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BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418075/horizontal-gene-transfer-is-less-frequent-in-eukaryotes-than-prokaryotes-but-can-be-important-retrospective-on-doi-10-1002-bies-201300095
#1
James O McInerney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383767/proton-electrochemical-gradient-driving-and-regulating-neurotransmitter-uptake
#2
REVIEW
Zohreh Farsi, Reinhard Jahn, Andrew Woehler
Accumulation of neurotransmitters in the lumen of synaptic vesicles (SVs) relies on the activity of the vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPase. This pump drives protons into the lumen, generating a proton electrochemical gradient (ΔμH+ ) across the membrane. Recent work has demonstrated that the balance between the chemical (ΔpH) and electrical (ΔΨ) components of ΔμH+ is regulated differently by some distinct vesicle types. As different neurotransmitter transporters use ΔpH and ΔΨ with different relative efficiencies, regulation of this gradient balance has the potential to influence neurotransmitter uptake...
April 6, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378940/loose-ends-3-how-editors-can-help-limit-manuscript-revision
#3
EDITORIAL
Andrew Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378933/a-fistful-of-tips-for-a-fruitful-high-throughput-sequencing-experiment
#4
LETTER
José L Lavín, Mirian Sánchez-Morán, Laura Bárcena, Ana R Cortazar, Nuria Macías-Cámara, Monika González, Ana M Aransay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370099/the-electric-fence-to-cell-cycle-progression-do-local-changes-in-membrane-potential-facilitate-disassembly-of-the-primary-cilium-timely-and-localized-expression-of-a-potassium-channel-may-set-the-conditions-that-allow-retraction-of-the-primary-cilium
#5
REVIEW
Diana Urrego, Araceli Sánchez, Adam P Tomczak, Luis A Pardo
Kv10.1 is a voltage-gated potassium channel relevant for tumor biology, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. We propose that Kv10.1 plays a role coordinating primary cilium disassembly with cell cycle progression through localized changes of membrane potential at the ciliary base. Most non-dividing cells display a primary cilium, an antenna-like structure important for cell physiology. The cilium is disassembled when the cell divides, which requires an increase of Ca(2+) concentration and a redistribution of phospholipids in its basal region, both of which would be facilitated by local hyperpolarization...
March 30, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370060/the-diversity-of-experimental-organisms-in-biomedical-research-may-be-influenced-by-biomedical-funding
#6
REVIEW
B R Erick Peirson, Heather Kropp, Julia Damerow, Manfred D Laubichler
Contrary to concerns of some critics, we present evidence that biomedical research is not dominated by a small handful of model organisms. An exhaustive analysis of research literature suggests that the diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research has increased substantially since 1975. There has been a longstanding worry that organism-centric funding policies can lead to biases in experimental organism choice, and thus negatively impact the direction of research and the interpretation of results...
March 30, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345796/establishing-nucleosome-architecture-and-stability-at-promoters-roles-of-pioneer-transcription-factors-and-the-rsc-chromatin-remodeler
#7
REVIEW
Slawomir Kubik, Maria Jessica Bruzzone, David Shore
Improvements in deep sequencing, together with methods to rapidly deplete essential transcription factors (TFs) and chromatin remodelers, have recently led to a more detailed picture of promoter nucleosome architecture in yeast and its relationship to transcriptional regulation. These studies revealed that ∼40% of all budding yeast protein-coding genes possess a unique promoter structure, where we propose that an unusually unstable nucleosome forms immediately upstream of the transcription start site (TSS)...
March 27, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332209/quantitation-and-mapping-of-the-epigenetic-marker-5-hydroxymethylcytosine
#8
Ying Qing, Zhiqi Tian, Ying Bi, Yongyao Wang, Jiangang Long, Chun-Xiao Song, Jiajie Diao
We here review primary methods used in quantifying and mapping 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), including global quantification, restriction enzyme-based detection, and methods involving DNA-enrichment strategies and the genome-wide sequencing of 5hmC. As discovered in the mammalian genome in 2009, 5hmC, oxidized from 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, is increasingly being recognized as a biomarker in biological processes from development to pathogenesis, as its various detection methods have shown...
March 23, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322463/a-tale-of-tale-prep1-pbx1-and-meis1-interconnections-and-competition-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Francesco Blasi, Chiara Bruckmann, Dmitry Penkov, Leila Dardaei
We report the latest structural information on PREP1 tumor suppressor, the specific "oncogene" and "tumor suppressive" signatures of MEIS1 and PREP1, the molecular rules regulating PREP1 and MEIS1 binding to DNA, and how these can change depending on the interaction with PBX1, cell-type, neoplastic transformation, and intracellular concentration. As both PREP1 and MEIS1 interact with PBX1 they functionally compete with each other. PREP1, PBX1, and MEIS1 TALE-class homeodomain transcription factors act in an interdependent and integrated way in experimental tumorigenesis...
March 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319257/hunger-and-thirst-interact-to-regulate-ingestive-behavior-in-flies-and-mammals
#10
REVIEW
Nicholas Jourjine
In animals, nervous systems regulate the ingestion of food and water in a manner that reflects internal metabolic need. While the coordination of these two ingestive behaviors is essential for homeostasis, it has been unclear how internal signals of hunger and thirst interact to effectively coordinate food and water ingestion. In the last year, work in insects and mammals has begun to elucidate some of these interactions. As reviewed here, these studies have identified novel molecular and neural mechanisms that coordinate the regulation of food and water ingestion behaviors...
