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Letters in Applied Microbiology

Xiaomei Su, Ahmed Maruf Bamba, Shuo Zhang, Yunge Zhang, Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi, Hongjun Lin, Linxian Ding
The bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sites is not running smoothly, because of the lower activity of PAH-degrading bacteria in actual bioremediation applications. The phenomenon of "viable but non culturable" (VBNC) state may be a main limiting factor for their poor biodegradation capabilities of PAHs. Due to their abilities of entering into the VBNC state, most of bacterial populations with PAH-degradation potential remain unculturable. Resuscitation of VBNC bacteria will enhance the degradation capability of indigenous bacteria which will eventually obtain their better capabilities in environmental bioremediation...
January 19, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
S M Horne, M Schroeder, J Murphy, B M Prüβ
Acetoacetate (AAA) was identified as a biofilm inhibitor in a previous study, where the effect of 190 carbon and nitrogen sources on biofilm amounts by Escherichia coli O157:H7 was determined. With this study, we tested the effect of AAA on growth and biofilm amounts of Cronobacter sakazakii, Serratia marcescens, and Yersinia enterocolitica. AAA reduced growth and biofilm amounts of the three pathogens, albeit at rather high concentrations of 10 to 35 mg ml-1 . AAA at a concentration of 5 mg ml-1 reduced Y...
January 16, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Mei Yuan, Yanting Zhang, Lingling Zhao, Yun Ma, Qin He, Jian He, Jiguo Qiu
Nicotinic acid (NA) is ubiquitous in nature and its microbial degradation mechanisms are diverse. In this study, Pusillimonas sp. strain T2 was found to be capable of utilizing NA as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. This strain could completely degrade 300 mg L-1 NA within 3.5 h at 30 °C and pH 7.0. And one of the degradation intermediate of NA was identified as 6-hydroxynicotinic acid (6HNA). The draft genome sequences of strain T2 was determined to have a total length of 3.3 M bp and 3,054 proteins were predicted...
January 16, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Linda M Young, Dustin J Rieman, Lisa Walden, Vicki Abrams Motz
To evaluate comparative efficiency of traditional vs. automated colony counting methods, cultures of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25945), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12225), Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC19615), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC49619) were prepared as pure cultures and mixed cultures at 0.5 McFarland standard and serial dilutions were performed. Plates were inoculated in triplicate with 50 CFUs, 125 CFUs, 250 CFUs and 500 CFUs and counted by four researchers, visually and using each of the automated counters...
January 16, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Helena Hudeckova, Markus Neureiter, Stanislav Obruca, Sabine Frühauf, Ivana Marova
This work investigates the potential conversion of spent coffee grounds (SCG) into lactic acid (LA). SCG were hydrolysed by a combination of dilute acid treatment and subsequent application of cellulase. The SCG hydrolysate contained a considerable amount of reducing sugars (9.02 ± 0.03 g l-1 , glucose; 26.49 ± 0.10 g l-1 galactose and 2.81 ± 0.07 g l-1 arabinose) and it was used as a substrate for cultivation of several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and also lactic acid producing Bacillus coagulans. Among the screened microorganisms, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, CCM 1825 was identified as the most promising producer of LA on SCG hydrolysate...
January 13, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
T M Fumian, M Victoria, C B Vieira, J M Fioretti, M S Rocha, T Prado, F R Guimarães, N P da Gama, J M de Oliveira, A C O Mendes, A M C Gaspar, J D O Santos, M Chame, J P G Leite, M P Miagostovich
This study aimed to assess anthropogenic impact of surrounding population in the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage at Pantanal, the world's largest freshwater wetland ecosystem located in the center of South America. Viral etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis as rotavirus A (RVA), noroviruses (NoV), human adenoviruses (HAdV), klassevirus (KV) and of hepatitis, as hepatitis A virus (HAV), were investigated in different aquatic matrices. Annual collection campaigns were carried out from 2009 to 2012, alternating dry and rainy seasons...
