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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

M B Froehlich, W Y Chan, S G Tims, S J Fallon, L K Fifield
A comprehensive series of nuclear tests were carried out by the United States at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, especially between 1952 and 1958. A Porites Lutea coral that was growing in the Enewetak lagoon within a few km of all of the high-yield tests contains a continuous record of isotopes, which are of interest (e.g. (14)C, (236)U, (239,240)Pu) through the testing period. Prior to the present work, (14)C measurements at ∼2-month resolution had shown pronounced peaks in the Δ(14)C data that coincided with the times at which tests were conducted...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Viktor Jobbágy, Timotheos Altzitzoglou, Petya Malo, Vesa Tanner, Mikael Hult
The aim of this paper is to present information about currently used standard and routine methods for radon analysis in drinking waters. An overview is given about the current situation and the performance of different measurement methods based on literature data. The following parameters are compared and discussed: initial sample volume and sample preparation, detection systems, minimum detectable activity, counting efficiency, interferences, measurement uncertainty, sample capacity and overall turnaround time...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jelena Krneta Nikolic, Milica Rajacic, Dragana Todorovic, Tim Vidmar
The gamma spectrometry of environmental samples poses a series of specific problems for the practitioner. The determination of full energy peak efficiencies is, in the case of environmental samples, one of the greatest challenges. In this paper, the calibration of two HPGe detectors for environmental samples in Marinelli beakers was performed using the newly developed MEFFTRAN software. The results obtained with MEFFTRAN were compared to the experimental efficiencies measured using the calibration sample produced at the Laboratory for Radiation and Environment Protection, Institute for Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade, in order to confirm the validity of the calculation...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
D Mulas, J Garcia-Orellana, N Casacuberta, A Hierro, V Moreno, P Masqué
The production of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) uses phosphate rock (PR) as a raw material. Sedimentary phosphate rocks are enriched with relevant concentrations of natural radionuclides from the (238)U decay chain (around 10(3) Bq·kg(-1)), leading to the need of controlling potential exposures to radiation of workers and members of the public in accordance with IAEA safety standards. Indeed, phosphate industries are classified as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) industries. Thus, the aim of this work is to assess the radiological risk of the workers in a DCP production plant located in the Iberian Peninsula (South-West Europe), which digests PR with hydrochloric acid...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hilary P Emerson, Katherine A Hickok, Brian A Powell
Previous field experiments have suggested colloid-facilitated transport via inorganic and organic colloids as the primary mechanism of enhanced actinide transport in the subsurface at former nuclear weapons facilities. In this work, research was guided by the hypothesis that humic substances can enhance tetravalent actinide (An(IV)) migration by coating and mobilizing natural colloids in environmental systems and increasing An(IV) sorption to colloids. This mechanism is expected to occur under relatively acidic conditions where organic matter can sorb and coat colloid surfaces and facilitate formation of ternary colloid-ligand-actinide complexes...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Liufang Jenny Zhou, Raghu Rao, Emily Corcoran, David Kelly
A series of laboratory-scale combustion tests were conducted under well-controlled conditions to measure the release of (90)Sr and (137)Cs nuclides to the atmosphere (air) from combustion of vegetation and organic soil samples contaminated with radioactivity. These vegetation and soil samples were collected from a controlled contaminated forest area within the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories - Chalk River site. The combustion products including ash and smoke particulates, along with gaseous emissions, were collected and then analyzed for (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentrations by radiometric techniques...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shigeki Sakamoto, Yoshinori Kawase
