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Letters in Applied Microbiology

Daniil Sergelidis, Apostolos S Angelidis
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of severe healthcare-associated (HA) infections. Although during the last decade the incidence of HA invasive infections has dropped, the incidence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections has risen among the general population. Moreover, CA-MRSA, livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) and HA MRSA (HA-MRSA) can be found in foods intended for human consumption. Several studies from different geographical areas have reported the presence of enterotoxin genes in several MRSA food isolates...
March 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Brian R McMinn, Nicholas J Ashbolt, Asja Korajkic
Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport, due to their closer morphological and biological properties. Based on a review of published data, we summarize densities of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in individual human waste, raw wastewater, ambient fresh and marine waters and removal through wastewater treatment processes utilizing traditional treatments...
March 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Rocio J Alcántara-Hernández, Neslihan Taş, Sandra Carlos-Pinedo, Alfonso Durán-Moreno, Luisa I Falcón
Anaerobic digestion of organic residues offers economic benefits via biogas production, still methane (CH4 ) yield relies on the development of a robust microbial consortia for adequate substrate degradation, among other factors. In this study, we monitor biogas production and changes in the microbial community composition in two semi-continuous stirred tank reactors during the setting process under mesophilic conditions (35°C) using a 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing method. Reactors were initially inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge from a brewery wastewater treatment plant, and gradually fed with organic urban residues (4...
March 13, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Beatriz Quiñones, Juan P Campos Sauceda, Bertram G Lee, Jaszemyn C Yambao, Cristóbal Cháidez Quiroz
The increase in the consumption of fresh produce has correlated with a rise in the number of reported foodborne illnesses. To identify potential risk factors associated with post-harvest practices, the present study employed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for the genotypic classification of Escherichia coli isolates, recovered from three sources sampled at seven operational stages in a cantaloupe packinghouse in Northwestern Mexico. The MLST analysis results indicated that the E. coli isolates were classified into 18 different sequence types (ST), and 11 of these STs were found to be novel...
March 10, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Staci Boyte, Sarah Quaife, Jacqui Horswell, Alma Siggins
Reuse of domestic wastewater is increasingly practiced as a means to address global demands on freshwater. Greywater is primarily reused via sub-surface irrigation of gardens, where the soil environment is seen to be an integral part of the treatment process. The fate of biological contaminants (i.e. pathogens) in the soil is reasonably well understood, but their persistence and survival in soil cover layers is largely unexplored. This study investigated the ability of Escherichia coli to survive in common soil cover layers...
March 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Opeyemi Ojekunle, Kolawole Banwo, Abiodun I Sanni
Thirty-two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were obtained from fermenting cassava mash and wara (African soft cheese) and screened for their resistance to cadmium and lead toxicities at 550 to 1050 mg l(-1) and probiotic potentials. Four LAB strains that tolerated the heavy metals at 1050 mg l(-1) were selected for antioxidative capacities, tolerance to acid, bile salts and simulated gastric and intestinal tract and safety status. The results revealed that Weissella cibaria WD2 and Lactobacillus plantarum CaD1 exhibited comparatively higher antioxidative capacities, survived in simulated gastric and intestinal transit, tolerated acid and bile salt and possessed safety status...
March 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Manickavelu Manimaran, Krishnan Kannabiran
Actinomycetes mediated biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activities are well documented. Actinomycetes facilitate both intracellular and extracellular metal nanoparticles synthesis and are efficient candidates for the production of polydispersed, stable and ultra-small size metal nanoparticles. Secondary metabolites and new chemical entities derived from actinomycetes have not been extensively studied for the synthesis of metal/ metal oxide nanoparticles. The present review focuses on biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles from actinomycetes and the scope for exploring actinomycetes derived compounds (enzymes, organics acids and bioactive compounds) as metal and metal oxide reducing agents for the synthesis of desired nanoparticles...
March 7, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Ali Fatahi, Soroor Sadeghi
A new biodesulphurization (BDS) method has been considered using Rhodococcus erythropolis supported on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for BDS of thiophene as gasoline sulphur model compound in n-hexane as the solvent, subsequently this biocatalyst has been applied to BDS of gasoline samples. The obtaining results according to UV-Spectrophotometer analysis at 240 nm showed that 97.41% of thiophene at the optimum condition of primary concentration 80 mg/L, pH= 7, by 0.1 g of biocatalyst in 30 °C and after 20 h of contact time has been degraded...
March 7, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Fangfei Zhang, Yue Li, Zhe Xun, Qian Zhang, He Liu, Feng Chen
Black extrinsic tooth stain, which has long troubled many people, is common among children and influences the esthetics of teeth. The pigment was proposed to be a black insoluble ferric compound, but this is controversial. To determine whether iron exists in black stain, we collected ten samples of black stain and ten samples of plaque separately from children with and without black stain using sterile titanium implant curettes, and analyzed the samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Iron was present in both black stain and plaque, with concentrations ranging from 76...
March 7, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Tatsuhiko Hoshino, Fumio Inagaki
Carbon monoxide (CO) is the simplest oxocarbon generated by the decomposition of organic compounds, and it is expected to be in marine sediments in substantial amounts. However, the availability of carbon monoxide in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere is largely unknown even though anaerobic oxidation of carbon monoxide is a thermodynamically favourable reaction that possibly occurs with sulphate reduction, methanogenesis, acetogenesis, and hydrogenesis. In this study, we surveyed for the first time the distribution of the CO dehydrogenase gene (cooS), which encodes the catalytic beta subunit of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), in subseafloor sediment core samples from the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Mars-Ursa Basin, Kumano Basin, and off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 301, 308, and 315 and the D/V Chikyu shakedown cruise CK06-06, respectively...
