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BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731260/transcriptional-regulation-of-app-by-apoe-to-boldly-go-where-no-isoform-has-gone-before-apoe-app-transcription-and-ad-hypothesised-mechanisms-and-existing-knowledge-gaps
#1
REVIEW
Liying Corinne Lee, Michele Q L Goh, Edward H Koo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that gradually disrupts the brain network to impair memory, language and cognition. While the amyloid hypothesis remains the leading proposed mechanism to explain AD pathophysiology, anti-amyloid therapeutic strategies have yet to translate into useful therapies, suggesting that amyloid β-protein and its precursor, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) are but a part of the disease cascade. Further, risk of AD can be modulated by a number of factors, the most impactful being the ɛ4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (apoE)...
July 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719000/zc3h12a-mcpip1-regnase-1-related-endonucleases-an-evolutionary-perspective-on-molecular-mechanisms-and-biological-functions
#2
REVIEW
Cornelia Habacher, Rafal Ciosk
The mammalian Zc3h12a/MCPIP1/Regnase-1, an extensively studied regulator of inflammatory response, is the founding member of a ribonuclease family, which includes proteins related by the presence of the so-called Zc3h12a-like NYN domain. Recently, several related proteins have been described in Caenorhabditis elegans, allowing comparative evaluation of molecular functions and biological roles of these ribonucleases. We discuss the structural features of these proteins, which endow some members with ribonuclease (RNase) activity while others with auxiliary or RNA-independent functions...
July 18, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703879/precarious-maintenance-of-simple-dna-repeats-in-eukaryotes
#3
REVIEW
Alexander J Neil, Jane C Kim, Sergei M Mirkin
In this review, we discuss how two evolutionarily conserved pathways at the interface of DNA replication and repair, template switching and break-induced replication, lead to the deleterious large-scale expansion of trinucleotide DNA repeats that cause numerous hereditary diseases. We highlight that these pathways, which originated in prokaryotes, may be subsequently hijacked to maintain long DNA microsatellites in eukaryotes. We suggest that the negative mutagenic outcomes of these pathways, exemplified by repeat expansion diseases, are likely outweighed by their positive role in maintaining functional repetitive regions of the genome such as telomeres and centromeres...
July 13, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681935/offspring-sex-ratio-in-mammals-and-the-trivers-willard-hypothesis-in-pursuit-of-unambiguous-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Mathieu Douhard
Can mammalian mothers adaptively control the sex of their offspring? The influential Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH) proposes that when maternal condition increases the fitness of sons more than that of daughters, the proportion of sons produced should increase with maternal condition. Studies of mammals, however, often fail to support this hypothesis. This article highlights recent advances, including studies on the assumptions of the TWH and physiological mechanisms for sex-ratio manipulation. Particular emphasis is placed on how factors such as paternal quality, maternal reproductive costs and environmental conditions experienced by mothers early in life can mask/alter the expected relationship between maternal condition and offspring sex ratio or lead to apparent support for the TWH...
July 6, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612937/revisiting-the-chromosome-separation-checkpoint-retrospective-on-doi-10-1002-bies-201400140
#5
Irena Bockaj, Sophia W M Bruggeman, Floris Foijer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594445/mitochondrial-heterogeneity-metabolic-scaling-and-cell-death
#6
REVIEW
Juvid Aryaman, Hanne Hoitzing, Joerg P Burgstaller, Iain G Johnston, Nick S Jones
Heterogeneity in mitochondrial content has been previously suggested as a major contributor to cellular noise, with multiple studies indicating its direct involvement in biomedically important cellular phenomena. A recently published dataset explored the connection between mitochondrial functionality and cell physiology, where a non-linearity between mitochondrial functionality and cell size was found. Using mathematical models, we suggest that a combination of metabolic scaling and a simple model of cell death may account for these observations...
