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Journal of Rural Health

Gweneth B Lazenby, Anna M Powell, Scott A Sullivan, David E Soper
PURPOSE: We sought to determine if infants born in rural counties had an increased risk of contracting HIV. METHODS: Data were obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control for all women living with HIV delivering from 2004 to 2014. In this retrospective cohort study, maternal and neonatal outcomes from urban and rural counties were compared. Binomial statistical analyses were conducted using Wilcoxon Rank Sum Tests, χ2 or Fisher's exact tests...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Carrie Henning-Smith, Megan Lahr
PURPOSE: This study examines rural-urban differences in employed caregivers' access to workplace supports, negative impacts of caregiving on work, and the association between work and caregiver strain, which can have negative impacts on health. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional analysis of employed caregivers (n = 635) from the 2015 Caregiving in the US survey, including bivariate comparisons of caregiver characteristics, access to workplace benefits, and workplace impacts by rural-urban location, as well as ordered logistic regression models to assess the relationship between workplace benefits and impacts and caregiver strain, stratified by rural-urban location...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Kevin R Tarlow, Tina A Johnson, Carly E McCord
OBJECTIVE: Individuals living in rural areas die by suicide at higher rates than those living in metropolitan areas. Telemental health interventions provide rural residing individuals with access to needed care. Identifying telemental health clients at risk for suicide is an important task for clinicians and policymakers. This study evaluated to what degree rural status and other demographic variables predicted suicide ideation in clients seeking services at a telemental health clinic...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Marla E Eisenberg, Amy L Gower, Barbara J McMorris, G Nicole Rider, Eli Coleman
PURPOSE: Understanding the root causes of the substantial disparities in risk and protective factors among transgender and gender diverse (TGD) adolescents is essential to the development and expansion of resources and supports for this vulnerable population. This study examines differences in emotional distress, bullying victimization, and protective factors among TGD high school students in city, suburban, town, and rural locations. METHODS: Data come from a statewide school-based survey conducted in Minnesota in 2016 (n = 2,168 TGD youth)...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
C Holly A Andrilla, Tessa E Moore, Davis G Patterson, Eric H Larson
PURPOSE: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a substantial public health problem. Buprenorphine is an effective medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for OUD, but access is difficult for patients, especially in rural locations. To improve access, the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 extended the ability to get a Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) waiver to prescribe buprenorphine to treat OUD to nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs). This study summarizes the geographic distribution of waivered physicians, NPs, and PAs at the end of 2017 and compares it to the distribution of waivered physicians 5 years earlier...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Aastha Chandak, Preethy Nayar, Ge Lin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine rural-urban differences in access to breast cancer screening in a predominantly rural Midwestern state in the United States. METHODS: The study is a retrospective analysis of pooled cross-sectional data for the years 2008 to 2012. We conducted hot spot analyses of the rate of late-stage diagnosis of breast cancer at the census tract level in Nebraska for cases diagnosed between 2008 and 2012, using cancer registry data...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Patrik Johansson, Daniel Schober, Sonja Franziska Tutsch, Grant Brueggeman, Melissa Leon, Elizabeth Lyden, Paula Sue Schulz, Paul Estabrooks, Lani Zimmerman
PURPOSE: Using the RE-AIM framework, the primary purpose of this qualitative study was to assess focus group data to generate information on the applicability of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk intervention developed for an urban setting for rural areas in Nebraska. We also sought to determine potential adaptations that may be necessary to implement the study in a rural setting. The CVD risk reduction intervention is based on the Community Outreach and Cardiovascular Health (COACH) program, which included nurse practitioner/community health worker teams...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Whitney E Zahnd, Christofer Rodriguez, Wiley D Jenkins
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease and a known cause of many cancers. Previous research explored HPV-associated (HPVa) cancer differences by gender or race, but rural-urban differences in rates and trends have received little attention. This study examined rural-urban differences in rates and temporal trends for individual HPVa cancers. METHODS: The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries public use data set, representing approximately 93% of the US population, was used to calculate age-adjusted incidence rates and rate ratios (RR; 2009-2013) and overall and annual percentage changes (APC; 1995-2013) for HPVa cancers, including cervical carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the vagina, vulva, penis, anus, rectum, and oropharynx...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Xi Zhu, Keith Mueller, Huang Huang, Fred Ullrich, Thomas Vaughn, A Clinton MacKinney
