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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645091/a-survey-of-natural-terrestrial-and-airborne-radionuclides-in-moss-samples-from-the-peninsular-thailand
#1
Komrit Wattanavatee, Miodrag Krmar, Tripob Bhongsuwan
The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural terrestrial radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) and airborne radionuclides ((210)Pb, (210)Pbex and (7)Be) in natural terrestrial mosses. The collected moss samples (46) representing 17 species were collected from 17 sampling localities in the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries of Thailand, situated in the mountainous areas between the northern and the southern ends of peninsular Thailand (∼7-12 °N, 99-102 °E)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645090/the-impact-of-tidal-and-mesoscale-eddy-advection-on-the-long-term-dispersion-of-99-tc-from-sellafield
#2
Magne Simonsen, Øyvind Saetra, Pål Erik Isachsen, Ole Christian Lind, Hilde Kristin Skjerdal, Brit Salbu, Hilde Elise Heldal, Justin P Gwynn
In the present work, numerical models are used to study the fate of the (99)Tc discharges from Sellafield with a specific focus on the role of mesoscale eddy and tidal advection on the transport and dispersion of this radionuclide. Transport estimates are made with an ocean model that resolves a large part of the ocean mesoscale eddy field and also includes tides. Equivalent estimates are also computed with another model in which these processes are either absent or parametrized. Comparison with field observations shows that the coarse-resolution model can reproduce the general features of the observed time-space (99)Tc distribution if the diffusivity in its eddy parametrization scheme is suitably chosen...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629682/aquatic-live-animal-radiotracing-studies-for-ecotoxicological-applications-addressing-fundamental-methodological-deficiencies
#3
Tom Cresswell, Marc Metian, Lisa A Golding, Mike D Wood
The use of live animal gamma radioisotope tracer techniques in the field of ecotoxicology allows laboratory studies to accurately monitor contaminant biokinetics in real time for an individual organism. However, methods used in published studies for aquatic organisms are rarely described in sufficient detail to allow for study replication or an assessment of the errors associated with live animal radioanalysis to be identified. We evaluate the influence of some important methodological deficiencies through an overview of the literature on live aquatic animal radiotracer techniques and through the results obtained from our radiotracer studies on four aquatic invertebrate species...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628779/on-the-presence-of-plutonium-in-madagascar-following-the-snap-9a-satellite-failure
#4
C Rääf, E Holm, N Rabesiranana, R Garcia-Tenorio, E Chamizo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628778/effects-of-incubation-time-and-filtration-method-on-kd-of-indigenous-selenium-and-iodine-in-temperate-soils
#5
T Almahayni, E Bailey, N M J Crout, G Shaw
In this study, the effects of incubation time and the method of soil solution extraction and filtration on the empirical distribution coefficient (Kd) obtained by de-sorbing indigenous selenium (Se) and iodine (I) from arable and woodland soils under temperate conditions were investigated. Incubation time had a significant soil- and element-dependent effect on the Kd values, which tended to decrease with the incubation time. Generally, a four-week period was sufficient for the desorption Kd value to stabilise...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624671/radiation-exposure-of-barley-seeds-can-modify-the-early-stages-of-plants-development
#6
Stanislav Geras'kin, Roman Churyukin, Polina Volkova
The reactions of barley seeds (Nur and Grace varieties) in terms of the root and sprout lengths, germination and root mass were studied after γ-irradiation with doses in the range of 2-50 Gy. The dose range in which plants' growth stimulation occurs (16-20 Gy) was identified. It was shown that increased size of seedlings after irradiation with stimulating doses was due to the enhancing pace of development rather than an earlier germination. The activity of the majority of the enzymes studied increased in the range of doses that cause stimulation of seedlings development...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623812/discovery-of-non-spherical-heterogeneous-radiocesium-bearing-particles-not-derived-from-unit-1-of-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-in-residences-five-years-after-the-accident
#7
Shogo Higaki, Yuichi Kurihara, Hiroko Yoshida, Yoshio Takahashi, Naohide Shinohara
Non-spherical heterogeneous radiocesium-bearing particles were found on masks worn during cleaning work in residences near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), from which residents had evacuated. Three slightly larger (6.6-12 μm) non-spherical radiocesium-bearing particles were found in a residence in Futaba Town, a straight distance of 2.11 km west-northwest from the FDNPP. These were collected on October 25, 2016, 5 years and 7 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster and were presumed to originate from the Plant's Unit 2 based on the measured radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618392/radiocesium-decontamination-of-a-riverside-in-fukushima-japan
#8
Tatsuhiro Nishikiori, Satoshi Suzuki
