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BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387177/tissue-mechanical-forces-and-evolutionary-developmental-changes-act-through-space-and-time-to-shape-tooth-morphology-and-function
#1
REVIEW
Zachary T Calamari, Jimmy Kuang-Hsien Hu, Ophir D Klein
Efforts from diverse disciplines, including evolutionary studies and biomechanical experiments, have yielded new insights into the genetic, signaling, and mechanical control of tooth formation and functions. Evidence from fossils and non-model organisms has revealed that a common set of genes underlie tooth-forming potential of epithelia, and changes in signaling environments subsequently result in specialized dentitions, maintenance of dental stem cells, and other phenotypic adaptations. In addition to chemical signaling, tissue forces generated through epithelial contraction, differential growth, and skeletal constraints act in parallel to shape the tooth throughout development...
November 2, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370932/have-causal-claims-about-the-gut-microbiome-been-over-hyped
#2
Pierrick Bourrat
Microbiome research attributes to whole microbiomes a causal role in the occurrence of different health outcomes. I argue, following some distinctions about causal relationships and explanations made within a philosophical account of causation, the "interventionist account," that such claims need more scrutiny.
October 29, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370931/evolution-of-antigenic-variation-in-african-trypanosomes-variant-surface-glycoprotein-expression-structure-and-function
#3
REVIEW
James D Bangs
The process of antigenic variation in parasitic African trypanosomes is a remarkable mechanism for outwitting the immune system of the mammalian host, but it requires a delicate balancing act for the monoallelic expression, folding and transport of a single variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). Only one of hundreds of VSG genes is expressed at time, and this from just one of ≈15 dedicated expression sites. By switching expression of VSGs the parasite presents a continuously shifting antigenic facade leading to prolonged chronic infections lasting months to years...
October 29, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370669/human-endogenous-formaldehyde-as-an-anticancer-metabolite-its-oxidation-downregulation-may-be-a-means-of-improving-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Yuri L Dorokhov, Ekaterina V Sheshukova, Tatiana E Bialik, Tatiana V Komarova
Malignant cells are characterized by an increased content of endogenous formaldehyde formed as a by-product of biosynthetic processes. Accumulation of formaldehyde in cancer cells is combined with activation of the processes of cellular formaldehyde clearance. These mechanisms include increased ALDH and suppressed ADH5/FDH activity, which oncologists consider poor and favorable prognostic markers, respectively. Here, the sources and regulation of formaldehyde metabolism in cancer cells are reviewed. The authors also analyze the participation of oncoproteins such as fibulins, FGFR1, HER2/neu, FBI-1, and MUC1-C in the control of genes related to formaldehyde metabolism, suggesting the existence of two mutually exclusive processes in cancer cells: 1) production and 2) oxidation and elimination of formaldehyde from the cell...
October 29, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370622/rnas-phase-separation-and-membrane-less-organelles-are-post-transcriptional-modifications-modulating-organelle-dynamics
#5
REVIEW
Aleksej Drino, Matthias R Schaefer
Membranous organelles allow sub-compartmentalization of biological processes. However, additional subcellular structures create dynamic reaction spaces without the need for membranes. Such membrane-less organelles (MLOs) are physiologically relevant and impact development, gene expression regulation, and cellular stress responses. The phenomenon resulting in the formation of MLOs is called liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), and is primarily governed by the interactions of multi-domain proteins or proteins harboring intrinsically disordered regions as well as RNA-binding domains...
October 29, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328120/my-favorite-animal-amphioxus-unparalleled-for-studying-early-vertebrate-evolution
#6
REVIEW
Hector Escriva
Amphioxus represents the most basally divergent group in chordates and probably the best extant proxy to the ancestor of all chordates including vertebrates. The amphioxus, or lancelets, are benthic filter feeding marine animals and their interest as a model in research is due to their phylogenetic position and their anatomical and genetic stasis throughout their evolutionary history. From the first works in the 19th century to the present day, enormous progress is made mainly favored by technical development at different levels, from spawning induction and husbandry techniques, through techniques for studies of gene function or of the role of different signalling pathways through embryonic development, to functional genomics techniques...
October 17, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311678/finding-wealth-in-waste-irreplicability-re-examined
#7
Bart Penders, A Cecile J W Janssens
Irreplicability is framed as crisis, blamed on sloppy science motivated by perverse stimuli in research. Structural changes to the organization of science, targeting sloppy science (e.g., open data, pre-registration), are proposed to prevent irreplicability. While there is an unquestionable link between sloppy science and failures to replicate/reproduce scientific studies, they are currently conflated. This position can be understood as a result of the erosion of the role of theory in science. The history, sociology, and philosophy of science reveal alternative explanations for irreplicability to show it is part of proper, informative and valuable science...
