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Letters in Applied Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434202/distribution-of-norovirus-genotypes-and-subtypes-in-river-water-by-ultra-deep-sequencing-based-analysis
#1
M Boonchan, K Motomura, K Inoue, H Ode, P Y Chu, M Lin, Y Iwatani, K Ruchusatsawat, R Guntapong, R Tacharoenmuang, S Chantaroj, M Tatsumi, N Takeda, S Sangkitporn
To determine the distribution of NoV genotypes in natural river water in Thailand, we conducted a genome analysis using a next-generation sequencer. Twenty-five river water samples were collected at five different sites of the Khlong Klon River in the suburbs of Bangkok between August 2013 and December 2014. The partial genome of NoV was detected in 15 of the 25 samples (60.0%). Seven of these 15 samples (46.7%) contained multiple NoV GII genotypes: GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17. Our data showed that GII.17 had already emerged in August 2013 as a minor population, and it became a major genotype in December 2014...
April 23, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426165/hydrogen-peroxide-dependent-antibacterial-action-of-melilotus-albus-honey
#2
Patrycja Sowa, Dorota Grabek-Lejko, Monika Wesołowska, Sylwia Swacha, Małgorzata Dżugan
Honey originating from different floral sources exhibits the broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity as a result of the presence of hydrogen peroxide as well as non peroxide bioactive compounds. The mechanisms of antibacterial activity of Polish melilot honey were investigated for the first time. Polish melilot honey samples (Melilotus albus biennal -3 and annual-5, Melilotus officinalis -1) were collected directly from beekeepers and analyzed for pollen profile, basic physicochemical parameters, antioxidant capacity, radical scavenging activity, total phenolics contents as well as antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp...
April 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421612/prospective-bacterial-quorum-sensing-inhibitors-from-indian-medicinal-plant-extracts
#3
Bipransh Kumar Tiwary, Runu Ghosh, Saurav Moktan, Vivek Kumar Ranjan, Priyankar Dey, Dibakar Choudhury, Somit Dutta, Dipanwita Deb, Abhaya Prasad Das, Ranadhir Chakraborty
As virulence of many pathogenic bacteria is regulated by the phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS), the present study aimed to find the QS-inhibiting (QS-I) property (if any) in sixty-one Indian medicinal plants. The presence of QS-I compound in the leaf-extract was evaluated by its ability to inhibit production of pigment in Chromobacterium violaceum MTCC 2656 (violacein) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297 (pyocyanin) or swarming of P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297. Extracts of three plants, Astilbe rivularis, Fragaria nubicola and Osbeckia nepalensis have shown a dose- dependent inhibition of violacein production with no negative effect on bacterial growth...
April 19, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418627/prokaryote-species-richness-is-positively-correlated-with-eukaryote-abundance-in-wastewater-treatment-biofilms
#4
Inga Leena Angell, Jon Fredrik Hanssen, Knut Rudi
Biological treatment represents a key step in nutrient removal from wastewater. Until now these process has mainly been considered prokaryotic, with the interactions between prokaryotes and eukaryotes not being properly explored. We therefore investigated the co-occurrence of eukaryotes and prokaryotes in biological nitrogen removal biofilms. We found that biofilms in the nitrifying reactor contained the highest diversity and abundance of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, with nearly three times higher prokaryote species richness than for the denitrifying reactor...
April 18, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418590/control-of-biofouling-by-xanthine-oxidase-on-seawater-reverse-osmosis-membranes-from-a-desalination-plant-enzyme-production-and-screening-of-bacterial-isolates-from-the-full-scale-plant
#5
Veena Nagaraj, Lucy Skillman, Dan Li, Zhangwang Xie, Goen Ho
Control of biofouling on seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes is a major challenge as treatments can be expensive, damage the membrane material and often biocides do not remove the polymers in which bacteria are embedded. Biological control has been largely ignored for biofouling control. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of xanthine oxidase enzyme against complex fouling communities and then identify naturally occurring bacterial strains that produce the free radical generating enzyme...
April 18, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419596/effects-of-culture-conditions-on-the-size-morphology-and-wet-density-of-spores-of-bacillus-cereus-569-and-bacillus-megaterium-qm-b1551
#6
Ke Xu Zhou, Florencia Wisnivesky, D Ian Wilson, Graham Christie
The influence of variable culture conditions on the size and wet density of spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium were examined in this work. Culture temperature and initial pH was shown to have a significant impact on the size of both species, with increasingly alkaline culture media and elevated culture temperatures resulting in spores that were, on average, up to 25% reduced in volume. Increasing concentrations of inorganic salts in sporulation media exerted differing effects on each species; whereas a five-fold increase in the concentration of all salts resulted in only minor differences to the dimensions of B...
