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BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246395/reconsidering-the-meaning-of-concepts-in-biology-why-distinctions-are-so-important
#1
Kostas Kampourakis, Florian Stern
Concepts have a central and important place in science, therefore, it is important that their meanings are always made clear. However, such clarity does not always exist, even in the case of such fundamental biological concepts as "gene" and "adaptation." A quick look at textbooks reveals that different meanings may be attributed to the same concept, even within the same textbook, without explicitly discussing the differences of those meanings. This can be misleading, and mask important conceptual differences...
September 24, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238592/promoting-an-auteur-theory-for-young-scientists-preserving-excitement-and-creativity-%C3%A2
#2
Arshad Desai, Suckjoon Jun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216490/diversity-of-adipose-tissue-immune-cells-are-all-eosinophils-created-equal
#3
W Reid Bolus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216479/it-is-neither-frankenstein-nor-a-submarine-alkaline-vent-it-is-just-the-second-law
#4
David S Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198068/the-abc-of-phosphonate-breakdown-a-mechanism-for-bacterial-survival
#5
REVIEW
M Cemre Manav, Nicholas Sofos, Bjarne Hove-Jensen, Ditlev E Brodersen
Bacteria have evolved advanced strategies for surviving during nutritional stress, including expression of specialized enzyme systems that allow them to grow on unusual nutrient sources. Inorganic phosphate (Pi ) is limiting in most ecosystems, hence organisms have developed a sophisticated, enzymatic machinery known as carbon-phosphorus (C-P) lyase, allowing them to extract phosphate from a wide range of phosphonate compounds. These are characterized by a stable covalent bond between carbon and phosphorus making them very hard to break down...
September 9, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188575/missed-druggable-cancer-hallmark-cancer-stroma-symbiotic-crosstalk-as-paradigm-and-hypothesis-for-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Eugene Sverdlov
During tumor evolution, cancer cells use the tumor-stroma crosstalk to reorganize the microenvironment for maximum robustness of the tumor. The success of immune checkpoint therapy foretells a new cancer therapy paradigm: an effective cancer treatment should not aim to influence the individual components of super complex intracellular interactomes (molecular targeting), but try to disrupt the intercellular interactions between cancer and stromal cells, thus breaking the tumor as a whole. Arguments are provided in favor of a hypothesis that such interactions include formation of synapse-like structures (interfaces) where the interacting cells are located at a distance of ∼10-15 nm...
September 6, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176065/how-the-hippocampus-represents-memories-making-sense-of-memory-allocation-studies
#7
REVIEW
Thiago F A França, José M Monserrat
In recent years there has been a wealth of studies investigating how memories are allocated in the hippocampus. Some of those studies showed that it is possible to manipulate the identity of neurons recruited to represent a given memory without affecting the memory's behavioral expression. Those findings raised questions about how the hippocampus represents memories, with some researchers arguing that hippocampal neurons do not represent fixed stimuli. Herein, an alternative hypothesis is argued. Neurons in high-order brain regions can be tuned to multiple dimensions, forming complex, abstract representations...
September 3, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30168861/comparative-physiology-as-an-idea-factory-for-preserving-and-freezing-organs-and-cells-for-transplantation
#8
Liana M F Cardoso, Luiz A Alves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160800/phenotypic-plasticity-in-animals-exposed-to-osmotic-stress-is-it-always-adaptive
#9
REVIEW
Jan-Peter Hildebrandt, Amanda A Wiesenthal, Christian Müller
Hyperplasia and hypertrophy are elements of phenotypic plasticity adjusting organ size and function. Because they are costly, we assume that they are beneficial. In this review, the authors discuss examples of tissue and organ systems that respond with plastic changes to osmotic stress to raise awareness that we do not always have sufficient experimental evidence to conclude that such processes provide fitness advantages. Changes in hydranth architecture in the hydroid Cordylophora caspia or variations in size in the anal papillae of insect larvae upon changes in medium salinity may be adaptive or not...
August 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159904/tgf-%C3%AE-control-of-adaptive-immune-tolerance-a-break-from-treg-cells
#10
REVIEW
Ming Liu, Shun Li, Ming O Li
The vertebrate adaptive immune system has well defined functions in maintaining tolerance to self-tissues. Suppression of autoreactive T cells is dependent on the regulatory cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and regulatory T (Treg) cells, a distinct T cell lineage specified by the transcription factor Foxp3. Although TGF-β promotes thymic Treg (tTreg) cell development by repressing T cell clonal deletion and peripheral Treg cell differentiation by inducing Foxp3 expression, a recent study shows that TGF-β suppresses autoreactive T cells independent of Foxp3+ Treg cells...
August 29, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152860/fluorogenic-protein-based-strategies-for-detection-actuation-and-sensing
#11
REVIEW
Arnaud Gautier, Alison G Tebo
Fluorescence imaging has become an indispensable tool in cell and molecular biology. GFP-like fluorescent proteins have revolutionized fluorescence microscopy, giving experimenters exquisite control over the localization and specificity of tagged constructs. However, these systems present certain drawbacks and as such, alternative systems based on a fluorogenic interaction between a chromophore and a protein have been developed. While these systems are initially designed as fluorescent labels, they also present new opportunities for the development of novel labeling and detection strategies...
