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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

S H Lee, J S Oh, K B Lee, J M Lee, S H Hwang, M K Lee, E H Kwon, C S Kim, I H Choi, I Y Yeo, J Y Yoon, J M Im
Food samples are collected nationwide from January 2016 to February 2017 and their contents of artificial radionuclides are measured to address the growing concerns regarding the radioactive contamination of food products in Korea. Specifically, 900 food samples are collected for this study and their contents of representative artificial radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs, 239,240Pu, and 90Sr are analyzed. The analysis shows that the activity concentrations of 137Cs in fish range from minimum detectable activity (MDA) to 340 mBq/kg of fresh weight...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Xiaole Zhang, George Efthimiou, Yan Wang, Meng Huang
Radiation from the deposited radionuclides is indispensable information for environmental impact assessment of nuclear power plants and emergency management during nuclear accidents. Ground shine estimation is related to multiple physical processes, including atmospheric dispersion, deposition, soil and air radiation shielding. It still remains unclear that whether the normally adopted "infinite plane" source assumption for the ground shine calculation is accurate enough, especially for the area with highly heterogeneous deposition distribution near the release point...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Akira Matsumoto, Hiroshi Myouse, Hisayuki Arakawa, Ken Higuchi, Naoto Hirakawa, Yoshiaki Morioka, Takuji Mizuno
We studied the very shallow coastal water off Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture, and investigated: (1) temporal variation in 137Cs concentrations; (2) particle-size distribution of sediments; and (3) the effect on variation by waves, component-fractionated concentration of radiocesium and mineral composition at three sampling stations (Yotsukura, Ena rocky reef and Ena sandy station). There was a decline in 137Cs concentrations in sediment samples at all sampling stations between 425 and 1173 days after the accident...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Alexander O Pavliuk, Sergey G Kotlyarevskiy, Evgeny V Bespala, Elena V Zakharova, Vyacheslav M Ermolaev, Anna G Volkova
The paper reported the experience gained in the course of decommissioning EI-2 Production Uranium-Graphite Nuclear Reactor. EI-2 was a production Uranium-Graphite Nuclear Reactor located on the Production and Demonstration Center for Uranium-Graphite Reactors JSC (PDC UGR JSC) site of Seversk City, Tomsk Region, Russia. EI-2 commenced its operation in 1958, and was shut down on December 28, 1990, having operated for the period of 33 years all together. The extra pure grade graphite for the moderator, water for the coolant, and uranium metal for the fuel were used in the reactor...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Angel T Bautista, Yasuto Miyake, Hiroyuki Matsuzaki, Yoshinori Iizuka, Kazuho Horiuchi
129I in natural archives, such as ice cores, can be used as a proxy for human nuclear activities, age marker, and environmental tracer. Currently, there is only one published record of 129I in ice core (i.e., from Fiescherhorn Glacier, Swiss Alps) and its limited time resolution (1-2 years) prevents the full use of 129I for the mentioned applications. Here we show 129I concentrations in an ice core from SE-Dome, Greenland, covering years 1956-1976 at a time resolution of ∼6 months, the most detailed record to date...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Kiadtisak Saenboonruang, Endu Phonchanthuek, Kamonkhuan Prasandee
A soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is an important parameter that could be used to estimate radionuclides levels in medicinal plants. This work reports concentrations of natural radionuclides (226Ra and 40K) and TFs in six Thai medicinal plants grown in central Thailand using an HPGe gamma ray spectrometer. Either root, leaf, or flower parts of each medicinal plant were selected for use in the investigation according to their practical uses in traditional medicine. The results showed that due to K being essential in plants, 40K had higher arithmetic means of activity concentrations and geometric means of TFs (geometric standard deviations in parentheses) of 610 ± 260 Bq kg-1 dry weight (DW) and 2...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A C Keatley, P G Martin, K R Hallam, O D Payton, R Awbery, F Carvalho, J M Oliveira, L Silva, M Malta, T B Scott
