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Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649918/molecular-analysis-of-hsp70-mechanisms-in-plants-and-their-function-in-response-to-stress
#1
Magaji G Usman, Mohd Y Rafii, Mohammad Y Martini, Oladosu A Yusuff, Mohd R Ismail, Gous Miah
Studying the strategies of improving abiotic stress tolerance is quite imperative and research under this field will increase our understanding of response mechanisms to abiotic stress such as heat. The Hsp70 is an essential regulator of protein having the tendency to maintain internal cell stability like proper folding protein and breakdown of unfolded proteins. Hsp70 holds together protein substrates to help in movement, regulation, and prevent aggregation under physical and or chemical pressure. However, this review reports the molecular mechanism of heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70) action and its structural and functional analysis, research progress on the interaction of Hsp70 with other proteins and their interaction mechanisms as well as the involvement of Hsp70 in abiotic stress responses as an adaptive defense mechanism...
June 25, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460558/improvement-of-tissue-culture-genetic-transformation-and-applications-of-biotechnology-to-brassica
#2
Seyed Ali Ravanfar, Vladimir Orbovic, Mahdi Moradpour, Maheran Abdul Aziz, Ratna Karan, Simon Wallace, Saroj Parajuli
Development of in vitro plant regeneration method from Brassica explants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is influenced by many factors such as culture environment, culture medium composition, explant sources, and genotypes which are reviewed in this study. An efficient in vitro regeneration system to allow genetic transformation of Brassica is a crucial tool for improving its economical value. Methods to optimize transformation protocols for the efficient introduction of desirable traits, and a comparative analysis of these methods are also reviewed...
May 2, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359189/outlook-in-the-application-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-chloroplast-as-a-platform-for-recombinant-protein-production
#3
Shabnam Shamriz, Hamideh Ofoghi
Microalgae, also called microphytes, are a vast group of microscopic photosynthetic organisms living in aquatic ecosystems. Microalgae have attracted the attention of biotechnology industry as a platform for extracting natural products with high commercial value. During last decades, microalgae have been also used as cost-effective and easily scalable platform for the production of recombinant proteins with medical and industrial applications. Most progress in this field has been made with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism mainly because of its simple life cycle, well-established genetics and ease of cultivation...
March 30, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052722/road-to-the-future-of-systems-biotechnology-crispr-cas-mediated-metabolic-engineering-for-recombinant-protein-production
#4
Amir Roointan, Mohammad Hossein Morowvat
The rising potential for CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing has revolutionized our strategies in basic and practical bioengineering research. It provides a predictable and precise method for genome modification in a robust and reproducible fashion. Emergence of systems biotechnology and synthetic biology approaches coupled with CRISPR-Cas technology could change the future of cell factories to possess some new features which have not been found naturally. We have discussed the possibility and versatile potentials of CRISPR-Cas technology for metabolic engineering of a recombinant host for heterologous protein production...
January 4, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449638/recent-advances-in-proteomics-of-cereals
#5
Monika Bansal, Madhu Sharma, Priyanka Kanwar, Aakash Goyal
Cereals contribute a major part of human nutrition and are considered as an integral source of energy for human diets. With genomic databases already available in cereals such as rice, wheat, barley, and maize, the focus has now moved to proteome analysis. Proteomics studies involve the development of appropriate databases based on developing suitable separation and purification protocols, identification of protein functions, and can confirm their functional networks based on already available data from other sources...
April 2016: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320224/bacterial-biofilms-and-quorum-sensing-fidelity-in-bioremediation-technology
#6
Neelam Mangwani, Supriya Kumari, Surajit Das
Increased contamination of the environment with toxic pollutants has paved the way for efficient strategies which can be implemented for environmental restoration. The major problem with conventional methods used for cleaning of pollutants is inefficiency and high economic costs. Bioremediation is a growing technology having advanced potential of cleaning pollutants. Biofilm formed by various micro-organisms potentially provide a suitable microenvironment for efficient bioremediation processes. High cell density and stress resistance properties of the biofilm environment provide opportunities for efficient metabolism of number of hydrophobic and toxic compounds...
April 2016: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181295/goals-and-hurdles-for-a-successful-implementation-of-genomic-selection-in-breeding-programme-for-selected-annual-and-perennial-crops
#7
Elisabeth Jonas, Dirk Jan de Koning
Genomic Selection is an important topic in quantitative genetics and breeding. Not only does it allow the full use of current molecular genetic technologies, it stimulates also the development of new methods and models. Genomic selection, if fully implemented in commercial farming, should have a major impact on the productivity of various agricultural systems. But suggested approaches need to be applicable in commercial breeding populations. Many of the published research studies focus on methodologies. We conclude from the reviewed publications, that a stronger focus on strategies for the implementation of genomic selection in advanced breeding lines, introduction of new varieties, hybrids or multi-line crosses is needed...
