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BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621832/break-induced-replication-links-microsatellite-expansion-to-complex-genome-rearrangements
#1
REVIEW
Michael Leffak
The instability of microsatellite DNA repeats is responsible for at least 40 neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, Mirkin and co-workers presented a novel mechanism for microsatellite expansions based on break-induced replication (BIR) at sites of microsatellite-induced replication stalling and fork collapse. The BIR model aims to explain single-step, large expansions of CAG/CTG trinucleotide repeats in dividing cells. BIR has been characterized extensively in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a mechanism to repair broken DNA replication forks (single-ended DSBs) and degraded telomeric DNA...
June 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621811/multisensory-neural-integration-of-chemical-and-mechanical-signals
#2
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Sánchez-Alcañiz, Richard Benton
Chemosensation and mechanosensation cover an enormous spectrum of processes by which animals use information from the environment to adapt their behavior. For pragmatic reasons, these sensory modalities are commonly investigated independently. Recent advances, however, have revealed numerous situations in which they function together to control animals' actions. Highlighting examples from diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, we first discuss sensory receptors and neurons that have dual roles in the detection of chemical and mechanical stimuli...
June 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621807/cellular-compartmentation-follows-rules-the-schnepf-theorem-its-consequences-and-exceptions-a-biological-membrane-separates-a-plasmatic-from-a-non-plasmatic-phase
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Moog, Uwe G Maier
Is the spatial organization of membranes and compartments within cells subjected to any rules? Cellular compartmentation differs between prokaryotic and eukaryotic life, because it is present to a high degree only in eukaryotes. In 1964, Prof. Eberhard Schnepf formulated the compartmentation rule (Schnepf theorem), which posits that a biological membrane, the main physical structure responsible for cellular compartmentation, usually separates a plasmatic form a non-plasmatic phase. Here we review and re-investigate the Schnepf theorem by applying the theorem to different cellular structures, from bacterial cells to eukaryotes with their organelles and compartments...
June 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621804/long-term-evolution-of-viruses-a-janus-faced-balance
#4
REVIEW
Arshan Nasir, Kyung Mo Kim, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés
The popular textbook image of viruses as noxious and selfish genetic parasites greatly underestimates the beneficial contributions of viruses to the biosphere. Given the crucial dependency of viruses to reproduce in an intracellular environment, viruses that engage in excessive killing (lysis) can drive their cellular hosts to extinction and will not survive. The lytic mode of virus propagation must, therefore, be tempered and balanced by non-lytic modes of virus latency and symbiosis. Here, we review recent bioinformatics and metagenomic studies to argue that viral endogenization and domestication may be more frequent mechanisms of virus persistence than lysis...
June 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612937/revisiting-the-chromosome-separation-checkpoint-retrospective-on-doi-10-1002-bies-201400140
#5
Irena Bockaj, Sophia W M Bruggeman, Floris Foijer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594445/mitochondrial-heterogeneity-metabolic-scaling-and-cell-death
#6
REVIEW
Juvid Aryaman, Hanne Hoitzing, Joerg P Burgstaller, Iain G Johnston, Nick S Jones
Heterogeneity in mitochondrial content has been previously suggested as a major contributor to cellular noise, with multiple studies indicating its direct involvement in biomedically important cellular phenomena. A recently published dataset explored the connection between mitochondrial functionality and cell physiology, where a non-linearity between mitochondrial functionality and cell size was found. Using mathematical models, we suggest that a combination of metabolic scaling and a simple model of cell death may account for these observations...
June 8, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593700/the-one-past-health-workshop-connecting-ancient-dna-and-zoonosis-research
#7
Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Tobias L Lenz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590593/the-proteasome-enters-the-meiotic-prophase-fray
#8
REVIEW
Aleksandar Vujin, Monique Zetka
The segregation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis depends on their ability to locate one another in the nucleus and establish a physical association through crossing over. A tightly regulated number of crossovers (COs) emerges following repair of induced DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR), but the process of how HR intermediates transition into COs is still poorly understood. Two recent studies by Ahuja et al. and Rao et al. have revealed a role for chromosomally localized proteasomes in choreographing both homologous chromosome pairing and the evolution of HR intermediates into segregation-competent COs...
June 7, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590035/interindividual-epigenetic-variability-sound-or-noise
#9
REVIEW
J Ramón Tejedor, Mario F Fraga
Interindividual variability is an inherent characteristic of biological systems. Whereas the underlying molecular sources of interindividual variability remain poorly understood, recent work by Ecker et al. (Ecker S, Chen L, Pancaldi V, Bagger FO, et al. 2017. Genome Biol 18: 18.) sheds light on the characterization of this phenomenon in a complex biological scenario. By combining data from the BLUEPRINT Epigenome Project with a novel analytical approach, these authors were able to measure the degree of transcriptional and epigenetic variability across a wide panel of samples and types of immune cell...
June 7, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582599/mechanisms-of-suppression-the-wiring-of-genetic-resilience
#10
REVIEW
Jolanda van Leeuwen, Carles Pons, Charles Boone, Brenda J Andrews
Recent analysis of genome sequences has identified individuals that are healthy despite carrying severe disease-associated mutations. A possible explanation is that these individuals carry a second genomic perturbation that can compensate for the detrimental effects of the disease allele, a phenomenon referred to as suppression. In model organisms, suppression interactions are generally divided into two classes: genomic suppressors which are secondary mutations in the genome that bypass a mutant phenotype, and dosage suppression interactions in which overexpression of a suppressor gene rescues a mutant phenotype...
