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Letters in Applied Microbiology

Lovleen Tina Joshi, Angelina Welsch, Jennifer Hawkins, Les Baillie
Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of healthcare associated diarrhoea globally and produces spores which are resistant to commonly used biocides and are able persist on contaminated surfaces for months. This study examined the effect of sublethal concentrations of the biocide sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) on the viability of spores produced by 21 clinical isolates of C. difficile representing a range of PCR ribotypes. Spores exposed to 500 ppm NaDCC for 10 minutes exhibited between a 4 - 6 log10 reduction in viability which was independent of spore PCR ribotype...
June 22, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
A Fikatas, T G Dimitriou, Z Kyriakopoulou, G Moschonas, G D Amoutzias, D Mossialos, C Gartzonika, S Levidiotou-Stefanou, P Markoulatos
In this report a strand specific RT-PCR was established for the detection of the replicative negative RNA strand of poliovirus sabin 1 (Sabin1) and Echovirus 19 (E19) strains. The key for the successful conduction of the assay was the use of a specific reverse transcription primer targeting the 5'-UTR of enteroviruses that consisted of a stem-loop structure at the 5'-end and an enteroviral-specific sequence at the 3'-end. The stem loop RT-PCR was found to be an accurate and sensitive method, detecting even 10(-2) CCID50 of poliovirus sabin 1 (Sabin1) and E19 strains 6(h) post infection (p...
June 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Trudy M Wassenaar, Adriana Cabal
The qacC and lnuA genes of Staphylococcus species were recently proposed to comprise a mobile element when residing on rolling-circle plasmids. Here we present other examples of resistance genes on staphylococcal rolling-circle plasmids, including fosB producing resistance to fosfomycin, cat resulting in resistance to chloramphenicol, and cadB for resistance to the toxic heavy metal cadmium. For three of these genes (qacC, lnuA and fosB) evidence was obtained that the genes have spread between different plasmid backgrounds...
June 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Linjiang Zhu, Zihao Fan, Hui Kuai, Qi Li
During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 Log cfu g(-1) ), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B...
June 14, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Karlen Hovnanyan, Vitaly Kalantaryan, Armen Trchounian
Low intensity electromagnetic field of extremely high frequency has inhibitory and stimulatory effects on bacteria, including Enterococcus hirae. It was shown that the low intensity (the incident power density of 0.06 mW cm(-2) ) electromagnetic field at the frequences of 51.8 GHz and 53 GHz inhibited E. hirae ATCC9790 bacterial growth rate; a stronger effect was observed with 53 GHz, regardless of exposure duration (0.5 h, 1 h or 2 h). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of these effects has been done; the cells were of spherical shape...
June 13, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Hui Li, Jingfan Xiao, Ya Zhou, Qiyao Wang, Yuanxing Zhang
Vibrio harveyi is an opportunistic pathogen in seawater and can cause severe vibriosis. It is prevalent in hatcheries worldwide and can lead to severe economic losses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a rapid detection method for monitoring this pathogen. In this study, to increase the detection sensitivity of our assay with monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against V. harveyi, the conditions of the dot blot assay were optimized, and enhanced chemiluminescent (ECL) substrate replaced the traditional tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate...
June 7, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Mahbubul Pratik Siddique, Won Je Jang, Jong Min Lee, Sun-Hee Ahn, Sharmin Suraiya, Chang-Hoon Kim, In-Soo Kong
A groEL gene-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect Vibrio parahaemolyticus in contaminated seafood and water. The assay was optimized and conducted at 63°C for 40 min using Bacillus stearothermophilus (Bst) DNA polymerase, large fragment. Amplification was analyzed via multiple detection methods, including opacity, formation of white precipitate, DNA intercalating dyes (ethidium bromide and SYBR Green I), metal ion-binding indicator dye, calcein, and 2% agarose gel electrophoresis...
June 5, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
P Benesova, D Kucera, I Marova, S Obruca
The chicken feather hydrolysate (FH) has been tested as potential complex nitrogen source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Cupriavidus necator H16 when waste frying oil was used as a carbon source. The addition of FH into the mineral salt media with decreased inorganic nitrogen source concentration improved the yields of biomass and polyhydrohyalkanoates. The highest yields were achieved when 10 vol. % of FH prepared by microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis of 60 g l(-1) feather was added. In this case the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) yields were improved by more than about 50% as compared with control cultivation...
