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BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505386/c-d-box-snornas-form-methylating-and-non-methylating-ribonucleoprotein-complexes-old-dogs-show-new-tricks
#1
REVIEW
Marina Falaleeva, Justin R Welden, Marilyn J Duncan, Stefan Stamm
C/D box snoRNAs (SNORDs) are an abundantly expressed class of short, non-coding RNAs that have been long known to perform 2'-O-methylation of rRNAs. However, approximately half of human SNORDs have no predictable rRNA targets, and numerous SNORDs have been associated with diseases that show no defects in rRNAs, among them Prader-Willi syndrome, Duplication 15q syndrome and cancer. This apparent discrepancy has been addressed by recent studies showing that SNORDs can act to regulate pre-mRNA alternative splicing, mRNA abundance, activate enzymes, and be processed into shorter ncRNAs resembling miRNAs and piRNAs...
May 15, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503790/proton-gradients-at-the-origin-of-life
#2
REVIEW
Nick Lane
Chemiosmotic coupling - the harnessing of electrochemical ion gradients across membranes to drive metabolism - is as universally conserved as the genetic code. As argued previously in these pages, such deep conservation suggests that ion gradients arose early in evolution, and might have played a role in the origin of life. Alkaline hydrothermal vents harbour pH gradients of similar polarity and magnitude to those employed by modern cells, one of many properties that make them attractive models for life's origin...
May 15, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493408/monoubiquitination-joins-polyubiquitination-as-an-esteemed-proteasomal-targeting-signal
#3
REVIEW
Ido Livneh, Yelena Kravtsova-Ivantsiv, Ori Braten, Yong Tae Kwon, Aaron Ciechanover
A polyubiquitin chain attached covalently to the target substrate has been recognized for long as the "canonical" proteasomal degradation signal. However, several proteins have been shown to be targeted for degradation following monoubiquitination, indicating that the proteasome can recognize signals other than a ubiquitin polymer. A comprehensive screen aiming at determining the extent of this mode of recognition revealed that ∼40% of mammalian and ∼20% of yeast proteins are degraded following monoubiquitination...
May 11, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493337/cas6-processes-tight-and-relaxed-repeat-rna-via-multiple-mechanisms-a-hypothesis
#4
REVIEW
Jana Sefcikova, Mitchell Roth, Ge Yu, Hong Li
RNA molecules are flexible yet foldable. Proteins must cope with this structural duality when forming biologically active complexes with RNA. Recent studies of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs)-mediated RNA immunity illustrate some remarkable mechanisms with which proteins interact with RNA. Currently known structures of CRISPR-Cas6 endoribonucleases bound with RNA suggest a conserved protein recognition mechanism mediated by RNA stem-loops. However, a survey of CRISPR RNA reveals that many repeats either lack a productive stem-loop (Relaxed) or possess stable but inhibitory structures (Tight), which raises the question of how the enzyme processes structurally diverse RNA...
May 11, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471485/genetic-suppression-extending-our-knowledge-from-lab-experiments-to-natural-populations
#5
REVIEW
Takeshi Matsui, Jonathan T Lee, Ian M Ehrenreich
Many mutations have deleterious phenotypic effects that can be alleviated by suppressor mutations elsewhere in the genome. High-throughput approaches have facilitated the large-scale identification of these suppressors and have helped shed light on core functional mechanisms that give rise to suppression. Following reports that suppression occurs naturally within species, it is important to determine how our understanding of this phenomenon based on lab experiments extends to genetically diverse natural populations...
May 4, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464386/getting-ready-to-postdoc
#6
Jacopo Marino, Sarah Blackford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464330/unmiraculous-yes-ancient-probably-not-response-to-doi-10-1002-bies-201700041
#7
Dave Speijer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464329/unmiraculous-facultative-anaerobes-comment-on-doi-10-1002-bies-201600174
#8
William F Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464310/sumo-during-stress-when-transcription-takes-a-pause-comment-on-doi-10-1002-bies-201600263
#9
Jorrit M Enserink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452057/alternative-splicing-switches-important-players-in-cell-differentiation
#10
REVIEW
Ana Fiszbein, Alberto R Kornblihtt
Alternative splicing (AS) greatly expands the coding capacities of genomes by allowing the generation of multiple mature mRNAs from a limited number of genes. Although the massive switch in AS profiles that often accompanies variations in gene expression patterns occurring during cell differentiation has been characterized for a variety of models, their causes and mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate foundational and recent studies indicating the AS switches that govern the processes of cell fate determination...
April 27, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440894/chromatin-sumoylation-in-heat-stress-to-protect-pause-and-organise-sumo-stress-response-on-chromatin
#11
REVIEW
Einari A Niskanen, Jorma J Palvimo
Post-translational modifications, e.g. SUMO modifications (SUMOylation), provide a mechanism for swiftly changing a protein's activity. Various stress conditions trigger a SUMO stress response (SSR) - a stress-induced rapid change in the conjugation of SUMO to multiple proteins, which predominantly targets nuclear proteins. The SSR has been postulated to protect stressed cells by preserving the functionality of crucial proteins. However, it is unclear how it exerts its protective functions. Interestingly, heat stress (HS) increases SUMOylation of proteins at active promoters and enhancers...
