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BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921311/the-neurobiology-of-parenting-a-neural-circuit-perspective
#1
Johannes Kohl, Anita E Autry, Catherine Dulac
Social interactions are essential for animals to reproduce, defend their territory, and raise their young. The conserved nature of social behaviors across animal species suggests that the neural pathways underlying the motivation for, and the execution of, specific social responses are also maintained. Modern tools of neuroscience have offered new opportunities for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms controlling specific social responses. We will review here recent insights into the neural circuits underlying a particularly fascinating and important form of social interaction, that of parental care...
December 6, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918074/the-origin-of-animals-can-molecular-clocks-and-the-fossil-record-be-reconciled
#2
John A Cunningham, Alexander G Liu, Stefan Bengtson, Philip C J Donoghue
The evolutionary emergence of animals is one of the most significant episodes in the history of life, but its timing remains poorly constrained. Molecular clocks estimate that animals originated and began diversifying over 100 million years before the first definitive metazoan fossil evidence in the Cambrian. However, closer inspection reveals that clock estimates and the fossil record are less divergent than is often claimed. Modern clock analyses do not predict the presence of the crown-representatives of most animal phyla in the Neoproterozoic...
December 5, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910998/aurora-a-shines-on-t-cell-activation-through-the-regulation-of-lck
#3
Noelia Blas-Rus, Eugenio Bustos-Morán, Noa B Martín-Cófreces, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
Different protein kinases control signaling emanating from the T cell receptor (TCR) during antigen-specific T cell activation. Mitotic kinases, e.g. Aurora-A, have been widely studied in the context of mitosis due to their role during microtubule (MT) nucleation, becoming critical regulators of cell cycle progression. We have recently described a specific role for Aurora-A kinase in antigenic T cell activation. Blockade of Aurora-A in T cells severely disrupts the dynamics of MTs and CD3ζ-bearing signaling vesicles during T cell activation...
December 2, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896818/coupling-immunity-and-programmed-cell-suicide-in-prokaryotes-life-or-death-choices
#4
Eugene V Koonin, Feng Zhang
Host-pathogen arms race is a universal, central aspect of the evolution of life. Most organisms evolved several distinct yet interacting strategies of anti-pathogen defense including resistance to parasite invasion, innate and adaptive immunity, and programmed cell death (PCD). The PCD is the means of last resort, a suicidal response to infection that is activated when resistance and immunity fail. An infected cell faces a decision between active defense and altruistic suicide or dormancy induction, depending on whether immunity is "deemed" capable of preventing parasite reproduction and consequent infection of other cells...
November 29, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869317/how-to-make-a-sterile-helper
#5
Philip A Downing, Charlie K Cornwallis, Ashleigh S Griffin
The sterile worker castes found in the colonies of social insects are often cited as archetypal examples of altruism in nature. The challenge is to explain why losing the ability to mate has evolved as a superior strategy for transmitting genes into future generations. We propose that two conditions are necessary for the evolution of sterility: completely overlapping generations and monogamy. A review of the literature indicates that when these two conditions are met we consistently observe the evolution of sterile helpers...
November 21, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859481/coils-spring-into-action-cajal-bodies-and-the-genomic-organization-of-transcription-comment-doi-10-1002-bies-201600144
#6
Danielle Fanslow, Steven T Kosak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859420/the-light-driven-sodium-ion-pump-a-new-player-in-rhodopsin-research
#7
Hideaki E Kato, Keiichi Inoue, Hideki Kandori, Osamu Nureki
Rhodopsins are one of the most studied photoreceptor protein families, and ion-translocating rhodopsins, both pumps and channels, have recently attracted broad attention because of the development of optogenetics. Recently, a new functional class of ion-pumping rhodopsins, an outward Na(+) pump, was discovered, and following structural and functional studies enable us to compare three functionally different ion-pumping rhodopsins: outward proton pump, inward Cl(-) pump, and outward Na(+) pump. Here, we review the current knowledge on structure-function relationships in these three light-driven pumps, mainly focusing on Na(+) pumps...
