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Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews

Niaz Muhammad, Qinwen Mao, Haibin Xia
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are redirected T-cells that can recognize cancer antigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-independent fashion. A typical CAR is comprised of two main functional domains: an extracellular antigen recognition domain, called a single-chain variable fragment (scFv), and an intracellular signaling domain. Based on the number of intracellular signaling molecules, CARs are categorized into four generations. CAR T-cell therapy has become a promising treatment for hematologic malignancies...
February 12, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Behnaz Bakhshandeh, Payam Zarrintaj, Mohammad Omid Oftadeh, Farid Keramati, Hamideh Fouladiha, Salma Sohrabi-Jahromi, Zarrintaj Ziraksaz
Current tissue regenerative strategies rely mainly on tissue repair by transplantation of the synthetic/natural implants. However, limitations of the existing strategies have increased the demand for tissue engineering approaches. Appropriate cell source, effective cell modification, and proper supportive matrices are three bases of tissue engineering. Selection of appropriate methods for cell stimulation, scaffold synthesis, and tissue transplantation play a definitive role in successful tissue engineering...
January 31, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Goutam Banerjee, Arun Kumar Ray
The demand of enzymes in industrial sectors is increasing rapidly due to their economical and ecological advantages. Micro-organisms produce different types of extracellular enzymes for maintaining their own metabolism, defense, and normal physiological condition. Among several enzymes, proteases have gained special attention in industrial sectors. Several sources of extracellular enzymes are reported by various researchers, but enzymes obtain from microbial sources have high demand in industries due to lower cost, high production rate, availability, stability, and diversity...
October 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Daniel Bravo, José M Landete
Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of probiotic microorganisms. However, certain doubts have arisen around probiotics, because of the beneficial effects of these microorganisms are not clear yet, and in many occasions those beneficial effects have not been proven. Therefore, it would be of interest if these probiotic strains were able to acquire new attributes to allow them improve and increase their beneficial characteristics. Genetic engineering can be used for human applications; for instance, the resistance to antibiotics is removed and the probiotic bacteria are modified in its own DNA...
October 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Jonathan R Latham, Madeleine Love, Angelika Hilbeck
The Cry toxins are a family of crystal-forming proteins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Their mode of action is thought to be to create pores that disrupt the gut epithelial membranes of juvenile insects. These pores allow pathogen entry into the hemocoel, thereby killing the insect. Genes encoding a spectrum of Cry toxins, including Cry mutants, Cry chimaeras and other Cry derivatives, are used commercially to enhance insect resistance in genetically modified (GM) crops. In most countries of the world, such GM crops are regulated and must be assessed for human and environmental safety...
September 13, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Archana Vimal, Awanish Kumar
L-asparaginase is a vital enzyme of medical importance, and renowned as a chemotherapeutic agent. The relevance of this enzyme is not only limited as an anti-cancer agent, it also possesses a wide range of medical application. The application includes the antimicrobial property, treatment of infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, canine and feline cancer. Apart from the health care industry, its significance is also established in the food sector as a food processing agent to reduce the acrylamide concentration...
August 2, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Magaji G Usman, Mohd Y Rafii, Mohammad Y Martini, Oladosu A Yusuff, Mohd R Ismail, Gous Miah
Studying the strategies of improving abiotic stress tolerance is quite imperative and research under this field will increase our understanding of response mechanisms to abiotic stress such as heat. The Hsp70 is an essential regulator of protein having the tendency to maintain internal cell stability like proper folding protein and breakdown of unfolded proteins. Hsp70 holds together protein substrates to help in movement, regulation, and prevent aggregation under physical and or chemical pressure. However, this review reports the molecular mechanism of heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70) action and its structural and functional analysis, research progress on the interaction of Hsp70 with other proteins and their interaction mechanisms as well as the involvement of Hsp70 in abiotic stress responses as an adaptive defense mechanism...
June 25, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Seyed Ali Ravanfar, Vladimir Orbovic, Mahdi Moradpour, Maheran Abdul Aziz, Ratna Karan, Simon Wallace, Saroj Parajuli
Development of in vitro plant regeneration method from Brassica explants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is influenced by many factors such as culture environment, culture medium composition, explant sources, and genotypes which are reviewed in this study. An efficient in vitro regeneration system to allow genetic transformation of Brassica is a crucial tool for improving its economical value. Methods to optimize transformation protocols for the efficient introduction of desirable traits, and a comparative analysis of these methods are also reviewed...
May 2, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Sudip Das, Wricha Tyagi, Mayank Rai, Julia S Yumnam
Plants experience low phosphorus (P) and high iron (Fe) levels in acidic lowland soils that lead to reduced crop productivity. A better understanding of the relationship between these two stresses at molecular and physiological level will lead to development of suitable strategies to increase crop productivity in such poor soils. Tolerance for most abiotic stresses including P deficiency and Fe toxicity is a quantitative trait in rice. Recent studies in the areas of physiology, genetics, and overall metabolic pathways in response to P deficiency of rice plants have improved our understanding of low P tolerance...
April 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Shabnam Shamriz, Hamideh Ofoghi
Microalgae, also called microphytes, are a vast group of microscopic photosynthetic organisms living in aquatic ecosystems. Microalgae have attracted the attention of biotechnology industry as a platform for extracting natural products with high commercial value. During last decades, microalgae have been also used as cost-effective and easily scalable platform for the production of recombinant proteins with medical and industrial applications. Most progress in this field has been made with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism mainly because of its simple life cycle, well-established genetics and ease of cultivation...