October 12, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311675/diet-gut-microbes-and-host-mate-choice-understanding-the-significance-of-microbiome-effects-on-host-mate-choice-requires-a-case-by-case-evaluation
#8
REVIEW
Philip T Leftwich, Matthew I Hutchings, Tracey Chapman
All organisms live in close association with microbes. However, not all such associations are meaningful in an evolutionary context. Current debate concerns whether hosts and microbes are best described as communities of individuals or as holobionts (selective units of hosts plus their microbes). Recent reports that assortative mating of hosts by diet can be mediated by commensal gut microbes have attracted interest as a potential route to host reproductive isolation (RI). Here, the authors discuss logical problems with this line of argument...
October 12, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298934/a-niche-mechanism-for-%C3%AE-cell-regeneration-in-type-1-diabetes
#9
David J Hodson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295944/how-does-a-memory-find-its-neurons
#10
Christoph Schmidt-Hieber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289987/visions-of-eye-commensals-the-known-and-the-unknown-about-how-the-microbiome-affects-eye-disease
#11
REVIEW
Anthony J St Leger, Rachel R Caspi
Until recently, the ocular surface is thought by many to be sterile and devoid of living microbes. It is now becoming clear that this may not be the case. Recent and sophisticated PCR analyses have shown that microbial DNA-based "signatures" are present within various ethnic, geographic, and contact lens wearing communities. Furthermore, using a mouse model of ocular surface disease, we have shown that the microbe, Corynebacterium mastitidis (C. mast), can stably colonize the ocular mucosa and that a causal relationship exists between ocular C...
October 5, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264543/structural-biology-of-the-heat-like-repeat-family-of-dna-glycosylases
#12
REVIEW
Rongxin Shi, Xing-Xing Shen, Antonis Rokas, Brandt F Eichman
DNA glycosylases remove aberrant DNA nucleobases as the first enzymatic step of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. The alkyl-DNA glycosylases AlkC and AlkD adopt a unique structure based on α-helical HEAT repeats. Both enzymes identify and excise their substrates without a base-flipping mechanism used by other glycosylases and nucleic acid processing proteins to access nucleobases that are otherwise stacked inside the double-helix. Consequently, these glycosylases act on a variety of cationic nucleobase modifications, including bulky adducts, not previously associated with BER...
September 28, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264468/holoimmunity-revisited
#13
Bartlomiej Swiatczak, Alfred I Tauber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264417/endocrine-regulation-of-energy-balance-by-drosophila-tgf-%C3%AE-activins
#14
REVIEW
Wei Song, Arpan C Ghosh, Daojun Cheng, Norbert Perrimon
The Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family of secreted proteins regulates a variety of key events in normal development and physiology. In mammals, this family, represented by 33 ligands, including TGF-β, activins, nodal, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), regulate biological processes as diverse as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, homeostasis, immune response, wound repair, and endocrine functions. In Drosophila, only 7 members of this family are present, with 4 TGF-β/BMP and 3 TGF-β/activin ligands...
September 28, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246395/reconsidering-the-meaning-of-concepts-in-biology-why-distinctions-are-so-important
#15
Kostas Kampourakis, Florian Stern
Concepts have a central and important place in science, therefore, it is important that their meanings are always made clear. However, such clarity does not always exist, even in the case of such fundamental biological concepts as "gene" and "adaptation." A quick look at textbooks reveals that different meanings may be attributed to the same concept, even within the same textbook, without explicitly discussing the differences of those meanings. This can be misleading, and mask important conceptual differences...
September 24, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238592/promoting-an-auteur-theory-for-young-scientists-preserving-excitement-and-creativity-%C3%A2
#16
Arshad Desai, Suckjoon Jun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216490/diversity-of-adipose-tissue-immune-cells-are-all-eosinophils-created-equal
#17
W Reid Bolus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216479/it-is-neither-frankenstein-nor-a-submarine-alkaline-vent-it-is-just-the-second-law
#18
David S Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198068/the-abc-of-phosphonate-breakdown-a-mechanism-for-bacterial-survival
#19
REVIEW
M Cemre Manav, Nicholas Sofos, Bjarne Hove-Jensen, Ditlev E Brodersen
Bacteria have evolved advanced strategies for surviving during nutritional stress, including expression of specialized enzyme systems that allow them to grow on unusual nutrient sources. Inorganic phosphate (Pi ) is limiting in most ecosystems, hence organisms have developed a sophisticated, enzymatic machinery known as carbon-phosphorus (C-P) lyase, allowing them to extract phosphate from a wide range of phosphonate compounds. These are characterized by a stable covalent bond between carbon and phosphorus making them very hard to break down...
September 9, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188575/missed-druggable-cancer-hallmark-cancer-stroma-symbiotic-crosstalk-as-paradigm-and-hypothesis-for-cancer-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Eugene Sverdlov
During tumor evolution, cancer cells use the tumor-stroma crosstalk to reorganize the microenvironment for maximum robustness of the tumor. The success of immune checkpoint therapy foretells a new cancer therapy paradigm: an effective cancer treatment should not aim to influence the individual components of super complex intracellular interactomes (molecular targeting), but try to disrupt the intercellular interactions between cancer and stromal cells, thus breaking the tumor as a whole. Arguments are provided in favor of a hypothesis that such interactions include formation of synapse-like structures (interfaces) where the interacting cells are located at a distance of ∼10-15 nm...
September 6, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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