June 5, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Hun Kim, Sung-Min Hwang, Ji Hyun Lee, Mira Oh, Jae Woo Han, Gyung Ja Choi
Fusarium oxysporum, a causal agent of Fusarium wilt, is one of the most important fungal pathogens worldwide, and detection of F. oxysporum DNA at the forma specialis level is crucial for disease diagnosis and control. In this study, two novel F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani (For)-specific primer sets were designed, FOR1-F/FOR1-R and FOR2-F/FOR2-R, to target FOQG_17868 and FOQG_17869 ORFs, respectively, which were selected based on the genome comparison of other formae speciales of F. oxysporum including conglutinans, cubense, lycopersici, melonis, and pisi...
June 5, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Gabriel Vigueras, Daniel Paredes-Hernández, Sergio Revah, Jorge Valenzuela, Roberto Olivares-Hernández, Sylvie Le Borgne
A mutualistic fungus of the leaf-cutting ant Atta mexicana was isolated and identified as Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This isolate had a close phylogenetic relationship with L. gongylophorus fungi cultivated by other leaf-cutting ants as determined by ITS sequencing. A sub-colony started with ~500 A. mexicana workers could process 2 g day(-1) of plant material and generate a 135 cm(3) fungus garden in 160 days. The presence of gongylidia structures of ~35μm was observed on the tip of the hyphae. The fungus could grow without ants on semi-solid cultures with α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose and in solid-state cultures with grass and sugarcane bagasse, as sole sources of carbon...
May 31, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
R M Risseti, E Zastempowska, M Twarużek, H Lassa, J C F Pantoja, A P C de Vargas, S T Guerra, C A D Bolaños, C L de Paula, A C Alves, B S Colhado, F V R Portilho, C Tasca, G H B Lara, M G Ribeiro
Trueperella pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes diverse pyogenic infections in livestock. The genes that encode the exotoxin pyolysin (plo) and other putative factors that promote adhesion of pathogen to host cells (fimbriae fimA, fimC, fimE, fimG, neuraminidases nanH, nanP, and collagen-binding protein cbpA) have been associated with virulence, particularly in mastitis and uterus infections of dairy cows. However, the role of these virulence markers in the pathogenicity of the agent in domestic animals infections still is incompletely understood...
May 31, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Maohua Yang, Tingzhen Mu, Wei Zhong, Ayobami Matthew Olajuyin, Jianmin Xing
For pyruvate-producing strains, intracellular NADH accumulation is the main reason for the glycolysis inhibition. Comparing with glucose, using sodium gluconate as carbon source brought a decrease of NADH production and an increase of pyruvate production in engineered strain YP211. In order to explore the metabolic advantages of gluconate, genome-wide transcriptome analysis was employed to compare the metabolic differences between the two carbon sources. The results showed that the transcription of the genes gntU, gntK, and gntT responsible for transport and phosphorylation of gluconate, and genes edd and eda belonging to the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, was significantly enhanced...
May 31, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Ying Zhu, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Xiaogang Wu, Guanzhou Chen, Lars R Bakken, Liping Zhao, Åsa Frostegård, Xiaojun Zhang
Bacteria of Dechloromonas were recognized as potential functional important denitrifiers in a long term shell sand amended peat soil. Different microcosms in a solid matrix and slurry systems with the addition of carbon and nitrogen sources, e.g., clover leaves, glutamate, and nitrate, were established. The bacterial community structures were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to select the conditions for enriching bacteria of Dechloromonas. The results showed that a relatively even bacterial community in the initial soil shifted to communities dominated by a few types of nitrate reducing bacteria after the incubation, which strongly responded to the carbon substrates addition and consumption...
