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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

Hong Qian, Yuling Zhang, Jiali Wang, Chaoqun Si, Zaixing Chen
The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe3+), sulfate (SO42-), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO3-), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O)...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Daniel Elias, Lixin Wang, Pierre-Andre Jacinthe
Global agricultural intensification has led to increased pesticide use (37-fold from 1960 to 2005) and soil erosion (14% since 2000). Conservation tillage, including no-till (NT), has been proposed as an alternative to conventional plow till (PT) to mitigate soil erosion, but past studies have reported mixed results on the effect of conservation tillage on pesticide loss. To explore the underlying factors of these differences, a meta-analysis was conducted using published data on pesticide concentration and load in agricultural runoff from NT and PT fields...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ahmed Elwan, Ranvir Singh, Maree Patterson, Jon Roygard, Dave Horne, Brent Clothier, Geoffrey Jones
Better management of water quality in streams, rivers and lakes requires precise and accurate estimates of different contaminant loads. We assessed four sampling frequencies (2 days, weekly, fortnightly and monthly) and five load calculation methods (global mean (GM), rating curve (RC), ratio estimator (RE), flow-stratified (FS) and flow-weighted (FW)) to quantify loads of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N), soluble inorganic nitrogen (SIN), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS), in the Manawatu River, New Zealand...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mina Torabifard, Reza Arjmandi, Alimorad Rashidi, Jafar Nouri, Iraj Mohammadfam
The health and environmental effects of chemical processes can be assessed during the initial stage of their production. In this paper, the Chemical Screening Tool for Exposure and Environmental Release (ChemSTEER) software was used to compare the health and environmental risks of spray pyrolysis and wet chemical techniques for the fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide on a semi-industrial scale with a capacity of 300 kg/day in Iran. The pollution sources identified in each production process were pairwise compared in Expert Choice software using indicators including respiratory damage, skin damage, and environmental damages including air, water, and soil pollution...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
R C F Galvão, I B B Holanda, D P De Carvalho, R Almeida, C M M Souza, L D Lacerda, W R Bastos
Total mercury (THg) concentrations measured in two freshwater shrimp species (Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii) showed a relationship with the location of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) from the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon. Between August 2009 and May 2010, 212 shrimp samples were collected in the confluence of the Madeira River with three of its tributaries (Western Amazon). THg concentration was quantified in the exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of the shrimps by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
João Pedro Rueda Furlan, Eliana Guedes Stehling
β-lactam antibiotics are widely used for the treatment of different types of infections worldwide and the resistance to these antibiotics has grown sharply, which is of great concern. Resistance to β-lactams in gram-negative bacteria is mainly due to the production of β-lactamases, which are classified according to their functional activities. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of β-lactamases encoding genes in feces, soil, and water from a Brazilian pig farm. Different β-lactamases encoding genes were found, including blaCTX-M-Gp1, blaCTX-M-Gp9, blaSHV, blaOXA-1-like, blaGES, and blaVEB...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Chelsey Walden-Schreiner, Yu-Fai Leung, Tim Kuhn, Todd Newburger
Monitoring the behavior of pack animals in protected areas informs management about use patterns and the potential associated negative impacts. However, systematic assessments of behavior are uncommon due to methodological and logistical constraints. This study integrated behavior mapping with GPS tracking, and applied behavior change point analysis, as an approach to monitor the behaviors of pack animals during overnight periods. The integrated approach identified multiple grazing patterns (i.e., locally intense grazing, ambulatory grazing) not feasible through a single methodology alone...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Cristina Stenert, Íris C M F de Mello, Mateus M Pires, Débora S Knauth, Naoki Katayama, Leonardo Maltchik
The ability to recover to original states after disturbances makes macroinvertebrates useful tools for assessing the impacts of pesticides. Many studies showed that direct exposure to pesticides decreases macroinvertebrate richness and alters their composition. The main objective of this study was to assess recovery patterns in macroinvertebrate communities after pesticide application in irrigated rice fields. We analyzed short-term temporal dynamics of macroinvertebrate communities after application of the herbicides bispyribac-sodium and clomazone and the insecticide chlorantraniliprole, over the rice-growing season in southern Brazil...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Maurílio Gustavo Nespeca, Gabriel Baroffaldi Piassalonga, José Eduardo de Oliveira
Environmental contamination caused by leakage of fuels and lubricant oils at gas stations is of great concern due to the presence of carcinogenic compounds in the composition of gasoline, diesel, and mineral lubricant oils. Chromatographic methods or non-selective infrared methods are usually used to assess soil contamination, which makes environmental monitoring costly or not appropriate. In this perspective, the present work proposes a methodology to identify the type of contaminant (gasoline, diesel, or lubricant oil) and, subsequently, to quantify the contaminant concentration using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate methods...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sandip Patra, Pritam Ganguly, Suhrid Ranjan Barik, Arunava Samanta
A field experiment was conducted over two seasons to evaluate the dissipation kinetics and assess the risks of chlorfenapyr in tomato and cabbage following foliar application of chlorfenapyr 10% SC at 100 and 200 g a.i. ha-1. Samples of tomato, cabbage, and soil were analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of chlorfenapyr were found to be 0.01 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, in tomato, cabbage, and soil...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Zhang Zhaoyong, Yang Xiaodong, Yang Shengtian