January 13, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Maria J Tavares, Francisco X Nascimento, Bernard R Glick, Márcio J Rossi
Ethylene acts as an inhibitor of the nodulation process of leguminous plants. However, some bacteria can decrease deleterious ethylene levels by the action of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase which degrades ACC, the ethylene precursor in all higher plants. Co-inoculation of rhizobia with endophytes enhances the rhizobial symbiotic efficiency with legumes, improving both nodulation and nitrogen fixation. However, not much is understood about the mechanisms employed by these endophytic bacteria...
January 11, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
S-K Moon, D-K Kim, J M Park, J Min, H Song
Klebsiella oxytoca naturally produces a large amount of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), a promising chemical with wide industrial applications, along with various byproducts. Previously, we have developed a metabolically engineered K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB strain to reduce the formation of byproducts. To improve 2,3-BD productivity and examine the stability of K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB strain for industrial application, a semi-continuous two-stage simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (STSSF) process was developed...
January 8, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Frank J J Segers, Han A B Wösten, Jan Dijksterhuis
Aspergillus niger forms conidia that contain melanin in their cell wall. This black pigment has been shown to protect fungi against UV-radiation and experimental evidence has indicated that it also protects against drought and high salt concentrations. In this study, growth of A. niger was evaluated at low water activity (aw ) and after changes in relative humidity (RH). In addition, deletion strains of A. niger affected in the melanin synthesis pathway were compared. Germination of conidia of the wild-type and deletion strains was observed at 0...
January 8, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Lucía S Di Ciaccio, Viviana G Spotorno, Mónica M Córdoba Estévez, Dante J L Ríos, Renée H Fortunato, Adriana E Salvat
Fungi are cosmopolitan organisms that grow in and adapt to a vast number of substrates and environments, and that can cause diseases in humans and animals, as well as in crops. The vast area and diverse geographical characteristics of Argentina, with the consequent climatic diversity make the country an important source of biological resources suitable for the search of new compounds. The aim of the present study was to describe the antifungal activity of extracts of P. quadrangularis, a species from northern Argentina, against F...
January 5, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Dominik Ausbacher, Lindsey Lorenz, Betsey Pitts, Philip S Stewart, Darla M Goeres
Biofilms are microbial aggregates that show high tolerance to antibiotic treatments in vitro and in vivo. Killing and removal are both important in biofilm control, therefore methods that measure these two mechanisms were evaluated in a parallel experimental design. Kill was measured using the single tube method (ASTM method E2871) and removal was determined by video microscopy and image analysis using a new treatment flow cell. The advantage of the parallel test design is that both methods used biofilm covered coupons harvested from a CDC biofilm reactor, a well-established and standardized biofilm growth method...
December 30, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Camille McCall, Irene Xagoraraki
We aim to compare the performance of Bowtie2, BWA-MEM, BLASTN, and BLASTX when aligning bacterial metagenomes against the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD). Simulated reads were used to evaluate the performance of each aligner under the following four performance criteria: correctly mapped, false positives, multi-reads, and partials. The optimal alignment approach was applied to samples from two wastewater treatment plants to detect ARGs using next generation sequencing. BLASTN mapped with greater accuracy among the four sequence alignment approaches considered followed by Bowtie2...
December 30, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Huan-Ge Zhao, Ming Wang, Ying-Ying Lin, Song-Lin Zhou
The aim of this study was to optimize the culture conditions of a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sclerotiorum M-22 for the production of penicilazaphilone C (PAC), a novel azaphilonidal derivative exhibiting broad cytotoxic and antibacterial effects. By single factor experiments, the effects to the production of PAC of aged seawater concentration, initial pH values, fermentation time, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and inorganic salt sources were investigated individually. Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was adopted to investigate the interactions between variables and determine the optimal values for maximum PAC production...
December 29, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Bushra Khanam, Ramesh Chandra
Extraction of pigments from endophytes is an uphill task. Up till now, there are no efficient methods available to extract the maximum amount of prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens. This is one of the important endophytes of Beta vulgaris L. The present work was carried out for the comparative study of six different extraction methods such as homogenization, ultrasonication, freezing and thawing, heat treatment, organic solvents and inorganic acids to evaluate the efficiency of prodigiosin yield. Our results demonstrated that highest extraction was observed in ultrasonication (98...