June 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582595/why-the-missing-heritability-might-not-be-in-the-dna
#11
Pierrick Bourrat, Qiaoying Lu, Eva Jablonka
There are four major hypotheses (H1, H2, H3, and H4) as to the source of missing heritability. We propose that estimates obtained from GWAS underestimate heritability by not taking into account non-DNA (epigenetic) sources of heritability. Taking those factors into account (H4) should result in increased heritability estimates.
June 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582591/a-tool-for-integrating-genetic-and-mass-spectrometry-based-peptide-data-proteogenomics-viewer-pv-a-genome-browser-like-tool-which-includes-ms-data-visualization-and-peptide-identification-parameters
#12
REVIEW
José Eduardo Kroll, Vandeclécio Lira da Silva, Sandro José de Souza, Gustavo Antonio de Souza
In this manuscript we describe Proteogenomics Viewer, a web-based tool that collects MS peptide identification, indexes to genomic sequence and structure, assigns exon usage, reports the identified protein isoforms with genomic alignments and, most importantly, allows the inspection of MS2 information for proper peptide identification. It also provides all performed indexing to facilitate global analysis of the data. The relevance of such tool is that there has been an increase in the number of proteogenomic efforts to improve the annotation of both genomics and proteomics data, culminating with the release of the two human proteome drafts...
June 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582586/tension-sensors-reveal-how-the-kinetochore-shares-its-load
#13
REVIEW
Edward D Salmon, Kerry Bloom
At metaphase in mitotic cells, pulling forces at the kinetochore-microtubule interface create tension by stretching the centromeric chromatin between oppositely oriented sister kinetochores. This tension is important for stabilizing the end-on kinetochore microtubule attachment required for proper bi-orientation of sister chromosomes as well as for satisfaction of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint and entry into anaphase. How force is coupled by proteins to kinetochore microtubules and resisted by centromere stretch is becoming better understood as many of the proteins involved have been identified...
June 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570771/how-exaptations-facilitated-photosensory-evolution-seeing-the-light-by-accident
#14
REVIEW
Gregory S Gavelis, Patrick J Keeling, Brian S Leander
Exaptations are adaptations that have undergone a major change in function. By recruiting genes from sources originally unrelated to vision, exaptation has allowed for sudden and critical photosensory innovations, such as lenses, photopigments, and photoreceptors. Here we review new or neglected findings, with an emphasis on unicellular eukaryotes (protists), to illustrate how exaptation has shaped photoreception across the tree of life. Protist phylogeny attests to multiple origins of photoreception, as well as the extreme creativity of evolution...
June 1, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556309/local-sampling-paints-a-global-picture-local-concentration-measurements-sense-direction-in-complex-chemical-gradients
#15
REVIEW
Björn Hegemann, Matthias Peter
Detecting and interpreting extracellular spatial signals is essential for cellular orientation within complex environments, such as during directed cell migration or growth in multicellular development. Although the molecular understanding of how cells read spatial signals like chemical gradients is still lacking, recent work has revealed that stochastic processes at different temporal and spatial scales are at the core of this gradient sensing process in a wide range of eukaryotes. Fast biochemical reactions like those underlying GTPase activity dynamics form a functional module together with slower cell morphological changes driven by membrane remodelling...
May 26, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471485/genetic-suppression-extending-our-knowledge-from-lab-experiments-to-natural-populations
#16
REVIEW
Takeshi Matsui, Jonathan T Lee, Ian M Ehrenreich
Many mutations have deleterious phenotypic effects that can be alleviated by suppressor mutations elsewhere in the genome. High-throughput approaches have facilitated the large-scale identification of these suppressors and have helped shed light on core functional mechanisms that give rise to suppression. Following reports that suppression occurs naturally within species, it is important to determine how our understanding of this phenomenon based on lab experiments extends to genetically diverse natural populations...
May 4, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383767/proton-electrochemical-gradient-driving-and-regulating-neurotransmitter-uptake
#17
REVIEW
Zohreh Farsi, Reinhard Jahn, Andrew Woehler
Accumulation of neurotransmitters in the lumen of synaptic vesicles (SVs) relies on the activity of the vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPase. This pump drives protons into the lumen, generating a proton electrochemical gradient (ΔμH+ ) across the membrane. Recent work has demonstrated that the balance between the chemical (ΔpH) and electrical (ΔΨ) components of ΔμH+ is regulated differently by some distinct vesicle types. As different neurotransmitter transporters use ΔpH and ΔΨ with different relative efficiencies, regulation of this gradient balance has the potential to influence neurotransmitter uptake...
April 6, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378940/loose-ends-3-how-editors-can-help-limit-manuscript-revision
#18
EDITORIAL
Andrew Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378933/a-fistful-of-tips-for-a-fruitful-high-throughput-sequencing-experiment
#19
LETTER
José L Lavín, Mirian Sánchez-Morán, Laura Bárcena, Ana R Cortazar, Nuria Macías-Cámara, Monika González, Ana M Aransay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370060/the-diversity-of-experimental-organisms-in-biomedical-research-may-be-influenced-by-biomedical-funding
#20
REVIEW
B R Erick Peirson, Heather Kropp, Julia Damerow, Manfred D Laubichler
Contrary to concerns of some critics, we present evidence that biomedical research is not dominated by a small handful of model organisms. An exhaustive analysis of research literature suggests that the diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research has increased substantially since 1975. There has been a longstanding worry that organism-centric funding policies can lead to biases in experimental organism choice, and thus negatively impact the direction of research and the interpretation of results...
March 30, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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