April 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419503/comparison-of-the-quantitative-dry-culture-methods-with-both-conventional-media-and-most-probable-number-method-for-the-enumeration-of-coliforms-and-escherichia-coli-coliforms-in-food
#7
Hajime Teramura, Kojiro Sota, Mihoko Iwasaki, Hirokazu Ogihara
Sanita-kun(™) CC (coliform count) and EC (Escherichia coli/coliform count), sheet quantitative culture systems which can avoid chromogenic interference by lactase in food, were evaluated in comparison with conventional methods for these bacteria. Based on the results of inclusivity and exclusivity studies using 77 microorganisms, sensitivity and specificity of both Sanita-kun(™) met the criteria for ISO 16140. Both media were compared with deoxycholate agar, violet red bile agar, Merck Chromocult(™) coliform agar (CCA), 3M Petrifilm(™) CC and EC (PEC), and 3-tube MPN, as reference methods, in 100 naturally contaminated food samples...
April 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397273/internalisation-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-gfp-in-rocket-and-swiss-chard-baby-leaves-as-affected-by-abiotic-and-biotic-damage
#8
Rahel Hartmann, Andreas Fricke, Hartmut Stützel, Suzan Mansourian, Teun Dekker, Walter Wohanka, Beatrix Alsanius
Internalisation of human pathogens in edible parts of vegetables eaten raw is a major concern, since once internalised they are protected from sanitising treatments. In this study, we examined invasion of gfp-labelled E. coli O157:H7 into intact and biotically (infection with Xanthomonas campestris/Pseudomonas syringae) and abiotically (grating with silicon carbide) damaged leaves of wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. cicla) using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Bacterial cells were found in internal locations of the tissue, irrespective of tissue health status...
April 11, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394467/comparative-isolation-and-genetic-diversity-of-arcobacter-spp-from-fish-and-the-coastal-environment
#9
Srinu Rathlavath, Sanath Kumar, Binaya Bhusan Nayak
Arcobacter species are emerging food-borne and water-borne human pathogens associated mostly with food animals and their environment. The present study was aimed to isolate Arcobacter species from fish, shellfish and coastal water samples using two methods and to determine their genetic diversity. Of 201 samples of fish, shellfish and water samples analysed, 66 (32.8%) samples showed the presence of Arcobacter DNA from both Arcobacter enrichment broth (AEB) and Bolton broth (BB). Arcobacters were isolated from 58 (87...
April 10, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378512/mulberry-leaf-extract-fermented-with-lactobacillus-acidophilus-a4-ameliorates-5-fluorouracil-induced-intestinal-mucositis-in-rats
#10
Nam Su Oh, Ji Young Lee, Ja Min Lee, Kwang Won Lee, Younghoon Kim
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mulberry leaf extract fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus A4 (A4) on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were gavaged with A4, mulberry leaf extract (ME), fermented mulberry leaf extract (FME), or lafutidine (LAF) for 10 days and injected intraperitoneally with 5-FU (150 mg kg(-1) ) or saline (normal control) on day 7 to induce mucositis. After euthanizing the animals, their small and large intestines were removed for evaluation of histopathologic parameters, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mucin content, and mRNA expression of the mucin gene and pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β...
April 4, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378421/fermented-cereal-beverages-from-probiotic-prebiotic-and-synbiotic-towards-nanoscience-designed-healthy-drinks
#11
REVIEW
Ivan Salmerón
The consumption of fermented food by human kind goes a long way back in history and there are as many types of fermented food as civilizations. Food science and technology has progressed from designing nutritional food towards food with health improvement characteristics such as functional foods. In this sense, the area of food with properties to improve gastrointestinal health like probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics has been the most important segment within functional foods. Most of these products are dairy-based so the development of non-dairy gut improvement products has been of great interest for the food industry, resulting in the rise of cereal-based probiotic and synbiotic products...
April 4, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374547/improvement-of-iturin-a-production-in-bacillus-subtilis-zk0-by-overexpression-of-the-coma-and-siga-genes
#12
Z Zhang, Z T Ding, J Zhong, J Y Zhou, D Shu, D Luo, J Yang, H Tan
Bacillus subtilis ZK0, which was isolated from cotton, produces a type of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A that inhibits the growth of pathogenic fungi on agricultural crops. However, the low level of iturin A production by B. subtilis ZK0 does not support its large-scale application. In this study, B. subtilis ZK0 was subjected to genetic manipulation to improve iturin A production. By the independent or simultaneous overexpression of two regulatory genes (comA and sigA), iturin A production by B. subtilis ZK0 was significantly increased...
April 4, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370088/expression-of-surface-bound-non-structural-1-ns1-protein-of-influenza-virus-a-h5n1-on-lactobacillus-casei-strain-c1
#13
Toong Seng Tan, Sharifah Syed Hassan, Wei Boon Yap
The study aimed to construct a recombinant Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) expressing the non-structural (NS) 1 protein of influenza A virus H5N1 on its cell wall. The NS1 gene was first amplified and fused to the pSGANC332 expression plasmid. The NS1 protein expression was carried out by L. casei strain C1. PCR screening and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of recombinant pSG-NS1-ANC332 plasmid in L. casei. The plasmid was stably maintained (98.94±1.65%) by the bacterium within the first 20 generations without selective pressure...
