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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Kohji Yamamura, Shigeto Fujimura, Takeshi Ota, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Takashi Saito, Yoshimitsu Arai, Takuro Shinano
To reduce radiocesium uptake by rice, large amounts of potassium fertilizer have been applied to paddy fields contaminated by radiocesium released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. The Fukushima Prefectural Government recommended maintenance of the soil exchangeable K content up to 200 mg K kg-1 before conventional fertilization in rice production. We constructed an equation to predict the transfer factor from soil to brown rice using the soil exchangeable K content...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Оlena О Burdo, Аlla I Lypska, Nataliia M Riabchenko, Olena A Sova
Radiobiological investigations of natural populations of Myodes glareolus (bank vole) from the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone, namely within a highly radioactive site of the Red Forest were carried out. The complex of hematological and cytogenetic parameters of the bank voles inhabiting the contaminated site was studied before the site was flooded, in 2012, and after it drained, in 2015. A significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, alterations in bone marrow and peripheral blood cell counts were observed in the population of 2015 in comparison with the group of 2012 and animals from the reference site...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
David J Spurgeon
Single species laboratory tests and associated species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) that utilise the resulting data can make a key contribution to efforts to prospective hazard assessments for pesticides, biocides, metals and ionising radiation for research and regulatory risk assessment. An assumption that underlies the single species based toxicity testing approach when combined in SSD models is that the assessments of sensitivities to chemical and ionising radiation measured across a range of species in the laboratory can inform on the likely effects on communities present in the field...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Lucian Ivan, David Hummel, Luke Lebel
Assessing the risks of radioactive dose in a radiological dispersal device (RDD) attack requires knowledge of how the radiological materials will be spread through the air surrounding the site of the detonation. Two essential parts of the accurate prediction of the behaviour of this dispersion are a characterization of the initial cloud size, directly after the blast, and detailed modelling of the behaviour of different size particulates. Capturing the transport of contaminants from the initial blast wave is integral to achieving accurate predictions, especially for regions where the blast dynamics dominates, but performing such calculations over a wide range of particle sizes and spatial scales is computationally challenging...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Dorottya Jakab, Gáborné Endrődi, András Kocsonya, Annamária Pántya, Tamás Pázmándi, Péter Zagyvai
From late September to early October of 2017, the majority of European networks involved in environmental radiological monitoring - including the environmental monitoring system of the KFKI Campus in Budapest - detected 106 Ru isotope of artificial origin in the atmosphere. The reported values higher than the minimum detectable activity (MDA) concentrations were in the range of 0.8 μBq/m3 - 145 mBq/m3 . Based on the results of environmental measurements and the available meteorological data, assessments were made to analyze concentration levels of 106 Ru activity and to help understand the behavior of radioruthenium in various environmental media...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Seong A Yim, Jung-Seok Chae, Jong-In Byun, Suk-Hyung Ko
The distributions of 137 Cs, 237 Np, and 239+240 Pu activity concentrations in sedimentary soil cores of the volcanic crater-lake have been studied. The 240 Pu/239 Pu atom ratios measured by MC-ICP-MS and mutual activity ratios were examined. These results were used to evaluate the sedimentation characteristics of the crater-lake (Baengnokdam of Mt. Halla, Korea). The 137 Cs, 237 Np, and 239+240 Pu activity concentrations showed similar distribution patterns and one maximum peak was observed in each sediment core, except at St...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jung-Seok Chae, Guebuem Kim
The activities of tritium in water-vapor (n = 649) and precipitation (n = 2404) samples were measured from 1998 to 2015 around the Wolsong nuclear power plant (NPP) site where four pressurized heavy water reactors and two pressurized water reactors operated. The activity concentrations of tritium in the water-vapor and precipitation samples were in the ranges of 2.2-2200 Bq/L and 0.3-1090 Bq/L, respectively. The concentrations of tritium in the water-vapor in spring were approximately 7 times higher than those in fall and winter, mainly owing to the wind directions at the power plant location...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
