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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346896/weak-size-dependence-of-resuspended-radiocesium-adsorbed-on-soil-particles-collected-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident
#1
Naoki Kaneyasu, Hideo Ohashi, Fumie Suzuki, Tomoaki Okuda, Fumikazu Ikemori, Naofumi Akata, Toshihiro Kogure
Most studies of the properties of airborne radionuclides emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant have focused on the relatively early stages of the accident, and little is known about the characteristics of radiocesium in the long-term. In this study, we analyzed activity size distributions of airborne radiocesium collected over 5 months in Tsukuba, Japan. Radiocesium in the accumulation mode size range (0.1-2 μm in aerodynamic diameter) was overwhelming in the early aerosol samples and decreased with time, while that associated with coarse aerosols remained airborne...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342344/water-hardness-determines-226-ra-uptake-in-the-tropical-freshwater-mussel
#2
Che Doering, Andreas Bollhöfer
Chemical data for freshwater mussels (Velesunio spp.) and water from 15 sampling sites in the Alligator Rivers Region and Rum Jungle uranium provinces in tropical Northern Australia were analysed to develop a predictive model of radium-226 ((226)Ra) bioaccumulation for variable water calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations. Application of the model as a (226)Ra screening approach for freshwater mussels in tropical waterbodies potentially impacted by operational or remediated uranium mine sites is discussed in relation to Mudginberri Billabong, located approximately 12 km downstream of Ranger uranium mine in the Alligator Rivers Region...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342343/plant-uptake-of-238-u-235-u-232-th-226-ra-210-pb-and-40-k-from-a-coal-ash-and-slag-disposal-site-and-control-soil-under-field-conditions-a-preliminary-study
#3
Božena Skoko, Gordana Marović, Dinko Babić, Marko Šoštarić, Mirela Jukić
The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (40)K by plants that grow on a coal ash and slag disposal site known for its higher content of naturally occurring radionuclides. Plant species that were sampled are common for the Mediterranean flora and can be divided as follows: grasses & herbs, shrubs and trees. To compare the activity concentrations and the resultant concentration ratios of the disposal site with those in natural conditions, we used control data specific for the research area, obtained for plants growing on untreated natural soil...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342342/radon-concentration-distributions-in-shallow-and-deep-groundwater-around-the-tachikawa-fault-zone
#4
Fumiaki Tsunomori, Tomoya Shimodate, Tomoki Ide, Hidemi Tanaka
Groundwater radon concentrations around the Tachikawa fault zone were surveyed. The radon concentrations in shallow groundwater samples around the Tachikawa fault segment are comparable to previous studies. The characteristics of the radon concentrations on both sides of the segment are considered to have changed in response to the decrease in groundwater recharge caused by urbanization on the eastern side of the segment. The radon concentrations in deep groundwater samples collected around the Naguri and the Tachikawa fault segments are the same as those of shallow groundwater samples...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341479/a-method-for-independent-modelling-in-support-of-regulatory-review-of-dose-assessments
#5
Björn Dverstorp, Shulan Xu
Several countries consider geological disposal facilities as the preferred option for spent nuclear fuel due to their potential to provide isolation from the surface environment on very long timescales. In 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel & Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted a license application for construction of a spent nuclear fuel repository. The disposal method involves disposing spent fuel in copper canisters with a cast iron insert at about 500 m depth in crystalline basement rock, and each canister is surrounded by a buffer of swelling bentonite clay...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340486/review-of-current-nuclear-fallout-codes
#6
REVIEW
Jerrad P Auxier, John D Auxier, Howard L Hall
The importance of developing a robust nuclear forensics program to combat the illicit use of nuclear material that may be used as an improvised nuclear device is widely accepted. In order to decrease the threat to public safety and improve governmental response, government agencies have developed fallout-analysis codes to predict the fallout particle size, dose, and dispersion and dispersion following a detonation. This paper will review the different codes that have been developed for predicting fallout from both chemical and nuclear weapons...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340392/-237-np-analytical-method-using-239-np-tracers-and-application-to-a-contaminated-nuclear-disposal-facility
#7
Mathew S Snow, Samuel S Morrison, Sue B Clark, John E Olson, Matthew G Watrous
Environmental (237)Np analyses are challenged by low (237)Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive (237)Np analytical approach employing the short lived (239)Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by (237)Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. (239)Np tracer is obtained via separation from a (243)Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 W "Walmart" microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340391/optimization-of-the-marinelli-beaker-dimensions-using-genetic-algorithm
