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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

S E Obalum, G U Chibuike, S Peth, Y Ouyang
Soil organic matter (SOM) is known to play vital roles in the maintenance and improvement of many soil properties and processes. These roles, which largely influence soil functions, are a pool of specific contributions of different components of SOM. The soil functions, in turn, normally define the level of soil degradation, viewed as quantifiable temporal changes in a soil that impairs its quality. This paper aims at providing a generalized assessment of the current state of knowledge on the usefulness of SOM in monitoring soil degradation, based on its influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties and processes of soils...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Anna Pouch, Agata Zaborska, Ksenia Pazdro
Contaminant profiles in sediment cores represent valuable natural archives of environmental contamination, by which contaminant sources and historical changes in contaminant input and cycling may be recognized. In the present study, we discuss the sedimentary profiles and historical trends of organic contaminants - polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in three fjords of the Svalbard archipelago differing in environmental conditions and anthropogenic impact. The obtained results revealed no significant differences between the fjords Hornsund and Kongsfjorden, in the average levels of the analyzed contaminants...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Kun Luo, Xuebin Hu, Qiang He, Zhengsong Wu, Hao Cheng, Zhenlong Hu, Asit Mazumder
Rapid urbanization in China has been causing dramatic deterioration in the water quality of rivers and threatening aquatic ecosystem health. In this paper, multivariate techniques, such as factor analysis (FA) and cluster analysis (CA), were applied to analyze the water quality datasets for 19 rivers in Liangjiang New Area (LJNA), China, collected in April (dry season) and September (wet season) of 2014 and 2015. In most sampling rivers, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and fecal coliform exceeded the Class V guideline (GB3838-2002), which could thereby threaten the water quality in Yangtze and Jialing Rivers...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Christopher E Soulard, William Acevedo, Warren B Cohen, Zhiqiang Yang, Stephen V Stehman, Janis L Taylor
Several spatial forest disturbance datasets exist for the conterminous USA. The major problem with forest disturbance mapping is that variability between map products leads to uncertainty regarding the actual rate of disturbance. In this article, harmonized maps were produced from multiple data sources (i.e., Global Forest Change, LANDFIRE Vegetation Disturbance, National Land Cover Database, Vegetation Change Tracker, and Web-Enabled Landsat Data). The harmonization process involved fitting common class ontologies and determining spatial congruency to produce forest disturbance maps for four time intervals (1986-1992, 1992-2001, 2001-2006, and 2006-2011)...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Barbora Werchan, Matthias Werchan, Hans-Guido Mücke, Ulrich Gauger, Anke Simoleit, Torsten Zuberbier, Karl-Christian Bergmann
For nearly a decade, the majority of the world's population has been living in cities, including a considerable percentage of people suffering from pollen allergy. The increasing concentration of people in cities results in larger populations being exposed to allergenic pollen at the same time. There is almost no information about spatial distribution of pollen within cities as well as a lack of information about the possible impact to human health. To obtain this increasing need for pollen exposure studies on an intra-urban scale, a novelty screening network of 14 weekly changed pollen traps was established within a large metropolitan area-Berlin, Germany...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sunil Nautiyal, Harald Kaechele, M S Umesh Babu, Pavan Tikhile, Sangeeta Baksi
This study was carried out to understand the ecological and economic sustainability of floriculture and other main crops in Indian agro-ecosystems. The cultivation practices of four major flower crops, namely Jasminum multiflorum, Crossandra infundibuliformis, Chrysanthemum and Tagetes erecta, were studied in detail. The production cost of flowers in terms of energy was calculated to be 99,622-135,996 compared to 27,681-69,133 MJ ha(-1) for the main crops, namely Oryza sativa, Eleusine coracana, Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Pengbao Wu, Aijing Yin, Xiaohui Yang, Huan Zhang, Manman Fan, Chao Gao