Cesium removal from radioactive wastewaters was examined using water-insoluble poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and water-soluble sodium salt form poly-γ-L-glutamic acid (γ-PGANa) as biosorbents. The maximum adsorption capacities at equilibrium of γ-PGA and γ-PGANa for Cs were 345 mg-Cs(g-γ-PGA)(-1) at pH 6.0 and 290 mg-Cs(g-γ-PGANa)(-1) at pH 9.0, respectively. At lower pH < pKa, the carboxyl groups of γ-PGA primarily remained in the protonated form and adsorption of Cs only slightly occurred. At higher pH > pKa, the adsorption of Cs was significantly facilitated due to ionization of carboxyl groups to carboxylate ion...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ching-Chih Chang, George S Burr, A J Timothy Jull, Joellen L Russell, Dana Biddulph, Lara White, Nancy G Prouty, Yue-Gau Chen, Chuan-Chou Shen, Weijian Zhou, Doan Dinh Lam
The long-lived radionuclide (129)I (half-life: 15.7 × 10(6) yr) is well-known as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global (129)I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1960 levels. Since the 1990s, anthropogenic (129)I produced from industrial nuclear fuels reprocessing plants has been the primary source of (129)I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic and around the globe. Here we present four coral (129)I time series records from: 1) Con Dao and 2) Xisha Islands, the South China Sea, 3) Rabaul, Papua New Guinea and 4) Guam...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Kil Yong Lee, Yong-Chul Kim, Soo Young Cho, Seong Yun Kim, Yoon Yeol Yoon, Dong Chan Koh, Kyucheol Ha, Kyung-Seok Ko
The recharge fractions of injection water in combined abstraction-injection wells (AIW) were determined using continuous radon monitoring and radon mass balance model. The recharge system consists of three combined abstraction-injection wells, an observation well, a collection tank, an injection tank, and tubing for heating and transferring used groundwater. Groundwater was abstracted from an AIW and sprayed on the water-curtain heating facility and then the used groundwater was injected into the same AIW well by the recharge system...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shinya Ochiai, Hidenao Hasegawa, Hideki Kakiuchi, Naofumi Akata, Shinji Ueda, Shinji Tokonami, Shun'ichi Hisamatsu
The concentrations of (137)Cs in the air, which were divided into coarse (>1.1 μm ϕ) and fine (<1.1 μm ϕ) fractions of particulate matter (PM), were measured from October 2012 to December 2014 in an area evacuated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Total atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with high concentrations during summer and autumn related to the dominant easterly wind blowing from the highly radioactivity contaminated area...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Bernard Collignan, Eline Le Ponner, Corinne Mandin
A monitoring campaign was conducted on a sample of more than 3400 dwellings in Brittany, France from 2011 to 2014. The measurements were collected using one passive dosimeter per dwelling over two months during the heating season, according to the NF ISO 11665-8 (2013) standard. Moreover, building characteristics such as the period of construction, construction material, type of foundation, and thermal retrofit were determined using a questionnaire. The final data set consisted of 3233 houses with the measurement results and the questionnaire answers...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Vladimir L Gavrikov, Ruslan A Sharafutdinov, Aleksandr R Mitev
Little attention has been paid to the uptake of (137)Cs in natural forests under low levels of the isotope fallout when no immediate ecological danger presents. Here we present the extended assessments of the soil-to-plant and canopy-to-litter flows of (137)Cs recently evaluated in a native Siberian forested area. The area undergoes a typical after-fire long term succession, with light-conifer upper story being followed by undergrowth of Siberian fir and other dark-conifer species. The one-year-old needles of Siberian fir were found to accumulate the largest concentration of the isotope, 4...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Cristina Nuccetelli, Rosabianca Trevisi, Ivan Ignjatović, Jelena Dragaš
The present paper reports the results of a study on different types of fly ash from Serbian coal burning power plants and their potential use as a binder in alkali-activated concrete (AAC) depending on their radiological and mechanical properties. Five AAC mixtures with different types of coal burning fly ash and one type of blast furnace slag were designed. Measurements of the activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were done both on concrete constituents (fly ash, blast furnace slag and aggregate) and on the five solid AAC samples...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
C Sainz Fernández, L S Quindós Poncela, A Fernández Villar, I Fuente Merino, J L Gutierrez-Villanueva, S Celaya González, L Quindós López, J Quindós López, E Fernández, J Remondo Tejerina, J L Martín Matarranz, M García Talavera