#8
Seyed Mehrdad Zamzamian, Seyed Abolfazl Hosseini, Mohammad Samadfam
A computational code, based on the genetic algorithm and MCNPX version 2.6 code was developed and used to investigate the effects of some important parameters of HPGe detector (such as Al cap thickness, dead-layer thickness and Ge hole size) on optimum dimensions of marinelli beaker. In addition, the effects of detector material on optimal beaker dimensions were also investigated. Finally, the optimized beaker dimensions at various beaker volumes (300, 500, 700, 1000 and 1500 cm(3)) were determined for some conventional Ge detectors with different crystal sizes (16 sizes)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336181/experimental-comparison-of-the-bioaccumulation-of-anthropogenic-radionuclides-by-egg-and-juvenile-life-stages-of-a-small-shark
#9
Ross A Jeffree, Mathew P Johansen
This study compared the bioaccumulation of anthropogenic nuclides ((65)Zn, (134)Cs, (60)Co and (241)Am) between the egg and juvenile life stages of a small shark (Scyliorhinus canicula), based on previously published experimental data. Rates of accumulation over 15 days were derived and summed for the transfer pathways which were specific to these two life stages. Radionuclide transfers to the egg and its embryo & yolk were quantified for i) the maternal pathway following her uptake of radionuclides via food and seawater and ii) from seawater following its oviposition...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324688/estimating-doses-from-aboriginal-bush-foods-post-remediation-of-a-uranium-mine
#10
Che Doering, Andreas Bollhöfer, Peter Medley
This paper presents a calculator to facilitate assessments of ingestion doses from Aboriginal bush foods. The calculator combines information on traditional diet and land use with radionuclide concentration ratios and ingestion dose coefficients to estimate doses. The calculator was applied to the planned remediation of Ranger uranium mine to derive a set of scaling factors between radionuclide activity concentrations in environmental media and ingestion dose from bush foods. The scaling factors can be used to estimate doses from bush foods once the post-remediation radiological conditions of the mine and surrounding environment are known...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324687/variation-of-natural-radionuclides-in-non-ferrous-fayalite-slags-during-a-one-month-production-period
#11
Tom Croymans, Indy Vandael Schreurs, Mikael Hult, Gerd Marissens, Guillaume Lutter, Heiko Stroh, Sonja Schreurs, Wouter Schroeyers
The European Basic Safety Standards (EU-BSS) describes a set of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material)-processing industries which produce residues known to be possibly enriched in NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides). These residues can be used as a component in building materials aimed for public usage. The industrial processes, in which the residues are produced, are often complex and total monitoring can be challenging especially when the origin of the used raw materials varies. In this study the NORs present in non-ferrous fayalite slags of a secondary smelter facility, a NORM-processing industry according to the EU-BSS, were monitored daily during a one-month production period...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324686/biosorption-of-the-strontium-ion-by-irradiated-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-under-culture-conditions
#12
Liang Qiu, Jundong Feng, Yaodong Dai, Shuquan Chang
As a new-emerging method for strontium disposal, biosorption has shown advantages such as high sorption capacity; low cost. In this study, we investigated the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) in strontium disposal under culture conditions and the effects of irradiation on their biosorption capabilities. We found that S. cerevisiae can survive irradiation and grow. Pre-exposure to irradiation rendered S. cerevisiae resistant to further irradiation. Surprisingly, the pre-exposure to irradiation can increase the biosorption capability of S...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324685/monitoring-and-descriptive-analysis-of-radon-in-relation-to-seismic-activity-of-northern-pakistan
#13
Zeeshan Jilani, Tahir Mehmood, Aftab Alam, Muhammad Awais, Talat Iqbal
Earthquakes are one of the major causes of natural disasters and its forecasting is challenging task. Some precursory phenomenon exists in theory in relation to earthquakes occurrence. The emission of radioactive gas named 'radon' before the earthquakes is a potential earthquake precursory candidate. The study aims to monitor and to analyze the radon in relation to seismic activity in Northern Pakistan. For this purpose RTM-2200 has been used to monitor the changes in radon concentration from August 01, 2014 to January 31, 2015 in Northern Pakistan...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318653/applying-and-adapting-the-swedish-regulatory-system-for-decommissioning-to-nuclear-power-reactors-the-regulator-s-perspective
#14
Martin Amft, Mathias Leisvik, Simon Carroll
