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Journal of Rural Health

Michael C Robertson, Jaejoon Song, Wendell C Taylor, Casey P Durand, Karen M Basen-Engquist
PURPOSE: Compared to their urban counterparts, US residents in rural settings face an increased risk of premature mortality and health problems that have been linked to insufficient physical activity (PA) levels. There is limited literature regarding urban-rural differences in adherence to national guidelines for all 3 PA-related behaviors. METHODS: We investigated urban-rural differences in aerobic PA, leisure-time muscle strengthening PA, and leisure screen-time sedentary behavior in a combined data set of the 2011-2014 waves (N = 14,188) of the nationally representative National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Donghui Wang, Annelise DeJong Hagedorn, Diane K McLaughlin, Bethany C Bray
PURPOSE: Few prior studies have examined change in emotional health of high school students in a rural context. Considering the multifaceted nature of emotional health, this research aims to identify the patterns and explore change and stability of the emotional health of rural Pennsylvania youth. It also investigates the influence of family, peers, school, and the community environment on rural adolescents' emotional health. METHODS: Using panel data from the Rural Youth Education Project, we employed latent transition analysis to examine changes in patterns of rural students' self-reported emotional health from 9 th grade to 11 th grade (N = 1,294)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Michael R Daly, Jennifer M Mellor, Marco Millones
PURPOSE: To examine whether geographic information systems (GIS)-based physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) yield determinations of geographic primary care shortage areas that differ from those based on bounded-area PPRs like those used in the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) designation process. METHODS: We used geocoded data on primary care physician (PCP) locations and census block population counts from 1 US state to construct 2 shortage area indicators...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Christopher Gay, Kristen Clements-Nolle, John Packham, Gerald Ackerman, Taylor Lensch, Wei Yang
PURPOSE: Rural youth have higher rates of alcohol and tobacco use compared to their urban counterparts. However, the economic dependence of rural communities may differentially influence risk behaviors. While research has shown that adults working in mining have elevated rates of alcohol and tobacco use, the influence of living in a mining community on early adolescent substance use is unknown. METHODS: Using data from a representative sample of 4,535 middle school students in a state with heavy reliance on mining, we conducted weighted logistic regression to investigate whether community-level mining economic dependence influences rural-urban differences in adolescent alcohol and tobacco use...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Jessica P Young, Carol E Achtmeyer, Kara M Bensley, Eric J Hawkins, Emily C Williams
BACKGROUND: Effective behavioral and pharmacological treatments are available and recommended for patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) but rarely received. Barriers to receipt and provision of evidence-based AUD treatments delivered by specialists may be greatest in rural areas. METHODS: A targeted subanalysis of qualitative interview data collected from primary care providers at 5 Veterans Affairs clinics was conducted to identify differences in provider perceptions and practices regarding AUD treatment across urban and rural clinics...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Barbara Marlenga, Richard L Berg, William Pickett
PURPOSE: The United States has no comprehensive national surveillance system for fatal or nonfatal child agricultural injuries. Thus, important knowledge gaps exist about recurrent injury patterns that could provide targeted focus for prevention efforts. The purpose of this study was to explore existing US public health data systems to determine their utility with respect to informing child agricultural injury surveillance and primary prevention. METHODS: Public health data systems were selected if they: (1) were national in scope, (2) were active and ongoing, (3) included physical injuries, and (4) contained a "farm" location variable...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Lisa Kunde, Kairi Kõlves, Brian Kelly, Prasuna Reddy, Diego de Leo
PURPOSE: Farmer suicide is a major public issue in Australia. Using the psychological autopsy method, this study aimed to examine the life and death circumstances of Australian male farmers who died by suicide through verbal reports from their close significant others. METHODS: Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 relatives of male farmers who had died by suicide in Queensland or New South Wales, Australia (2006-2014). This study followed the COREQ checklist criteria for the reporting of qualitative research...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Cody Arbuckle, Daniel Tomaszewski, Benjamin D Aronson, Lawrence Brown, Jon Schommer, Donald Morisky, Erik Linstead
PURPOSE: To evaluate differences in prescription medication adherence rates, as well as influencing factors, in rural and urban adults. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience and Pharmacists' Role. A total of 26,173 participants completed the survey and provided usable data. Participants using between 1 and 30 prescription medications and living more than 0 miles and up to 200 miles from their nearest pharmacy were selected for the study, resulting in a total of 15,933 participants...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Tyrone F Borders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
John A Nelson, Anna Kinder, Anna Satcher Johnson, H Irene Hall, Xiaohong Hu, Donna Sweet, Alyssa Guido, Harold Katner, Jennifer Janelle, Maribel Gonzalez, Natalia Martínez Paz, Charlotte Ledonne, Jason Henry, Theresa Bramel, Jeanne Harris
PURPOSE: The HIV care continuum is used to monitor success in HIV diagnosis and treatment among persons living with HIV in the United States. Significant differences exist along the HIV care continuum between subpopulations of people living with HIV; however, differences that may exist between residents of rural and nonrural areas have not been reported. METHODS: We analyzed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National HIV Surveillance System data on adults and adolescents (≥13 years) with HIV diagnosed in 28 jurisdictions with complete reporting of HIV-related lab results...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Kevin J Bennett, Matt W Yuen, Melinda A Merrell
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: Abbeville County Emergency Management Services (ACEMS) began a community paramedicine (CP) program to utilize trained paramedics to serve patients who frequently use the emergency department (ED) and have 1 or more of the following diagnoses: hypertension, diabetes, chronic heart failure, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The objective of this study was to determine if the CP program reduced ED visits in Abbeville while improving patient outcomes. DESIGN: A pre/posttest with a comparison group study design was used to evaluate the CP program...
