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Letters in Applied Microbiology

Won-Jae Song, Yoon-Hee Kim, Dong-Hyun Kang
This study evaluated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens on pistachios (Pistacia vera L.). Pistachios inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes were subjected to gamma irradiation in the range of 0, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 kGy, and color change was evaluated after treatment and during storage at room temperature. Pathogen populations decreased with increasing treatment doses. A gamma irradiation dose of 5 kGy decreased the three pathogens on pistachios to under the detection limit (1...
November 9, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
C M Ross, D Rapp, V M Cave, G Brightwell
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains (STEC) are food-borne pathogens. While E. coli O157:H7 is commonly associated with cattle, less is known about the prevalence of non-O157 STEC serogroups in bovines. This study evaluated the prevalence and virulence status of O157:H7 and six E. coli O-serogroups (O26, O103, O45, O145, O121, O111) in New Zealand dairy farms using molecular as well as culture-based methods. Fresh farm dairy effluent (FDE) (n=36) and composite calf faeces (n=12) were collected over three samplings from 12 dairy farms...
November 9, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Bruna Egumi Nagay, Marcelo Coelho Goiato, Emily Vivianne Freitas da Silva, Agda Marobo Andreotti, Sandro Basso Bitencourt, Cristiane Duque, Paulo Henrique Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos Santos
Conditions of the acrylic resin (AR) surface, such as roughness, can promote a favorable environment for the adhesion of microorganisms, even on the surface of ocular prostheses. This study evaluated the influence of photopolymerized glaze application on the roughness of ARs and adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on ocular AR surfaces submitted to accelerated aging. Two hundred and eighty-eight samples of white-color (N1) and colorless ARs were distributed in 8 groups (n = 9), based on surface treatments (glaze or ARs submitted to only a final polishing), accelerated aging (before and after), and periods of microbial growth (24- and 48-hours)...
November 8, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Lisa F Stinson, Jeffrey A Keelan, Matthew S Payne
Reagent-derived contamination can compromise the integrity of microbiome data, particularly in low microbial biomass samples. This contamination has recently been attributed to the "kitome" (contamination introduced by the DNA extraction kit), prior to which attention was mostly paid to potential contamination introduced by PCR reagents. In this study, we assessed the proportion to which our DNA extraction kit and PCR master mix introduce contaminating microbial DNA to bacterial microbial profiles generated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 1, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Jana Zemančíková, Klára Papoušková, Roberto Peréz-Torrado, Amparo Querol, Hana Sychrová
Saccharomyces kudriavzevii is a non-conventional and rather osmosensitive yeast with a high potential of use in fermentation processes. To elucidate the basis of its relative osmosensitivity, the role of the STL1 gene encoding a putative glycerol uptake system was studied. Under higher osmotic pressure, the addition of a low amount of glycerol to the growth medium improved the growth of S. kudriavzevii and the expression of the STL1 gene was highly induced. Deletion of this gene decreased the strain's ability to grow in the presence of higher concentrations of salts and other solutes...
November 1, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Marisela Gutiérrez-Huante, Martha Elva Martínez-Duncker, Elizabeth Sauceda, Joaquín Sánchez
We have reported that bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) potentiates the activity of aminoglycosides in Escherichia coli, but the action mechanism was not identified. To eventually understand how NaHCO3 can potentiate antibiotics, we thought that a rational first step was to examine the effect of NaHCO3 separately and to inspect initial gene expression changes triggered by it. In this work we started by confirming that NaHCO3 can reduce the number of viable E. coli bacteria. We then investigated, via RNAseq, gene expression changes induced by NaHCO3 ...
November 1, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Yu Fu
The rare ginsenoside Rg3 is attracting more attention because of its good physiological activity and urgently required. There are many pathways to obtain ginsenoside Rg3, including chemical and biological methods. Among these, the conversion of PPD-type ginsenosides by microbial hydrolysis is a trend due to its high efficiency and mild conditions. For effectively extracting from the other panaxadiol saponins, the conversion process for ginsenoside Rg3 was investigated using β-glycosidase-producing endophytic fungus in Panax ginseng in this study...
