other diseases has been revolutionized. In addition, various targeting strategies developed for site-specific delivery of PSs will be helpful for avoiding phototoxicity to normal tissues...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Chetan Yewale, Sushilkumar Patil, Atul Kolate, Girish Kore, Ambikanandan Misra
Transport of a drug across the biological membrane of the gastrointestinal tract has turned out to be a critical barrier against the success of any oral drug delivery technology. The unique advantages of the oral route, along with need for an oral substitute of invasive parenteral formulations and the reduction of intersubject variability in plasma profiles, has been an incentive for the use of excipients with absorption-enhancing properties to boost the bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. The development of such excipients is not a simple task, so understanding enhancement mechanisms in relation to physiology can facilitate the identification of structure-function relationships as well as the development of newer agents for customary applications...
2015: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
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