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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Xiaohu Xiong, Weijian Zhou, Peng Cheng, Shugang Wu, Zhenchuan Niu, Hua Du, Xuefeng Lu, Yunchong Fu, George S Burr
Radiocarbon ((14)C) has been widely used for quantification of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) in the atmosphere and for ecosystem source partitioning studies. The strength of the technique lies in the intrinsic differences between the (14)C signature of fossil fuels and other sources. In past studies, the (14)C content of CO2 derived from plants has been equated with the (14)C content of the atmosphere. Carbon isotopic fractionation mechanisms vary among plants however, and experimental study on fractionation associated with dark respiration is lacking...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
R Eigl, P Steier, K Sakata, A Sakaguchi
The first extensive study on (236)U in the North Pacific Ocean has been conducted. The vertical distribution of (236)U/(238)U isotopic ratios and the (236)U concentrations were analysed on seven depth profiles, and large variations with depth were found. The range of (236)U/(238)U isotopic ratios was from (0.09 ± 0.03) × 10(-10) to (14.1 ± 2.2) × 10(-10), which corresponds to (236)U concentrations of (0.69 ± 0.24) × 10(5) atoms/kg and (119 ± 21) × 10(5) atoms/kg, respectively. The variations in (236)U concentrations could mainly be attributed to the different water masses in the North Pacific Ocean and their formation processes...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Tibor Kovács, Sheldon Landsberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
N S Kudryasheva, A S Petrova, D V Dementyev, A A Bondar
The study addresses biological effects of low-dose gamma-radiation. Radioactive (137)Cs-containing particles were used as model sources of gamma-radiation. Luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum was used as a bioassay with the bioluminescent intensity as the physiological parameter tested. To investigate the sensitivity of the bacteria to the low-dose gamma-radiation exposure (≤250 mGy), the irradiation conditions were varied as follows: bioluminescence intensity was measured at 5, 10, and 20°С for 175, 100, and 47 h, respectively, at different dose rates (up to 4100 μGy/h)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Alexander D Esquivel L, Rubens M Moreira, Roberto Pellacani G Monteiro, Anômora A Rochido Dos Santos, Jimena Juri Ayub, Diego L Valladares
Beryllium-7 ((7)Be) is a natural radionuclide of cosmogenic origin, normally used as a tracer for several environmental processes; such as soil redistribution, sediment source discrimination, atmospheric mass transport, and trace metal scavenging from the atmosphere. In this research the content of (7)Be in soil, its seasonal variation throughout the year and its relationship with the rainfall regime in the Mato Frio creek micro-watershed was investigated, to assess its potential use in estimating soil erosion...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jing Chen, Weihua Zhang, Baki Sadi, Xiaowa Wang, Derek C G Muir
The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (such as (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) and long lived (137)Cs were measured in a total of 119 tissue samples (43 blubber, 43 liver, and 33 muscle samples) from 40 ringed seals and 4 bearded seals collected in the Arviat area of Canada during the fall of 2014. Activity concentration of (210)Po was measured in all seal liver and muscle samples individually. The average (210)Po activity concentrations were 25 ± 7.6 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw) in muscle and 211 ± 58 Bq/kg fw in liver for ringed seals, and 20 ± 6...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
C Olondo, F Legarda, M Herranz, R Idoeta
This paper shows the procedure performed to validate the migration equation and the migration parameters' values presented in a previous paper (Legarda et al., 2011) regarding the migration of (137)Cs in Spanish mainland soils. In this paper, this model validation has been carried out checking experimentally obtained activity concentration values against those predicted by the model. This experimental data come from the measured vertical activity profiles of 8 new sampling points which are located in northern Spain...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Landsberger, A Sharp, S Wang, Y Pontikes, A H Tkaczyk
This study employs thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) to quantitatively and specifically determine absorption dose rates to various body parts from uranium, thorium and potassium. Specifically, a case study of bauxite residue (red mud) from an industrial facility was used to demonstrate the feasibility of the NAA approach for radiological safety assessment, using small sample sizes to ascertain the activities of (235)U, (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K. This proof-of-concept was shown to produce reliable results and a similar approach could be used for quantitative assessment of other samples with possible radiological significance...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Haytam Mesrar, Abdelhamid Sadiki, Ali Faleh, Laura Quijano, Leticia Gaspar, Ana Navas
The purpose of this study is to understand and quantify the relationships between current (137)Cs inventories and the soil properties and the physiographic characteristics. A total of 36 cores were taken in seven transects with different slopes, lithology and land use. The analysis focused on the (137)Cs mass activity as well as inventories and its relationship with soil properties as grain size and organic matter. The mass activity of (137)Cs and the inventories varied between 3.6 and 63.7 Bq kg(-1) and between 521...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jácint Jónás, János Somlai, Edit Tóth-Bodrogi, Miklós Hegedűs, Tibor Kovács
Coal-fired power plants play a significant role in the production of electricity. The Ra-226 concentration of coals mined in the Ajka region can reach up to 3000 Bq/kg. This study focuses on the effects of a Hungarian (Ajka) remediated coal ash depository on the environment and the effectiveness of the cover layer. During the remediation, a method patented in Hungary was used, in which the upper layer of the depository, which had settled like concrete, was ploughed and mixed with woodchips before being planted with vegetation...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Janja Vaupotič, Nataša Smrekar, Zora S Žunić