June 8, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593700/the-one-past-health-workshop-connecting-ancient-dna-and-zoonosis-research
#7
Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Tobias L Lenz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590593/the-proteasome-enters-the-meiotic-prophase-fray
#8
REVIEW
Aleksandar Vujin, Monique Zetka
The segregation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis depends on their ability to locate one another in the nucleus and establish a physical association through crossing over. A tightly regulated number of crossovers (COs) emerges following repair of induced DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR), but the process of how HR intermediates transition into COs is still poorly understood. Two recent studies by Ahuja et al. and Rao et al. have revealed a role for chromosomally localized proteasomes in choreographing both homologous chromosome pairing and the evolution of HR intermediates into segregation-competent COs...
June 7, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590035/interindividual-epigenetic-variability-sound-or-noise
#9
REVIEW
J Ramón Tejedor, Mario F Fraga
Interindividual variability is an inherent characteristic of biological systems. Whereas the underlying molecular sources of interindividual variability remain poorly understood, recent work by Ecker et al. (Ecker S, Chen L, Pancaldi V, Bagger FO, et al. 2017. Genome Biol 18: 18.) sheds light on the characterization of this phenomenon in a complex biological scenario. By combining data from the BLUEPRINT Epigenome Project with a novel analytical approach, these authors were able to measure the degree of transcriptional and epigenetic variability across a wide panel of samples and types of immune cell...
June 7, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582599/mechanisms-of-suppression-the-wiring-of-genetic-resilience
#10
REVIEW
Jolanda van Leeuwen, Carles Pons, Charles Boone, Brenda J Andrews
Recent analysis of genome sequences has identified individuals that are healthy despite carrying severe disease-associated mutations. A possible explanation is that these individuals carry a second genomic perturbation that can compensate for the detrimental effects of the disease allele, a phenomenon referred to as suppression. In model organisms, suppression interactions are generally divided into two classes: genomic suppressors which are secondary mutations in the genome that bypass a mutant phenotype, and dosage suppression interactions in which overexpression of a suppressor gene rescues a mutant phenotype...
June 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582595/why-the-missing-heritability-might-not-be-in-the-dna
#11
Pierrick Bourrat, Qiaoying Lu, Eva Jablonka
There are four major hypotheses (H1, H2, H3, and H4) as to the source of missing heritability. We propose that estimates obtained from GWAS underestimate heritability by not taking into account non-DNA (epigenetic) sources of heritability. Taking those factors into account (H4) should result in increased heritability estimates.
June 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582591/a-tool-for-integrating-genetic-and-mass-spectrometry-based-peptide-data-proteogenomics-viewer-pv-a-genome-browser-like-tool-which-includes-ms-data-visualization-and-peptide-identification-parameters
#12
REVIEW
José Eduardo Kroll, Vandeclécio Lira da Silva, Sandro José de Souza, Gustavo Antonio de Souza
In this manuscript we describe Proteogenomics Viewer, a web-based tool that collects MS peptide identification, indexes to genomic sequence and structure, assigns exon usage, reports the identified protein isoforms with genomic alignments and, most importantly, allows the inspection of MS2 information for proper peptide identification. It also provides all performed indexing to facilitate global analysis of the data. The relevance of such tool is that there has been an increase in the number of proteogenomic efforts to improve the annotation of both genomics and proteomics data, culminating with the release of the two human proteome drafts...
June 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570771/how-exaptations-facilitated-photosensory-evolution-seeing-the-light-by-accident
#13
REVIEW
Gregory S Gavelis, Patrick J Keeling, Brian S Leander
Exaptations are adaptations that have undergone a major change in function. By recruiting genes from sources originally unrelated to vision, exaptation has allowed for sudden and critical photosensory innovations, such as lenses, photopigments, and photoreceptors. Here we review new or neglected findings, with an emphasis on unicellular eukaryotes (protists), to illustrate how exaptation has shaped photoreception across the tree of life. Protist phylogeny attests to multiple origins of photoreception, as well as the extreme creativity of evolution...