April 2016: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160661/towards-effective-non-viral-gene-delivery-vector
#8
REVIEW
Michaela Šimčíková, Kristala L J Prather, Duarte M F Prazeres, Gabriel A Monteiro
Despite very good safety records, clinical trials using plasmid DNA failed due to low transfection efficiency and brief transgene expression. Although this failure is both due to poor plasmid design and to inefficient delivery methods, here we will focus on the former. The DNA elements like CpG motifs, selection markers, origins of replication, cryptic eukaryotic signals or nuclease-susceptible regions and inverted repeats showed detrimental effects on plasmids' performance as biopharmaceuticals. On the other hand, careful selection of promoter, polyadenylation signal, codon optimization and/or insertion of introns or nuclear-targeting sequences for therapeutic protein expression can enhance the clinical efficacy...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160660/an-integrated-approach-advances-in-the-use-of-clostridium-for-biofuel
#9
REVIEW
M Samil Kök
Almost 90% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, which are both limited and polluting, hence the need to find alternative sources. Biofuels can provide a sustainable and renewable source of energy for the future. Recent significant advances in genetic engineering and fermentation technology have made microbial bio-based production of chemicals from renewable resources more viable. Clostridium species are considered as promising micro-organisms for the production of a wide range of chemicals for industrial use...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136722/process-development-and-intensification-for-enhanced-production-of-bacillus-lipopeptides
#10
REVIEW
Vivek Rangarajan, Kim G Clarke
The growing interest in Bacillus lipopeptides for high-value applications has driven process design, development and optimization for enhanced lipopeptide production. Traditional optimization approaches have been directed towards improving the overall titres by modification of media components and environmental parameters, almost exclusively in submerged cultures. Carbon and nitrogen sources, trace elements and oxygen availability have all been demonstrated to exhibit significant influences on lipopeptide yield, productivity and selectivity...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26428578/exploring-the-roles-of-basal-transcription-factor-3-in-eukaryotic-growth-and-development
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad Jamil, Wenyi Wang, Mengyun Xu, Jumin Tu
Basal transcription factor 3 (BTF3) has been reported to play a significant part in the transcriptional regulation linking with eukaryotes growth and development. Alteration in the BTF3 gene expression patterns or variation in their activities adds to the explanation of different signaling pathways and regulatory networks. Moreover, BTF3s often respond to numerous stresses, and subsequently they are involved in regulation of various mechanisms. BTF3 proteins also function through protein-protein contact, which can assist us to identify the multifaceted processes of signaling and transcriptional regulation controlled by BTF3 proteins...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25787309/biotechnological-interventions-in-withania-somnifera-l-dunal
#12
REVIEW
Pritika Singh, Rupam Guleri, Varinder Singh, Gurpreet Kaur, Hardeep Kataria, Baldev Singh, Gurcharan Kaur, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa, Pratap Kumar Pati
Withania somnifera is one of the most valued plants and is extensively used in Indian, Unani, and African systems of traditional medicine. It possess a wide array of therapeutic properties including anti-arthritic, anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, chemoprotective, cardioprotective, and recovery from neurodegenerative disorders. With the growing realization of benefits and associated challenges in the improvement of W. somnifera, studies on exploration of genetic and chemotypic variations, identification and characterization of important genes, and understanding the secondary metabolites production and their modulation has gained significant momentum...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25686159/a-review-of-modern-approaches-to-the-hydrodynamic-characterisation-of-polydisperse-macromolecular-systems-in-biotechnology
#13
REVIEW
Richard B Gillis, Arthur J Rowe, Gary G Adams, Stephen E Harding
This short review considers the range of modern techniques for the hydrodynamic characterisation of macromolecules - particularly large glycosylated systems used in the food, biopharma and healthcare industries. The range or polydispersity of molecular weights and conformations presents special challenges compared to proteins. The review is aimed, without going into any great theoretical or methodological depth, to help the Industrial Biotechnologist choose the appropriate methodology or combination of methodologies for providing the detail he/she needs for particular applications...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25652818/environmental-developmental-and-genetic-factors-controlling-root-system-architecture
#14
REVIEW
F Malekpoor Mansoorkhani, G B Seymour, R Swarup, H Moeiniyan Bagheri, R J L Ramsey, A J Thompson
