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BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004130/the-microbiota-inflammasome-hypothesis-of-major-depression
#1
REVIEW
Antonio Inserra, Geraint B Rogers, Julio Licinio, Ma-Li Wong
We propose the "microbiota-inflammasome" hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD, a mental illness affecting the way a person feels and thinks, characterized by long-lasting feelings of sadness). We hypothesize that pathological shifts in gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) caused by stress and gut conditions result in the upregulation of pro-inflammatory pathways mediated by the Nod-like receptors family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome (an intracellular platform involved in the activation of inflammatory processes)...
July 13, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999547/known-unknowns-of-mammalian-mitochondrial-dna-maintenance
#2
REVIEW
Jaakko L O Pohjoismäki, Josefin M E Forslund, Steffi Goffart, Rubén Torregrosa-Muñumer, Sjoerd Wanrooij
Mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and repair have been studied intensively for the last 50 years. Although recently advances in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of mtDNA maintenance and the proteins involved in these have been made, there are disturbing gaps between the existing theoretical models and experimental observations. Conflicting data and hypotheses exist about the role of RNA and ribonucleotides in mtDNA replication, but also about the priming of replication and the formation of pathological rearrangements...
July 12, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989182/inflammation-and-inflammatory-diseases-how-our-language-influences-our-therapeutic-paradigms
#3
Tanguy Chabrol, François Berger, Didier Wion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989180/rethinking-the-role-of-the-nervous-system-lessons-from-the-hydra-holobiont
#4
REVIEW
Alexander V Klimovich, Thomas C G Bosch
Here we evaluate our current understanding of the function of the nervous system in Hydra, a non-bilaterian animal which is among the first metazoans that contain neurons. We highlight growing evidence that the nervous system, with its rich repertoire of neuropeptides, is involved in controlling resident beneficial microbes. We also review observations that indicate that microbes affect the animal's behavior by directly interfering with neuronal receptors. These findings provide new insight into the original role of the nervous system, and suggest that it emerged to orchestrate multiple functions including host-microbiome interactions...
July 10, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975812/asymmetric-segregation-of-aged-spindle-pole-bodies-during-cell-division-mechanisms-and-relevance-beyond-budding-yeast
#5
REVIEW
Jette Lengefeld, Yves Barral
Asymmetric cell division generates cell diversity and contributes to cellular aging and rejuvenation. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms enabling budding yeast to recognize spindle pole bodies (SPB, centrosome equivalent) based on their age, and guide their non-random mitotic segregation: SPB inheritance requires the distinction of old from new SPBs and is regulated by the SPB-inheritance network (SPIN) and the mitotic exit network (MEN). The SPIN marks the pre-existing SPB as old and the MEN recognizes these marks translating them into spindle orientation...
July 5, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974482/frankenstein-or-a-submarine-alkaline-vent-who-is-responsible-for-abiogenesis-part-2-as-life-is-now-so-it-must-have-been-in-the-beginning
#6
REVIEW
Elbert Branscomb, Michael J Russell
We argued in Part 1 of this series that because all living systems are extremely far-from-equilibrium dynamic confections of matter, they must necessarily be driven to that state by the conversion of chemically specific external disequilibria into specific internal disequilibria. Such conversions require task-specific macromolecular engines. We here argue that the same is not only true of life at its emergence; it is the enabling cause of that emergence; although here the external driving disequilibria, and the conversion engines needed must have been abiotic...
July 4, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956830/comparing-the-new-and-existing-hypotheses-on-energy-metabolism-and-longevity
#7
Chen Hou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944192/archaea-first-and-the-co-evolutionary-diversification-of-domains-of-life
#8
James T Staley, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés
The origins and evolution of the Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya remain controversial. Phylogenomic-wide studies of molecular features that are evolutionarily conserved, such as protein structural domains, suggest Archaea is the first domain of life to diversify from a stem line of descent. This line embodies the last universal common ancestor of cellular life. Here, we propose that ancestors of Euryarchaeota co-evolved with those of Bacteria prior to the diversification of Eukarya. This co-evolutionary scenario is supported by comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses of the distributions of fold families of domains in the proteomes of free-living organisms, which show horizontal gene recruitments and informational process homologies...
June 26, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944191/why-do-corals-bleach-conflict-and-conflict-mediation-in-a-host-symbiont-community
#9
REVIEW
Neil W Blackstone, Jeff M Golladay
Coral bleaching has attracted considerable study, yet one central question remains unanswered: given that corals and their Symbiodinium symbionts have co-evolved for millions of years, why does this clearly maladaptive process occur? Bleaching may result from evolutionary conflict between the host corals and their symbionts. Selection at the level of the individual symbiont favors using the products of photosynthesis for selfish replication, while selection at the higher level favors using these products for growth of the entire host/symbiont community...
June 26, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944188/creating-lineage-trajectory-maps-via-integration-of-single-cell-rna-sequencing-and-lineage-tracing-integrating-transgenic-lineage-tracing-and-single-cell-rna-sequencing-is-a-robust-approach-for-mapping-developmental-lineage-trajectories-and-cell-fate-changes
#10
Russell B Fletcher, Diya Das, John Ngai
Mapping the paths that stem and progenitor cells take en route to differentiate and elucidating the underlying molecular controls are key goals in developmental and stem cell biology. However, with population level analyses it is difficult - if not impossible - to define the transition states and lineage trajectory branch points within complex developmental lineages. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis can discriminate heterogeneity in a population of cells and even identify rare or transient intermediates...