Half of the original 13 Swedish nuclear power reactors will be shut down by 2020. The decommissioning of these reactors is a challenge for all parties involved, including the licensees, the waste management system, the financing system, and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). This paper presents an overview of the Swedish regulations for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It describes some of the experiences that SSM has gained from the application of these regulations. The focus of the present paper is on administrative aspects of decommissioning, such as SSM's guidelines, the definition of fundamental concepts in the regulatory framework, and a proposed revision of the licensing process according to the Environmental Act...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315824/near-field-investigation-of-the-explosive-dispersal-of-radioactive-material-based-on-a-reconstructed-spherical-blast-wave-flow
#15
David Hummel, Lucian Ivan
A "dirty bomb" is a type of radiological dispersal device (RDD) that has been the subject of significant safety and security concerns given the disruption that would result from a postulated terrorist attack. Assessing the risks of radioactive dose in a hypothetical scenario requires models that can accurately predict dispersion in a realistic environment. Modelling a RDD is complicated by the fact that the most important phenomena occur over vastly disparate spatial and temporal length scales. Particulate dispersion in the air is generally considered on scales of hundreds to thousands of meters, and over periods of minutes and hours...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314187/-7-be-in-soil-deposited-dust-and-atmospheric-air-and-its-using-to-infer-soil-erosion-along-alexandria-region-egypt
#16
I H Saleh, A A Abdel-Halim
This study investigated the radioactivity behavior of (7)Be in surface soil, airborne and deposited dust along Alexandria region in Egypt. The results obtained were used to predict scavenging processes of (7)Be from surface soil to infer soil erosion and land vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise. The areal activity concentrations of (7)Be in surface soil were investigated in 30 undisturbed sites and (7)Be inventories were determined via deposited dust in 10 locations. Results of the former were found to be ranged from 78 Bq/m(2) to 104 Bq/m(2)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314186/mobility-indices-and-doses-from-210-po-and-210-pb-activity-concentrations-data-in-brazilian-spas-groundwaters
#17
Daniel Marcos Bonotto, Ana Maria Marinello Assis de Oliveira
(210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in spas groundwaters occurring at São Paulo (SP) and Minas Gerais (MG) states, Brazil, have been reported in this paper with a dual purpose: to compare different indices for evaluating the radionuclides mobility into waters and to evaluate the drinking water quality from dose calculations. The waters (75 sampling points) are extensively used for drinking in public places, bottling and bathing purposes, among other. The samples were taken from springs and wells drilled at different aquifer systems inserted in Paraná and Southeastern Shield hydrogeological provinces...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302339/fundamentals-of-the-nea-thermochemical-database-and-its-influence-over-national-nuclear-programs-on-the-performance-assessment-of-deep-geological-repositories
#18
Maria-Eleni Ragoussi, Davide Costa
For the last 30 years, the NEA Thermochemical Database (TDB) Project (www.oecd-nea.org/dbtdb/) has been developing a chemical thermodynamic database for elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste repositories, providing data that are vital to support the geochemical modeling of such systems. The recommended data are selected on the basis of strict review procedures and are characterized by their consistency. The results of these efforts are freely available, and have become an international point of reference in the field...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292593/aerosol-particle-size-distribution-of-atmospheric-lead-210-in-northern-finland
#19
Jussi Paatero, Alexandra Ioannidou, Jussi Ikonen, Jukka Lehto
Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected with a high-volume 6-stage cascade impactor at Sodankylä, Finland, 100 km north of the Arctic Circle. The (210)Pb content of the samples were determined with radiochemical separation of in-grown (210)Po followed by alpha spectrometry. Most of the (210)Pb activity was incorporated in accumulation mode aerosol particles. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) ranged from 0.53 μm to 0.98 μm 38-61 per cent of (210)Pb activity was found to be associated with aerosol particles smaller than 0...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288353/radioactive-contamination-of-the-soil-plant-cover-at-certain-locations-of-primorsky-krai-sakhalin-island-and-kamchatka-peninsula-assessment-of-the-fukushima-fallout
#20
L N Mikhailovskaya, I V Molchanova, V N Pozolotina, Yu N Zhuravlev, Ya O Timofeeva, M L Burdukovsky
The contamination densities of soil-plant cover at certain locations within the Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Island and Kamchatka Peninsula attributable to (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu were 500-1390 Bq m(-2), 980-2300 Bq m(-2) and 37-74 Bq m(-2), respectively. These values do not exceed average global background levels, typical for mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The spatial distribution of radionuclides depends on the climatic conditions of the region. A positive dependence of the (90)Sr and (137)Cs contamination densities, as well as additional (137)Cs from NPP "Fukushima" in the soil, was determined based on the sum of annual atmospheric precipitation within the study areas...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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