K B Rozov, V G Rumynin, A M Nikulenkov, P G Leskova
The study demonstrates the effect of sorption properties of fractured host rocks from the Yeniseysky site (Nizhne-Kansky rock massif, Krasnoyarsk region) on the migration of dissolved radioactive components (137 Cs, 90 Sr, 79 Se, 99 Tc, 152(154) Eu, 239(240) Pu) in the deep geological conditions of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Estimates of radionuclide distribution coefficients between the aqueous solution and fractured rocks obtained from sorption experiments were used to study the influence of various petrographic types and fracture-filling substances on the retardation of radioactive components by different fractured rock units of Nizhne-Kansky rock massif...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Dien Li, Daniel I Kaplan, Allison Sams, Brian A Powell, Anna S Knox
Radioiodine (present mostly as 129 I) is difficult to remove from waste streams or contaminated groundwater because it tends to exist as multiple anionic species (i.e., iodide (I- ), iodate (IO3 - ) and organo-iodide) that do not bind to minerals or synthetic materials. In this work, the efficacy of organoclay OCB and OCM, and granular activated carbon (GAC) as sorbents to bind I- and IO3 - from artificial groundwater (AGW) was examined. These sorbents were highly effective at removing I- and IO3 - from AGW under oxic condition, with the adsorption capacity up to 30 mg I/g sorbent...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Che Doering, Scott A McMaster, Mathew P Johansen
The dispersion of 222 Rn from the planned remediation of the Ranger U mine in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia was modelled. Dry and wet season contour maps of 222 Rn dose normalised to 226 Ra activity concentration in the proposed waste rock substrate on the remediated landform were developed. Three example exposure scenarios were assessed based on an anticipated waste rock 226 Ra activity concentration of 800 Bq kg-1 . The estimated above-background annual dose from 222 Rn to hypothetical receptors at the Aboriginal community at Mudginberri (∼10 km NNW) was 0...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Aleksander Nikolaevich Nikitin, Ihar Anatoljevich Cheshyk, Galina Zenonovna Gutseva, Elena Aleksandrovna Tankevich, Masaki Shintani, Shuichi Okumoto
Soil microorganisms play an important role in determining the physical and chemical properties of soils. Soil microorganisms have both direct and indirect effects on the physical and chemical states of radionuclides and their availability for uptake by plant roots. Controlling the soil microorganisms to immobilize radionuclides is a promising strategy to reduce the content of radionuclides in the food chain. In this study, we evaluated the impact of effective microorganisms (EM) comprising lactic-acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, and yeast on the transfer of 137 Cs into the aboveground biomass of barley and lettuce...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
J Naouli, R Abouabdellah, A Bennouna, A Laissaoui, P W Swarzenski, H Ait Bouh, A Mesfioui, M-S Benbrahim, M-Y Dechraoui Bottein
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) events occur regularly along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast of Morocco, and have been responsible for several severe cases of human intoxication. Along the southern Atlantic coast of Morocco, aquaculture and intensive artisanal fishing practices have recently been particularly heavily impacted, and toxic species have been observed in increasing intensity and frequency. In the 1990's a regulatory monitoring program was established for the coastal waters off Morocco by the National Institute of Fisheries Research (INRH), to reduce the risk of intoxication with biotoxins...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Salmani-Ghabeshi, E Chamizo, M Christl, C Miró, E Pinilla-Gil, F Cereceda-Balic
236 U, 239 Pu and 240 Pu are present in soils mainly as a result of the local- and global-fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out mainly in the 1950's and 1960's. In this work we provide new data on the presence of 236 U and 239,240 Pu in surface soils (i.e. up to 5 cm depth) from Chile and Africa. The results were obtained by low-energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). In the case of the Chilean samples, 236 U/239 Pu atom ratios show a high variability and are in general higher than the reported value for the global fallout in the Northern Hemisphere, ranging from 0...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Yan-Jun Huang, Zhi-Hong Shang-Guan, Feng Zhao, Ming-Gui Lin, Xiang-Dong Sha, Dun-Ye Luo, Qian Chen, Kai Peng