April 2, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349671/in-vitro-algicidal-effect-of-guanidine-on%C3%A2-prototheca-zopfii%C3%A2-genotype-2-strains-isolated-from-clinical-and-subclinical-bovine-mastitis
#14
A C Alves, E Capra, S Morandi, P Cremonesi, J C F Pantoja, H Langoni, A P C de Vargas, M M da Costa, T Jagielski, C A D Bolaños, S T Guerra, M G Ribeiro
Prototheca species have increasingly been reported to be opportunistic pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy herds, and it poses an emergent problem because at present, there are no effective therapies for the treatment of protothecal mastitis. The present study investigated the in vitro algicidal effect of guanidine on 75 Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 strains isolated from 75 cases of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis. All strains were susceptible to guanidine in vitro with minimal algaecide concentrations ranging from 0...
March 27, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304109/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-a-controversial-food-borne-pathogen
#15
REVIEW
Daniil Sergelidis, Apostolos S Angelidis
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of severe healthcare-associated (HA) infections. Although during the last decade the incidence of HA invasive infections has dropped, the incidence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections has risen among the general population. Moreover, CA-MRSA, livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) and HA MRSA (HA-MRSA) can be found in foods intended for human consumption. Several studies from different geographical areas have reported the presence of enterotoxin genes in several MRSA food isolates...
March 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304098/bacteriophages-as-indicators-of-fecal-pollution-and-enteric-virus-removal
#16
REVIEW
Brian R McMinn, Nicholas J Ashbolt, Asja Korajkic
Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport, due to their closer morphological and biological properties. Based on a review of published data, we summarize densities of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in individual human waste, raw wastewater, ambient fresh and marine waters and removal through wastewater treatment processes utilizing traditional treatments...
March 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295427/microbial-dynamics-in-anaerobic-digestion-reactors-for-treating-organic-urban-residues-during-the-start-up-process
#17
Rocio J Alcántara-Hernández, Neslihan Taş, Sandra Carlos-Pinedo, Alfonso Durán-Moreno, Luisa I Falcón
Anaerobic digestion of organic residues offers economic benefits via biogas production, still methane (CH4 ) yield relies on the development of a robust microbial consortia for adequate substrate degradation, among other factors. In this study, we monitor biogas production and changes in the microbial community composition in two semi-continuous stirred tank reactors during the setting process under mesophilic conditions (35°C) using a 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing method. Reactors were initially inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge from a brewery wastewater treatment plant, and gradually fed with organic urban residues (4...
March 13, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295422/molecular-sequence-typing-reveals-genotypic-diversity-among-escherichia-coli-isolates-recovered-from-a-cantaloupe-packinghouse-in-northwestern-mexico
#18
Beatriz Quiñones, Juan P Campos Sauceda, Bertram G Lee, Jaszemyn C Yambao, Cristóbal Cháidez Quiroz
The increase in the consumption of fresh produce has correlated with a rise in the number of reported foodborne illnesses. To identify potential risk factors associated with post-harvest practices, the present study employed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for the genotypic classification of Escherichia coli isolates, recovered from three sources sampled at seven operational stages in a cantaloupe packinghouse in Northwestern Mexico. The MLST analysis results indicated that the E. coli isolates were classified into 18 different sequence types (ST), and 11 of these STs were found to be novel...
March 10, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276074/survival-of-escherichia-coli-in-common-garden-mulches-spiked-with-synthetic-greywater
#19
S Boyte, S Quaife, J Horswell, A Siggins
Reuse of domestic wastewater is increasingly practiced as a means to address global demands on fresh water. Greywater is primarily reused via subsurface irrigation of gardens, where the soil environment is seen to be an integral part of the treatment process. The fate of biological contaminants (i.e. pathogens) in the soil is reasonably well understood, but their persistence and survival in soil cover layers is largely unexplored. This study investigated the ability of Escherichia coli to survive in common soil cover layers...
March 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276067/in-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-evaluation-of-weissella-cibaria-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-for-their-protective-effect-against-cadmium-and-lead-toxicities
#20
O Ojekunle, K Banwo, A I Sanni
Thirty-two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were obtained from fermenting cassava mash and wara (African soft cheese) and screened for their resistance to cadmium and lead toxicities at 550-1050 mg l(-1) and probiotic potentials. Four LAB strains that tolerated the heavy metals at 1050 mg l(-1) were selected for antioxidative capacities, tolerance to acid, bile salts and simulated gastric and intestinal tract and safety status. The results revealed that Weissella cibaria WD2 and Lactobacillus plantarum CaD1 exhibited comparatively higher antioxidative capacities, survived in simulated gastric and intestinal transit, tolerated acid and bile salt and possessed safety status...
March 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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