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BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756331/mammalian-x-chromosome-dosage-compensation-perspectives-from-the-germ-line
#1
REVIEW
Mahesh N Sangrithi, James M A Turner
Sex chromosomes are advantageous to mammals, allowing them to adopt a genetic rather than environmental sex determination system. However, sex chromosome evolution also carries a burden, because it results in an imbalance in gene dosage between females (XX) and males (XY). This imbalance is resolved by X dosage compensation, which comprises both X chromosome inactivation and X chromosome upregulation. X dosage compensation has been well characterized in the soma, but not in the germ line. Germ cells face a special challenge, because genome wide reprogramming erases epigenetic marks responsible for maintaining the X dosage compensated state...
May 14, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750374/endothelial-metabolic-control-of-lymphangiogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Pengchun Yu, Guosheng Wu, Heon-Woo Lee, Michael Simons
Lymphangiogenesis is an important developmental process that is critical to regulation of fluid homeostasis, immune surveillance and response as well as pathogenesis of a number of diseases, among them cancer, inflammation, and heart failure. Specification, formation, and maturation of lymphatic blood vessels involves an interplay between a series of events orchestrated by various transcription factors that determine expression of key genes involved in lymphangiogenesis. These are traditionally thought to be under control of several key growth factors including vascular growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)...
May 11, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742282/replications-everywhere-why-the-replication-crisis-might-be-less-severe-than-it-seems-at-first
#3
Stephan Guttinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741780/membrane-transport-at-an-organelle-interface-in-the-early-secretory-pathway-take-your-coat-off-and-stay-a-while-evolution-of-the-metazoan-early-secretory-pathway
#4
REVIEW
Michael G Hanna, Jennifer L Peotter, E B Frankel, Anjon Audhya
Most metazoan organisms have evolved a mildly acidified and calcium diminished sorting hub in the early secretory pathway commonly referred to as the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). These membranous vesicular-tubular clusters are found tightly juxtaposed to ER subdomains that are competent for the production of COPII-coated transport carriers. In contrast to many unicellular systems, metazoan COPII carriers largely transit just a few hundred nanometers to the ERGIC, prior to COPI-dependent transport on to the cis-Golgi...
May 9, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709081/how-ancient-sex-drove-mammalian-lineage-evolution
#5
Jürgen Schmitz, Liliya Doronina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709074/mitochondrial-outer-membrane-channels-emerging-diversity-in-transport-processes
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Becker, Richard Wagner
Mitochondrial function and biogenesis depend on the transport of a large variety of proteins, ions, and metabolites across the two surrounding membranes. While several specific transporters are present in the inner membrane, transport processes across the outer membrane are less understood. Recent studies reveal that the number of outer membrane channels and their transport mechanisms are more diverse than originally thought. Four protein-conducting channels promote transport of distinct sets of precursor proteins across and into the outer membrane...
April 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709073/ipscs-from-an-endangered-mammalian-species-could-elucidate-the-mechanism-of-sex-determination-with-evolutionary-y-chromosome-loss
#7
Teruko Taketo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709068/normalizing-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-data-method-choice-can-alter-biological-inference
#8
REVIEW
Michael J Noonan, Helga V Tinnesand, Christina D Buesching
We demonstrate how different normalization techniques in GC-MS analysis impart unique properties to the data, influencing any biological inference. Using simulations, and empirical data, we compare the most commonly used techniques (Total Sum Normalization 'TSN'; Median Normalization 'MN'; Probabilistic Quotient Normalization 'PQN'; Internal Standard Normalization 'ISN'; External Standard Normalization 'ESN'; and a compositional data approach 'CODA'). When differences between biological classes are pronounced, ESN and ISN provides good results, but are less reliable for more subtly differentiated groups...
April 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709066/heritable-l1-retrotransposition-events-during-development-understanding-their-origins-examination-of-heritable-endogenous-l1-retrotransposition-in-mice-opens-up-exciting-new-questions-and-research-directions
#9
REVIEW
Sandra R Richardson, Geoffrey J Faulkner
The retrotransposon Long Interspersed Element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) has played a major role in shaping the sequence composition of the mammalian genome. In our recent publication, "Heritable L1 retrotransposition in the mouse primordial germline and early embryo," we systematically assessed the rate and developmental timing of de novo, heritable endogenous L1 insertions in mice. Such heritable retrotransposition events allow L1 to exert an ongoing influence upon genome evolution. Here, we place our findings in the context of earlier studies, and highlight how our results corroborate, and depart from, previous research based on human patient samples and transgenic mouse models harboring engineered L1 reporter genes...
April 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708272/three-distinct-types-of-microautophagy-based-on-membrane-dynamics-and-molecular-machineries
#10
REVIEW
Masahide Oku, Yasuyoshi Sakai
Microautophagy is originally defined as lysosomal (vacuolar) membrane dynamics to directly enwrap and transport cytosolic components into the lumen of the lytic organelle. Molecular details of microautophagy had remained unknown until genetic studies in yeast identified a set of proteins required for the process. Subsequent studies with other experimental model organisms resulted in a series of discoveries that accompanied an expansion of the definition of microautophagy to also encompass endosomal membrane dynamics...
