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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421328/aerial-and-terrestrial-based-monitoring-of-channel-erosion-headcutting-and-sinuosity
#1
Samuel E Cox, Dennis L Doncaster, Peter E Godfrey, Michael D Londe
Headcuts are points of accelerated channel erosion that frequently have ecological consequences. A particularly large and dynamic headcut in southwest Wyoming has affected natural and anthropogenic resources for decades. To better understand and address this issue, we undertook a review of the headcut's upstream retreat, followed by photogrammetric monitoring of the present condition for erosion monitoring. Aerial photography shows the Bitter Creek headcut retreated > 200 m upstream in 68 years (1948-2016) at ~ 1...
November 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421243/bioremediation-of-tannery-effluent-by-cr-and-salt-tolerant-bacterial-strains
#2
Sobia Ashraf, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Afzal, Sana Ashraf, Khadeeja Rehman, Azhar Hussain, Zahir Ahmad Zahir
Microorganisms have great potential to control environmental pollution, particularly industrial sources of water pollution. Currently, leather industry is regarded as the most polluting and suffering from negative impacts due to the pollution it adds to the environment. Chromium, one of the hazardous pollutants discharged from tanneries, is highly toxic and carcinogenic in nature. Effective treatment of tannery effluent is a dire need of the era as a part of environmental management. Among all the wastewater treatment technologies, bioremediation is the most effective and environment-friendly tool to manage the water pollution...
November 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421140/potentially-toxic-elements-in-urban-soils-source-apportionment-and-contamination-assessment
#3
Soroush Modabberi, Mahsa Tashakor, Neda Sharifi Soltani, Andrew S Hursthouse
Soils play a vital role in the quality of the urban environment and the health of its residents. City soils and street dusts accumulate various contaminants and particularly potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from a variety of human activities. This study investigates the current condition of elemental concentration in the urban soils of Hamedan, the largest and the fastest-growing city in western Iran. Thirty-four composite soil samples were collected from 0 to 10 cm topsoil of various land uses in Hamedan city and were analyzed for total concentration of 63 elements by ICP-MS...
November 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417241/the-2007-crisis-and-greek-wildfires-a-multivariate-analysis-of-suppression-times
#4
Carlotta Ferrara, Maurizio Marchi, Margherita Carlucci, Anastasios Mavrakis, Piermaria Corona, Luca Salvati
Shifts in government priorities in response to the 2007 global recession have affected wildfire management and natural disaster funding arrangements, leading to a reduced effectiveness of fire suppression actions and increasing fire vulnerability. Our study investigates the role of local socioeconomic contexts on fire suppression effectiveness under economic expansion and recession in a Mediterranean region (Attica, Greece) strongly affected by 2007 crisis and displaying a persistently high density of peri-urban wildfires...
November 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415457/identification-and-detection-sensitivity-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-from-mixed-and-field-samples-using-maldi-tof-ms
#5
Li-Wei Sun, Wen-Jing Jiang, Jun-Yi Zhang, Wen-Qian Wang, Yang Du, Hiroaki Sato, Masanobu Kawachi, Ran Yu
To verify the applicability of identifying Microcystis aeruginosa by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), mixed and field samples were employed to study the sensitivity and the analysis power, respectively. Series diluted samples and artificially mixed samples by the M. aeruginosa NIES-843 strain were designed to verify the sensitivity. The lowest detection limit was 1.955 × 106 cells in pure samples, while for mixed samples, the lowest detection limit and ratio of NIES-843 strain were 2...
November 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415322/total-mercury-status-in-an-urban-water-body-mithi-river-mumbai-and-analysis-of-the-relation-between-total-mercury-and-other-pollution-parameters
#6
Prashant Bhave, Rajita Shrestha
Mercury is a heavy metal which has garnered attention recently in India. Minamata Convention on mercury was established on October 2013 and was joined by India on September 30, 2014. India is seen as a major mercury pollution source after China according to many studies in the past. Various mercury pollution sites that are currently recognized in India are Kodai Lake, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, and Thane Creek, Mumbai. Since 1992, chlor-alkali plants have been regulated to eliminate mercury cell process of manufacturing...
November 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415308/monitoring-the-urban-green-spaces-and-landscape-fragmentation-using-remote-sensing-a-case-study-in-osmaniye-turkey
#7
Murat Atasoy
Urban green spaces play a significant role in management of physical activity, psychological well-being, and public health of urban residents. With the expansion of urban areas in Turkey during the past decades, urban green spaces have been fragmented and dispersed causing impairment and environmental degradation. The purpose of this study is to model urban green space distribution by focusing on the landscape fragmentation in city of Osmaniye using remote sensing and geographic information system technology...