June 26, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943439/sex-differences-in-early-embryogenesis-inter-chromosomal-regulation-sets-the-stage-for-sex-biased-gene-networks-the-dialogue-between-the-sex-chromosomes-and-autosomes-imposes-sexual-identity-soon-after-fertilization
#11
REVIEW
Nora Engel
Sex-specific transcriptional and epigenomic profiles are detectable in the embryo very soon after fertilization. I propose that in male (XY) and female (XX) pre-implantation embryos sex chromosomes establish sexually dimorphic interactions with the autosomes, before overt differences become apparent and long before gonadogenesis. Lineage determination restricts expression biases between the sexes, but the epigenetic differences are less constrained and can be perpetuated, accounting for dimorphisms that arise later in life...
June 25, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943438/how-a-system-of-checks-on-symbiosis-could-become-disastrous
#12
Eric R Hester
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 25, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938810/cells-in-the-non-uniform-magnetic-world-how-cells-respond-to-high-gradient-magnetic-fields
#13
REVIEW
Vitalii Zablotskii, Tatyana Polyakova, Alexandr Dejneka
Imagine cells that live in a high-gradient magnetic field (HGMF). Through what mechanisms do the cells sense a non-uniform magnetic field and how such a field changes the cell fate? We show that magnetic forces generated by HGMFs can be comparable to intracellular forces and therefore may be capable of altering the functionality of an individual cell and tissues in unprecedented ways. We identify the cellular effectors of such fields and propose novel routes in cell biology predicting new biological effects such as magnetic control of cell-to-cell communication and vesicle transport, magnetic control of intracellular ROS levels, magnetically induced differentiation of stem cells, magnetically assisted cell division, or prevention of cells from dividing...
June 25, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938806/may-the-fittest-protein-evolve-favoring-the-plant-specific-origin-and-expansion-of-nac-transcription-factors
#14
REVIEW
Iny Elizebeth Mathew, Pinky Agarwal
Plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) evolve during the transition from aquatic to terrestrial plant life and are amplified to become one of the biggest TF families. This is because they regulate genes involved in water conductance and cell support. They also control flower and fruit formation. The review presented here focuses on various properties, regulatory intricacies, and developmental roles of NAC family members. Processes controlled by NACs depend majorly on their transcriptional properties...
June 25, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901833/the-energy-maintenance-theory-of-aging-maintaining-energy-metabolism-to-allow-longevity
#15
REVIEW
Snehal N Chaudhari, Edward T Kipreos
Fused, elongated mitochondria are more efficient in generating ATP than fragmented mitochondria. In diverse C. elegans longevity pathways, increased levels of fused mitochondria are associated with lifespan extension. Blocking mitochondrial fusion in these animals abolishes their extended longevity. The long-lived C. elegans vhl-1 mutant is an exception that does not have increased fused mitochondria, and is not dependent on fusion for longevity. Loss of mammalian VHL upregulates alternate energy generating pathways...
June 14, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897144/surveillance-of-retroelement-expression-and-nucleic-acid-immunity-by-histone-methyltransferase-setdb1
#16
REVIEW
Yong-Kook Kang
In human cancers, histone methyltransferase SETDB1 (SET domain, bifurcated 1) is frequently overexpressed but its significance in carcinogenesis remains elusive. A recent study shows that SETDB1 downregulation induces de-repression of retroelements and innate immunity in cancer cells. The possibility of SETDB1 functioning as a surveillant of retroelement expression is discussed in this study: the cytoplasmic presence of retroelement-derived nucleic acids (RdNAs) drives SETDB1 into the nucleus by the RNA-interference route, rendering the corresponding retroelement transcriptionally inert...
June 13, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897135/do-it-yourself-calorie-restriction-the-risks-of-simplistically-translating-findings-in-animal-models-to-humans
#17
Eric Le Bourg, Leanne M Redman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897131/glycogen-at-the-crossroad-of-stress-resistance-energy-maintenance-and-pathophysiology-of-aging
#18
REVIEW
Ivan Gusarov, Evgeny Nudler
Glycogen is synthesized and stored to maintain postprandial blood glucose homeostasis and to ensure an uninterrupted energy supply between meals. Although the regulation of glycogen turnover has been well studied, the effects of glycogen on aging and disease development have been largely unexplored. In Caenorhabditis elegans fed a high sugar diet, glycogen potentiates resistance to oxidants, but paradoxically, shortens lifespan. Depletion of glycogen by oxidants or inhibition of glycogen synthesis extends the lifespan of worms by an AMPK-dependent mechanism...
June 13, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888539/energy-from-atp-hydrolysis-does-not-drive-biological-reactions-%C3%A2
#19
EDITORIAL
Andrew Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882974/neuroimaging-studies-illustrate-the-commonalities-between-ageing-and-brain-diseases
#20
REVIEW
James H Cole
The lack of specificity in neuroimaging studies of neurological and psychiatric diseases suggests that these different diseases have more in common than is generally considered. Potentially, features that are secondary effects of different pathological processes may share common neurobiological underpinnings. Intriguingly, many of these mechanisms are also observed in studies of normal (i.e., non-pathological) brain ageing. Different brain diseases may be causing premature or accelerated ageing to the brain, an idea that is supported by a line of "brain ageing" research that combines neuroimaging data with machine learning analysis...
June 8, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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