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Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews

Muhammad Mohsin Javed, Muhammad Azhar Nisar, Muhammad Usman Ahmad, Nighat Yasmeen, Sana Zahoor
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is an emerging area for alternative renewable energy generation and it offers additional opportunities for environmental bioremediation. Recent scientific studies have focused on MFC reactor design as well as reactor operations to increase energy output. The advancement in alternative MFC models and their performance in recent years reflect the interests of scientific community to exploit this technology for wider practical applications and environmental benefit. This is reflected in the diversity of the substrates available for use in MFCs at an economically viable level...
June 22, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Tamunonengiyeofori Lawson, Sean Mayes, Grantley W Lycett, Chiew Foan Chin
Fruit ripening is a complex developmental process that involves the synthesis and modification of the cell wall leading up to the formation of an edible fruit. During the period of fruit ripening, new cell wall polymers and enzymes are synthesized and trafficked to the apoplast. Vesicle trafficking has been shown to play a key role in facilitating the synthesis and modification of cell walls in fruits. Through reverse genetics and gene expression studies, the importance of Rab guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) as integral regulators of vesicle trafficking to the cell wall has been revealed...
June 14, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Reagan Mudziwapasi, Abigarl Ndudzo, Rutendo Patricia Nyamusamba, Fortune Ntengwa Jomane, Tendai Trudor Mutengwa, Mcebisi Maphosa
Africa is burdened with food shortages and plant, animal and human diseases. Some of these can be ameliorated by adopting genome editing technologies such as CRISPR. This technology is considered better than its predecessors, Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), because it is cheaper, easy to use, has high gene modification efficiency and is less time consuming. CRISPR technology has wide applications in the African context ranging from crop and animal improvement to disease diagnosis and treatment as well as improving food shelf life, organoleptic properties and food safety...
June 11, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Guido van Marle, Trushar R Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Christopher Isaac, Trushar R Patel, Athanasios Zovoilis
Advances in sequencing technologies and bioinformatic analysis techniques have greatly improved our understanding of various classes of RNAs and their functions. Despite not coding for proteins, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as essential biomolecules fundamental for cellular functions and cell survival. Interestingly, ncRNAs produced by viruses not only control the expression of viral genes, but also influence host cell regulation and circumvent host innate immune response. Correspondingly, ncRNAs produced by the host genome can play a key role in host-virus interactions...
April 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Luc Roberts, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are cis-acting RNA elements capable of recruiting ribosomes and initiating translation on an internal portion of an mRNA. This is divergent from canonical eukaryotic translation initiation, where the 5' cap is recognized by initiation factors (IFs) that recruit the ribosome to initiate translation of the encoded peptide. All known IRESs are capable of initiating translation in a cap-independent manner, and are therefore not constrained by the absence or presence of a 5' m7 G cap...
April 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Shivali S Joshi, Carla S Coffin
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is predominantly a hepatotropic virus but also infects cells of the lymphatic system. HBV genomes (DNA, messenger (m)RNA, covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA) and proteins have been found in extrahepatic sites such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid. HBV entry into hepatocytes occurs by binding of the HBV preS1 surface protein to its specific receptor, the bile acid transporter, sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP)...
April 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Franz Zemp, Jahanara Rajwani, Douglas J Mahoney
The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms...
April 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Guido van Marle, Deirdre L Church, Frank van der Meer, M John Gill
Impressive advances have been made in the treatment and management of HIV-1 infected individuals. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has turned HIV-1 infection from an almost invariable deadly infectious disease, to a lifelong manageable infectious disease. However, a cure or vaccine has not been forthcoming. A major problem in HIV-1 infection is the persistent and latently infected cellular and tissue reservoirs. One of these reservoirs is the Gut Associated Lymphoid tissue (GALT), which has been the research focus of our group...
April 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Les P Nagata, Chad R Irwin, Wei-Gang Hu, David H Evans
The past few years have seen a rash of emerging viral diseases, including the Ebola crisis in West Africa, the pandemic spread of chikungunya, and the recent explosion of Zika in South America. Vaccination is the most reliable and cost-effective method of control of infectious diseases, however, there is often a long delay in production and approval in getting new vaccines to market. Vaccinia was the first vaccine developed for the successful eradication of smallpox and has properties that make it attractive as a universal vaccine vector...
April 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Vanessa Meier-Stephenson, Tyler Mrozowich, Mimi Pham, Trushar R Patel
Viruses hijack the host cell machinery and recruit host proteins to aid their replication. Several host proteins also play vital roles in inhibiting viral replication. Emerging class of host proteins central to both of these processes are the DEAD-box helicases: a highly conserved family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases, bearing a common D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) motif. They play key roles in numerous cellular processes, including transcription, splicing, miRNA biogenesis and translation. Though their sequences are highly conserved, these helicases have quite diverse roles in the cell...