October 26, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Tapanee Thinbanmai, Viraphong Lulitanond, Baltasar Mayo, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Marutpong Panya
This study investigated cloning and expression of enterovirus 71 viral capsid protein 1 (EV71-VP1) in Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (B. pseudocatenulatum) M115. To achieve this, a codon-optimized gene coding for EV71-VP1 was analyzed, designed, synthesized, and cloned into a plasmid vector flanked by a transcriptional promoter and terminator sequences. The promoter was based on that of P919, a constitutive promoter of the gene encoding the large ribosomal protein of Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4, while the terminator was based on that of the peptidase N gene of Lactococcus lactis...
October 24, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Pravin Vejan, Rosazlin Abdullah, Tumirah Khadiran, Salmah Ismail
Sustainable crop production for a rapidly growing human population is one of the current challenges faced by the agricultural sector. However, many of the chemical agents used in agriculture can be hazardous to humans, non-targeted organism and environment. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have demonstrated role in promoting plant growth and health under various stress conditions including disease. Unfortunately, bacteria viability degrades due to temperature and other environmental factors (Bashan et al...
October 19, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
T T Xie, H Zeng, X P Ren, N Wang, Z J Chen, Y Zhang, W Chen
This study sought to identify novel and non-toxic biofilm inhibitors from the Actinomycete library for attenuating biofilm formation by S. epidermidis. After investigating antibiofilm activities of spent media from 185 Actinomycete strains using two S. epidermidis strains (ATCC 35984 and a clinical strain 5-121-2) as target bacteria, 3 strains of tested Actinomycete (TRM 46200, TRM 41337, and TRM 46814) showed a significant inhibition against S. epidermidis biofilm formation without affecting the growth of planktonic cells...
October 18, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
R Melo, L Sanhueza, L Mendoza, M Cotoras
The fungitoxic effect of aristolochic acids I and II on mycelial growth and conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea was analyzed. Aristolochic acid I had a higher effect on mycelial growth of B. cinerea than aristolochic acid II with IC50 value of 18·7 and 57·0μg mL-1 , respectively. These compounds did not affect the conidia germination. Also, the effect of both compounds on DNA and plasmatic membrane integrity of B. cinerea was studied. Only aristolochic acid II was able to cause damage to the integrity of the plasmatic membrane...
October 16, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Daniela Sateriale, Elisa Scioscia, Roberta Colicchio, Chiara Pagliuca, Paola Salvatore, Ettore Varricchio, Maria Grazia Volpe, Marina Paolucci, Caterina Pagliarulo
This study purpose was to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory properties of Italian acacia honey extracts against pathogenic aquatic oomycete/fungal isolates that cause different diseases in crayfish, resulting in an elevated mortality rate. The antimycotic activity of acacia honey aqueous extracts were evaluated against the strain UEF88662 of Aphanomyces astaci (oomycete) and the strain SMM2 of Fusarium avenaceum (fungus). The extracts preparation was carried out with water by a cheap, not complex and organic solvent-free procedure, with low environmental impact and the higher possibility of large-scale reproducibility...
October 13, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
X Zhang, L Wang, H Mu, D Wang, Y Yu
Some plants of Buddleja genus possessed antimicrobial activity. In this study, the antibacterial activities of nine compounds from B. albiflora were evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, either alone or in combination with Erythromycin (Ery), Gentamycin (Gen) and Ampicillin (Amp). Checkerboard assay demonstrated that kumatakenin (Kum) elicited synergistic effects with all three antibiotics, and chrysin (Chr) displayed synergistic effect with Ery against L...