Whilst prior nuclear forensic studies have focused on identifying signatures to distinguish between different uranium deposit types, this paper focuses on providing a scientific basis for source identification of materials from different uranium mine sites within a single region, which can then be potentially used within nuclear forensics. A number of different tools, including gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, mineralogy and major and minor elemental analysis, have been utilised to determine the provenance of uranium mineral samples collected at eight mine sites, located within three different uranium provinces, in Portugal...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Marina Sáez-Muñoz, María Del Carmen Bas, Josefina Ortiz, Sebastián Martorell
Gross alpha (Aα) and gross beta activities (Aβ) were measured weekly in the airborne of the Universitat Politècnica de Valencia campus (in the east of Spain) during the period 2009-2015 (7 years). The geometric mean values of weekly Aα and Aβ were 0.53·10-4 Bq m-3 and 5.77·10-4 Bq m-3, respectively; with an average ratio Aα/Aβ of 0.097. This study highlights the heterogeneity of gross alpha and gross beta activities depending on the different periods of the year. Data show seasonal variations with the highest activity in summer months and the lowest one in winter months...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
P Bouisset, M Nohl, A Bouville, G Leclerc
Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out by the United States, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and China between 1945 and 1980 resulted in radioactive fallout over the earth's surface of long-lived radionuclides, such as 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 238Pu that could be detected more than 50 years after their production. In addition, the burnup in the upper atmosphere of a thermoelectric generator fueled by 238Pu, SNAP-9A, contributed to the inventory of 238Pu deposited on the ground. In order to estimate the deposition densities of 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 238Pu in French Polynesia, we collected undisturbed soil samples up to 30 cm deep at eight sites in two islands (Hiva Oa, 139°W - 10°S and Raivavae, 148°W - 24°S) in 2015-2016...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
G de With, R C G M Smetsers, H Slaper, P de Jong
In the Netherlands considerable attention has been given to the exposure from thoron progeny in dwellings. For this purpose a nationwide survey on the thoron exhalation and thoron progeny concentration has been completed in 2015. Furthermore, extensive laboratory studies have been performed to measure activity concentrations and thoron exhalation rates from regular Dutch building materials. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if the findings from both field experiments and laboratory results are consistent...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Andrey Tsapalov, Konstantin Kovler
Mass measurements of indoor radon concentrations have been conducted for about 30 years. In most of the countries, a national reference/action/limit level is adopted, limiting the annual average indoor radon (AAIR) concentration. However, until now, there is no single and generally accepted international protocol for determining the AAIR with a known confidence interval, based on measurements of different durations. Obviously, as the duration of measurements increases, the uncertainty of the AAIR estimation decreases...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Mohammad Modarresi, S Farhad Masoudi
The relative discrepancies between the gamma spectrometry efficiency of RGU, RGTh, RGK reference materials and some soil samples have been studied using a MCNP model of a real HPGe detector. It has been shown that, in a specified geometry, efficiencies differences depend on the sample elemental composition. The elemental compositions of RGU-1, RGTh-1 reference materials and a soil sample have been evaluated using X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) method and used in the MCNP simulation along with RGK-1 and six other soil samples with different elemental compositions to calculate their efficiencies in different gamma ray energies...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jill Sutcliffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
T Lindborg, M Thorne, E Andersson, J Becker, J Brandefelt, T Cabianca, M Gunia, A T K Ikonen, E Johansson, V Kangasniemi, U Kautsky, G Kirchner, R Klos, R Kowe, A Kontula, P Kupiainen, A-M Lahdenperä, N S Lord, D J Lunt, J-O Näslund, M Nordén, S Norris, D Pérez-Sánchez, A Proverbio, K Riekki, A Rübel, L Sweeck, R Walke, S Xu, G Smith, G Pröhl
The International Atomic Energy Agency has coordinated an international project addressing climate change and landscape development in post-closure safety assessments of solid radioactive waste disposal. The work has been supported by results of parallel on-going research that has been published in a variety of reports and peer reviewed journal articles. The project is due to be described in detail in a forthcoming IAEA report. Noting the multi-disciplinary nature of post-closure safety assessments, here, an overview of the work is given to provide researchers in the broader fields of radioecology and radiological safety assessment with a review of the work that has been undertaken...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Stefano Bianchi, Wolfango Plastino
