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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Aislinn A Boylan, Douglas I Stewart, James T Graham, Ian T Burke
Short chain carbon-14 (14 C) containing organic compounds can be formed by abiotic oxidation of carbides and impurities within nuclear fuel cladding. During fuel reprocessing and subsequent waste storage there is potential for these organic compounds to enter shallow subsurface environments due to accidental discharges. Currently there is little data on the persistence of these compounds in such environments. Four 14 C-labelled compounds (acetate; formate; formaldehyde and methanol) were added to aerobic microcosm experiments that contained glacial outwash sediments and groundwater simulant representative of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site, UK...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Silvana Beltrán Torres, Attila Petrik, Katalin Zsuzsanna Szabó, Gyozo Jordan, Jun Yao, Csaba Szabó
In order to estimate the annual dose that the public receive from natural radioactivity, the identification of the potential risk areas is required which, in turn, necessitates understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of natural radioactivity and the geogenic risk factors (e.g., rock types, presence of dikes, faults, physical conditions of soil, etc.). A detailed spatial analysis of outdoor ambient gamma dose equivalent rate was performed in the western side of Velence Hills, the largest outcropped granitic area in Hungary...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Peng Yi, Huan Luo, Li Chen, Zhongbo Yu, Huijun Jin, Xiaobing Chen, Chengwei Wan, Ala Aldahan, Minjie Zheng, Qingfang Hu
Understanding hydrological processes in the Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR), Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is vital for protection and management of groundwater and surface water resources in the region. In situ water measurements of exchange rates between surface water and groundwater are, however, hard to conduct because of the harsh natural conditions of the SAYR. We here present an indirect method using in situ 222 Rn measurements to estimate groundwater discharge into rivers and lakes in the SAYR. 222 Rn was measured in rivers, lakes, groundwater and springs during three sampling periods (2014-2016), and the results indicate large variability in the concentration of the isotope...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Simon Pouil, Rachel J Clausing, Marc Metian, Paco Bustamante, Marie Yasmine Dechraoui-Bottein
Marine organisms are exposed to and affected by a multitude of chemicals present in seawater and can accumulate in their tissues a wide range of contaminants as well as natural biotoxins associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). Trace elements and biotoxins may modify physiological functions in exposed organisms, and studies have been conducted to better understand their respective kinetics and effects in marine species. Despite the increasing concern of concurrent toxic HABs and pollution events due to anthropogenic pressures and global change, very little information is available on their combined effects...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Fesenko, N Isamov, B J Howard, N Sanzharova, C Wells
Data on radionuclide transfer to animals from research performed in the former Soviet Union were reviewed to collate transfer coefficient values (Ff ) to animal tissues such as liver, kidney and bone, but not muscle which has previously been reported. The derived values were compared with selected data published in the English language literature. The new data are mainly for 90 Sr and 137 Cs, although some data were also provided for 3 H, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 22 Na 65 Zn, 131 I and U. The Russian language data may provide a basis for better informed evaluation of radiation dose from the consumption of such animal products, which can form important components of the diet in some countries...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Tanaka, T Adati, T Takahashi, K Fujiwara, S Takahashi
To understand the long-term behavior of radiocesium in the biological processes of a forest ecosystem, its concentration in Japanese epigeic earthworms (Megascolecidae), litter, and soil, and the ambient dose equivalent rates, were investigated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The metabolism of radiocesium in the earthworms was also investigated in the laboratory, and its biological half-life (Tb ) was estimated. The concentration of 137 Cs in the habitat soil and litter changed from 2014 to 2016, with levels in the litter going from 44...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Zexin Zhang, Haibo Liu, Wencheng Song, Wenjie Ma, Wei Hu, Tianhu Chen, Lei Liu
Pantoea sp. TW18 isolated from radionuclide-contaminated soils was used for the bioremediation of radionuclides pollution. Accumulation mechanism of U(VI) on Pantoea sp. TW18 was investigated by batch experiments and characterization techniques. The batch experiments revealed that Pantoea sp. TW18 rapidly reached accumulation equilibrium at approximately 4 h with a high accumulation capacity (79.87 mg g-1 at pH 4.1 and T = 310 K) for U(VI). The accumulation data of U(VI) onto Pantoea sp. TW18 can be satisfactorily fitted by pseudo-second-order model...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shigeyoshi Otosaka, Yuhi Satoh, Takashi Suzuki, Jun Kuwabara, Takahiro Nakanishi
In this study, seabed sediment was collected from 26 stations located within 160 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) during the 2 years which followed the FDNPP accident of March 2011 and the concentrations of 129 I and 137 Cs were measured. By comparing the distribution of these two radionuclides with respect to their different geochemical behaviors in the environment, the transport of accident-derived radionuclides near the seafloor is discussed. The concentration of 129 I in seabed sediment recovered from offshore Fukushima in 2011 ranged between 0...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M P Mohan, Renita Shiny D'Souza, S Rashmi Nayak, Srinivas S Kamath, Trilochana Shetty, K Sudeep Kumara, I Yashodhara, Y S Mayya, N Karunakara
As a part of establishing a regional database on natural radioactivity, the atmospheric concentrations of 210 Pb and 7 Be were measured over a three and half year period (2014-2017) in Mangalore and Kaiga in the South West Coast of India. A total of 99 air samples, collected in the different months of the year, were analysed in this study. The mean activity concentrations of 7 Be and 210 Pb were found to be 5.5 ± 3.1 mBq m-3 and 1.1 ± 0.73 mBq m-3 , respectively. Both the radionuclides exhibited strong seasonal variations, with maximum concentration of 7 Be occurring in the summer and that of 210 Pb in the winter season...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
J Martínez, A Peñalver, T Baciu, M Artigues, M Danús, C Aguilar, F Borrull