Extensive decontamination measures have been implemented in the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster. Typical decontamination measures, such as removing topsoil of several centimeters in depth, are not suitable for rivers where contaminated sediments have been deposited. A decontamination measure was tested that considered the spatial distribution of radiocesium at the lower part of a tributary of the Abukuma River in Fukushima. The radiocesium distribution in the flood channel was vertically and horizontally highly heterogeneous...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614748/analysis-of-the-use-of-the-iaea-rapid-method-of-89-sr-and-90-sr-in-milk-for-environmental-monitoring
#9
M Herranz, R Idoeta, S Rozas, F Legarda
Rapid methods that are used during nuclear accidents or incident situations must first be implemented and validated in radioactivity measurement laboratories, so they can be ready to provide quick answers to governments, regulatory organizations and people in such situations. As these accident situations are rare and the methods are thus not frequently used, the best way to achieve this is to use the same methods for both routine environmental monitoring and rapid or emergency situations. Before this can be done, however, an analysis of the conditions under which a rapid method could be effectively used in routine situations should be carried out...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602172/robustness-testing-of-an-in-situ-caesium-extraction-unit
#10
Ilonka Bokor, Sandra Sdraulig, Masoumeh Sanagou
Following on from the successful development and validation of a prototype automated unit for the extraction of radiocaesium from seawater, the unit was redesigned to be smaller, easier to transport and better suited for field work. An extension of the validation process was undertaken to include robustness testing. Robustness testing evaluates the behaviour of a procedure when deliberate small changes are made. This requires the identification and testing of experimental factors which could have an impact on the results...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601654/natural-radionuclides-in-plants-soils-and-sediments-affected-by-u-rich-coal-mining-activities-in-brazil
#11
Juliana Aparecida Galhardi, Rafael García-Tenorio, Daniel Marcos Bonotto, Inmaculada Díaz Francés, João Gabriel Motta
Mining activities can increase the mobility of metals by accelerating the dissolution and leaching of minerals from the rocks and tailing piles to the environment and, consequently, their availability for plants and subsequent transfer to the food chain. The weathering of minerals and the disposal of coal waste in tailing piles can accelerate the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD), which is responsible for the higher dissolution of metals in mining areas. In this context, the behavior of U, Th and K in soils and sediment, and the transfer factor (TF) of (238)U, (234)U and (210)Po for soybean, wheat, pine and eucalyptus cultivated around a coal mine in southern Brazil was evaluated...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578213/influence-of-broadleaf-forest-vegetation-on-atmospheric-deposition-of-airborne-radionuclides
#12
Miodrag Krmar, Dragan Radnović, Jan Hansman, Predrag Repić
The activities of airborne radionuclides (7)Be and unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbus) were measured in moss samples taken from 17 different locations. The objective was to estimate the influence of the broadleaf forest vegetation on atmospheric deposition of airborne radionuclides attached to aerosols. Two moss samples were collected at each location: within the forest stand (inside the area of the tree canopy projection) and within forest openings (outside the area of the tree canopy projection). Samples were taken in the spring season, before the leaves of trees came forth and in the autumn season, right before fall defoliation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577394/combining-lead-isotopes-and-cluster-analysis-to-distinguish-the-guarani-and-serra-geral-aquifer-systems-and-contaminated-waters-in-a-highly-industrialized-area-in-southern-brazil
#13
Isadora Aumond Kuhn, Ari Roisenberg
The Rio dos Sinos Watershed area is located at the Middle-West region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil, along thirty two municipalities and affecting 1.5 million inhabitants and many important industrial centers. Three main aquifers are recognized in the study area: the unconfined-fractured Serra Geral Aquifer System, the porous Guarani Aquifer System, and the Permian Aquitard. This study aims to understand groundwater, surface water and human activity interactions in the Rio dos Sinos Watershed, evaluating the application of stable lead isotopic ratios analyzed for this propose...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570921/airborne-gamma-ray-spectrometry-data-processing-using-1-5d-inversion
#14
Eugene Druker
Standard processing of Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectrometry data generally gives good results when the measurement conditions are almost constant within several footprint area sizes, with the possible exception of flight height variations in a small range. In practice, deviations, such as large or abrupt changes of flight height and/or rugged terrain are not so rare and lead to certain problems. This article proposes a different approach where the solutions of inverse problems are used for data processing. The approach is quite natural in the processing of field data measured along the flight lines: it explicitly takes into account 1...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554060/using-two-detectors-concurrently-to-monitor-ambient-dose-equivalent-rates-in-vehicle-surveys-of-radiocesium-contaminated-land
