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Letters in Applied Microbiology

Debika Choudhury, Supreet Saini
Bacteria frequently encounter multiple sugars in their natural surroundings. While the dynamics of utilization of glucose containing sugar mixtures have been well investigated, there are few reports addressing regulation of utilization of glucose-free mixtures particularly pentoses. These sugars comprise a considerable fraction in hemicellulose which can be converted by suitable biocatalysts to biofuels and other value-added products. Hence understanding of transcriptional cross-regulation among different pentose sugar utilization systems is essential for successful development of industrial strains...
November 15, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Chien-Hsun Huang, Jong-Shian Liou, Lina Huang, Koichi Watanabe
Identification members of the Lactobacillus sakei group (LSG) by common phenotypic and genotypic methods is generally inadequate and time-consuming. The objective of this study was to develop novel species-specific primers based on sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Three species-specific fragments were gel-purified, cloned, and sequenced after preliminary screening of 80 random primers. Accordingly, three pairs of primers Lcur-F/R, Lgram-F/R, and Lsakei-F/R were designed based on single species-specific bands (281, 278, and 472 bp) that were obtained from L...
November 14, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
M Oliveira, M Arenas, O Lage, M Cunha, M I Amorim
In the present work, fungi present in the grapevine's phyllosphere collected from the main demarcated wine regions of Portugal were identified, and their phylogenetic relationships was analyzed. A total of 46 vine samples (leaves and berries) were collected from different parts of the country, being isolated a total of 117 fungal colonies that were identified to the genus level and sequenced in the following genetic regions: internal transcribed spacer region and 18S rRNA and β-tubulin gene. Next, a phylogenetic tree reconstruction for each genetic region was built...
November 14, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Renpeng Du, Gang Song, Dan Zhao, Jian Sun, Wenxiang Ping, Jingping Ge
The bacterial diversity and community structure involved in Chinese sauerkraut is one of the most important factors shaping the final characteristics of traditional foods. In this research, Lactobacillus casei 11MZ-5-1 was applied in Chinese sauerkraut fermentation as a starter culture. Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis was used to reveal the bacterial diversity and community structure during Chinese sauerkraut fermentation. A total of 177283 high quality reads of 16S rRNA V4 regions were obtained. The inoculation of L...
November 13, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Jinjin Pei, Zhenzhen Feng, Ting Ren, Haiyan Sun, Hao Han, Wengang Jin, Jun Dang
The Andrias davidianus has been known as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Its blood is considered as a waste or by-product of the meat production industry. Although there are reports on isolation of the antimicrobial peptides from different resources, there are no reports of their isolation from Andrias davidianus blood. In this work, an antimicrobial peptide, andricin B, was isolated from the blood of Andrias davidianus by an innovative method in which the magnetic liposome adsorption was combined with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography...
November 11, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
P Rodrigues, A Venâncio, N Lima
The aim of this work was to evaluate a fungal DNA extraction procedure with the lowest inputs in terms of time as well as of expensive and toxic chemicals, but able to consistently produce genomic DNA of good quality for PCR purposes. Two types of fungal biological material were tested - mycelium and conidia - combined with two protocols for DNA extraction using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate [SDS] and Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide [CTAB] as extraction buffers and glass beads for mechanical disruption of cell walls...
November 8, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Tim H Mauchline, Rifat Hayat, Ian M Clark, Penny R Hirsch
Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics provide insights into biological processes in complex substrates such as soil, but linking the presence and expression of genes with functions can be difficult. Here we obtain traditional most probable number estimates (MPN) of Rhizobium abundance in soil as a form of sample validation. Our work shows that in the Highfield experiment at Rothamsted, which has three contrasting conditions (> 50 years continual bare fallow, wheat and grassland), MPN based on host plant nodulation assays corroborate metagenomic and metatranscriptomic estimates for R...