May 18, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Hye Jung Choi, Bo Ra Lim, Yeo Jin Park, Woo Hong Joo
Solvent hyper-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 still has some underlying growth limitation in solvents. Therefore, efficient mass cultivation methods are needed to pursue its applications in biotechnology. Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 was cultured in a medium supplemented with 0.05 mol l(-1) glycerol and cell survival was monitored during its cultivation in the presence of 1% (v/v) toluene. Exogenously-supplemented glycerol provided more protection against damage caused by toluene stress and conferred higher solvent tolerance of Pseudomonas sp...
May 15, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Matthew S Payne, Lucy L Furfaro, Rachel Tucker, Lit Y Tan, Elisa Mokany
Ureaplasma spp. are associated with preterm birth. In recent times, it has become apparent that U. parvum, but not U. urealyticum, is of most relevance. We recently demonstrated this in Australian pregnant women and using high-resolution melt (HRM) PCR, further showed that U. parvum genotype SV6 was of particular significance. However, our assay was unable to identify multiple genotypes in the same sample, required a separate species-level qPCR for low titre samples and was not ideal for diagnostic laboratories due to the nature of HRM PCR result interpretation...
May 15, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Katarzyna Domanska-Blicharz, Anna Lisowska, Anna Pikuła, Joanna Sajewicz-Krukowska
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a worldwide prevalent RNA virus that cause highly contagious and economically devastating disease in chicken. The virus exists in many different genetic forms which made the disease control very difficult. The present study describes the development and validation of TaqMan-probe-based real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) targeting the S1 coding region of S gene characteristic for the GII-1 lineage (formerly the D1466-like variant) of IBV...
May 10, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
P Fu, X Xiang, Y Ge, Z Yuan, X Hu
Due to the self-produced binary toxins BinA/BinB, some Lysinibacillus sphaericus isolates exhibit high toxicity against mosquito larvae and are utilized in mosquito control programmes. Previous whole-genome sequencing revealed the presence of a large plasmid pBsph in L. sphaericus C3-41, which contains a 30·5-kb duplication of the genome including the binary toxin genes binA/binB. This was confirmed by Southern blot and qPCR experiments in this study. Mutants of L. sphaericus C3-41, bearing disruptions of the chromosomal-bin (C3-41ΔCab ) or the plasmid-bin (C3-41ΔPab ) and a plasmid-cured strain G725, were generated...
May 5, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Y Zhao, A Zhu, J Tang, C Tang, J Chen
Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs, SEA to SEX), which are responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning. This study is aimed to establish a system to detect staphylococcal enterotoxin M (SEM) protein in food matrixes. In the present study, sem gene was characterized in a S. aureus isolate H4 associated with food poisoning. The amino acid sequence of the deduced SEM protein was same as that of previously identified SEM from S. aureus 04-02981. Subsequently, mature SEM protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified with a Ni-NTA spin column...
April 26, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
M Boonchan, K Motomura, K Inoue, H Ode, P Y Chu, M Lin, Y Iwatani, K Ruchusatsawat, R Guntapong, R Tacharoenmuang, S Chantaroj, M Tatsumi, N Takeda, S Sangkitporn
To determine the distribution of NoV genotypes in natural river water in Thailand, we conducted a genome analysis using a next-generation sequencer. Twenty-five river water samples were collected at five different sites of the Khlong Klon River in the suburbs of Bangkok between August 2013 and December 2014. The partial genome of NoV was detected in 15 of the 25 samples (60.0%). Seven of these 15 samples (46.7%) contained multiple NoV GII genotypes: GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17. Our data showed that GII.17 had already emerged in August 2013 as a minor population, and it became a major genotype in December 2014...
April 23, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Patrycja Sowa, Dorota Grabek-Lejko, Monika Wesołowska, Sylwia Swacha, Małgorzata Dżugan
Honey originating from different floral sources exhibits the broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity as a result of the presence of hydrogen peroxide as well as non peroxide bioactive compounds. The mechanisms of antibacterial activity of Polish melilot honey were investigated for the first time. Polish melilot honey samples (Melilotus albus biennal -3 and annual-5, Melilotus officinalis -1) were collected directly from beekeepers and analyzed for pollen profile, basic physicochemical parameters, antioxidant capacity, radical scavenging activity, total phenolics contents as well as antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp...
April 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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