The concentration of toxic elements (Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and As) was measured in the sediments of the Qinhuai River in Eastern China along a rural to urban gradient. Multiple approaches were undertaken to evaluate the degree of enrichment and adverse biological effects of these elements. The results showed that the concentration of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb increased exponentially from the agricultural headwater to the urbanized downstream, which reflects a severe anthropogenic influence. In addition, area-specific references, such as the local soil background (LSB) and upper continental crust (UCC) derived from the Yangtze craton, were more applicable for evaluating the enrichment of toxic elements in the Qinhuai River than was global UCC...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Friederike Borges, Michael Glemnitz, Alfred Schultz, Ulrich Stachow
Many of the processes behind the decline of farmland birds can be related to modifications in landscape structure (composition and configuration), which can partly be expressed quantitatively with measurable or computable indices, i.e. landscape metrics. This paper aims to identify statistical relationships between the occurrence of birds and the landscape structure. We present a method that combines two comprehensive procedures: the "landscape-centred approach" and "guild classification". Our study is based on more than 20,000 individual bird observations based on a 4-year bird monitoring approach in a typical agricultural area in the north-eastern German lowlands...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Chamteut Oh, Sangwoo Ji, Giljae Yim, Youngwook Cheong
The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the geochemical properties of rocks for a single indicator of acid-forming potential. The indicators, such as net acid generation (NAG), NAG pH and total S, were applied to 312 rock samples of various geological characteristics. Additional indicators, such as a Modified NAG pH, paste pH and available acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), were applied to 22 selected samples. Among them, NAG pH was considered the most plausible single indicator in evaluating acid-forming potential, as it is simple to measure, widely applicable to various samples and can be used to estimate the NAG value...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Vanitha Sankararajan, Nampoothiri Neelakandhan, Sivapragasam Chandrasekaran
Despite the extensive use of constructed wetland (CW) as an effective method for domestic wastewater treatment, there is lack of clarity in arriving at well-defined design guidelines. This is particularly due to the fact that the design of CW is dependent on many inter-connected parameters which interact in a complex manner. Consequently, different researchers in the past have tried to address different aspects of this complexity. In this study, an attempt is made to model the influence of relative humidity (RH) in the effectiveness of BOD5 removal...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mohammad Hasani, Yousef Sakieh, Sadeq Dezhkam, Tahereh Ardakani, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny
A hierarchical intensity analysis of land-use change is applied to evaluate the dynamics of a coupled urban coastal system in Rasht County, Iran. Temporal land-use layers of 1987, 1999, and 2011 are employed, while spatial accuracy metrics are only available for 2011 data (overall accuracy of 94%). The errors in 1987 and 1999 layers are unknown, which can influence the accuracy of temporal change information. Such data were employed to examine the size and the type of errors that could justify deviations from uniform change intensities...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Daniel Elias, Melody J Bernot
Agrochemicals can be transported from agricultural fields into streams where they might have adverse effects on water quality and ecosystems. Three enrichment experiments were conducted in a central Indiana stream to quantify pesticide and nitrogen transport dynamics. In an enrichment experiment, a compound solution is added at a constant rate into a stream to increase compound background concentration. A conservative tracer (e.g., bromide) is added to determine discharge. Water and sediment samples are taken at several locations downstream to measure uptake metrics...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Annika Hagenbjörk, E Malmqvist, K Mattisson, Nilsson J Sommar, L Modig
Ozone and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are air pollutants with known associations to adverse health effects on humans. Few studies have simultaneously measured ozone and nitrogen oxides with high spatial resolution. The main aim of this paper was to assess the levels and variation of ground-level ozone, NO2 and NO x in two Swedish cities. An additional aim was to describe the levels of these pollutants within and between three different types of measurement sites (regional background, urban background and traffic sites) and within and between different measurement periods of the year...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Carmelisa D'Antone, Rosalda Punturo, Carmela Vaccaro