March 3, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
A H Bishop, C M O'Sullivan, A Lane, M C Butler Ellis, W J Sellors
Spores of Bacillus anthracis deposited on surfaces can become airborne again as a result of air currents and mechanical forces. As such they are a potential source of infection by inhalation. Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis were used to quantify this phenomenon in a simulation of outdoor conditions. Concrete and turf surfaces were inoculated by aerosol to produce high spore densities (greater than 1 x 10(9) CFU m(-2) ) which were then subjected to the passage of air at 10 ms(-1) with and without simulated walking...
March 3, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Brian J Morris, Helen Y Buse, Noreen J Adcock, Eugene W Rice
Francisella tularensis is a fastidious organism that requires a lengthy incubation time in liquid growth media for detection. The objective of this study was to develop a medium formulation using readily available supplements that enhanced early growth of F. tularensis. F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) was used to evaluate the growth responses for each of the media formulations tested. Growth in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth supplemented with 2% Vitox, 10% Fildes, and 1% histidine (BVFH) resulted in a significant increase in growth after 8 h incubation compared to other media formulations tested (P < 0...
March 3, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Carla Andrea Alonso, Myriam Zarazaga, Rym Ben Sallem, Ahlem Jouini, Karim Ben Slama, Carmen Torres
In the last years different surveillances have been published in Africa, especially in Northern countries, regarding antimicrobial resistance among husbandry animals. Information is still scarce, but the available data shows a worrying picture. Although the highest resistance rates have been described against tetracycline, penicillins and sulphonamides, prevalence of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are being increasingly reported. Among ESBLs, the CTX-M-1 group was dominant in most African surveys, being CTX-M-15 the main variant both in animals and humans, except in Tunisia where CTX-M-1 was more frequently detected among E...
February 16, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
S Amat, S Subramanian, E Timsit, T W Alexander
This study evaluated the potential of probiotic bacteria to inhibit growth and cell adhesion of the bovine respiratory pathogen Mannheimia haemoltyica serotype 1. The inhibitory effects of nine probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. helveticus, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and two Paenibacillus polymyxa strains) against M. haemolytica were evaluated using a spot-on-lawn method. Probiotic strains were then tested for their adherence to bovine bronchial epithelial (BBE) cells and the ability to displace and compete against M...
February 8, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
A Z Pepoyan, M H Balayan, A M Manvelyan, V Mamikonyan, M Isajanyan, V V Tsaturyan, S Kamiya, V Netrebov, M L Chikindas
Previously, we reported a positive effect the probiotic formulation, Lactobacillus acidophilus INMIA 9602 Er-2 strain 317/402 (Narine strain), had on the blood characteristics of patients with familial Mediterranean fever disease (FMF). The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of the Narine probiotic on growth characteristics in the predominant commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the gut microbiota in FMF-positive study participants. Bacterial growth of 192 prevalent commensal E. coli isolates found in the volunteer participants' guts was evaluated using Verhulst's logistic function...
January 31, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Keping Ye, Kai Wang, Mei Liu, Jia Liu, Lei Zhu, Guanghong Zhou
The aim of this study was to analyze the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated chilled pork. A cocktail of 26 meat-borne L. monocytogenes was inoculated to raw or sterile chilled pork to observe its growth at 4, 10, 16, 22 and 28 °C, respectively. The growth data were fitted by the Baranyi model and Ratkowsky square-root model. Results showed that the Baranyi model and Ratkowsky square-root model could describe the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes at different temperatures reasonably well in raw chilled pork (1...
January 27, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Shunsuke Asano, Yoshihiko Hirayama, Yosuke Matsushita
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes significant losses in the production of the ornamental plant Dahlia variabilis in Japan. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of TSWV in dahlia plants and identify plant parts that can be used in the selection of TSWV-free plants. The distribution of TSWV was investigated using reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and tissue blot immunoassay. The detection rate of TSWV in latent infected compound leaves was the highest in the petiole, and it decreased from the veins and rachis to the lamina...
January 27, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
D P Sartory, K Spies, B Lange, S Schneider, B Langer
This study compared the performance of a novel MPN method (Legiolert/Quanti-Tray) with the ISO 11731-2 membrane filtration method for the enumeration of Legionella pneumophila from 100 ml potable water and related samples. Data from a multi-laboratory study analysed according to ISO 17994 showed that Legiolert™/Quanti-Tray® yielded on average higher counts of L. pneumophila. The Legiolert medium had a high specificity of 96·4%. The new method represents a significant improvement in the enumeration of L...
January 24, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Nalini Monnanda Somaiah, Harishchandra Sripathy Prakash
The endophytic actinomycetes constitute one of the fascinating group of microorganisms associated with a wide range of plant species. The diversity of actinomycetes in plants and their tissue parts is a matter of debate as no consensus are derived between individual studies. Nevertheless, their diversity correlates with the occurrence in plant species harbored in unique regions of biologically diverse areas called 'hot spots'. Recent advances in the isolation techniques have facilitated the isolation of rare taxa from these environments...
January 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
J Redfern, J Verran
Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium, with human disease and infection linked to dairy products, seafood, ready-to-eat meat and raw & undercooked meats. Stainless steel is the most common food preparation surface and therefore, it is important to understand how food storage conditions such as surface materials, temperature and relative humidity can affect survival of L. monocytogenes. In this study, survival of L. monocytogenes on stainless steel was investigated at three temperatures (4, 10 and 21°C), each approx...
January 19, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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