March 30, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Amir Roointan, Mohammad Hossein Morowvat
The rising potential for CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing has revolutionized our strategies in basic and practical bioengineering research. It provides a predictable and precise method for genome modification in a robust and reproducible fashion. Emergence of systems biotechnology and synthetic biology approaches coupled with CRISPR-Cas technology could change the future of cell factories to possess some new features which have not been found naturally. We have discussed the possibility and versatile potentials of CRISPR-Cas technology for metabolic engineering of a recombinant host for heterologous protein production...
January 4, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Monika Bansal, Madhu Sharma, Priyanka Kanwar, Aakash Goyal
Cereals contribute a major part of human nutrition and are considered as an integral source of energy for human diets. With genomic databases already available in cereals such as rice, wheat, barley, and maize, the focus has now moved to proteome analysis. Proteomics studies involve the development of appropriate databases based on developing suitable separation and purification protocols, identification of protein functions, and can confirm their functional networks based on already available data from other sources...
April 2016: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Neelam Mangwani, Supriya Kumari, Surajit Das
Increased contamination of the environment with toxic pollutants has paved the way for efficient strategies which can be implemented for environmental restoration. The major problem with conventional methods used for cleaning of pollutants is inefficiency and high economic costs. Bioremediation is a growing technology having advanced potential of cleaning pollutants. Biofilm formed by various micro-organisms potentially provide a suitable microenvironment for efficient bioremediation processes. High cell density and stress resistance properties of the biofilm environment provide opportunities for efficient metabolism of number of hydrophobic and toxic compounds...
April 2016: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Elisabeth Jonas, Dirk Jan de Koning
Genomic Selection is an important topic in quantitative genetics and breeding. Not only does it allow the full use of current molecular genetic technologies, it stimulates also the development of new methods and models. Genomic selection, if fully implemented in commercial farming, should have a major impact on the productivity of various agricultural systems. But suggested approaches need to be applicable in commercial breeding populations. Many of the published research studies focus on methodologies. We conclude from the reviewed publications, that a stronger focus on strategies for the implementation of genomic selection in advanced breeding lines, introduction of new varieties, hybrids or multi-line crosses is needed...
April 2016: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Michaela Šimčíková, Kristala L J Prather, Duarte M F Prazeres, Gabriel A Monteiro
Despite very good safety records, clinical trials using plasmid DNA failed due to low transfection efficiency and brief transgene expression. Although this failure is both due to poor plasmid design and to inefficient delivery methods, here we will focus on the former. The DNA elements like CpG motifs, selection markers, origins of replication, cryptic eukaryotic signals or nuclease-susceptible regions and inverted repeats showed detrimental effects on plasmids' performance as biopharmaceuticals. On the other hand, careful selection of promoter, polyadenylation signal, codon optimization and/or insertion of introns or nuclear-targeting sequences for therapeutic protein expression can enhance the clinical efficacy...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
M Samil Kök
Almost 90% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, which are both limited and polluting, hence the need to find alternative sources. Biofuels can provide a sustainable and renewable source of energy for the future. Recent significant advances in genetic engineering and fermentation technology have made microbial bio-based production of chemicals from renewable resources more viable. Clostridium species are considered as promising micro-organisms for the production of a wide range of chemicals for industrial use...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Vivek Rangarajan, Kim G Clarke
The growing interest in Bacillus lipopeptides for high-value applications has driven process design, development and optimization for enhanced lipopeptide production. Traditional optimization approaches have been directed towards improving the overall titres by modification of media components and environmental parameters, almost exclusively in submerged cultures. Carbon and nitrogen sources, trace elements and oxygen availability have all been demonstrated to exhibit significant influences on lipopeptide yield, productivity and selectivity...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Muhammad Jamil, Wenyi Wang, Mengyun Xu, Jumin Tu
Basal transcription factor 3 (BTF3) has been reported to play a significant part in the transcriptional regulation linking with eukaryotes growth and development. Alteration in the BTF3 gene expression patterns or variation in their activities adds to the explanation of different signaling pathways and regulatory networks. Moreover, BTF3s often respond to numerous stresses, and subsequently they are involved in regulation of various mechanisms. BTF3 proteins also function through protein-protein contact, which can assist us to identify the multifaceted processes of signaling and transcriptional regulation controlled by BTF3 proteins...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Pritika Singh, Rupam Guleri, Varinder Singh, Gurpreet Kaur, Hardeep Kataria, Baldev Singh, Gurcharan Kaur, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa, Pratap Kumar Pati
Withania somnifera is one of the most valued plants and is extensively used in Indian, Unani, and African systems of traditional medicine. It possess a wide array of therapeutic properties including anti-arthritic, anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, chemoprotective, cardioprotective, and recovery from neurodegenerative disorders. With the growing realization of benefits and associated challenges in the improvement of W. somnifera, studies on exploration of genetic and chemotypic variations, identification and characterization of important genes, and understanding the secondary metabolites production and their modulation has gained significant momentum...
April 2015: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Richard B Gillis, Arthur J Rowe, Gary G Adams, Stephen E Harding
This short review considers the range of modern techniques for the hydrodynamic characterisation of macromolecules - particularly large glycosylated systems used in the food, biopharma and healthcare industries. The range or polydispersity of molecular weights and conformations presents special challenges compared to proteins. The review is aimed, without going into any great theoretical or methodological depth, to help the Industrial Biotechnologist choose the appropriate methodology or combination of methodologies for providing the detail he/she needs for particular applications...
October 2014: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
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