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BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164638/the-piwi-interacting-rna-molecular-pathway-insights-from-cultured-silkworm-germline-cells
#1
Kazuhiro Sakakibara, Mikiko C Siomi
The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, one of the major eukaryotic small RNA silencing pathways, is a genome surveillance system that silences selfish genes in animal gonads. piRNAs guide PIWI protein to target genes through Watson-Crick RNA-RNA base-parings. Loss of piRNA function causes genome instability, inducing failure in gametogenesis and infertility. Studies using fruit flies and mice as key experimental models have resulted in tremendous progress in understanding the mechanism underlying the piRNA pathway...
November 22, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160563/cin-and-aneuploidy-different-concepts-different-consequences
#2
REVIEW
Klaske M Schukken, Floris Foijer
Chromosomal instability (CIN) and aneuploidy are similar concepts but not synonymous. CIN is the process that leads to chromosome copy number alterations, and aneuploidy is the result. While CIN and resulting aneuploidy often cause growth defects, they are also selected for in cancer cells. Although such contradicting fates may seem paradoxical at first, they can be better understood when CIN and aneuploidy are assessed separately, taking into account the in vitro or in vivo context, the rate of CIN, and severity of the aneuploid karyotype...
November 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148060/gutsy-moves-the-amygdala-as-a-critical-node-in-microbiota-to-brain-signaling
#3
REVIEW
Caitlin S M Cowan, Alan E Hoban, Ana Paula Ventura-Silva, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
The amygdala is a key brain area regulating responses to stress and emotional stimuli, so improving our understanding of how it is regulated could offer novel strategies for treating disturbances in emotion regulation. As we review here, a growing body of evidence indicates that the gut microbiota may contribute to a range of amygdala-dependent brain functions from pain sensitivity to social behavior, emotion regulation, and therefore, psychiatric health. In addition, it appears that the microbiota is necessary for normal development of the amygdala at both the structural and functional levels...
November 17, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136291/gpcr-signaling-from-intracellular-membranes-a-novel-concept
#4
Claudia Stäubert, Torsten Schöneberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134681/gravity-constraints-drive-biological-systems-toward-specific-organization-patterns-commitment-of-cell-specification-is-constrained-by-physical-cues
#5
REVIEW
Mariano Bizzarri, Maria Grazia Masiello, Alessandro Giuliani, Alessandra Cucina
Different cell lineages growing in microgravity undergo a spontaneous transition leading to the emergence of two distinct phenotypes. By returning these populations in a normal gravitational field, the two phenotypes collapse, recovering their original configuration. In this review, we hypothesize that, once the gravitational constraint is removed, the system freely explores its phenotypic space, while, when in a gravitational field, cells are "constrained" to adopt only one favored configuration. We suggest that the genome allows for a wide range of "possibilities" but it is unable per se to choose among them: the emergence of a specific phenotype is enabled by physical constraints that drive the system toward a preferred solution...
November 14, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131358/diy-in-the-lab-how-necessity-can-make-us-creative%C3%A2
#6
EDITORIAL
Andrew Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116643/group-therapy-or-mass-suicide-the-sharing-of-cellular-damage-between-members-of-a-bacterial-community
#7
David E Whitworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071727/transcribed-junk-remains-junk-if-it-does-not-acquire-a-selected-function-in-evolution
#8
Eugene Sverdlov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068477/ren%C3%A3-thomas-1928-2017-from-dna-denaturation-to-positive-gene-regulation-kinetic-logic-and-complex-dynamical-systems
#9
Denis Thieffry, Ariane Toussaint
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068466/too-much-eukaryote-lgt
#10
REVIEW
William F Martin
The realization that prokaryotes naturally and frequently disperse genes across steep taxonomic boundaries via lateral gene transfer (LGT) gave wings to the idea that eukaryotes might do the same. Eukaryotes do acquire genes from mitochondria and plastids and they do transfer genes during the process of secondary endosymbiosis, the spread of plastids via eukaryotic algal endosymbionts. From those observations it, however, does not follow that eukaryotes transfer genes either in the same ways as prokaryotes do, or to a quantitatively similar degree...
October 25, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058339/linking-mitochondria-and-synaptic-transmission-the-cb1-receptor
#11
REVIEW
Marie-Ange Djeungoue-Petga, Etienne Hebert-Chatelain
CB1 receptors are functionally present within brain mitochondria (mtCB1), although they are usually considered specifically targeted to plasma membrane. Acute activation of mtCB1 alters mitochondrial ATP generation, synaptic transmission, and memory performance. However, the detailed mechanism linking disrupted mitochondrial metabolism and synaptic transmission is still uncharacterized. CB1 receptors are among the most abundant G protein-coupled receptors in the brain and impact on several processes, including fear coping, anxiety, stress, learning, and memory...