Human activity, such as the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and the use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, results in the presence of artificial radionuclides in surface waters, which may even reach potable water treatment plants (PWTPs) and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, water and sludge samples from a PWTP are radiologically monitored. The incoming water of the plant is influenced by the presence of an NPP upstream. Two WWTPs receiving wastewater from medical centres and other origins are also studied...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
David J Spurgeon
Single species laboratory tests and associated species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) that utilise the resulting data can make a key contribution to efforts to prospective hazard assessments for pesticides, biocides, metals and ionising radiation for research and regulatory risk assessment. An assumption that underlies the single species based toxicity testing approach when combined in SSD models is that the assessments of sensitivities to chemical and ionising radiation measured across a range of species in the laboratory can inform on the likely effects on communities present in the field...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jiří Janda, Jitka Tichá
Rapid determination of selected gross alpha and beta emitters in environmental matrices by solid-state scintillation technique is discussed. This method is based on sample treatment using microwave reactor and direct measurement of digested products using powder scintillator and alkaline solution as a substitute for traditional liquid scintillation cocktail. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with respect to their use in nuclear industry, high radiotoxicity, and the possibility of potential misuse...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Junko Takahashi, Yuichi Onda, Daichi Hihara, Kenji Tamura
After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011, several studies showed that the downward migration of 137 Cs from litter to mineral soil is more rapid in forests in Fukushima than in forests affected by the Chernobyl accident. Therefore, the downward migration within mineral soil layers is more important for predicting long-term dynamics of 137 Cs in forest ecosystems in Fukushima. In the present study, we monitored the detailed vertical distribution of 137 Cs in litter and soil layers for 6 y (2011-2017) following the previous study (2011-2012), and found that temporal changes in those distributions were different among mixed forest (MF), mature cedar (MC) and young cedar (YC) forests...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Antony R Denman, Robin G M Crockett, Christopher J Groves-Kirkby
Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas generated underground by radioactive decay of nuclides contained in certain types of rocks, can concentrate inside buildings, where it poses the second-largest risk factor for lung cancer, after smoking. The highest concentrations of domestic radon in the UK occur in the south-western counties of Devon and Cornwall, but certain areas in Northamptonshire and surrounding counties in the English Midlands also have high levels. It has been shown that it is possible both to reduce the radon concentrations in existing houses and to build new homes with appropriate protection...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jonathan L Burnett, Brian D Milbrath
There remain technical challenges for an On-site Inspection (OSI) in the high seas environment, which gathers evidence of a violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). For terrestrial nuclear explosions, the radionuclide observables are well defined and States Parties have chosen 17 particulate radionuclides that allow discrimination from other nuclear events. However, an underwater nuclear explosion generates induced radionuclides from the neutron activation of seawater, which has the potential to interfere with the measurement of the radionuclide observables using gamma-spectrometry techniques...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Petros Vasilakos, Yong-Ηa Kim, Jeffrey R Pierce, Sotira Yiacoumi, Costas Tsouris, Athanasios Nenes
Radioactive charging can significantly impact the way radioactive aerosols behave, and as a result their lifetime, but such effects are neglected in predictive model studies of radioactive plumes. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of radioactive charging on the vertical transport of radioactive aerosols in the atmosphere, through its effect on coagulation and deposition, as well as quantifying the impact of this charging on aerosol lifetime. The TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysical model was extended to account for radioactive charging effects on coagulation in a computationally efficient way...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ha Lan Anh, Vo Thi Anh, Trinh Van Giap, Nguyen Thi Hong Thinh, Tran Khanh Minh, Vu Hoai
Tritium is a radioisotope of hydrogen and a component of the water molecule. It is a marker for reservoirs such as the stratosphere, troposphere, and oceans involved in the hydrological cycle. Tritium monitoring is an essential research tool in hydro-climate, dating for water and recharge groundwater. The Isotope Hydrology Laboratory has collected monthly precipitation samples in Hanoi for tritium concentration analysis. This paper reports the tritium concentrations in precipitation in the city from 2011 to 2016...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Patrick Boyer, Claire Wells, Brenda Howard
Many of the freshwater Kd values required for quantifying radionuclide transfer in the environment (e.g. ERICA Tool, Symbiose modelling platform) are either poorly reported in the literature or not available. To partially address this deficiency, Working Group 4 of the IAEA program MODARIA (2012-2015) has completed an update of the freshwater Kd databases and Kd distributions given in TRS 472 (IAEA, 2010). Over 2300 new values for 27 new elements were added to the dataset and 270 new Kd values were added for the 25 elements already included in TRS 472 (IAEA, 2010)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Paulina Schuller, Alejandra Castillo, Gabriele Voigt, Natalia Semioshkina
The root uptake of radiocaesium by different plant parts of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata) and the potential influence of K-fertilising on the transfer behaviour was studied in allophanic volcanic soils (umbric andosol and dystric fluvisol) in Chile under temperate climate and heavy rainfall conditions (∼2660 mm y-1 ) over several vegetation periods. The soils were spiked homogeneously to 0.20 m depth with 100 kBq 134 Cs m-2 and activity concentrations measured...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
R-Cs Begy, H Simon, Sz Kelemen, L Preoteasa
Being a dynamic environment associated with complex costal, fluvial and marine processes, only a few studies regarding the evolution of the Danube Delta and the human impacts on its ecosystem have been carried out. Being a sensible to all processes occurring in its catchment area, information is stored in the deposited sediments, which can be used as tracers for natural and anthropogenic processes. The aim of this study is to determine a detailed reconstruction of the sedimentation rates in the last century by applying the 210 Pb dating method validated by 137 Cs profiles...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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