April 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Edis Dzananovic, Sean A McKenna, Trushar R Patel
The innate immune system offers a first line of defense by neutralizing foreign pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. These pathogens express molecules (RNA and proteins) that have discrete structures, known as the pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by a highly specialized class of host proteins called pattern recognition receptors to facilitate the host's immune response against infection. The RNA-dependent Protein Kinase R (PKR) is one of the host's pattern recognition receptors that is a key component of an innate immune system...
April 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Niaz Muhammad, Qinwen Mao, Haibin Xia
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are redirected T-cells that can recognize cancer antigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-independent fashion. A typical CAR is comprised of two main functional domains: an extracellular antigen recognition domain, called a single-chain variable fragment (scFv), and an intracellular signaling domain. Based on the number of intracellular signaling molecules, CARs are categorized into four generations. CAR T-cell therapy has become a promising treatment for hematologic malignancies...
October 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Behnaz Bakhshandeh, Payam Zarrintaj, Mohammad Omid Oftadeh, Farid Keramati, Hamideh Fouladiha, Salma Sohrabi-Jahromi, Zarrintaj Ziraksaz
Current tissue regenerative strategies rely mainly on tissue repair by transplantation of the synthetic/natural implants. However, limitations of the existing strategies have increased the demand for tissue engineering approaches. Appropriate cell source, effective cell modification, and proper supportive matrices are three bases of tissue engineering. Selection of appropriate methods for cell stimulation, scaffold synthesis, and tissue transplantation play a definitive role in successful tissue engineering...
October 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Goutam Banerjee, Arun Kumar Ray
The demand of enzymes in industrial sectors is increasing rapidly due to their economical and ecological advantages. Micro-organisms produce different types of extracellular enzymes for maintaining their own metabolism, defense, and normal physiological condition. Among several enzymes, proteases have gained special attention in industrial sectors. Several sources of extracellular enzymes are reported by various researchers, but enzymes obtain from microbial sources have high demand in industries due to lower cost, high production rate, availability, stability, and diversity...
October 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Daniel Bravo, José M Landete
Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of probiotic microorganisms. However, certain doubts have arisen around probiotics, because of the beneficial effects of these microorganisms are not clear yet, and in many occasions those beneficial effects have not been proven. Therefore, it would be of interest if these probiotic strains were able to acquire new attributes to allow them improve and increase their beneficial characteristics. Genetic engineering can be used for human applications; for instance, the resistance to antibiotics is removed and the probiotic bacteria are modified in its own DNA...
October 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Sudip Das, Wricha Tyagi, Mayank Rai, Julia S Yumnam
Plants experience low phosphorus (P) and high iron (Fe) levels in acidic lowland soils that lead to reduced crop productivity. A better understanding of the relationship between these two stresses at molecular and physiological level will lead to development of suitable strategies to increase crop productivity in such poor soils. Tolerance for most abiotic stresses including P deficiency and Fe toxicity is a quantitative trait in rice. Recent studies in the areas of physiology, genetics, and overall metabolic pathways in response to P deficiency of rice plants have improved our understanding of low P tolerance...
April 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Jonathan R Latham, Madeleine Love, Angelika Hilbeck
The Cry toxins are a family of crystal-forming proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Their mode of action is thought to be to create pores that disrupt the gut epithelial membranes of juvenile insects. These pores allow pathogen entry into the hemocoel, thereby killing the insect. Genes encoding a spectrum of Cry toxins, including Cry mutants, Cry chimaeras and other Cry derivatives, are used commercially to enhance insect resistance in genetically modified (GM) crops. In most countries of the world, such GM crops are regulated and must be assessed for human and environmental safety...
April 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Archana Vimal, Awanish Kumar
L-asparaginase is a vital enzyme of medical importance, and renowned as a chemotherapeutic agent. The relevance of this enzyme is not only limited as an anti-cancer agent, it also possesses a wide range of medical application. The application includes the antimicrobial property, treatment of infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, canine and feline cancer. Apart from the health care industry, its significance is also established in the food sector as a food processing agent to reduce the acrylamide concentration...
April 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Magaji G Usman, Mohd Y Rafii, Mohammad Y Martini, Oladosu A Yusuff, Mohd R Ismail, Gous Miah
Studying the strategies of improving abiotic stress tolerance is quite imperative and research under this field will increase our understanding of response mechanisms to abiotic stress such as heat. The Hsp70 is an essential regulator of protein having the tendency to maintain internal cell stability like proper folding protein and breakdown of unfolded proteins. Hsp70 holds together protein substrates to help in movement, regulation, and prevent aggregation under physical and or chemical pressure. However, this review reports the molecular mechanism of heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70) action and its structural and functional analysis, research progress on the interaction of Hsp70 with other proteins and their interaction mechanisms as well as the involvement of Hsp70 in abiotic stress responses as an adaptive defense mechanism...
April 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
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