October 23, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058338/broad-chromatin-domains-an-important-facet-of-genome-regulation
#12
REVIEW
Francesco N Carelli, Garima Sharma, Julie Ahringer
Chromatin composition differs across the genome, with distinct compositions characterizing regions associated with different properties and functions. Whereas many histone modifications show local enrichment over genes or regulatory elements, marking can also span large genomic intervals defining broad chromatin domains. Here we highlight structural and functional features of chromatin domains marked by histone modifications, with a particular emphasis on the potential roles of H3K27 methylation domains in the organization and regulation of genome activity in metazoans...
October 23, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052843/animal-models-in-translational-research-rosetta-stone-or-stumbling-block
#13
REVIEW
Jessica A Bolker
Leading animal models are powerful tools for translational research, but they also present obstacles. Poorly conducted preclinical research in animals is a common cause of translational failure, but even when such research is well-designed and carefully executed, challenges remain. In particular, dominant models may bias research directions, elide essential aspects of human disease, omit important context, or subtly shift research targets. Recognizing these stumbling blocks can help us find ways to avoid them: employing a wider range of models, incorporating more realistic environmental conditions, better aligning studies between animals and patients, and focusing on human biology and therapeutic goals...
October 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052840/crowd-sourcing-of-membrane-fission-how-crowding-of-non-specialized-membrane-bound-proteins-contributes-to-cellular-membrane-fission
#14
REVIEW
Marco M Manni, Jure Derganc, Alenka Čopič
Fission of cellular membranes is ubiquitous and essential for life. Complex protein machineries, such as the dynamin and ESCRT spirals, have evolved to mediate membrane fission during diverse cellular processes, for example, vesicle budding. A new study suggests that non-specialized membrane-bound proteins can induce membrane fission through mass action due to protein crowding. Because up to 2/3 of the mass of cellular membranes is contributed by proteins, membrane protein crowding is an important physiological parameter...
October 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052251/untranslated-parts-of-genes-interpreted-making-heads-or-tails-of-high-throughput-transcriptomic-data-via-computational-methods-computational-methods-to-discover-and-quantify-isoforms-with-alternative-untranslated-regions
#15
REVIEW
Krzysztof J Szkop, Irene Nobeli
In this review we highlight the importance of defining the untranslated parts of transcripts, and present a number of computational approaches for the discovery and quantification of alternative transcription start and poly-adenylation events in high-throughput transcriptomic data. The fate of eukaryotic transcripts is closely linked to their untranslated regions, which are determined by the position at which transcription starts and ends at a genomic locus. Although the extent of alternative transcription starts and alternative poly-adenylation sites has been revealed by sequencing methods focused on the ends of transcripts, the application of these methods is not yet widely adopted by the community...
October 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044620/science-how-the-status-quo-harms-its-cultural-authority
#16
Brendon King, Michael Short
Three distinct explanatory models are described which underpin the relationship between the cultural authority of science and public trust. This essay describes how current discourses framed around how the enterprise of science is undertaken; damage these models, diminishing knowledge-attitudes, alienating the public while reducing the cultural meaning of science.
October 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034500/how-communication-between-nucleosomes-enables-spreading-and-epigenetic-memory-of-histone-modifications
#17
REVIEW
Fabian Erdel
Nucleosomes "talk" to each other about their modification state to form extended domains of modified histones independently of the underlying DNA sequence. At the same time, DNA elements promote modification of nucleosomes in their vicinity. How do these site-specific and histone-based activities act together to regulate spreading of histone modifications along the genome? How do they enable epigenetic memory to preserve cell identity? Many models for the dynamics of repressive histone modifications emphasize the role of strong positive feedback loops, which reinforce histone modifications by recruiting histone modifiers to preexisting modifications...
October 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027685/rubisco-and-the-search-for-biomolecular-culprits-of-planetary-change
#18
Gustavo Caetano-Anollés
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984991/the-function-of-the-golgi-ribbon-structure-an-enduring-mystery-unfolds
#19
Prajakta Gosavi, Paul A Gleeson
The Golgi apparatus in vertebrate cells consists of individual Golgi stacks fused together in a continuous ribbon structure. The ribbon structure per se is not required to mediate the classical functions of this organelle and the relevance of the "ribbon" structure has been a mystery since first identified ultrastructurally in the 1950s. Recent advances recognize a role for the Golgi apparatus in a range of cellular processes, some mediated by signaling networks which are regulated at the Golgi. Here we review the cellular processes and signaling events regulated by the Golgi apparatus and, in particular, explore an emerging theme that the ribbon structure of the Golgi contributes directly to the regulation of these higher order functions...
October 6, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983932/ecological-and-evolutionary-benefits-of-temperate-phage-what-does-or-doesn-t-kill-you-makes-you-stronger
#20
REVIEW
Ellie Harrison, Michael A Brockhurst
Infection by a temperate phage can lead to death of the bacterial cell, but sometimes these phages integrate into the bacterial chromosome, offering the potential for a more long-lasting relationship to be established. Here we define three major ecological and evolutionary benefits of temperate phage for bacteria: as agents of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), as sources of genetic variation for evolutionary innovation, and as weapons of bacterial competition. We suggest that a coevolutionary perspective is required to understand the roles of temperate phages in bacterial populations...
October 6, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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