April 25, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440551/alternating-ph-landscapes-shape-epithelial-cancer-initiation-and-progression-focus-on-pancreatic-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Stine F Pedersen, Ivana Novak, Frauke Alves, Albrecht Schwab, Luis A Pardo
We present here the hypothesis that the unique microenvironmental pH landscape of acid-base transporting epithelia is an important factor in development of epithelial cancers, by rendering the epithelial and stromal cells pre-adapted to the heterogeneous extracellular pH (pHe ) in the tumor microenvironment. Cells residing in organs with net acid-base transporting epithelia such as the pancreatic ductal and gastric epithelia are exposed to very different, temporally highly variable pHe values apically and basolaterally...
April 25, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440546/stem-cell-dynamics-in-muscle-regeneration-insights-from-live-imaging-in-different-animal-models
#13
REVIEW
Dhanushika Ratnayake, Peter D Currie
In recent years, live imaging has been adopted to study stem cells in their native environment at cellular resolution. In the skeletal muscle field, this has led to visualising the initial events of muscle repair in mouse, and the entire regenerative response in zebrafish. Here, we review recent discoveries in this field obtained from live imaging studies. Tracking of tissue resident stem cells, the satellite cells, following injury has captured the morphogenetic dynamics of stem/progenitor cells as they facilitate repair...
April 25, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440545/cell-reintegration-stray-epithelial-cells-make-their-way-home
#14
REVIEW
Tyler J Wilson, Dan T Bergstralh
Ongoing work shows that misplaced epithelial cells have the capacity to reintegrate back into tissue layers. This movement appears to underlie tissue stability and may also control aspects of tissue structure. A recent study reveals that cell reintegration in at least one tissue, the Drosophila follicular epithelium, is based on adhesion molecules that line lateral cell surfaces. In this article we will review these observations, discuss their implications for epithelial tissue development and maintenance, and identify future directions for study...
April 25, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418075/horizontal-gene-transfer-is-less-frequent-in-eukaryotes-than-prokaryotes-but-can-be-important-retrospective-on-doi-10-1002-bies-201300095
#15
James O McInerney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383767/proton-electrochemical-gradient-driving-and-regulating-neurotransmitter-uptake
#16
REVIEW
Zohreh Farsi, Reinhard Jahn, Andrew Woehler
Accumulation of neurotransmitters in the lumen of synaptic vesicles (SVs) relies on the activity of the vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPase. This pump drives protons into the lumen, generating a proton electrochemical gradient (ΔμH+ ) across the membrane. Recent work has demonstrated that the balance between the chemical (ΔpH) and electrical (ΔΨ) components of ΔμH+ is regulated differently by some distinct vesicle types. As different neurotransmitter transporters use ΔpH and ΔΨ with different relative efficiencies, regulation of this gradient balance has the potential to influence neurotransmitter uptake...
April 6, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378940/loose-ends-3-how-editors-can-help-limit-manuscript-revision
#17
EDITORIAL
Andrew Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378933/a-fistful-of-tips-for-a-fruitful-high-throughput-sequencing-experiment
#18
LETTER
José L Lavín, Mirian Sánchez-Morán, Laura Bárcena, Ana R Cortazar, Nuria Macías-Cámara, Monika González, Ana M Aransay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370099/the-electric-fence-to-cell-cycle-progression-do-local-changes-in-membrane-potential-facilitate-disassembly-of-the-primary-cilium-timely-and-localized-expression-of-a-potassium-channel-may-set-the-conditions-that-allow-retraction-of-the-primary-cilium
#19
REVIEW
Diana Urrego, Araceli Sánchez, Adam P Tomczak, Luis A Pardo
Kv10.1 is a voltage-gated potassium channel relevant for tumor biology, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. We propose that Kv10.1 plays a role coordinating primary cilium disassembly with cell cycle progression through localized changes of membrane potential at the ciliary base. Most non-dividing cells display a primary cilium, an antenna-like structure important for cell physiology. The cilium is disassembled when the cell divides, which requires an increase of Ca(2+) concentration and a redistribution of phospholipids in its basal region, both of which would be facilitated by local hyperpolarization...
March 30, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370060/the-diversity-of-experimental-organisms-in-biomedical-research-may-be-influenced-by-biomedical-funding
#20
REVIEW
B R Erick Peirson, Heather Kropp, Julia Damerow, Manfred D Laubichler
Contrary to concerns of some critics, we present evidence that biomedical research is not dominated by a small handful of model organisms. An exhaustive analysis of research literature suggests that the diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research has increased substantially since 1975. There has been a longstanding worry that organism-centric funding policies can lead to biases in experimental organism choice, and thus negatively impact the direction of research and the interpretation of results...
March 30, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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