One of the requirements of the recently approved EU-BSS (European Basic Safety Standards Directive, EURATOM, 2013) is the design and implementation of national radon action plans in the member states (Annex XVIII). Such plans require radon surveys. The analysis of indoor radon data is supported by the existing knowledge about geogenic radiation. With this aim, we used the terrestrial gamma dose rate data from the MARNA project. In addition, we considered other criterion regarding the surface of Spain, population, permeability of rocks, uranium and radium contain in soils because currently no data are available related to soil radon gas concentration and permeability in Spain...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
C Grossi, J Ballester, I Serrano, S Galmarini, A Camacho, R Curcoll, J A Morguí, X Rodò, M A Duch
The variability of the atmospheric concentration of the (7)Be and (210)Pb radionuclides is strongly linked to the origin of air masses, the strength of their sources and the processes of wet and dry deposition. It has been shown how these processes and their variability are strongly affected by climate change. Thus, a deeper knowledge of the relationship between the atmospheric radionuclides variability measured close to the ground and these atmospheric processes could help in the analysis of climate scenarios...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jaime Färber Lorda, Yutaka Tateda, Scott W Fowler
To clarify the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the environmental kinetics of the natural radionuclide (210)Po during a one-year period (October 1995 to November 1996) in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters, a modelling analysis was applied. Using (210)Po concentrations in seawater and zooplankton, the (210)Po uptake rate constant from food for zooplankton was evaluated using a biokinetics calculation involving the uptake and the excretion rate constants between seawater and zooplankton. Using the transfer constants obtained, the (210)Po concentrations in zooplankton were reconstructed and validated by observed concentrations...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Uddin, S W Fowler, M Behbehani, M Metian
The tendency of (210)Po to concentrate in body tissue poses a serious concern of radiological safety. This study compiles available information and presents recent (210)Po data for the marine food web in the northern Gulf waters. Since (210)Po is concentrated in marine biota, a large number of samples of various marine organisms covering several trophic levels, from microalgae to sharks, were analyzed. (210)Po was found to be highly concentrated in several marine species with the highest (210)Po concentrations found in yellowfin tuna, i...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
R C G M Ronald Smetsers, R O Roelf Blaauboer, S A J Fieke Dekkers
A new Euratom directive demands that Member States establish a national action plan for indoor radon. Important requirements are a national reference level for the radon concentration in dwellings, actions to identify dwellings with radon concentrations that might exceed this reference level and the encouragement of appropriate measures to reduce the radon concentrations in dwellings where these are high. This paper provides ingredients and recommendations for a national action plan for radon in dwellings, applicable to the Netherlands...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Nasim Bazshoushtari, Shamsollah Ayoubi, Mohammad Reza Abdi, Mohammad Mohammadi
(137)Cs technique has been widely used for the evaluation rates and patterns of soil erosion and deposition. This technique requires an accurate estimate of the values of (137)Cs inventory at the reference site. This study was conducted to evaluate the variability of the inventory of (137)Cs regarding to the sampling program including sample size, distance and sampling method at a reference site located in vicinity of Fereydan district in Isfahan province, west-central Iran. Two 3 × 8 grids were established comprising large grid (35 m length and 8 m width), and small grid (24 m length and 6 m width)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hedvig Simon, Szabolcs Kelemen, Róbert-Csaba Begy
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of natural and anthropic events occurring in the last 30 years in the catchment areas of four Romanian lakes (St. Anna Lake, Red Lake, Vârşolţ Lake and Matiţa Lake) originating from four different geomorphologic areas. A total of eleven sediment cores have been processed for age and sedimentation rate determination using the (210)Pb dating method. Total (210)Pb was measured via alpha spectrometry by (210)Po using PIPS detectors, while supported (210)Pb was measured by (226)Ra using HPGe detectors...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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