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Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews

Neelam Mangwani, Supriya Kumari, Surajit Das
Increased contamination of the environment with toxic pollutants has paved the way for efficient strategies which can be implemented for environmental restoration. The major problem with conventional methods used for cleaning of pollutants is inefficiency and high economic costs. Bioremediation is a growing technology having advanced potential of cleaning pollutants. Biofilm formed by various micro-organisms potentially provide a suitable microenvironment for efficient bioremediation processes. High cell density and stress resistance properties of the biofilm environment provide opportunities for efficient metabolism of number of hydrophobic and toxic compounds...
June 20, 2016: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Elisabeth Jonas, Dirk Jan de Koning
Genomic Selection is an important topic in quantitative genetics and breeding. Not only does it allow the full use of current molecular genetic technologies, it stimulates also the development of new methods and models. Genomic selection, if fully implemented in commercial farming, should have a major impact on the productivity of various agricultural systems. But suggested approaches need to be applicable in commercial breeding populations. Many of the published research studies focus on methodologies. We conclude from the reviewed publications, that a stronger focus on strategies for the implementation of genomic selection in advanced breeding lines, introduction of new varieties, hybrids or multi-line crosses is needed...
May 16, 2016: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Michaela Šimčíková, Kristala L J Prather, Duarte M F Prazeres, Gabriel A Monteiro
Despite very good safety records, clinical trials using plasmid DNA failed due to low transfection efficiency and brief transgene expression. Although this failure is both due to poor plasmid design and to inefficient delivery methods, here we will focus on the former. The DNA elements like CpG motifs, selection markers, origins of replication, cryptic eukaryotic signals or nuclease-susceptible regions and inverted repeats showed detrimental effects on plasmids' performance as biopharmaceuticals. On the other hand, careful selection of promoter, polyadenylation signal, codon optimization and/or insertion of introns or nuclear-targeting sequences for therapeutic protein expression can enhance the clinical efficacy...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
M Samil Kök
Almost 90% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, which are both limited and polluting, hence the need to find alternative sources. Biofuels can provide a sustainable and renewable source of energy for the future. Recent significant advances in genetic engineering and fermentation technology have made microbial bio-based production of chemicals from renewable resources more viable. Clostridium species are considered as promising micro-organisms for the production of a wide range of chemicals for industrial use...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Vivek Rangarajan, Kim G Clarke
The growing interest in Bacillus lipopeptides for high-value applications has driven process design, development and optimization for enhanced lipopeptide production. Traditional optimization approaches have been directed towards improving the overall titres by modification of media components and environmental parameters, almost exclusively in submerged cultures. Carbon and nitrogen sources, trace elements and oxygen availability have all been demonstrated to exhibit significant influences on lipopeptide yield, productivity and selectivity...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Muhammad Jamil, Wenyi Wang, Mengyun Xu, Jumin Tu
Basal transcription factor 3 (BTF3) has been reported to play a significant part in the transcriptional regulation linking with eukaryotes growth and development. Alteration in the BTF3 gene expression patterns or variation in their activities adds to the explanation of different signaling pathways and regulatory networks. Moreover, BTF3s often respond to numerous stresses, and subsequently they are involved in regulation of various mechanisms. BTF3 proteins also function through protein-protein contact, which can assist us to identify the multifaceted processes of signaling and transcriptional regulation controlled by BTF3 proteins...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Pritika Singh, Rupam Guleri, Varinder Singh, Gurpreet Kaur, Hardeep Kataria, Baldev Singh, Gurcharan Kaur, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa, Pratap Kumar Pati
Withania somnifera is one of the most valued plants and is extensively used in Indian, Unani, and African systems of traditional medicine. It possess a wide array of therapeutic properties including anti-arthritic, anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, chemoprotective, cardioprotective, and recovery from neurodegenerative disorders. With the growing realization of benefits and associated challenges in the improvement of W. somnifera, studies on exploration of genetic and chemotypic variations, identification and characterization of important genes, and understanding the secondary metabolites production and their modulation has gained significant momentum...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Richard B Gillis, Arthur J Rowe, Gary G Adams, Stephen E Harding
This short review considers the range of modern techniques for the hydrodynamic characterisation of macromolecules - particularly large glycosylated systems used in the food, biopharma and healthcare industries. The range or polydispersity of molecular weights and conformations presents special challenges compared to proteins. The review is aimed, without going into any great theoretical or methodological depth, to help the Industrial Biotechnologist choose the appropriate methodology or combination of methodologies for providing the detail he/she needs for particular applications...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
F Malekpoor Mansoorkhani, G B Seymour, R Swarup, H Moeiniyan Bagheri, R J L Ramsey, A J Thompson
A better understanding of the development and architecture of roots is essential to develop strategies to increase crop yield and optimize agricultural land use. Roots control nutrient and water uptake, provide anchoring and mechanical support and can serve as important storage organs. Root growth and development is under tight genetic control and modulated by developmental cues including plant hormones and the environment. This review focuses on root architecture and its diversity and the role of environment, nutrient, and water as well as plant hormones and their interactions in shaping root architecture...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Siise Aliyu, Festo Massawe, Sean Mayes