A better understanding of the development and architecture of roots is essential to develop strategies to increase crop yield and optimize agricultural land use. Roots control nutrient and water uptake, provide anchoring and mechanical support and can serve as important storage organs. Root growth and development is under tight genetic control and modulated by developmental cues including plant hormones and the environment. This review focuses on root architecture and its diversity and the role of environment, nutrient, and water as well as plant hormones and their interactions in shaping root architecture...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25603880/beyond-landraces-developing-improved-germplasm-resources-for-underutilized-species-a-case-for-bambara-groundnut
#15
REVIEW
Siise Aliyu, Festo Massawe, Sean Mayes
The potential for underutilized crops (also known as minor, neglected or orphan crops) to improve food and nutrition security has been gaining prominence within the research community in recent years. This is due to their significance for diversified agricultural systems which is a necessary component of future agriculture to address food and nutritional security concerns posed by changing climate and a growing world population. Developing workable value chain systems for underutilized crop species, coupled with comparative trait studies with major crops, potentially allows us to identify suitable agricultural modalities for such species...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25598358/green-biotechnology-nanotechnology-and-bio-fortification-perspectives-on-novel-environment-friendly-crop-improvement-strategies
#16
REVIEW
Shikha Yashveer, Vikram Singh, Vineet Kaswan, Amit Kaushik, Jayanti Tokas
Food insecurity and malnutrition are prominent issues for this century. As the world's population continues to increase, ensuring that the earth has enough food that is nutritious too will be a difficult task. Today one billion people of the world are undernourished and more than a third are malnourished. Moreover, the looming threat of climate change is exasperating the situation even further. At the same time, the total acreage of arable land that could support agricultural use is already near its limits, and may even decrease over the next few years due to salination and desertification patterns resulting from climate change...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25023464/advances-in-the-use-of-nanoscale-bilayers-to-study-membrane-protein-structure-and-function
#17
REVIEW
Ketan Malhotra, Nathan N Alder
Within the last decade, nanoscale lipid bilayers have emerged as powerful experimental systems in the analysis of membrane proteins (MPs) for both basic and applied research. These discoidal lipid lamellae are stabilized by annuli of specially engineered amphipathic polypeptides (nanodiscs) or polymers (SMALPs/Lipodisqs®). As biomembrane mimetics, they are well suited for the reconstitution of MPs within a controlled lipid environment. Moreover, because they are water-soluble, they are amenable to solution-based biochemical and biophysical experimentation...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25023463/advances-and-applications-of-molecular-cloning-in-clinical-microbiology
#18
REVIEW
Kamal Sharma, Ajay Kumar Mishra, Vikram Mehraj, Ganesh Selvaraj Duraisamy
Molecular cloning is based on isolation of a DNA sequence of interest to obtain multiple copies of it in vitro. Application of this technique has become an increasingly important tool in clinical microbiology due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapidity, and reliability. This review entails the recent advances in molecular cloning and its application in the clinical microbiology in the context of polymicrobial infections, recombinant antigens, recombinant vaccines, diagnostic probes, antimicrobial peptides, and recombinant cytokines...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25023462/from-molecular-evolution-to-biobricks-and-synthetic-modules-a-lesson-by-the-bacterial-flagellum
#19
REVIEW
Florian Altegoer, Jan Schuhmacher, Patrick Pausch, Gert Bange
The bacterial flagellum is a motility structure and represents one of the most sophisticated nanomachines in the biosphere. Here, we review the current knowledge on the flagellum, its architecture with respect to differences between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and other species-specific variations (e.g. the flagellar filament protein, Flagellin). We further focus on the mechanism by which the two nucleotide-binding proteins FlhF and FlhG ensure the correct reproduction of flagella place and number (the flagellation pattern)...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25023461/does-nature-make-provision-for-backups-in-the-modification-of-bacterial-community-structures
#20
REVIEW
Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
Self-balancing is an inherent character in nature in response to community structure modification pressure and modern biotechnology has revolutionized the way such detections are made. Presented here is an overview of the forces and process interactions between released bacteria and indigenous microflora which encompass soil bacterial diversity, community structure, indigenous endorhizosphere micro-organisms, molecular detection methodologies, and transgenic plants and microbes. Issues of soil bacterial diversity and community structure as well as the interpretation of results from various findings are highlighted and discussed as inferred from research articles...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
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