PURPOSE: To evaluate associations between geographic, structural, and service-provision attributes of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) participating in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) and the ACOs' quality performance. METHODOLOGY: We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of ACO quality performance using data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and additional sources. The sample included 322 and 385 MSSP ACOs that had successfully reported quality measures in 2014 and 2015, respectively...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Stephanie Gilbertson-White, Chi W Yeung, Seyedehtanaz Saeidzadeh, Hannah Tykol, Praveen Vikas, Ashley Cannon
BACKGROUND: Late-stage cancer diagnoses disproportionately occur in rural residents, frequently resulting in increased need for symptom management support with minimal access to these services. Oncology Associated Symptoms and Individualized Strategies (OASIS) is an eHealth symptom self-management intervention that was developed to provide cancer symptom self-management support and address this disparity. PURPOSE: To engage stakeholders about the symptom management needs and concerns of patients with advanced cancer living in rural areas...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Jennifer Kowalkowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Tyrone F Borders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Joseph Fonseca, Andrew Chang, Feng Chang
PURPOSE: Misuse of opioids has become a public health concern across North America. Rural patients have limited access to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), an opioid addiction-treatment service that could be offered by community pharmacists. The aim of this study was to identify rural community pharmacists' perceived barriers, motivations, and solutions to offering MMT to their patients. METHODS: One-on-one, semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 community pharmacists who practice in rural southwestern Ontario...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Emily B Jones
PURPOSE: This study explores correlates of on-site availability of substance use disorder treatment services in federally qualified health centers, including buprenorphine treatment that is critical to addressing the opioid epidemic. METHODS: We employed descriptive and multivariable analyses with weighted 2010 Assessment of Behavioral Health Services survey data and the 2010 Uniform Data System. FINDINGS: In 2010, 47.6% of health centers provided on-site substance use disorder treatment, 12...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Laura J Chavez, Kelly J Kelleher, Steven C Matson, Thomas M Wickizer, Deena J Chisolm
PURPOSE: Rural young adults experience greater unmet need for mental health (MH) and alcohol or drug (AOD) treatment and lower health insurance coverage than urban residents. It is unknown whether Affordable Care Act (ACA) reforms in 2010 (dependent coverage extended to age 26) or 2014 (Medicaid expansion) closed rural/urban gaps in insurance and treatment. The present study compared changes in rates of health insurance, MH treatment, and AOD treatment for rural and urban young adults over a period of ACA reforms...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Michele Staton, Gabriele Ciciurkaite, Jennifer Havens, Martha Tillson, Carl Leukefeld, Matthew Webster, Carrie Oser, Bridgette Peteet
BACKGROUND: Limited research has focused on correlates of injection drug use (IDU) among high-risk subgroups of drug users, particularly women, who may be at increased risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis C. The purpose of this study is to better understand the contextual and health correlates of IDU among women living in rural Appalachia by examining (1) differences between injectors and noninjectors, and (2) the unique correlates of recent IDU and past IDU...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Joshua D Brown, Amie J Goodin, Jeffery C Talbert
OBJECTIVE: Incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is increasing due to the rise in opioid use. Rural states like Kentucky have been disproportionally impacted by opioid abuse, and this study determines NAS burden nationally and in Kentucky while quantifying differences in access to care between Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties. METHODS: NAS rates were calculated using National (2013) and Kentucky (2008-2014) National Inpatient Sample discharge data...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Miranda Hill, Amber Huff, Neale Chumbler
PURPOSE: In spite of progress in understanding the importance of social support for health outcomes in Persons Living with HIV (PLWH), more remains to be known about mechanisms of support most beneficial at each stage of HIV treatment. In this study, we use a qualitative analytic approach to investigate the forms and sources of social support deemed most integral to the diagnosis, care engagement, and medication adherence behaviors of a diverse sample of PLWH in a mostly rural health district in the Southeastern United States...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Theresa J Hoeft, John C Fortney, Vikram Patel, Jürgen Unützer
PURPOSE: Rural areas persistently face a shortage of mental health specialists. Task shifting, or task sharing, is an approach in global mental health that may help address unmet mental health needs in rural and other low-resource areas. This review focuses on task-shifting approaches and highlights future directions for research in this area. METHODS: Systematic review on task sharing of mental health care in rural areas of high-income countries included: (1) PubMed, (2) gray literature for innovations not yet published in peer-reviewed journals, and (3) outreach to experts for additional articles...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Urshila Sriram, Emily H Morgan, Meredith L Graham, Sara C Folta, Rebecca A Seguin
PURPOSE: Social environments exert an important influence on health behaviors, yet evidence from rural-specific contexts is limited. This study explored how social relationships influence health-related behaviors among midlife and older rural adults at increased risk of chronic disease. METHODS: Seventeen focus groups were conducted with 125 sedentary, overweight/obese adults (aged 40-91 years) residing in "medically underserved" rural Montana towns in 2014...
December 2018: Journal of Rural Health
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