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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

Francuois L Müller, Lincoln M Raitt, Samson B M Chimphango, M Igshaan Samuels, Clement F Cupido, J Stephen Boatwright, Richard Knight, Marike Trytsman
In the face of climate change, identification of forage species suitable for dryland farming under low rainfall conditions in South Africa is needed. Currently, there are only a limited number of forage species suitable for dryland farming under such conditions. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritise native legume species that could potentially be used in dryland farming systems in water-limited agro-ecosystems in South Africa. Using a combination of ecological niche modelling techniques, plant functional traits, and indigenous knowledge, 18 perennial herbaceous or stem-woody legume species were prioritised for further evaluation as potential fodder species within water-limited agricultural areas...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
X L Otero, A Méndez, G N Nóbrega, T O Ferreira, W Meléndez, F Macías
Mangrove forests play an important role in biogeochemical cycles of metals, nutrients, and C in coastal ecosystems. However, these functions could be strongly affected by the mangrove soil degradation. In this study, we performed an intensive sampling characterizing mangrove soils under different types of environment (lagoon/gulf) and vegetation (Rhizophora/Avicennia/dead mangrove) in the Venezuelan coast. To better understand the spatial heterogeneity of the composition and characteristics of the soils, a wide range of the soil attributes were analyzed...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Walaiporn Orakij, Thaneeya Chetiyanukornkul, Thanyarat Chuesaard, Yuichi Kaganoi, Waka Uozaki, Chiharu Homma, Yaowatat Boongla, Ning Tang, Kazuichi Hayakawa, Akira Toriba
A personal inhalation exposure and cancer risk assessment of rural residents in Lampang, Thailand, was conducted for the first time. This highlighted important factors that may be associated with the highest areal incidence of lung cancer. Personal exposure of rural residents to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAHs) through inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated in addition to stationary air sampling in an urban area. The personal exposure of the subjects to PM2...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Y Vystavna, D Diadin, V Grynenko, V Yakovlev, Y Vergeles, F Huneau, P M Rossi, J Hejzlar, K Knöller
Nitrate contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater was studied in transboundary (Russia/Ukraine) catchment with heterogeneous land use. Dominant sources of nitrate contamination were determined by applying a dual δ (15)N-NO3 and δ (18)O-NO3 isotope approach, multivariate statistics, and land use analysis. Nitrate concentration was highly variable from 0.25 to 22 mg L(-1) in surface water and from 0.5 to 100 mg L(-1) in groundwater. The applied method indicated that sewage to surface water and sewage and manure to groundwater were dominant sources of nitrate contamination...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Dichen Wang, Haoming Fan, Xiangguo Fan
Gully erosion is an important environmental problem worldwide and the main process by which water and soil losses occur in the Black Soil Region (BSR) of Northeast China. At the end of 2012, 295,663 gullies were present in this region. However, few studies have examined the gullies of the Black Soil Region as a whole. Studying the distribution of recent gullies can reveal the pattern of gully distribution and can help predict their spatial development according to the soil and water conservation regionalization of China...