#15
Minoru Takeishi, Masaru Shibamichi, Alex Malins, Hiroshi Kurikami, Mitsuhiro Murakami, Jun Saegusa, Masayuki Yoneya
In response to the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), vehicle-borne monitoring was used to map radiation levels for radiological protection of the public. By convention measurements from vehicle-borne surveys are converted to the ambient dose equivalent rate at 1 m height in the absence of the vehicle. This allows for comparison with results from other types of survey, including surveys with hand-held or airborne instruments. To improve the accuracy of the converted results from vehicle-borne surveys, we investigated combining measurements from two detectors mounted on the vehicle at different heights above the ground...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528654/natural-radionuclides-and-stable-elements-in-weaver-ants-oecophylla-smaragdina-from-tropical-northern-australia
#16
Peter Medley, Che Doering, Fiona Evans, Andreas Bollhöfer
Natural radionuclides and stable elements were measured in weaver ants, leaves and soils collected from three sites in tropical northern Australia. Radionuclide concentration ratios for ants relative to soil were derived from the measurements and used to refine the current environmental radiological assessment for remediation of Ranger uranium mine. Use of site-specific concentration ratios for weaver ants gave a more conservative estimate of environmental exposure to the arthropod wildlife group than use of default concentration ratios in the ERICA Tool...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526526/nuclear-weapons-produced-236-u-239-pu-and-240-pu-archived-in-a-porites-lutea-coral-from-enewetak-atoll
#17
M B Froehlich, S G Tims, S J Fallon, A Wallner, L K Fifield
A slice from a Porites Lutea coral core collected inside the Enewetak Atoll lagoon, within 15 km of all major nuclear tests conducted at the atoll, was analysed for (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu over the time interval 1952-1964 using a higher time resolution than previously reported for a parallel slice from the same core. In addition two sediment samples from the Koa and Oak craters were analysed. The strong peaks in the concentrations of (236)U and (239)Pu in the testing years are confirmed to be considerably wider than the flushing time of the lagoon...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457640/whole-organism-concentration-ratios-in-wildlife-inhabiting-australian-uranium-mining-environments
#18
Gillian A Hirth, Mathew P Johansen, Julia G Carpenter, Andreas Bollhöfer, Nicholas A Beresford
Wildlife concentration ratios for (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po and isotopes of Th and U from soil, water, and sediments were evaluated for a range of Australian uranium mining environments. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CRwo-media) were developed for 271 radionuclide-organism pairs within the terrestrial and freshwater wildlife groups. Australian wildlife often has distinct physiological attributes, such as the lower metabolic rates of macropod marsupials as compared with placental mammals. In addition, the Australian CRswo-media originate from tropical and semi-arid climates, rather than from the temperate-dominated climates of Europe and North America from which most (>90%) of internationally available CRwo-media values originate...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438425/mobile-laboratories-an-innovative-and-efficient-solution-for-radiological-characterization-of-sites-under-or-after-decommissioning
#19
V Goudeau, B Daniel, D Dubot
During the operation and the decommissioning of a nuclear site the operator must assure the protection of the workers and the environment. It must furthermore identify and classify the various wastes, while optimizing the associated costs. At all stages of the decommissioning radiological measurements are performed to determine the initial situation, to monitor the demolition and clean-up, and to verify the final situation. Radiochemical analysis is crucial for the radiological evaluation process to optimize the clean-up operations and to the respect limits defined with the authorities...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427815/the-swedish-radiological-environmental-protection-regulations-applied-in-a-review-of-a-license-application-for-a-geological-repository-for-spent-nuclear-fuel
#20
Pål Andersson, Karolina Stark, Shulan Xu, Maria Nordén, Björn Dverstorp
For the first time, a system for specific consideration of radiological environmental protection has been applied in a major license application in Sweden. In 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel & Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted a license application for construction of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel at the Forsmark site. The license application is supported by a post-closure safety assessment, which in accordance with regulatory requirements includes an assessment of environmental consequences...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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