This study sought to analyze heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe) pollution status in the waters of Aibi Lake in northwest China through the use of an applied comprehensive pollution index, health risk model, and multivariate statistical analyses in combination with the lake's land use types. Results showed that (1) the maximum (average) values of the heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe were 0.0644 (0.0123), 0.0006 (0.0002), 0.0009 (0.0032), 0.1235 (0.0242), 0.0061 (0.0025), and 0.0222 (0.0080) μg/L, respectively...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jean-Louis Perrin, Christian Salles, Chrystelle Bancon-Montigny, Naoual Raïs, Nanée Chahinian, Lauryan Dowse, Claire Rodier, Marie-George Tournoud
Water quality indexes (WQI) are a practical way to evaluate and compare the level of chemical contamination of different water bodies and to spatially and temporally compare levels of pollution. The purpose of this study was to check if these indexes are appropriate for intermittent rivers under arid and semi-arid climates. A literature review enabled the comparison of 25 water quality indexes to discern their capability to evaluate spatial (inter and intra catchment) and temporal (high and low water flow conditions) variations in water quality in three Mediterranean intermittent rivers: the River Vène (France) and the Oued Fez and the River Sebou (Morocco)...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Celimarcos Bezerra Dos Santos, Maria Aparecida Macêdo Silva, Marcelo F Landim de Souza, Daniela Mariano Lopes da Silva
Nitrogen enters estuaries mostly through fluvial discharge and tide, although anthropogenic sources are known to influence the amount of this element in these aquatic ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify which river (Cachoeira, Fundão, and/or Santana) exerts greater influence on the distribution of dissolved N forms (Dissolved Organic Nitrogen and Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen = NH3/NH4+, NO2-, and NO3-) along a tropical urbanized estuarine system in northeastern Brazil. The studies estuarine system lies with in urban municipality, and the upper portion of the Cachoeira river estuary receives the treated effluent from this municipality through a sewage treatment station and untreated effluents from nearby villages...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hang Thi Thu Hoang, Thi Thuy Duong, Kien Trung Nguyen, Quynh Thi Phuong Le, Minh Thi Nguyet Luu, Duc Anh Trinh, Anh Hung Le, Cuong Tu Ho, Kim Dinh Dang, Julien Némery, Didier Orange, Judith Klein
Planktons are a major component of food web structure in aquatic ecosystems. Their distribution and community structure are driven by the combination and interactions between physical, chemical, and biological factors within the environment. In the present study, water quality and the community structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton were monthly investigated from January to December 2015 at 11 sampling sites along the gradient course of the Day River (Red River Delta, northern Vietnam). The study demonstrated that the Day River was eutrophic with the average values of total phosphorus concentration 0...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xiaomin He, Aimin Li, Shengyao Wang, Hao Chen, Zixin Yang
The occurrence of eight perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the surface sediments from 10 sampling sites spread across the Danjiangkou Reservoir was investigated by isotope dilution ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after solid-phase extraction (SPE). All the sediments from the 10 sites contained detectable levels of PFCs. The total concentration of the target PFCs in each sediment sample (C∑PFCs) ranged from 0.270 to 0.395 ng g-1 of dry weight, and the mean value of C∑PFCs was 0...
January 7, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Grigoris Rousakis, Ioannis P Panagiotopoulos, Paraskevi Drakopoulou, Panos Georgiou, Dimitrios Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos Mporompokas, Vasilios Kapsimalis, Isidoros Livanos, Ioannis A Morfis, Christos Anagnostou, Maria Koutra
The modern climate trend and population growth have dramatically increased the need for maximization of the net benefit from the existing storage space in freshwater reservoirs. However, sedimentation in reservoirs through physical deposition and/or slope failures is a major threat to their productivity and life expectancy. In this context, the sedimentation impact on the sustainability of Mornos Lake/Reservoir, which is exceptionally vital for the ~ 3.1 million inhabitants of Athens, had to be evaluated...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mehmet Pak, Sercan Gülci, Arif Okumuş
This study focuses on the geo-statistical assessment of spatial estimation models in forest crimes. Used widely in the assessment of crime and crime-dependent variables, geographic information system (GIS) helps the detection of forest crimes in rural regions. In this study, forest crimes (forest encroachment, illegal use, illegal timber logging, etc.) are assessed holistically and modeling was performed with ten different independent variables in GIS environment. The research areas are three Forest Enterprise Chiefs (Baskonus, Cinarpinar, and Hartlap) affiliated to Kahramanmaras Forest Regional Directorate in Kahramanmaras...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Gangadhar Andaluri, Muruganandham Manickavachagam, Rominder Suri
Infants and toddlers are constantly exposed to toys at childcare facilities. Toys are made of a variety of plastics that often use endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates as their building blocks. The goal of this study was to assess the non-dietary exposure of infants and toddlers to BPA and phthalates via leaching. We have successfully developed wipe tests to evaluate the leachability of BPA and phthalates from toys used at several day care facilities in Philadelphia. Our studies have shown an average leaching of 13-280 ng/cm2 of BPA and phthalates...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Kar Yong Ng, Norhashidah Awang
Frequent haze occurrences in Malaysia have made the management of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic less than 10 μm) pollution a critical task. This requires knowledge on factors associating with PM10 variation and good forecast of PM10 concentrations. Hence, this paper demonstrates the prediction of 1-day-ahead daily average PM10 concentrations based on predictor variables including meteorological parameters and gaseous pollutants. Three different models were built. They were multiple linear regression (MLR) model with lagged predictor variables (MLR1), MLR model with lagged predictor variables and PM10 concentrations (MLR2) and regression with time series error (RTSE) model...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Cengiz Yucedag, Latif Gurkan Kaya, Mehmet Cetin
Environmental damage occurring on individual, institutional, and societal levels is one of the major problems in the world and results from mostly unconscious human behavior. This damage poses serious threats to human health and other habitats. The aim of this study is to determine the level of environmental awareness of hotel and restaurant employees in the Amasra District of Bartin, Turkey. For this purpose, a descriptive survey method is used to measure 16 items with a 5-point Likert scale. Data are obtained from 200 employees in the hotels and restaurants as of 2015...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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