October 9, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
K Y Yao, T Z Zhang, H F Wang, J X Liu
Yellow wine lees (YWL) are the main co-products in yellow wine industry with unbalanced amino acid (AA) profiles. Solid-state fermentation was employed in the current study to upgrade the YWL for ruminant animals. A 3 × 3 orthogonal design was conducted to optimize the fermentation condition for optimal crude protein yield as follows: ratio of water to total solid medium at 50:100 (v/w), temperature of 30°C, and ratio of Candida utilis to Bacillus subtilis at 2:1. The contents of crude protein, peptides and AA of fermented products were 14·5%, 40·9% and 26·1% higher than those of the unfermented, respectively...
October 5, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Chika Yamawaki, Masahiro Oyama, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Akira Ogita, Toshio Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Fujita
Drug resistance commonly occurs when treating immunocompromised patients who have fungal infections. Curcumin is a compound isolated from Curcuma longa. It has been reported to inhibit drug efflux in several human cell lines and non-pathogenic budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that overexpress the ATP-binding cassette transporters S. cerevisiae Pdr5p and pathogenic Candida albicans Cdr1p and Cdr2p. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of curcumin on multidrug resistance in a wild-type strain of the budding yeast with an intrinsic expression system of multidrug-efflux-related genes...
October 1, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
D Soghomonyan, A Trchounian
Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the widespread probiotic bacteria that can overcome acid and bile barrier of stomach and intestine, respectively, and then have beneficial effects on the host improving its intestinal microbial balance. The cell membrane FO F1 -ATPase is an important factor in the response and tolerance to low pH through the action of controlling the H+ concentration between the cell cytoplasm and external medium. In this study, the effects of extremely high frequency EMI at the frequencies of 51...
September 30, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
A Żaczek, K Struś, A Sokołowska, P Parniewski, A Wojtasik, J Dziadek
The potato phytopathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) is a causative agent of bacterial ring rot, which is a serious threat to crops. In EU member countries Cms is subject to quarantine and has to be combated. The knowledge about the transmission of Clavibacter michiganensis strains is limited due to a lack of methods which could be used for epidemiological analysis. In this study PCR MP and VNTR methods were used in Cms epidemiological analysis for the first time. PCR MP was based on the melting temperature analysis of BamHI restriction fragments of chromosomal DNA...
September 30, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
C Tao
Gold nanoparticles are emerging materials that exhibit characteristics distinct from those of traditional materials and that have promising potential for application in the fields of chemistry, physics, biology and medicine. During the past decades, numerous studies on the antimicrobial activity and toxicity of gold nanoparticles have been published. With respect to antimicrobial activity, gold nanoparticles conjugated with small molecules, such as antibiotics, drugs, vaccines and antibodies, are more efficient than individual nanoparticles and molecules...
September 30, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Qiufen Mo, Aikun Fu, Zhiwei Lin, Wei Wang, Li Gong, Weifen Li
Apidaecins (APs) are proline-rich antimicrobial peptides that were isolated from Apismelifera. APs possess broad-spectrum activities against Gram-negative bacteria and exhibit immune-modulatory functions. AP2, an artificial mutant apidaecin peptide with improved activities, was expressed in E. coli expression system using small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion technology and ZYM-5052 auto-induction medium. Approximately 23 mg of recombinant fusion protein smt3AP2 was purified per liter cultivated medium...
September 29, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
H N K S Pathirana, G W Shin, S H M P Wimalasena, Sabrina Hossain, B C J De Silva, P S Dahanayake, Gang-Joon Heo
Proteeae is a tribe which consists of three genera: Proteus, Providencia and Morganella. The objective of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance profile, virulence genotype and class 1 and 2 integrons in Proteeae isolated from pet turtles and to determine the impact of antibiotic resistance on virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. Integron-positive isolates were used to detect their gene cassette array. Sixty four Proteeae were isolated and all were resistant to macrolides (100%). Among 64 isolates 56, 52, 36 and 25 were resistant to nitrofurans, β-lactams, tetracycline and aminoglycoside respectively...
September 21, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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