September 17, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Amir Sadeghian, Dirk de Boer, Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt
This study looks into sedimentation and erosion rates in Lake Diefenbaker, a prairie reservoir, in Saskatchewan, Canada, which has been in operation since 1968. First, we looked at the historical data in all different formats over the last 70 years, which includes data from more than 20 years before the formation of the lake. The field observations indicate high rates of shoreline erosion, especially in the upstream portion as a potential region for shoreline retreat. Because of the great importance of this waterbody to the province, monitoring sedimentation and erosion rates is necessary for maintaining the quality of water especially after severe floods which are more common due to climate change effects...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Bindumol G P, Harilal C C
Leaching potential of pesticides, apart from climatological factors, depends on soil physical properties, soil-pesticide interaction and chemical nature of the molecule. Recent investigations have revealed the presence of various organophosphate pesticides in various agroecosystems. The present study investigated the soil transport mechanism of commonly used organophosphate pesticides in acidic sandy clay loam soils of Kerala State, India. Packed soil column experiment was undertaken under laboratory condition for 30 days...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Chao Liu, Yueqing Xu, Piling Sun, An Huang, Weiran Zheng
Land use/cover change (LUCC), a local environmental issue of global importance, and its driving forces have been crucial issues in geography and environmental research. Previous studies primarily focused on major driving factors in various land use types, with few explorations of differences between driving forces of mutual land use type conversions, especially in fragile eco-environments. In this study, Zhangjiakou City, in a farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, was taken as an example to analyze land use change between 1989 and 2015, and explore the driving forces of mutual land use type conversions using canonical correlation analysis...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Neşe Yüğrük Akdağ, Gülay Zorer Gedik, Fatih Kiraz, Bekir Şener
The layout of the structures according to the noise source is an important parameter in terms of the level of noise reaching to both open usage areas and the structure surfaces. In this paper, it is aimed to reveal the effect of mass housing settlement type on the size of suitable open usage areas in terms of noise. Comfortable open usage areas in 25 mass housing alternatives are determined for the case of being affected by three different road noises. The reliability of the simulation results is validated by on-site noise level measurements...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yiming Xu, Scot E Smith, Sabine Grunwald, Amr Abd-Elrahman, Suhas P Wani, Vimala D Nair
Digital soil mapping (DSM) is gaining momentum as a technique to help smallholder farmers secure soil security and food security in developing regions. However, communications of the digital soil mapping information between diverse audiences become problematic due to the inconsistent scale of DSM information. Spatial downscaling can make use of accessible soil information at relatively coarse spatial resolution to provide valuable soil information at relatively fine spatial resolution. The objective of this research was to disaggregate the coarse spatial resolution soil exchangeable potassium (Kex) and soil total nitrogen (TN) base map into fine spatial resolution soil downscaled map using weighted generalized additive models (GAMs) in two smallholder villages in South India...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
M L Akele, D Z Abebe, A K Alemu, A G Assefa, A Madhusudhan, R R de Oliveira
Concentrations of essential (Cu, Mn, and Zn) and toxic (Cr, Cd, and Pb) trace metals in 30 raw cow's milk samples were quantified using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected from the Nara-Awudarda, Tana-Abo, and Kosoye Amba-Rass sites in North Gondar, Ethiopia, preserved in a deep freezer (-20 °C), and then digested by Kjeldahl apparatus with HNO3/H2O2 (5:2; v/v) at 300 °C for 2.5 h. The data were subject to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mahmud Güngör, Ufuk Yarar, Mahmut Firat
Physical or real losses may be indicated as the most important component of the water losses occurring in a water distribution network (WDN). The objective of this study is to examine the effects of piping material management and network rehabilitation on the physical water losses and water losses management in a WDN. For this aim, the Denizli WDN consisting of very old pipes that have exhausted their economic life is selected as the study area. The fact that the current network is old results in the decrease of pressure strength, increase of failure intensity, and inefficient use of water resources thus leading to the application of the rehabilitation program...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
L Jagadeesan, R Jyothibabu, N Arunpandi, A Anjusha, S Parthasarathi, R S Pandiyarajan