November 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413978/water-quality-index-for-agricultural-systems-in-northwest-uruguay
#8
Gabriela Eguren, Noelia Rivas-Rivera, Claudio García, Bernardo Böcking, Santiago Bandeira
Agricultural systems have experienced rapid expansion and intensification in the last several decades. In Uruguay, since the beginning of 2000, the most common cropping systems have included soybeans. Currently, this crop is expanding towards lowlands traditionally occupied by rice in rotation with pastures. However, the environmental effects of agricultural intensification and diversification are not well known. Thus, some indices have been proposed to quantify the changes in agricultural production systems and assess water quality...
November 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413967/a-multi-year-study-following-baci-design-reveals-no-short-term-impact-of-bti-on-chironomids-diptera-in-a-floodplain-in-eastern-austria
#9
Georg Wolfram, Philipp Wenzl, Hans Jerrentrup
Short-term impacts of aerial application of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on Culicidae and Chironomidae were investigated over several years in temporary waters of the Dyje and Morava floodplains in Eastern Austria. The sampling followed a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) approach with sampling dates immediately before and shortly after the application and was repeated for 3 years. To test for effects of the Bti treatment on the two Diptera families, linear mixed-effects models were used. Data analysis included the factors Before-After and Control-Impact as fixed effects, while general temporal and spatial variables were random effects...
November 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413891/a-new-method-for-detecting-individual-trees-in-aerial-lidar-point-clouds-using-absolute-height-maxima
#10
Ramzanali Khorrami, Zahra Naeimi, Masoud Tabari, Mohammad Reza Eslahchi
Data acquired from aerial laser scanner systems are increasingly used for detecting individual trees in operational inventories. In conventional analyses, tree detection is often performed on raster models that use local height maxima filters; an option that is likely to accumulate important errors. In order to reduce errors and improve the detection of individual trees, a new method is proposed that uses an Absolute Height Maxima (AHM) filter applied on the original point clouds obtained from Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS)...
November 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411232/spatial-and-temporal-variations-of-nutrition-in-representative-river-networks-in-southwest-china
#11
Wenqiang Zhang, Xin Jin, Baoqing Shan
To control pollutants in rivers, we need to have an understanding of the spatial and temporal variations on nutrients and environmental processes in complex river networks. In this study, 177 sampling sites were located in Jinjiang River in 2017, 15 monitoring stations in Jinjiang River from 2011 to 2016 were also collected. According to the data from the monitoring station, the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were the dominant contaminants. By analyzing historical water quality data and up-to-date information about the nutrient concentrations, the secondary canals of the Jinjiang River system, most of which were black and odorous, were much more seriously polluted than the main channel and tributaries...
November 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411166/the-development-of-an-overlay-model-to-predict-soil-salinity-risks-by-using-remote-sensing-and-gis-techniques-a-case-study-in-soils-around-idku-lake-egypt
#12
Rasha M Abou Samra, R R Ali
Soil salinization is one of the major environmental problems facing agricultural lands in arid and semiarid areas of the world because of its detrimental impacts on agricultural production and on the sustainable development of land resources. Hence, predicting soil salinity is essential to avoiding further soil degradation. The present study is intended to develop a model for predicting soil salinity in soils around Idku Lake by using remote sensing and geographic information system techniques. This lake is a shallow brackish basin located in the western part of the Nile Delta...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411164/selected-persistent-organic-pollutants-levels-in-the-ankara-river-by-months
#13
Sedat Sevin, Ozgur Kuzukiran, Begum Yurdakok-Dikmen, Hidayet Tutun, Farah Gonul Aydin, Ayhan Filazi
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are banned in almost all countries due to their adverse health effects while they are still present in the environment due to their persistence. As the dissipation and the emission factors of POPs change by temperature and other environmental factors current study aimed to determine selected POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water and sediment samples collected from 12 stations located in Ankara River, Turkey, for 12 months...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406856/metal-concentrations-and-source-identification-in-chilean-public-children-s-playgrounds
#14
Delia Rodríguez-Oroz, Rodrigo Vidal, Francisco Fernandoy, Fabrice Lambert, Felipe Quiero
This study is focused on four Biobio region cities, Concepcion, Talcahuano, Los Ángeles, and Tomé; these cities flourished very close to different industrial activities. We determined a pseudo total concentration of seven heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) in playground soils through inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that contamination in soils comes from three principal sources. Firstly, industrial and burning activities; secondly, the use of phytosanitary and chemical products; and thirdly, vehicular traffic emissions...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406854/performance-assessment-of-artificial-neural-networks-and-support-vector-regression-models-for-stream-flow-predictions