November 17, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859409/hold-on-to-your-friends-dedicated-chaperones-of-ribosomal-proteins-dedicated-chaperones-mediate-the-safe-transfer-of-ribosomal-proteins-to-their-site-of-pre-ribosome-incorporation
#8
Benjamin Pillet, Valentin Mitterer, Dieter Kressler, Brigitte Pertschy
Eukaryotic ribosomes are assembled from their components, the ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal proteins, in a tremendously complex, multi-step process, which primarily takes place in the nuclear compartment. Therefore, most ribosomal proteins have to travel from the cytoplasm to their incorporation site on pre-ribosomes within the nucleus. However, due to their particular characteristics, such as a highly basic amino acid composition and the presence of unstructured extensions, ribosomal proteins are especially prone to aggregation and degradation in their unassembled state, hence specific mechanisms must operate to ensure their safe delivery...
November 17, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862071/sequence-specific-targeting-of-chromatin-remodelers-organizes-precisely-positioned-nucleosomes-throughout-the-genome
#9
Gregory D Bowman, Jeffrey N McKnight
Eukaryotic genomes are functionally organized into chromatin, a compact packaging of nucleoproteins with the basic repeating unit known as the nucleosome. A major focus for the chromatin field has been understanding what rules govern nucleosome positioning throughout the genome, and here we review recent findings using a novel, sequence-targeted remodeling enzyme. Nucleosomes are often packed into evenly spaced arrays that are reproducibly positioned, but how such organization is established and maintained through dramatic events such as DNA replication is poorly understood...
November 16, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859411/dna-demethylation-pathways-additional-players-and-regulators
#10
Matthias Bochtler, Agnieszka Kolano, Guo-Liang Xu
DNA demethylation can occur passively by "dilution" of methylation marks by DNA replication, or actively and independently of DNA replication. Direct conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to cytosine (C), as originally proposed, does not occur. Instead, active DNA methylation involves oxidation of the methylated base by ten-eleven translocations (TETs), or deamination of the methylated or a nearby base by activation induced deaminase (AID). The modified nucleotide, possibly together with surrounding nucleotides, is then replaced by the BER pathway...
November 16, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859467/what-drives-parallel-evolution-how-population-size-and-mutational-variation-contribute-to-repeated-evolution
#11
Susan F Bailey, François Blanquart, Thomas Bataillon, Rees Kassen
Parallel evolution is the repeated evolution of the same phenotype or genotype in evolutionarily independent populations. Here, we use evolve-and-resequence experiments with bacteria and yeast to dissect the drivers of parallel evolution at the gene level. A meta-analysis shows that parallel evolution is often rare, but there is a positive relationship between population size and the probability of parallelism. We present a modeling approach to estimate the contributions of mutational and selective heterogeneity across a genome to parallel evolution...
November 15, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790724/control-of-developmental-networks-by-rac-rho-small-gtpases-how-cytoskeletal-changes-during-embryogenesis-are-orchestrated
#12
Beatriz Sáenz-Narciso, Eva Gómez-Orte, Angelina Zheleva, Irene Gastaca, Juan Cabello
Small GTPases in the Rho family act as major nodes with functions beyond cytoskeletal rearrangements shaping the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo during development. These small GTPases are key signal transducers that integrate diverse developmental signals to produce a coordinated response in the cell. In C. elegans, the best studied members of these highly conserved Rho family small GTPases, RHO-1/RhoA, CED-10/Rac, and CDC-42, are crucial in several cellular processes dealing with cytoskeletal reorganization...
October 28, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774671/centriole-positioning-in-epithelial-cells-and-its-intimate-relationship-with-planar-cell-polarity
#13
Jose Maria Carvajal-Gonzalez, Sonia Mulero-Navarro, Marek Mlodzik
Planar cell polarity (PCP)-signaling and associated tissue polarization are evolutionarily conserved. A well documented feature of PCP-signaling in vertebrates is its link to centriole/cilia positioning, although the relationship of PCP and ciliogenesis is still debated. A recent report in Drosophila established that Frizzled (Fz)-PCP core signaling has an instructive input to polarized centriole positioning in non-ciliated Drosophila wing epithelia as a PCP read-out. Here, we review the impact of this observation in the context of recent descriptions of the relationship(s) of core Fz-PCP signaling and cilia/centriole positioning in epithelial and non-epithelial cells...