Results of the experimental studies on the feeding habit and daily ration (DR) of 12 dominant copepods from a tropical coastal water (off Kochi, Southwest coast of India) on different food items (phytoplankton, rotifers, and detritus) are presented. Even though, all species of copepods consumed all types of food items in the experiments, they showed noticeable feeding preferences, having important ecological implications. Calanoid Paracalanus parvus and Acrocalanus gracilis consumed phytoplankton and rotifers equally in mono diets (74-89% of DR) and mixed diets (53-82% of DR), which indicated their ability to shift their diet in natural environment based on the availability of food items...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Lishu Lian, Baofu Li, Yaning Chen, Cuicui Chu, Yanhua Qin
Land use/cover changes (LUCCs) are an important cause of regional climate changes, but the contribution of LUCCs to regional climate changes is not clear. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and statistical methods were used to investigate changes in meteorologic variables in January, April, July, and October 2013 due to local LUCCs from 1990 to 2010 in southern Shandong province, China. The results indicate that the WRF model simulates temperatures in the region well, with high correlation coefficients (0...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ebrahim Mahmoudabadi, Alireza Karimi, Gholam Hosain Haghnia, Adel Sepehr
Digital soil mapping has been introduced as a viable alternative to the traditional mapping methods due to being fast and cost-effective. The objective of the present study was to investigate the capability of the vegetation features and spectral indices as auxiliary variables in digital soil mapping models to predict soil properties. A region with an area of 1225 ha located in Bajgiran rangelands, Khorasan Razavi province, northeastern Iran, was chosen. A total of 137 sampling sites, each containing 3-5 plots with 10-m interval distance along a transect established based on randomized-systematic method, were investigated...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Natiely Natalyane Dolci, Fabian Sá, Eunice da Costa Machado, Ricardo Krul, Renato Rodrigues Neto
Levels of trace elements were investigated in feathers of 51 adults and 47 eggshells of brown boobies Sula leucogaster from one bird colony in the Marine National Park of Currais Islands, Brazil, between December 2013 and October 2014. Average concentrations (μg g(-1), dry weight) in feathers and eggshells, respectively, were Al 50.62-9.58, As 0.35-2.37, Cd 0.05-0.03, Co 0.38-2.1, Cu 15.12-0.99, Fe 47.47-22.92, Mg 815.71-1116.92, Ni 0.29-11.85, and Zn 94.16-1.98. In both arrays, the average concentration of Mg was the highest among all the elements analyzed, while the lowest was recorded for Cd...
September 10, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Chongjuan Chen, Tiancheng Zhao, Ruliang Liu, Liangguo Luo
Agricultural non-point source (ANPS) pollution is an important contributor to elevated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in surface waters, which can cause serious environmental problems. Considerable effort has therefore gone into the development of methods that control the ANPS input of N and P to surface waters. Phytoremediation has been extensively used because it is cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and efficient. The N and P loads from agricultural drainage are a potential threat to the water quality of the Yellow River in Ningxia, China...
September 10, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Lee C Bowling, Mustak Shaikh, John Brayan, Tim Malthus
A commercially available handheld spectroradiometer, the WISP-3, was assessed as a tool for monitoring freshwater cyanobacterial blooms for management purposes. Three small eutrophic urban ponds which displayed considerable within-pond and between-pond variability in water quality and cyanobacterial community composition were used as trial sites. On-board algorithms provide field measurements of phycocyanin (CPC) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) from surface reflectance spectra measured by the instrument. These were compared with laboratory measurements...
September 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ranith R, Senthilnathan L, Machendiranathan M, Thangaradjou T, Sasamal S K, Choudhury S B
Tissue degradation and mediated mortality have turned into a major threat to coral reef systems around the world. Detailed knowledge on interactions of prime biological factors that mediate tissue loss and mortality is of paramount importance in understanding the prevailing reef health scenario and to trial management actions. In the present study, a series of benthic surveys were conducted in Lakshadweep islands to understand the interactions of plausible biological factors in causing tissue loss and mediated mortality...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Qiang Xiao, Jianping Tao, Yang Xiao, Feng Qian
In this study, we applied asymmetric Gaussian function fitting to reconstruct a high-quality MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series dataset. Following this, we retrieved vegetation cover data from the Chongqing area between 2001 and 2010 using this dataset, applying a dimidiate pixel method. We then used several analytical indices to analyze spatial and temporal changes and trends related to these changes. We determined that a reconstruction of the MODIS NDVI dataset using asymmetric Gaussian fitting in conjunction with a data quality weight coefficient improved data quality and created a foundation for accurate estimations of vegetation cover...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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