#15
Ateeq-Ur-Rauf, Abdul Razzaq Ghumman, Sajjad Ahmad, Hashim Nisar Hashmi
Water resources planning, development, and management need reliable forecasts of river flows. In past few decades, an important dimension has been introduced in the prediction of the hydrologic phenomenon through artificial intelligence-based modeling. In this paper, the performance of three artificial neural network (ANN) and four support vector regression (SVR) models was investigated to predict streamflows in the Upper Indus River. Results from ANN models using three different optimization techniques, namely Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shannon, Conjugate Gradient, and Back Propagation algorithms, were compared with one another...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406494/probability-assessment-of-vegetation-vulnerability-to-drought-based-on-remote-sensing-data
#16
Esmail Heydari Alamdarloo, Maliheh Behrang Manesh, Hassan Khosravi
Drought is one of the important factors causing vegetation degradation. Determination of areas with vegetation more sensitive to drought can be effective in drought risk management. Considering the ability to describe vegetation conditions, vegetation health index (VHI) was used to determine the probability of vegetation vulnerability to drought and to provide the map of Iran showing sensitive areas to drought. This study tries to express the probability of vegetation vulnerability to drought in four main climatic classes including hyper-arid, arid, semi-arid and semi-humid, and humid in Iran...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406412/assessment-of-the-use-of-ethanol-instead-of-mtbe-as-an-oxygenated-compound-in-mexican-regular-gasoline-combustion-behavior-and-emissions
#17
U González, I Schifter, L Díaz, C González-Macías, I Mejía-Centeno, G Sánchez-Reyna
The energy reforms implemented in Mexico promote the use of ethanol in gasoline but exclude the country's ozone nonattainment areas oxygenated with methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in view that further scientific studies are required. To address a potential implementation scenario in areas of ozone high VOC-sensitive regimes, the impact on performance and emissions characteristics between the regular MTBE fuel available and a formulated gasoline containing 10% v/v ethanol having similar Reid vapor pressure (RVP) were compared in a single cylinder spark-ignited engine and a set of tier I vehicles...
November 7, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406340/environmental-behaviors-of-pahs-in-ordovician-limestone-water-of-fengfeng-coal-mining-area-in-china
#18
Chunming Hao, Yue Huang, Dengjun Ma, Xing Fan, Peiyong He, Wei Sun
In this study, we collected a total of 15 Ordovician limestone (OL) water, 4 shallow groundwater, 3 mine water, 2 surface water, and 2 coal bedrock water samples, aiming to analyze the characteristics of distributions and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in OL water in a typical exploited coal mine named as Fengfeng mining area. Firstly, the PAHs behaviors and characteristics in different types of water of the mining area were investigated and summarized. And then, the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes were combined with isomer ratio method to determine the characteristics, sources, and behaviors of PAHs in OL water, respectively...
November 7, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402727/assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-wetland-protection-in-improving-waterbird-diversity-in-a-moroccan-wetland-system
#19
S I Cherkaoui, S Selmi, Z Amhaouch, S Hanane
Assessment of the effectiveness of nature conservation measures is a crucial step to ensure that the actions undertaken have achieved the expected results. Depending on the results of such evaluations, managers may need to reframe or even change their approaches. In this analysis, the effectiveness of establishing strictly protected areas was assessed in three important Moroccan Atlantic sites, namely Ad-Dakhla bay, Khnifiss lagoon, and Souss estuary. In particular, we investigated whether protection of these sites was followed by significant changes in the direction and/or strength of change in waterbird species richness and density over time...
November 6, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397822/bioaccumulation-of-cadmium-lead-and-zinc-in-agriculture-based-insect-food-chains
#20
Abida Butt, Qurat-Ul-Ain, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Xaaceph Khan, Thomas Hesselberg
Globally, the metal concentration in soil is increasing due to different anthropogenic and geogenic factors. These metals are taken up by plants and further transferred in the food chain through different routes. The present study was designed to assess the transfer and bioaccumulation of the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), in food chains from soil to berseem plants (Triofolium alexandrinum), to insect herbivores (the grasshopper Ailopus thalassinus and the aphid Sitobion avenae) and to an insect carnivore (the ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata)...
November 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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