November 8, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Alexandre M Fuentefria, Bruna Pippi, Daiane F Dalla Lana, Katarzyna K Donato, Saulo F de Andrade
Undeniably, new antifungal treatments are necessary against pathogenic fungi. Fungal infections have significantly increased in recent decades, being highlighted as important causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Five main antifungal classes are used: (i) azoles, (ii) echinocandins, (iii) polyenes, (iv) allylamines and (v) pyrimidine analogs. Moreover, the treatment of mycoses has several limitations, such as; undesirable side effects, narrow activity spectrum, a small number of targets and fungal resistance; which are still of major concern in clinical practice...
November 7, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Marcio Zaccaron, Sandeep Sharma, Burton H Bluhm
Phomopsis longicolla (Hobbs) causes Phomopsis seed decay and stem lesions in soybean (Glycine max). In this study, a novel, high-throughput adaptation of RAD-seq termed MoNSTR-seq (Mutation analysis via Next-generation DNA Sequencing of T-DNA Regions) was developed to determine the genomic location of T-DNA insertions in P. longicolla mutants. Insertional mutants were created via ATMT, and one mutant, strain PL343, was further investigated due to impaired stem lesion formation. MoNSTR-seq, in which DNA libraries are created with two distinct restriction enzymes and customized adapters to simultaneously enrich both T-DNA insertion borders, was developed to characterize the genomic lesion in strain PL343...
November 6, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Marcelo Augusto de Souza Costa, Bianca Carreiro Cerri, Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini
Fermentation is one of the most critical steps of the fuel ethanol production and it is directly influenced by the fermentation system, selected yeast, and bacterial contamination, especially from the genus Lactobacillus. To control the contamination, the industry applies antibiotics and biocides; however, these substances can result in an increased cost and environmental problems. The use of the acid treatment of cells (water-diluted sulfuric acid, adjusted to pH 2.0-2.5) between the fermentation cycles is not always effective to combat the bacterial contamination...
November 6, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Satoshi Yamashita, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Toshifumi Sakaguchi, Toshi-Hide Arima, Yutaka Kikoku
Heat-resistant fungi occur sporadically and are a continuing problem for the food and beverage industry. The genus Talaromyces, as a typical fungus, is capable of producing the heat-resistant ascospores responsible for the spoilage of processed food products. Isocitrate lyase, a signature enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, is required for the metabolism of non-fermentable carbon compounds, like acetate and ethanol. Here, species-specific primer sets for detection and identification of DNA derived from Talaromyces macrosporus and Talaromyces trachyspermus were designed based on the nucleotide sequences of their isocitrate lyase genes...
November 6, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
C G Edwards, T A Oswald
Although B. bruxellensis continues to be a problem during red winemaking due to formation of off-odors and flavors, few interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic conditions that would limit spoilage have been identified. Using a commercially-prepared Merlot wine, a 3 × 2 × 2 complete factorial design was implemented with total SO2 (0, 60, or 100 mg l(-1) ), ethanol (13% or 14.5% v v(-1) ), and storage temperature (15 or 18C) as variables. Populations of two strains of B. bruxellensis isolated from Washington wines (I1a and F3) were monitored for 100 days before concentrations of 4-ethylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol, and volatile acidity were measured...
October 28, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Fengzhu Guo, Haoran Zheng, Yawen Cheng, Shuai Song, Zuoxing Zheng, Shiru Jia
Poly-ε-L-lysine is a natural homo-polyamide of L-Lysine with excellent antimicrobial properties, which can be used as a novel preservative and has a wide range of applications. In this paper, the fermentation medium for ε-PL production by Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 6#-7 was optimized by Response Surface Methodology. The results of Plackett-Burman design showed that glucose, yeast extract and (NH4 )2 SO4 were the major influencing factors in ε-PL production of Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 6#-7. The optimal concentrations of glucose, yeast extract and (NH4 )2 SO4 were determined to be 60 g l(-1) , 7...