In 43 places (23 schools, 3 kindergartens, 16 offices and one dwelling), indoor radon has been monitored as an intercomparison experiment, using α-scintillation cells (SC - Jožef Stefan Institute, Slovenia), various kinds of solid state nuclear track detectors (KfK - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany; UFO - National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan; RET - University College Dublin, Ireland) and active electronic devices (EQF, Sarad, Germany). At the same place, the radon levels and, consequently, the effective doses obtained with different radon devices differed substantially (by a factor of 2 or more), and no regularity was observed as regards which detector would show a higher or lower dose...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Bogusław Michalik
According to the requirements set by European BSS the exposure of humans and biota to ionizing radiation originating from natural radionuclides but under anthropogenically changed conditions should be managed within the same regulatory framework as other practices. Such situation creates the strong needs to have a reliable method to distinguish whether the particular case of natural radioactivity occurrence has resulted from human activity or it is pure natural phenomenon. In case of current activity of particular NORM industry there are no doubts however, in case of a legacy site, such question becomes crucial...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A Dowdall, P Murphy, D Pollard, D Fenton
In 2002, a National Radon Survey (NRS) in Ireland established that the geographically weighted national average indoor radon concentration was 89 Bq m(-3). Since then a number of developments have taken place which are likely to have impacted on the national average radon level. Key among these was the introduction of amending Building Regulations in 1998 requiring radon preventive measures in new buildings in High Radon Areas (HRAs). In 2014, the Irish Government adopted the National Radon Control Strategy (NRCS) for Ireland...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Márta Polgári, Szaniszló Bérczi, Kazuho Horiuchi, Hiroyuki Matsuzaki, Tibor Kovács, Sándor Józsa, Zsolt Bendő, Krisztián Fintor, József Fekete, Zoltán Homonnay, Ernő Kuzmann, Arnold Gucsik, Ildikó Gyollai, János Kovács, István Dódony
The research investigated three iron carbonate (siderite) sedimentary concretions from Nagykovácsi, Úri and Délegyháza, Hungary. To identify possible source rocks and effects of the glaze-like exposed surface of the concretions, we carried on comparative petrological, mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic studies. The samples were microbially mediated siderite concretions with embedded metamorphous and igneous mineral clasts, and had specific rim belts characterized by semi-concentric outer Fe-oxide layers, fluffy pyrite-rich outer belts and siderite inner parts...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Michael Foulkes, Geoffrey Millward, Samuel Henderson, William Blake
Bioaccessible U, Th, Pb and the (238)U decay products (214)Pb and (210)Pb have been determined, using a modified Unified BARGE Method (UBM), in waste solids and soils from an abandoned uranium mine in South West England, UK. Maximum aqua regia extractable concentrations for U, Th and Pb were 16,200, 3.8 and 4750 μg g(-1), respectively. (238)U had highest activity concentrations near the mine shaft, where the decay products(214)Pb and (210)Pb had values of 235 and 180 Bq g(-1), respectively. UBM extractions gave mean gastro-intestinal bioaccessibility factors (BAFs) for U and Pb in the waste solids of 0...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S H Kim, G H Hong, H M Lee, B E Cho
The activity concentrations of (210)Po were determined in plankton and selected species of macroalgae, crustaceans, molluscs, and fish from Korean coastal waters to understand (210)Po distribution in these trophic levels and to assess the effective dose of (210)Po from seafood ingested by the average Korean. The activity concentration of (210)Po in macroalgae, mixed plankton, anchovy (whole body), abalone muscle, and abalone viscera was 0.97-1.43, 32-137, 59-392, 2.93 ± 0.86, and 1495 ± 484 Bq kg(-1) (w...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S S Utkin, I I Linge
The Techa Cascade of water reservoirs (TCR) is one of the most environmentally challenging facilities resulted from FSUE "PA "Mayak" operations. Its reservoirs hold over 360 mln m(3) of liquid radioactive waste with a total activity of some 5 × 10(15) Bq. A set of actions implemented under a special State program involving the development of a strategic plan aimed at complete elimination of TCR challenges (Strategic Master-Plan for the Techa Cascade of water reservoirs) resulted in considerable reduction of potential hazards associated with this facility...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Katalin Csondor, Anita Erőss, Ákos Horváth, Dénes Szieberth
The Molnár János cave is one of the largest hypogenic caves of the Buda Thermal Karst (Budapest, Hungary) and mainly characterized by water-filled passages. The major outflow point of the waters of the cave system is the Boltív spring, which feeds the artificial Malom Lake. Previous radon measurements in the cave system and in the spring established the highest radon concentration (71 BqL(-1)) in the springwater. According to previous studies, the origin of radon was identified as iron-hydroxide containing biofilms, which form where there is mixing of cold and thermal waters, and these biofilms efficiently adsorb radium from the thermal water component...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Predrag Kolarž, Janja Vaupotič, Ivan Kobal, Predrag Ujić, Zdenka Stojanovska, Zora S Žunić
Spatial distribution of radioactive gasses thoron (Tn) and radon (Rn) in indoor air of 9 houses mostly during winter period of 2013 has been studied. According to properties of alpha decay of both elements, air ionization was also measured. Simultaneous continual measurements using three Rn/Tn and three air-ion active instruments deployed on to three different distances from the wall surface have shown various outcomes. It has turned out that Tn and air ions concentrations decrease with the distance increase, while Rn remained uniformly distributed...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hao Cong Le, Thang Van Nguyen, Thu Nguyen Phong Huynh, Phuong Truc Huynh
The results of gross alpha and beta radioactivity measurement in water spinach samples from some districts in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed using a low-background proportional counters LB4200 manufactured by Canberra Company, Inc. Mean concentrations of gross alpha and beta activity were found to be 1.50 ± 0.38 Bq kg(-1) to 84.25 ± 8.67 Bq kg(-1). In order to keep the recommended dose level, a recommended maximum intake of water spinach was proposed to be 6 kg fresh per year...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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