Uranium (U) groundwater anomalies, detected before the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6th, 2009), represent a key geochemical signal of a progressive increase of deep fluids fluxes at middle-lower crustal levels associated with the geodynamics of the earthquake. Although the analyses performed in association with the seismic pattern around Gran Sasso National Laboratory and the geophysical and geochemical patterns of the Gran Sasso aquifer supported this hypothesis, a new approach for time series analysis has been developed for event screening categorisation and to highlight U as possible strain meter in geodynamical processes, particularly those which characterise active normal faulting...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
W H Leung, W M Ma, Philip K Y Chan
The JRODOS (Java-based Real-time Online DecisiOn Support) is a decision support system for off-site emergency management for releases of radioactive material into the environment. This paper documents the application of JRODOS by the Hong Kong Observatory in accident consequence assessment and emergency preparedness studies. For operational considerations, the most computational efficient dispersion model in JRODOS, ATSTEP, is adopted. Verification studies for JRODOS's ATSTEP model have been conducted. Comparison with tracer experiment results showed that under neutral atmospheric conditions and distances up to 50 km, the JRODOS simulation outputs were in general of the same order of magnitude with the tracer data...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
H Velasco, R Torres Astorga, D Joseph, J S Antoine, L Mabit, A Toloza, G Dercon, Des E Walling
Large-scale deforestation, intensive land use and unfavourable rainfall conditions are responsible for significant continuous degradation of the Haitian uplands. To develop soil conservation strategies, simple and cost-effective methods are needed to assess rates of soil loss from farmland in Haiti. The fallout radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) provides one such means of documenting medium-term soil redistribution rates. In this contribution, the authors report the first use in Haiti of 137Cs measurements to document soil redistribution rates and the associated pattern of erosion/sedimentation rates along typical hillslopes within a traditional upland Haitian farming area...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Xiaobing Geng, Zhenghui Xie, Lijun Zhang, Mei Xu, Binghao Jia
An inverse source estimation method is proposed to reconstruct emission rates using local air concentration sampling data. It involves the nonlinear least squares-based ensemble four-dimensional variational data assimilation (NLS-4DVar) algorithm and a transfer coefficient matrix (TCM) created using FLEXPART, a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model. The method was tested by twin experiments and experiments with actual Cs-137 concentrations measured around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Kazuma Koarai, Yasushi Kino, Atsushi Takahashi, Toshihiko Suzuki, Yoshinaka Shimizu, Mirei Chiba, Ken Osaka, Keiichi Sasaki, Yusuke Urushihara, Tomokazu Fukuda, Emiko Isogai, Hideaki Yamashiro, Toshitaka Oka, Tsutomu Sekine, Manabu Fukumoto, Hisashi Shinoda
90Sr specific activity in the teeth of young cattle that were abandoned in Kawauchi village and Okuma town located in the former evacuation areas of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident were measured. Additionally, specific activity in contaminated surface soils sampled from the same area was measured. (1) All cattle teeth examined were contaminated with 90Sr. The specific activity, however, varied depending on the developmental stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident; teeth that had started development before the accident exhibited comparatively lower values, while teeth developed mainly after the accident showed higher values...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Chakraverty, B K Sahoo, T D Rao, P Karunakar, B K Sapra
Modelling radon transport in the earth crust is a useful tool to investigate the changes in the geo-physical processes prior to earthquake event. Radon transport is modeled generally through the deterministic advection-diffusion equation. However, in order to determine the magnitudes of parameters governing these processes from experimental measurements, it is necessary to investigate the role of uncertainties in these parameters. Present paper investigates this aspect by combining the concept of interval uncertainties in transport parameters such as soil diffusivity, advection velocity etc, occurring in the radon transport equation as applied to soil matrix...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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