December 28, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Kerrie NicAogáin, Denise Magill, Beth O'Donoghue, Alan Conneely, Claire Bennett, Conor P O'Byrne
Seafood has often been implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes but the source of contamination is usually not known. In this study we investigated the possibility that this pathogen could survive in seawater for an extended time period. Freshly collected seawater samples were inoculated with 1 x 108 CFU ml-1 of L. monocytogenes EGD-e and survival was monitored by plate counting for up to 25 d. When incubated in the dark, either at ambient temperatures (4-14°C) or at 16°C, greater than 104 CFU ml-1 survivors were present after 25 d...
December 27, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
A Lizasoain, L F L Tort, M García, L Gillman, A Alberti, J P G Leite, M P Miagostovich, S A Pou, A Cagiao, A Razsap, J Huertas, M Berois, M Victoria, R Colina
This study assess the quality of wastewater through the detection and quantification of important causing gastroenteritis viruses at different stages of the wastewater treatment process in an activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant with ultraviolet disinfection. Ten sampling events were carried out in a campaign along a period of 18 months collecting wastewater samples from the influent, after the activated sludge treatment, and after the final disinfection with UV radiation. Samples were concentrated through ultracentrifugation and analyzed using retro-transcription, PCR and real time quantitative PCR protocols, for detection and quantification of Group A Rotavirus (RVA), Human Astrovirus (HAstV), Norovirus Genogroup II (NoV GII) and Human Adenovirus (HAdV)...
December 22, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Hai Van Nguyen, Jean-Christophe Meile, Marc Lebrun, Doménico Caruso, Son Chu-Ky, Samira Sarter
The threat of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has created an urgent need to develop new antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical diversity of Litsea cubeba leaf essential oil (EO) and its impacts on the antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. EOs collected from seven provinces in North Vietnam (n=25) were characterized by their high content in either 1,8-cineole or linalool. Linalool-type EOs were more effective against the eight bacterial strains tested than 1,8-cineole-type...
December 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Thippawan Pimchan, Callum J Cooper, Griangsak Eumkeb, Anders S Nilsson
The continuing threat of antimicrobial resistance presents a considerable challenge to researchers to develop novel strategies ensuring that bacterial infections remain treatable. Many plant extracts have been shown to have antibacterial properties and could potentially be combined with other antibacterial agents to create more effective formulations. In this study, the antibacterial activity of three plant extracts and virulent bacteriophages have been assessed as individual components and in combination. When assessed with a modified suspension test, these plant extracts also exhibit antiviral activity at bacterial inhibitory concentrations...
December 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Antonio Gargiulo, Alessandro Fioretti, Tamara Pasqualina Russo, Lorena Varriale, Loredana Rampa, Silvia Paone, Luigi Maria De Luca Bossa, Pasquale Raia, Ludovico Dipineto
The importance of wild birds as potential vectors of disease has received recent renewed empirical interest, especially regarding human health although information regarding the enteropathogenic bacteria in birds of prey continue to be scant. This study was performed with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter spp. Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.) in birds of prey carcasses in Southern Italy. The results of the present study showed a prevalence of 33.1% (49/148) for Campylobacter spp...
December 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
S Gao, W Shi, Y T Wang, M T Guo, K X Duan, A C Song, G H Lian, Tong Ren, Y J Li, L J Tang, L Sun, M Liu
Salmonid alphaviruses (SAV) severely infects farmed salmonids and rainbow trout. Owing to the recent increase in fish import trade, several SAV-unreported countries, such as China, may face serious threat of this infection. Thus, it is necessary to develop efficient detection methods for the prevention and diagnosis of SAV infection. In this study, we selected a conserved segment of the SAV E1 protein as a target immunogen for the preparation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to SAV. A sensitive indirect immunofluorescence (IF) method was developed using 26E9C2 mAb that detected E1 protein and identified subtypes 1, 2 and 5 of SAV...
December 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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