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Letters in Applied Microbiology

Louis D Saravolatz, Joan Pawlak, Hayley Martin, Stephanie Saravolatz, Leonard Johnson, Hedda Wold, Mette Husbyn, Wenche Marie Olsen
The development of new synthetic antimicrobial peptides like LTX-109 provides a new class of drugs for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. We evaluated LTX-109 and mupirocin for pharmacodynamic parameters against 10 methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. The post antibiotic effect (PAE) is defined as the length of time that bacterial growth is suppressed following a brief exposure to an antibiotic. We also determined the sub-MIC effect (SME) which measures the direct effect of sub-inhibitory levels on strains that have not previously been exposed to antibiotics...
August 12, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Tareq M Osaili, Anas A Al-Nabulsi, Dima S Nazzal, Reyad R Shaker
The presence of Salmonella spp. in halva has been associated with foodborne illnesses and product recalls from the markets. This study investigated the effect of environmental stresses on the survival of Salmonella spp. in halva during storage for 12 months at 10 and 25°C. Halva samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four strains of unstressed, desiccation stressed or heat stressed Salmonella (10(6) -10(7) CFU g(-1) ). In general, survival of Salmonella spp. in halva decreased significantly (P ˂ 0.05) as storage time and temperature increased...
August 12, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
T Pimchan, D Maensiri, G Eumkeb
To address the resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to β-lactam antibiotics, combination therapy between different antibiotic classes is increasingly used. The antibacterial activity of α-mangostin (AMT) alone or in combination with ceftazidime (CTZ) was investigated against ceftazidime-resistant A. baumannii DMST 45378 (CRAB). Initial screening showed that A. baumannii strains possessed AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC), Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamases (MBL). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of >800 μg ml(-1) against individual antibiotics...
August 11, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Yang Wang, Honghai Zhang, Chen Zhao, Yitao Han, Yuchun Liu, Xiaolin Zhang
A strain DDB001 having an ability to remove DON was successfully isolated from wheat field soil. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic data, the strain DDB001 was identified as Paradevosia shaoguanensis. Strain DDB001 could grow well and thoroughly eliminate 200 mg l(-1) of DON in complete growth medium, but it could not utilise DON as the sole carbon source for growth in mineral salt medium. Analysing DON transformation products by HPLC-MS assumed that the strain could transform DON into a less toxic stereoisomer, 3-epi-deoxynivalenol (3-epi-DON)...
August 11, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Leticia da Silva Portes, Erika Seki Kioshima, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, Wagner Luiz Batista, Patricia Xander
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease endemic in Latin America whose aetiologic agents are the thermodimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported for the fungal antigens used for serological diagnosis, and inconsistencies among laboratories have been reported. The use of synthetic peptides in the serological diagnosis of infectious diseases has proved to be a valuable strategy because in some cases, the reactions are more specific and sensitive...
August 10, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Sunil Sethi, Rakesh Yadav, Shreya Singh, Rajiv Khaneja, Ashutosh Aggarwal, Priyanka Agarwal, Digambar Behera
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is rising and World health organization has recommended the line probe assay (LPA) for screening. In this study we assess LPA at a tertiary care center from North India in 1758 samples from suspected MDR-TB cases. All smear positive and/or M.tuberculosis culture confirmed cases (n=1170) were subjected to GenoType-MTBDR assay. Amongst these the majority were retreatment cases, smear positive at diagnosis (n=637). MDR prevalence of 7.8% was observed with the highest cases reported amongst MDR contacts (33...
August 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
H Cai, T Zhang, M Zhao, J Mao, C Cai, F Feng
To enhance the expression level of overall lipase isozymes which catalyze the same reaction in P. pastoris through co-expression of isozymes from different sources, several types of co-expression ways were constructed to determine the co-expression efficiencies of lipase isozymes in P. pastoris. The results showed that the Kex2 mediated co-expression of lipase isozymes could express Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) and Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) simultaneously, and GS-RMk-kTL displayed an average lipase activity of 306...
August 1, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Abhrajyoti Tarafdar, Alok Sinha, Reginald E Masto
Current study is aimed to evaluate the mechanism of anthracene degradation by a bacterial strain isolated from fly ash deposition site near Jamadoba Coal Preparation Plant, Jharkhand, India. The Bushnell-Haas media cultured (containing anthracene as sole carbon source) bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence coding as the Bacillus thuringiensis strain, which showed the efficiency to degrade anthracene. The degradation efficiency of the strain has been estimated around 91% (for 40 mgL(-1) of anthracene concentration) after two weeks of incubation period at temperature 33-36°C and initial pH of 6...
August 1, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Yuhan Liu, Yinbin Xu, Shuang Li, Xuechuan Xu, Qi Gao, Meijun Yuan, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Spiroplasma eriocheiris, which causes tremor disease of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, has led to catastrophic economic loses in aquaculture. Immunoproteomics, a new scientific technique combining proteomics and immunological analytical methods, provided the direction of our research on S. eriocheiris. The aim of our study was to identify the proteome, antigen proteins and antigen membrane proteins of S. eriocheiris. A total of 780 S. eriocheiris proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS technique. Based on immunoproteomics, 51 proteins and 7 proteins in S...
August 1, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
N Di Maiuta, A Rüfenacht, P Küenzi
Determination of the bacterial diversity in industry-based liquid in-use water-miscible metalworking fluid (MWF) samples was targeted by massive parallel multiplex DNA sequencing, either directly or upon pre-treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA) that allows differentiation between intact and physically damaged cells. As MWFs provide a suitable basis of life for microorganisms, the majority is preserved by biocides. "Bio-concept" fluids on the other hand are bactericide-free, which intentionally leads to substantial bacterial populations...