June 1, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556309/local-sampling-paints-a-global-picture-local-concentration-measurements-sense-direction-in-complex-chemical-gradients
#14
REVIEW
Björn Hegemann, Matthias Peter
Detecting and interpreting extracellular spatial signals is essential for cellular orientation within complex environments, such as during directed cell migration or growth in multicellular development. Although the molecular understanding of how cells read spatial signals like chemical gradients is still lacking, recent work has revealed that stochastic processes at different temporal and spatial scales are at the core of this gradient sensing process in a wide range of eukaryotes. Fast biochemical reactions like those underlying GTPase activity dynamics form a functional module together with slower cell morphological changes driven by membrane remodelling...
May 26, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749075/phototoxicity-in-live-fluorescence-microscopy-and-how-to-avoid-it
#15
REVIEW
Jaroslav Icha, Michael Weber, Jennifer C Waters, Caren Norden
Phototoxicity frequently occurs during live fluorescence microscopy, and its consequences are often underestimated. Damage to cellular macromolecules upon excitation light illumination can impair sample physiology, and even lead to sample death. In this review, we explain how phototoxicity influences live samples, and we highlight that, besides the obvious effects of phototoxicity, there are often subtler consequences of illumination that are imperceptible when only the morphology of samples is examined. Such less apparent manifestations of phototoxicity are equally problematic, and can change the conclusions drawn from an experiment...
August 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749074/crediting-curiosity-and-creativity-in-young-scientists-beyond-the-standard-publication-record-%C3%A2
#16
EDITORIAL
Andrew Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749073/arranging-eukaryotic-nuclear-dna-polymerases-for-replication-specific-interactions-with-accessory-proteins-arrange-pols-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AF%C2%B5-in-the-replisome-for-leading-strand-and-lagging-strand-dna-replication
#17
REVIEW
Thomas A Kunkel, Peter M J Burgers
Biochemical and cryo-electron microscopy studies have just been published revealing interactions among proteins of the yeast replisome that are important for highly coordinated synthesis of the two DNA strands of the nuclear genome. These studies reveal key interactions important for arranging DNA polymerases α, δ, and ϵ for leading and lagging strand replication. The CMG (Mcm2-7, Cdc45, GINS) helicase is central to this interaction network. These are but the latest examples of elegant studies performed in the recent past that lead to a much better understanding of how the eukaryotic replication fork achieves efficient DNA replication that is accurate enough to prevent diseases yet allows evolution...
August 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703319/brain-carnitine-deficiency-causes-nonsyndromic-autism-with-an-extreme-male-bias-a-hypothesis
#18
REVIEW
Arthur L Beaudet
Could 10-20% of autism be prevented? We hypothesize that nonsyndromic or "essential" autism involves extreme male bias in infants who are genetically normal, but they develop deficiency of carnitine and perhaps other nutrients in the brain causing autism that may be amenable to early reversal and prevention. That brain carnitine deficiency might cause autism is suggested by reports of severe carnitine deficiency in autism and by evidence that TMLHE deficiency - a defect in carnitine biosynthesis - is a risk factor for autism...
July 13, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699183/how-bacterial-cell-division-might-cheat-turgor-pressure-a-unified-mechanism-of-septal-division-in-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#19
REVIEW
Harold P Erickson
An important question for bacterial cell division is how the invaginating septum can overcome the turgor force generated by the high osmolarity of the cytoplasm. I suggest that it may not need to. Several studies in Gram-negative bacteria have shown that the periplasm is isoosmolar with the cytoplasm. Indirect evidence suggests that this is also true for Gram-positive bacteria. In this case the invagination of the septum takes place within the uniformly high osmotic pressure environment, and does not have to fight turgor pressure...
August 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699180/a-tribute-to-d-arcy-wentworth-thompson-elucidation-of-a-developmental-principle
#20
Antony J Durston, Kongju Zhu
We show the vertebrate anterior -posterior axis is made by time space translation (TST). 1/ TST of Hox temporal to spatial collinearity makes the trunk part of the axis. 2/TST continues into the head. 3/ TST is mediated by collinear Hox-Hox interactions. 4/ 'Decision points' involving signalling pathways separate axial domains.
August 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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