The potential for underutilized crops (also known as minor, neglected or orphan crops) to improve food and nutrition security has been gaining prominence within the research community in recent years. This is due to their significance for diversified agricultural systems which is a necessary component of future agriculture to address food and nutritional security concerns posed by changing climate and a growing world population. Developing workable value chain systems for underutilized crop species, coupled with comparative trait studies with major crops, potentially allows us to identify suitable agricultural modalities for such species...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Shikha Yashveer, Vikram Singh, Vineet Kaswan, Amit Kaushik, Jayanti Tokas
Food insecurity and malnutrition are prominent issues for this century. As the world's population continues to increase, ensuring that the earth has enough food that is nutritious too will be a difficult task. Today one billion people of the world are undernourished and more than a third are malnourished. Moreover, the looming threat of climate change is exasperating the situation even further. At the same time, the total acreage of arable land that could support agricultural use is already near its limits, and may even decrease over the next few years due to salination and desertification patterns resulting from climate change...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Ketan Malhotra, Nathan N Alder
Within the last decade, nanoscale lipid bilayers have emerged as powerful experimental systems in the analysis of membrane proteins (MPs) for both basic and applied research. These discoidal lipid lamellae are stabilized by annuli of specially engineered amphipathic polypeptides (nanodiscs) or polymers (SMALPs/Lipodisqs®). As biomembrane mimetics, they are well suited for the reconstitution of MPs within a controlled lipid environment. Moreover, because they are water-soluble, they are amenable to solution-based biochemical and biophysical experimentation...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Kamal Sharma, Ajay Kumar Mishra, Vikram Mehraj, Ganesh Selvaraj Duraisamy
Molecular cloning is based on isolation of a DNA sequence of interest to obtain multiple copies of it in vitro. Application of this technique has become an increasingly important tool in clinical microbiology due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapidity, and reliability. This review entails the recent advances in molecular cloning and its application in the clinical microbiology in the context of polymicrobial infections, recombinant antigens, recombinant vaccines, diagnostic probes, antimicrobial peptides, and recombinant cytokines...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Florian Altegoer, Jan Schuhmacher, Patrick Pausch, Gert Bange
The bacterial flagellum is a motility structure and represents one of the most sophisticated nanomachines in the biosphere. Here, we review the current knowledge on the flagellum, its architecture with respect to differences between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and other species-specific variations (e.g. the flagellar filament protein, Flagellin). We further focus on the mechanism by which the two nucleotide-binding proteins FlhF and FlhG ensure the correct reproduction of flagella place and number (the flagellation pattern)...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
Self-balancing is an inherent character in nature in response to community structure modification pressure and modern biotechnology has revolutionized the way such detections are made. Presented here is an overview of the forces and process interactions between released bacteria and indigenous microflora which encompass soil bacterial diversity, community structure, indigenous endorhizosphere micro-organisms, molecular detection methodologies, and transgenic plants and microbes. Issues of soil bacterial diversity and community structure as well as the interpretation of results from various findings are highlighted and discussed as inferred from research articles...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
B H Joshi, K P Pachchigar
Long-term research on RNA interference led to an unfathomed understanding of the mechanism of siRNA-mediated silencing and finally siRNA has emerged as a powerful therapeutic tool. With siRNAs virtually every gene in the human genome contributing to a disease becomes amenable to regulation, thus opening unprecedented opportunities for drug discovery. siRNA has a well-established role as a tool for in vitro target screening and validation, besides these recent progresses of siRNA delivery in vivo, this has raised more expectations for siRNA-based drugs as the up-and-coming 'magic bullet'...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Ronald G Reichert, Raylene A Reimer, Veronica Kacinik, Sebely Pal, Roland J Gahler, Simon Wood
Meal replacements and viscous soluble fibre represent safe and sustainable aids for weight loss. Our purpose was to determine if PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre complex in combination with a calorie-restricted diet would aid in weight loss in a clinical setting. Fifty-two overweight and obese participants (49 women, 3 men; average age 47.1 years) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) consumed 57 g of proprietary PGX® meal replacement product at breakfast and another 57 g at lunch for 12 weeks...
2013: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Fiona Wegman, F Cumhur Oner, Wouter J A Dhert, Jacqueline Alblas
The possibilities of using gene therapy for bone regeneration have been extensively investigated. Improvements in the design of new transfection agents, combining vectors and delivery/release systems to diminish cytotoxicity and increase transfection efficiencies have led to several successful in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo strategies. These include growth factor or short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) delivery, or even enzyme replacement therapies, and have led to increased osteogenic differentiation and bone formation in vivo...
2013: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Mian Yahya Mushtaq, Robert Verpoorte, Hye Kyong Kim
Zebrafish offer a unique vertebrate model for research areas such as drug development, disease modeling and other biological exploration. There is significant conservation of genetics and other cellular networks among zebrafish and other vertebrate models, including humans. Here we discuss the recent work and efforts made in different fields of biology to explore the potential of zebrafish. Along with this, we also reviewed the concept of systems biology. A biological system is made up of a large number of components that interact in a huge variety of combinations...
2013: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Yaghoub Safdari, Safar Farajnia, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Masoumeh Khalili
This article reviews recent advances achieved during recent years on various aspects of antibody humanization theories and techniques. Common methods for producing humanized antibodies including framework-homology-based humanization, germline humanization, complementary determining regions (CDR)-homology-based humanization and specificity determining residues (SDR) grafting, as well as advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods and their applications are discussed.
2013: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
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