October 24, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767223/host-innate-immunity-more-a-need-to-feed-the-world-comment-on-doi-10-1002-bies-201600101
#14
W G Dilantha Fernando
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767214/cajal-body-function-in-genome-organization-and-transcriptome-diversity
#15
Iain A Sawyer, David Sturgill, Myong-Hee Sung, Gordon L Hager, Miroslav Dundr
Nuclear bodies contribute to non-random organization of the human genome and nuclear function. Using a major prototypical nuclear body, the Cajal body, as an example, we suggest that these structures assemble at specific gene loci located across the genome as a result of high transcriptional activity. Subsequently, target genes are physically clustered in close proximity in Cajal body-containing cells. However, Cajal bodies are observed in only a limited number of human cell types, including neuronal and cancer cells...
October 21, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766640/tubulin-transport-in-cilia-how-many-tubulin-cargo-binding-sites-per-ift-particle-retrospective-on-doi-10-1002-bies-201400007
#16
Lotte B Pedersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699821/dissecting-the-effects-of-antibiotics-on-horizontal-gene-transfer-analysis-suggests-a-critical-role-of-selection-dynamics
#17
Allison J Lopatkin, Tatyana A Sysoeva, Lingchong You
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major mechanism responsible for the spread of antibiotic resistance. Conversely, it is often assumed that antibiotics promote HGT. Careful dissection of the literature, however, suggests a lack of conclusive evidence supporting this notion in general. This is largely due to the lack of well-defined quantitative experiments to address this question in an unambiguous manner. In this review, we discuss the extent to which HGT is responsible for the spread of antibiotic resistance and examine what is known about the effect of antibiotics on the HGT dynamics...
October 4, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699812/lactate-release-from-astrocytes-to-neurons-contributes-to-cocaine-memory-formation
#18
Benjamin Boury-Jamot, Olivier Halfon, Pierre J Magistretti, Benjamin Boutrel
The identification of neural substrates underlying the long lasting debilitating impact of drug cues is critical for developing novel therapeutic tools. Metabolic coupling has long been considered a key mechanism through which astrocytes and neurons actively interact in response of neuronal activity, but recent findings suggested that disrupting metabolic coupling may represent an innovative approach to prevent memory formation, in particular drug-related memories. Here, we review converging evidence illustrating how memory and addiction share neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms implicating lactate-mediated metabolic coupling between astrocytes and neurons...
October 4, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667795/glycosylation-and-stem-cells-regulatory-roles-and-application-of-ipscs-in-the-study-of-glycosylation-related-disorders
#19
Ryan P Berger, Michelle Dookwah, Richard Steet, Stephen Dalton
Glycosylation refers to the co- and post-translational modification of protein and lipids by monosaccharides or oligosaccharide chains. The surface of mammalian cells is decorated by a heterogeneous and highly complex array of protein and lipid linked glycan structures that vary significantly between different cell types, raising questions about their roles in development and disease pathogenesis. This review will begin by focusing on recent findings that define roles for cell surface protein and lipid glycosylation in pluripotent stem cells and their functional impact during normal development...
September 26, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667742/a-sumo-and-ubiquitin-code-coordinates-protein-traffic-at-replication-factories
#20
Emilio Lecona, Oscar Fernandez-Capetillo
Post-translational modifications regulate each step of DNA replication to ensure the faithful transmission of genetic information. In this context, we recently showed that deubiquitination of SUMO2/3 and SUMOylated proteins by USP7 helps to create a SUMO-rich and ubiquitin-low environment around replisomes that is necessary to maintain the activity of replication forks and for new origin firing. We propose that a two-flag system mediates the collective concentration of factors at sites of DNA replication, whereby SUMO and Ubiquitinated-SUMO would constitute "stay" or "go" signals respectively for replisome and accessory factors...
September 26, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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