February 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Steven A Cohen, Sarah K Cook, Trisha A Sando, Natalie J Sabik
PURPOSE: Rural-urban health disparities are well-documented and particularly problematic for older adults. However, determining which specific aspects of rural or urban living initiate these disparities remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between place-based characteristics of rural-urban status and health among adults age 65+. METHODS: Data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were geographically linked to place-based characteristics from the American Community Survey...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
Jan M Eberth, Michele J Josey, Lee R Mobley, Davidson O Nicholas, Donna B Jeffe, Cassie Odahowski, Janice C Probst, Mario Schootman
PURPOSE: With the increased availability of colonoscopy to average risk persons due to insurance coverage benefit changes, we sought to identify changes in the colonoscopy workforce. We used outpatient discharge records from South Carolina between 2001 and 2010 to examine shifts over time and in urban versus rural areas in the types of medical providers who perform colonoscopy, and the practice settings in which they occur, and to explore variation in colonoscopy volume across facility and provider types...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
Jessica L Krok-Schoen, Brittany M Bernardo, Rory C Weier, Juan Peng, Mira L Katz, Paul L Reiter, Morgan S Richardson, Michael L Pennell, Cathy M Tatum, Electra D Paskett
PURPOSE: To examine how demographic, general health, religious, and political characteristics influenced beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of vaccination refusal for children among Ohio Appalachian parents. METHODS: In 2013 and 2014, baseline data were obtained from parents (n = 337) of girls aged 9-17 from 12 counties in rural Ohio Appalachia enrolled in the Community Awareness, Resources and Education (CARE II) Project. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of parental beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of refusing a doctor-recommended vaccine for their child(ren)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
Elise Mench, Delia West, Rebecca Krukowski, Jean Harvey
PURPOSE: Rural residents are significantly more likely to be overweight and obese than are urban residents. However, few data have compared weight control program responses in these population groups. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the weight loss outcomes of participants in a multisite, online behavioral intervention by residential location (rural vs urban) and, second, assess any possible differences in adherence to treatment goals. METHODS: A total of 492 adult participants (mean BMI = 35...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
Joseph A Benitez, Eric E Seiber
PURPOSE: Medicaid expansions, prompted by the Affordable Care Act, generated generally positive effects on coverage and alleviated much of the financial burden associated with seeking health care. We do not know if these shifts also extend to the nation's rural populations. METHODS: Using 2011-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, this study compares trend changes for coverage, access to care, and health care utilization in response to Medicaid expansion among urban and rural residents using a difference-in-differences regression approach...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
William Pickett, Richard L Berg, Barbara Marlenga
PURPOSE: To determine whether patterns of adolescent risk behavior in rural populations, and especially farm populations, are associated with negative indicators of adolescent health and well-being, beyond an established association between risk-taking and injury. METHODS: The study base was Cycle 7 (2014) of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. Children aged 11-16 years (n = 2,565; 2,533 weighted) who reported living or working on farms were matched within schools in a 1:1 ratio with other rural children...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
Shawnda M Schroeder, Mandi-Leigh Peterson
PURPOSE: In order to redirect at-risk patients to more appropriate, cost-effective behavioral health care, research must identify the prevalence, and common characteristics, of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) for mental disorders. QUESTION: Are large, small, and/or isolated rural patients presenting to the ED for mental disorders in greater proportion than urban ED patients? METHODS: Analyses included data from the Health Care Cost and Utilization Project State Emergency Department Databases (2013) provided by 7 states, covering all Census regions...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
Stacy F Kelley, Gretchen M Day, Christine A DeCourtney, Sarah H Nash
PURPOSE: This study examined the time from breast cancer diagnosis to initiation of treatment among Alaska Native (AN) women. We evaluated the impact of age, cancer stage, and rural/urban residence at diagnosis. METHODS: We evaluated characteristics of women recorded in the Alaska Native Tumor Registry who received a first diagnosis of breast cancer between 2009 and 2013. Median time from diagnosis to treatment was assessed. Associations of demographic and clinical characteristics with timely initiation of treatment were evaluated using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
Paul Jacob Henkel, Marketa Marvanova
PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between area population density and community pharmacy-based Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-related services: pharmacists' medication knowledge and counseling, immunizations, and in-stock cognitive enhancers in 3 predominantly rural regions of the United States. METHODS: A standardized interview was administered by telephone to a 100% sample of community pharmacies in 3 areas: Northern California/Southern Oregon (n = 206), North and South Dakota (n = 278), and West Virginia (n = 420)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
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