A geochemical and statistical approach has allowed identifying in rare earth elements (REEs) absorption a good fingerprinting mark for determining the territoriality and the provenance of Vitis vinifera L. in the district of Mount Etna (southern Italy). Our aim is to define the REEs distribution in different parts of the plants which grow in the same volcanic soil and under the same climate conditions, and therefore to assess whether REEs distribution may reflect the composition of the provenance soil or if plants can selectively absorb REEs in order to recognize the fingerprint in the Etna Volcano soils as well as the REEs pattern characteristic of each cultivar of V...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sonam Verma, Alka Srivastava
The present investigation was done to assess cytomorphologic parameters as indicators of genotoxicity as it is a simpler method and could be suggested for rapid screening of the vast range of agrochemicals used all over the world. The excessive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals is responsible for increasing the level of pollutants in the soil environment resulting in cellular and molecular damage to the plants. The cellular damage caused manifestation of the resulting oxidative stress due to pollutants which can go up to the level of DNA...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
N Jordanova, E Petrovský, A Kapicka, D Jordanova, P Petrov
Copper ore mining and processing are among the most harmful anthropogenic influences for the environment and they are a subject of international and national law regulations. Recultivation of areas influenced by mining and processing industry is commonly applied and monitored in order to restore as much as possible the natural environment. In this study, environmental magnetic methods are applied in order to assess the degree of soil restoration in terms of soil development, after remediation of waste dump from Cu-processing plant...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Vishnu Murari, Manish Kumar, Alaa Mhawish, S C Barman, Tirthankar Banerjee
The variation in particulate mass and particulate types (PM2.5 and PM10) with respect to local/regional meteorology was analyzed from January to December 2014 (n = 104) for an urban location over the middle Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Both coarser (mean ± SD; PM10 161.3 ± 110.4 μg m(-3), n = 104) and finer particulates (PM2.5 81.78 ± 66.4 μg m(-3)) revealed enormous mass loading with distinct seasonal effects (range: PM10 12-535 μg m(-3); PM2.5 8-362 μg m(-3)). Further, 56% (for PM2.5) to 81% (for PM10) of monitoring events revealed non-attainment national air quality standard especially during winter months...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Shabnam Zafar, Azim Khan, Hidayat Ullah, Muhammad Sohail Khan, Ilham Khan, Asma Hameed, Shafeeq Ur Rehman, Ghazala Yasmeen
Chemical quality and extent of pollution in effluent-contaminated irrigation water collected from two sectors (X and Y) of peri-urban southern regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, were investigated. Various physico-chemical parameters like pH, EC, TS, TSS, TDS, TH, cations (Na(1+), K(1+), Li(1+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), anions (Cl(1-), F(1-), HCO3(1-), NO3(1-), SO4(2-)), and heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) were determined. The data indicated wide ranges of variation in all the parameters. Concentration of physico-chemical properties such as EC, TS, TSS, TH, Li(1+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and HCO3(1-) and heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Cu, and Cd) exceeded WHO permissible limits...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Raquel González-Núñez, Anna Rigol, Miquel Vidal
The effect of the addition of industrial by-products (gypsum and calcite) on the leaching of As and metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd) in a soil contaminated by pyritic minerals was monitored over a period of 6 months at a two-pit pilot plant. The contaminated soil was placed in one pit (non-remediated soil), whereas a mixture of the contaminated soil (80% w/w) with gypsum (10% w/w) and calcite (10% w/w) was placed in the other pit (remediated soil). Soil samples and leachates of the two pits were collected at different times...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Seda Erkan Buğday, Sezgin Özden
Migration is one of the most important issues in Turkey today. Notably, the state forest enterprises are affected by the social, economic, and ecological dimensions of migration; these enterprises find it increasingly difficult to find labor to operate effectively in the forestry activities with each passing day. This study examined population movement over the 1965-2013 period in Kastamonu forest villages to assess how topographical factors affected this movement. Kastamonu is the province in which most of Turkey's forest products are produced, and 99% of the province's rural population consists of forest villagers...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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