August 28, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152131/solving-donor-organ-shortage-with-insights-from-freeze-tolerance-in-nature-activating-endogenous-antioxidant-systems-with-non-coding-rna-to-precondition-donor-organs
#12
REVIEW
Bryan E Luu, Kenneth B Storey
The North American wood frog, Rana sylvatica, endures seasonal whole-body freezing during the winter and thawing during the spring without sustaining any apparent damage from ice or oxidative stress. Strategies from these frogs may solve the shortage of human donor organs, which is a multidisciplinary problem that can be alleviated by eliminating geographical boundaries. Rana sylvatica deploys an array of molecular and physiological responses, such as glucose production and microRNA regulation, to help it survive the cold...
August 27, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151860/an-emerging-system-to-study-photosymbiosis-brain-regeneration-chronobiology-and-behavior-the-marine-acoel-symsagittifera-roscoffensis
#13
Enrique Arboleda, Volker Hartenstein, Pedro Martinez, Heinrich Reichert, Sonia Sen, Simon Sprecher, Xavier Bailly
The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis, an early offshoot of the Bilateria and the only well-studied marine acoel that lives in a photosymbiotic relationship, exhibits a centralized nervous system, brain regeneration, and a wide repertoire of complex behaviors such as circatidal rhythmicity, photo/geotaxis, and social interactions. While this animal can be collected by the thousands and is studied historically, significant progress is made over the last decade to develop it as an emerging marine model. The authors here present the feasibility of culturing it in the laboratory and describe the progress made on different areas, including genomic and tissue architectures, highlighting the associated challenges...
August 27, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144132/histone-lysine-and-genomic-targets-of-histone-acetyltransferases-in-mammals
#14
REVIEW
Anne K Voss, Tim Thomas
Histone acetylation has been recognized as an important post-translational modification of core nucleosomal histones that changes access to the chromatin to allow gene transcription, DNA replication, and repair. Histone acetyltransferases were initially identified as co-activators that link DNA-binding transcription factors to the general transcriptional machinery. Over the years, more chromatin-binding modes have been discovered suggesting direct interaction of histone acetyltransferases and their protein complex partners with histone proteins...
August 24, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137682/cancer-care-using-an-array-of-radiolabelled-small-molecules
#15
Madhava B Mallia, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalamajan Pillai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132936/defining-eosinophil-function-in-adiposity-and-weight-loss
#16
REVIEW
Alexander J Knights, Emily J Vohralik, Kyle L Hoehn, Merlin Crossley, Kate G R Quinlan
Despite promising early work into the role of immune cells such as eosinophils in adipose tissue (AT) homeostasis, recent findings revealed that elevating the number of eosinophils in AT alone is insufficient for improving metabolic impairments in obese mice. Eosinophils are primarily recognized for their role in allergic immunity and defence against parasitic worms. They have also been detected in AT and appear to contribute to adipose homeostasis and drive energy expenditure, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive...
August 22, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113067/limiting-respiratory-viral-infection-by-targeting-antiviral-and-immunological-functions-of-bst-2-tetherin-knowledge-and-gaps
#17
REVIEW
Kayla N Berry, Daniel L Kober, Alvin Su, Tom J Brett
Recent findings regarding the cellular biology and immunology of BST-2 (also known as tetherin) indicate that its function could be exploited as a universal replication inhibitor of enveloped respiratory viruses (e.g., influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, etc.). BST-2 inhibits viral replication by preventing virus budding from the plasma membrane and by inducing an antiviral state in cells adjacent to infection via unique inflammatory signaling mechanisms. This review presents the first comprehensive summary of what is currently known about BST-2 anti-viral function against respiratory viruses, how these viruses construct countermeasures to antagonize BST-2, and how BST-2 function might be targeted to develop therapies to treat respiratory virus infections...
August 16, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106480/replisome-cohesin-interfacing-a-molecular-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Sara Villa-Hernández, Rodrigo Bermejo
Cohesion is established in S-phase through the action of key replisome factors as replication forks engage cohesin molecules. By holding sister chromatids together, cohesion critically assists both an equal segregation of the duplicated genetic material and an efficient repair of DNA breaks. Nonetheless, the molecular events leading the entrapment of nascent chromatids by cohesin during replication are only beginning to be understood. The authors describe here the essential structural features of the cohesin complex in connection to its ability to associate DNA molecules and review the current knowledge on the architectural-functional organization of the eukaryotic replisome, significantly advanced by recent biochemical and structural studies...
August 14, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101540/addressing-cancer-chemotherapeutic-toxicity-resistance-and-heterogeneity-novel-theranostic-use-of-dna-encoded-small-molecule-libraries
#19
REVIEW
Gerald Kolodny, Xiaoyu Li, Steven Balk
Major problems in cancer chemotherapy are toxicity, resistance, and cancer heterogeneity. A new theranostic paradigm has been proposed by the authors. Many million small molecules (SM) are bound to the proteins extracted from a patient's cancer. SM that also bind proteins extracted from normal human tissues are subtracted from the cancer protein bound SM leaving a large array of SM targeting many sites on each of the cancer biomarkers. Targeting many more than the conventional 1 - 4 cancer biomarkers will reduce development of tumor resistance...
August 12, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091472/how-acts-of-infidelity-promote-dna-break-repair-collision-and-collusion-between-dna-repair-and-transcription
#20
REVIEW
Priya Sivaramakrishnan, Alasdair J E Gordon, Jennifer A Halliday, Christophe Herman
Transcription is a fundamental cellular process and the first step in gene regulation. Although RNA polymerase (RNAP) is highly processive, in growing cells the progression of transcription can be hindered by obstacles on the DNA template, such as damaged DNA. The authors recent findings highlight a trade-off between transcription fidelity and DNA break repair. While a lot of work has focused on the interaction between transcription and nucleotide excision repair, less is known about how transcription influences the repair of DNA breaks...
August 9, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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