October 27, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
E Pagán, D Berdejo, L Espina, D García-Gonzalo, R Pagán
The application of essential oils in form of nanoemulsions has been proposed as a method to improve their solubility in aqueous solutions, and hence their antimicrobial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of citral, applied directly or in combined treatments with heat or pulsed electric fields (PEF), as a function of the inoculation procedure assayed: (i) a simple, vigorous shaking method by vortex agitation (suspension of citral; s-citral) or (ii) the previous preparation of nanoemulsions by the emulsion phase inversion (EPI) method (nanoemulsion of citral; n-citral)...
October 26, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Mamta Choudhary, Binod Kumar Choudhary, Smita Bhoyar, Satyajit B Kale, S P Chaudhari, B C Bera, Ashok Jain, S B Barbuddhe
Leclercia adecarboxylata, a Gram-negative bacillus of family Enterobacteriaceae, is an uncommonly identified pathogen isolated from environmental and clinical specimens. Most of the human infections are polymicrobial and commonly occur in immunocompromised hosts, although nosocomial infections in immunocompetent hosts have been documented. Here, we describe the case of isolation of Leclercia species as polymicrobial infection from bovine suffering from respiratory distress in Chhattisgarh state of India. The isolates were identified by their phenotypes, 16S rDNA sequencing and by MALDI TOF-MS...
October 24, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Jihui Wang, Shiwen Liu, Ying Li, Han Wang, Shan Xiao, Cheng Li, Bingnan Liu
Bacillus licheniformis which can produce cellulase including endo glucanase and glucosidase is an important industrial microbe for cellulose degradation. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of endo glucanase gene bglC and glucosidase gene bglH on the central metabolic flux in B. licheniformis. bglC and bglH were knocked out using homologous recombination method, respectively, and the corresponding knockout strains were obtained for (13) C metabolic flux analysis. A significant change was observed in metabolic fluxes after (13) C metabolic flux ratio analysis...
October 24, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
R Pacheco-Ordaz, A Wall-Medrano, M G Goñi, G Ramos-Clamont-Montfort, J F Ayala-Zavala, G A González-Aguilar
Fruit extracts from different tissues (pulp, seed and peel) have shown antimicrobial and prebiotic activities related to their phenolic profile, although structure-specific evaluations have not been reported yet. The effect of five phenolic compounds (catechin and gallic, vanillic, ferulic, and protocatechuic acids) identified in different fruits, particularly in mango, was evaluated on the growth of two probiotic [Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 and L. acidophilus NRRLB 4495] and two pathogenic [Escherichia coli 0157:H7 ATCC 43890 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028] bacteria...
October 24, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
A K Ray, C Gopal, H G Solanki, T Ravisankar, P K Patil
Vibriosis is one of the important diseases causing economic loss to the shrimp industry worldwide. The present study reports field observations on the immune stimulatory effect of vibrio bacterin in commercial tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) grow-out culture ponds (n = 62) which were grouped under three stocking densities; low (6-8 nos per m(2) ), medium (9-11 nos per m(2) ) and high (12-14 nos per m(2) ). The bacterin was administered in feed as a top dressing at final concentration equivalent to 2 × 10(8) CFU per kilogram feed twice a week throughout the culture period...
October 6, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
B C Saha, G J Kennedy
Itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated 5-carbon dicarboxylic acid, is a building block platform chemical that is currently produced industrially from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. Softwood has the potential to serve as low cost source of sugars for its production. Effective utilization of all softwood derived sugars such as glucose, mannose and galactose by the fungus for production of IA will lower the cost of its production. In this work, 20 A. terreus strains were evaluated for the first time for IA production from mannose and galactose in shake-flasks at initial pH of 3·1, 33°C and 200 rev min(-1) for 7 days...
October 4, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
D D Zhang, X J Guo, Y J Wang, T G Gao, B C Zhu
Take-all is a severe root disease of wheat worldwide that is caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this study, 272 Bacillus isolates were screened for their antifungal activity in vitro to Ggt. Of the 128 strains that demonstrated an antagonistic action, 24 of these exhibited at least three of the four plant-growth-promotion parameters (i.e., indole acetic acid and siderophore production, inorganic phosphorus solubilization and organic phosphorus solubilization) that were tested in wheat plants...
October 4, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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