March 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318058/nuclear-codon-reassignments-in-the-genomics-era-and-mechanisms-behind-their-evolution
#11
REVIEW
Martin Kollmar, Stefanie Mühlhausen
The canonical genetic code ubiquitously translates nucleotide into peptide sequence with several alterations known in viruses, bacteria, mitochondria, plastids, and single-celled eukaryotes. A new hypothesis to explain genetic code changes, termed tRNA loss driven codon reassignment, has been proposed recently when the polyphyly of the yeast codon reassignment events has been uncovered. According to this hypothesis, the driving force for genetic code changes are tRNA or translation termination factor loss-of-function mutations or loss-of-gene events...
March 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295473/mtorc1-senses-stresses-coupling-stress-to-proteostasis
#12
REVIEW
Kuo-Hui Su, Chengkai Dai
Beyond protein synthesis and autophagy, emerging evidence has implicated mTORC1 in regulating protein folding and proteasomal degradation as well, highlighting its prominent role in cellular proteome homeostasis or proteostasis. In addition to growth signals, mTORC1 senses and responds to a wide array of stresses, including energetic/metabolic stress, genotoxic stress, oxidative stress, osmotic stress, ER stress, proteotoxic stress, and psychological stress. Whereas growth signals unanimously stimulate mTORC1, stresses exert complex impacts on mTORC1, most of which are repressive...
March 15, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295415/adipose-tissue-nad-biology-in-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-from-mechanism-to-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Shintaro Yamaguchi, Jun Yoshino
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) biosynthetic pathway, mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a key NAD(+) biosynthetic enzyme, plays a pivotal role in controlling many biological processes, such as metabolism, circadian rhythm, inflammation, and aging. Over the past decade, NAMPT-mediated NAD(+) biosynthesis, together with its key downstream mediator, namely the NAD(+) -dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1, has been demonstrated to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism in a tissue-dependent manner...
March 15, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295420/title-loose-ends-2-limiting-manuscript-revision-from-the-reviewer-perspective
#14
EDITORIAL
Andrew Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266712/a-molecular-gate-for-dna-comment-on-doi-10-1002-bies-201600207
#15
Martin R Singleton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266707/the-agotrons-gene-regulators-or-argonaute-protectors
#16
REVIEW
Lotte V W Stagsted, Iben Daugaard, Thomas B Hansen
Over the last decades, it has become evident that highly complex networks of regulators govern post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. A novel class of Argonaute (Ago)-associated RNA molecules, the agotrons, was recently shown to function in a Drosha- and Dicer-independent manner, hence bypassing the maturation steps required for canonical microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. Agotrons are found in most mammals and associate with Ago as ∼100 nucleotide (nt) long RNA species. Here, we speculate on the functional and biological relevance of agotrons: (i) agotrons could serve as non-promiscuous miRNA-like regulators with reduced off-targeting or (ii) agotrons could encompass other putative functions, such as protecting Ago proteins from taking up aberrant short RNAs or by rescuing and stabilizing otherwise unloaded Ago-proteins from degradation...
March 7, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266055/cell-surface-damage-activates-a-cell-cycle-checkpoint-comment-on-doi-10-1002-bies-201600210
#17
Duncan J Clarke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247957/how-can-zygotes-segregate-entire-parental-genomes-into-distinct-blastomeres-the-zygote-metaphase-revisited
#18
Aspasia Destouni, Joris R Vermeesch
Zygote cytokinesis produces two symmetric blastomeres, which contain one copy of each parental genome. Contrary to this dogma, we recently discovered that mammalian zygotes can spontaneously segregate entire parental genomes into different blastomeres and coined this novel form of genome segregation heterogoneic division. The molecular mechanisms underlying the emergence of blastomeres with different parental genomes during the first mitotic cycle remain to be elucidated. Here, we speculate on which parental genome asymmetries could provide a mechanistic foundation for these remarkable zygote divisions...
March 1, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220956/releasing-the-cohesin-ring-a-rigid-scaffold-model-for-opening-the-dna-exit-gate-by-pds5-and-wapl
#19
Zhuqing Ouyang, Hongtao Yu
The ring-shaped ATPase machine, cohesin, regulates sister chromatid cohesion, transcription, and DNA repair by topologically entrapping DNA. Here, we propose a rigid scaffold model to explain how the cohesin regulators Pds5 and Wapl release cohesin from chromosomes. Recent studies have established the Smc3-Scc1 interface as the DNA exit gate of cohesin, revealed a requirement for ATP hydrolysis in ring opening, suggested regulation of the cohesin ATPase activity by DNA and Smc3 acetylation, and provided insights into how Pds5 and Wapl open this exit gate...
February 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220502/variations-on-a-nucleosome-theme-the-structural-basis-of-centromere-function
#20
Olga Moreno-Moreno, Mònica Torras-Llort, Fernando Azorín
The centromere is a specialized chromosomal structure that dictates kinetochore assembly and, thus, is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Centromere identity is determined epigenetically by the presence of a centromere-specific histone H3 variant, CENP-A, that replaces canonical H3 in centromeric chromatin. Here, we discuss recent work by Roulland et al. that identifies structural elements of the nucleosome as essential determinants of centromere function. In particular, CENP-A nucleosomes have flexible DNA ends due to the short αN helix of CENP-A...
February 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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