July 29, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Suresh Kumar Rajamani Sekar, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Shalini Anandan, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Lucky Sangal, Sudhir Joshi
Over the last three decades, successful implementation of the diphtheria vaccination in the developed and developing countries has reduced the infections caused by the toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae, but a concomitant increase in the invasive infections due to the non-toxigenic strains was seen. In addition, the recent reports on the emergence of non-toxigenic toxin gene bearing strains (NTTB), having the potential to revert back to toxigenic form poses a significant threat to human beings. Besides infections caused by C...
July 25, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Wei Hu, Wenjian Li, Jihong Chen
Nowadays, the value of heavy ion mutagenesis has been accepted as a novel powerful mutagen technique to generate new microbial mutants due to its high linear energy transfer (LET) and high relative biological effectiveness (RBE). This paper briefly reviews recent progress in developing a more efficient mutagenesis technique for microbial breeding using heavy-ion mutagenesis, and also presents the outline of the beam line for microbial breeding in Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou (HIRFL). Then, new insights into microbial biotechnology via heavy-ion mutagenesis are also further explored...
July 25, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
B M Petit, F C Almeida, T R Uchiyama, F O C Lopes, K H Tino, J Chewins
An evaluation was made of the efficacy of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide Vapour (HPV) against FMDV in a biosafety facility. Biological indicators (BIs) were produced using three serotypes of FMDV, all with a titre of ≥10(6) TCID50 /ml. Fifteen BIs of each serotype were distributed across 5 locations, throughout a 30m(3) Air Lock chamber, producing a total of 45 BIs. 35% HPV was generated and applied using a Bioquell vaporisation module located in the centre of the chamber. After a dwell period of 40 minutes, the HPV was removed via the enclosures air handling system and the BIs were collected...
July 23, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Duy P Le, Mike K Smith, Elizabeth A B Aitken
Pythium myriotylum is responsible for severe losses in both capsicum and ginger crops in Australia under different regimes. Intraspecific genomic variation within the pathogen might explain the differences in aggressiveness and pathogenicity on diverse hosts. In this study, whole genome data of four P. myriotylum isolates recovered from three hosts and one P. zingiberis isolate were derived and analysed for sequence diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A higher number of true and unique SNPs occurred in P...
July 23, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
David Spiteri, Claire Chot-Plassot, Julie Sclear, Kimon Andreas Karatzas, Chris Scerri, Vasilis Valdramidis
Ultrasound creates cavitation phenomena, resulting in the formation of several free radicals, namely OH• and H•, due to the breakdown of the H2 O molecule. These radicals affect the cellular integrity of the bacteria, causing the inactivation of several processes, and thus it is important to unravel the mechanism of action of this technology. This research looks into the application and mechanism of action of ultrasound technology as a means of disinfection by acoustic cavitation. Sterile water and synthetic waste water were inoculated with different mutants of E...
July 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Dane A Jensen, Michael A Rogers, Donald W Schaffner
The effect of surfactant type and concentration on a bland soap formulations ability to remove bacteria from hands remains largely unstudied. Several combinations of surfactants and water were combined to test bacterial removal efficacy using a handwashing device (two pieces of pig skin and a mechanical motor) to simulate a handwash. A nalidixic acid resistant, non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) was used. Two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium stearoyl lactylate, and two nonionic surfactants, poloxamer 407 and sorbitan monostearate, each in concentrations of 2%, 5%, and 10% were studied...
July 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Thaysa Leite Tagliaferri, Cristina Dutra Vieira, Maria Auxiliadora Roque de Carvalho, Luiz Carlos Duarte Ladeira, Paula Prazeres Magalhães, Luiz de Macêdo Farias, Simone Gonçalves Dos Santos
Infectious wastes are potential sources of pathogenic microorganisms, which may represent a risk to the professionals who manage them. In this study we aimed to characterize the infectious bacteria present in dental waste and waste workers. The dental waste produced over 24 hours was collected and waste workers were sampled by swabbing. Isolate resistance profiles were characterized by Vitek(®) and PCR and biofilm formation by Congo Red agar, string test and microtiter assay. To assess similarity between the waste and the workers' samples, a random amplified polymorphic DNA test was used...
July 16, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
G La Rosa, I Sanseverino, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, V E V Ferrero, A Barra Caracciolo, T Lettieri
The objective of the present study was to assess the occurrence of major waterborne enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis A and E virus) along the Tiber River in Italy, in areas affected by different kinds of anthropogenic pressure (agricultural, urban, industrial, and pristine). Moreover, in light of the recent abundant detection of human bocavirus in urban wastewater samples in Italy, the occurrence of this virus was also assessed. Virus detection was based on nested PCR followed by sequencing, and on Real Time PCR...
July 14, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Aehtesham Hussain, Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Aabid Manzoor Shah, Zubair Shanib, Aiyatullah Shah, Zahoor Ahmad, Qazi Parvaiz Hassan
A distinctive screening procedure resulted in the isolation and identification of antituberculotic actinobacteria. In this course, a total of 125 actinobacteria were isolated from various soil samples from untapped areas in Northwestern Himalayas, India. The antibacterial screening showed that 26 isolates inhibited the growth of at least one of the tested bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 11774), Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 10240), Escherichia coli (10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC BAA-2146)...
July 12, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
B Madhoolika, N V Anil Kumar, S Balaji
In the recent years, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) has been gaining importance, both as an anti-cancer agent and as a dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of 4-MU as a carbon source for potential probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus helveticus 2126. For this purpose, a series of plate assays and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for 4-MU before and after the treatment with L. helveticus 2126. The plate assays indicated an initial inhibition followed by utilization of 4-MU that stimulated bacterial growth...
July 1, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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