In this paper, the correlations between the continuously monitored gamma dose rate (GDR) and meteorological parameters, including precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, wind direction, and wind speed, were analyzed by using one year of the hourly dataset from a monitoring system with ten stations. The correlation coefficients are varied by the range of each meteorological parameter. Precipitation would enhance the GDR up to 84%, which is highly related to precipitation intensity and ground type...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
J Kuśmierczyk-Michulec, P Bourgouin
Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) results were combined with 7 Be observations collected during the 2009-2015 period by the three radionuclide stations from the International Monitoring System (IMS), located in Mauritania (18.1 N, 15.9 W), Kuwait (29.3 N, 47.9 E) and Panama (9.0 N, 79.5 W), to study the influence of Saharan dust on changes in 7 Be surface concentrations. It is demonstrated that for long-range transport (>3000 km), the overall impact of Sahara can be reproduced using a single point source located in the Bodélé depression (17...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Harriet Kuranchie-Mensah, Simon Pouil, Jean-Louis Teyssié, François Oberhänsli, Michel Warnau, Marc Metian
The uptake and depuration kinetics of 134 Cs and 241 Am were investigated in the bloody cockle Anadara senilis exposed via seawater and food in controlled conditions, using animals of different weight groups in order to assess how their bioaccumulation is affected by allometry and, hence, the individual's age. This study is one of the few experiments investigating bioaccumulation capacities of radionuclides in a West-African bivalve. Results showed that allometric relationships were mainly dependent on the exposure pathway considered...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Kasper G Andersson, Christian Linde, Sigurður M Magnússon, Finn Physant
Contrary to most areas of Europe, the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and the Faroe Islands) have for many years shared a regional research and development program on nuclear reactor safety and emergency preparedness - NKS. In spite of its project results having received great recognition and having been integrated in state-of-the-art emergency preparedness tools over the world, NKS as an organization does not seem well known outside the Nordic countries. Although the Fukushima accident had no health impact at all in Nordic areas, it taught a number of lessons of generic nature with respect to new R&D tasks that could further strengthen and secure future maintenance of the Nordic region's capability to effectively respond to such events...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Weihua Zhang, Kenneth Lam, Kurt Ungar
Using a previously developed digital gamma-gamma coincidence/anticoincidence spectrometer, daily aerosol samples collected at Resolute Bay, Canada (74.71°N, 94.97°W) from May 2016 to April 2017 were analysed for activity concentrations of 22 Na and 7 Be. The spectrometer design allows a more selective measurement of 22 Na with a significant background reduction by gamma-gamma coincidence events processing. It has been demonstrated that the improved spectrometer provides a more sensitive and effective way to quantify trace amounts of 22 Na and 7 Be with a critical limit of 3 mBq and 5 Bq respectively for a 20 h counting...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe, François Oberhänsli, Jean-Louis Teyssié, Sophie Martin
Considered as the most vulnerable ontogenic stages to environmental stressors, the early-life stages of fish paid a peculiar attention with respect to their vulnerability to metal and radionuclides contamination. Concomitantly, the increasing anthropogenic CO2 release in the atmosphere will cause major change of the seawater chemistry that could affect the trace elements and radionuclides bioconcentration efficiencies by marine organisms. The aim of this work was to 1) delineate the uptake behaviours of Ag, Am, Cd, Co and Zn in seabream eggs during 65 h of development and retention by newly hatched and 7 h-old larvae maintained in clean seawater, respectively, and 2) investigate the effects of elevated pCO2 on the bioconcentration efficiencies of these elements in eggs...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Yukihisa Sanada, Yoshimi Urabe, Miyuki Sasaki, Kotaro Ochi, Tatsuo Torii
Airborne radiation monitoring was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of radionuclides emitted by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident throughout Japan. Carrying out airborne radiation monitoring using manned and unmanned helicopters, the we have developed and established an analysis method concurrently with the development of this monitoring method. In particular, because the background radiation level differs greatly between East and West regions of Japan, we have developed a discrimination method for natural radionuclide and cosmic rays using the gamma energy spectra...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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