April 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696673/a-potential-new-mechanism-linking-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Alejandro P Adam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694668/a-link-between-alzheimer-s-and-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-ca-2-mediated-signal-control-and-protein-localization
#12
REVIEW
Yuko Tsutsui, Franklin A Hays
We propose protein localization dependent signal activation (PLDSA) as a model to describe pre-existing protein partitioning between the cytosol, and membrane surface, as a means to modulate signal activation, specificity, and robustness. We apply PLDSA to explain possible molecular links between type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) by describing Ca+2 -mediated interactions between the Src non-receptor tyrosine kinase and p52Shc adaptor protein. We suggest that these interactions may serve as a contributing factor to disease development and progression...
April 25, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682771/novel-channels-of-the-outer-membrane-of-mitochondria-recent-discoveries-change-our-view
#13
REVIEW
Vanessa Checchetto, Ildiko Szabo
Ion channels mediate ion flux across biological membranes and regulate important organellar and cellular tasks. A recent study revealed the presence of four new proteins, the MIM complex (composed by Mim1 and Mim2), Ayr1, OMC7, and OMC8, that are able to form ion-conducting channels in the outer mitochondria membrane (OMM). These findings strongly indicate that the OMM is endowed with many solute-specific channels, in addition to porins and known channels mediating protein import into mitochondria. These solute-specific channels provide essential pathways for the controlled transport of ions and metabolites and may thus add a further layer of specificity to the regulation of mitochondrial function at the organelle-cytosol and/or inter-organellar interface...
April 23, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682766/non-cell-cycle-functions-of-the-cdk-network-in-ciliogenesis-recycling-the-cell-cycle-oscillator
#14
REVIEW
Liliana Krasinska, Daniel Fisher
Cyclin-dependent kinases are Ser/Thr protein kinases best known for their cell cycle roles, where CDK1 triggers mitotic onset in all eukaryotes. CDKs are also involved in various other cellular processes, some of which, such as transcription and centrosome duplication, are coupled to cell cycle progression. A new study suggests that the mitotic CDK network is active at low levels in non-dividing, differentiating precursors of multiciliated cells, and that it drives ciliogenesis. Manipulating the activity of CDK1 or PLK1 altered transitions between the amplification, growth, and disengagement phases, in a manner analogous to the control of passage through different phases of mitosis...
April 23, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668031/control-of-cell-proliferation-by-polyamine-signaling-through-gap-junctions-feasible-or-not
#15
Richard D Veenstra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633293/applying-ipscs-for-preserving-endangered-species-and-elucidating-the-evolution-of-mammalian-sex-determination
#16
REVIEW
Arata Honda
The endangered species Tokudaia osimensis has the unique chromosome constitution of 2n = 25, with an XO/XO sex chromosome configuration (2n = 25; XO). There is urgency to preserve this species and to elucidate the regulator(s) that can discriminate the males and females arising from the indistinguishable sex chromosome constitution. However, it is not realistic to examine this rare animal species by sacrificing individuals. Recently, true naïve induced pluripotent stem cells were successfully generated from a female T...
April 6, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611634/ubiquitylation-pathways-in-insulin-signaling-and-organismal-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Vishnu Balaji, Wojciech Pokrzywa, Thorsten Hoppe
The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway is a pivotal genetic program regulating cell growth, tissue development, metabolic physiology, and longevity of multicellular organisms. IIS integrates a fine-tuned cascade of signaling events induced by insulin/IGF-1, which is precisely controlled by post-translational modifications. The ubiquitin/proteasome-system (UPS) influences the functionality of IIS through inducible ubiquitylation pathways that regulate internalization of the insulin/IGF-1 receptor, the stability of downstream insulin/IGF-1 signaling targets, and activity of nuclear receptors for control of gene expression...
April 3, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603305/how-does-a-helicase-unwind-dna-insights-from-recbcd-helicase
#18
REVIEW
Timothy M Lohman, Nicole T Fazio
DNA helicases are a class of molecular motors that catalyze processive unwinding of double stranded DNA. In spite of much study, we know relatively little about the mechanisms by which these enzymes carry out the function for which they are named. Most current views are based on inferences from crystal structures. A prominent view is that the canonical ATPase motor exerts a force on the ssDNA resulting in "pulling" the duplex across a "pin" or "wedge" in the enzyme leading to a mechanical separation of the two DNA strands...
March 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603304/let-s-talk-about-sex-not-gender
#19
Wolfgang Goymann, Henrik Brumm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603300/reconsidering-values-in-biomedical-research
#20
Hamid Zand, Katayoun Pourvali, Tatiana Christides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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