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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931878/impacts-on-the-marine-environment-in-the-case-of-a-hypothetical-accident-involving-the-recovery-of-the-dumped-russian-submarine-k-27-based-on-dispersion-of-137-cs
#1
A Hosseini, I Amundsen, J Brown, M Dowdall, M Karcher, F Kauker, R Schnur
There is increasing concern regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Arctic Seas and in particular dumped objects with Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Amongst dumped objects in the Arctic, the dumped Russian submarine K-27 has received great attention as it contains two reactors with highly enriched fuel and lies at a depth of about 30 m under water. To address these concerns a health and environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. Marine dispersion of potentially released radionuclides as a consequence of different hypothetical accident scenarios was modelled using the model NAOSIM...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919569/the-relation-between-radon-in-schools-and-in-dwellings-a-case-study-in-a-rural-region-of-southern-serbia
#2
Z S Žunić, P Bossew, F Bochicchio, N Veselinovic, C Carpentieri, G Venoso, S Antignani, R Simovic, Z Ćurguz, V Udovicic, Z Stojanovska, T Tollefsen
Recognized as a significant health hazard, radon (Rn) has been given increasing attention for years. Surveys of different kinds have been performed in many countries to assess the intensity and the geographical extent of possible Rn problems. Common surveys cover mainly dwellings, the indoor place with highest occupancy, and schools, where people spend a large fraction of their lifetime and which can also be considered exemplary for Rn exposure at workplaces; it has however been observed that relating them is difficult...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916299/measurements-of-background-radiation-levels-around-indian-station-bharati-during-33rd-indian-scientific-expedition-to-antarctica
#3
A K Bakshi, Rama Prajith, S Chinnaesakki, Rupali Pal, Deepa Sathian, Ajay Dhar, T Palani Selvam, B K Sapra, D Datta
A comprehensive measurement of radioactivity concentrations of the primordial radionuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K and their decay products in the soil samples collected from the sites of Indian research stations, Bharati and Maitri, at Antarctica was carried out using gamma spectrometric method. The activity concentrations in the soil samples of Bharati site were observed to be few times higher than of Maitri site. The major contributor to radioactivity content in the soil at Bharati site is (232)Th radionuclide in higher concentration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916298/uncertainty-of-current-understanding-regarding-obt-formation-in-plants
#4
A Melintescu, D Galeriu
Radiological impact models are important tools that support nuclear safety. For tritium, a special radionuclide that readily enters the life cycle, the processes involved in its transport into the environment are complex and inadequately understood. For example, tritiated water (HTO) enters plants by leaf and root uptake and is converted to organically bound tritium (OBT) in exchangeable and non-exchangeable forms; however, the observed OBT/HTO ratios in crops exhibit large variability and contradict the current models for routine releases...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914777/polonium-210-accumulates-in-a-lake-receiving-coal-mine-discharges-anthropogenic-or-natural
#5
A W Nelson, E S Eitrheim, A W Knight, D May, M D Wichman, T Z Forbes, M K Schultz
Coal is an integral part of global energy production; however, coal mining is associated with numerous environmental health impacts. It is well documented that coal-mine waste can contaminate the environment with naturally-occurring radionuclides from the uranium-238 ((238)U) decay series. However, the behavior of the final radionuclide in the (238)U-series, i.e., polonium-210 ((210)Po) arising from coal-mine waste-water discharge is largely unexplored. Here, results of a year-long (2014-2015) field study, in which the concentrations of (210)Po in sediments and surface water of a lake that receives coal-mine waste-water discharge in West Virginia are presented...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914776/seasonal-variability-of-equilibrium-factor-and-unattached-fractions-of-radon-and-thoron-in-different-regions-of-punjab-india
#6
Komal Saini, Parminder Singh, Prabhjot Singh, B S Bajwa, B K Sahoo
A survey was conducted to estimate equilibrium factor and unattached fractions of radon and thoron in different regions of Punjab state, India. Pin hole based twin cup dosimeters and direct progeny sensor techniques have been utilized for estimation of concentration level of radon, thoron and their progenies. Equilibrium factor calculated from radon, thoron and their progenies concentration has been found to vary from 0.15 to 0.80 and 0.008 to 0.101 with an average value of 0.44 and 0.036 for radon and thoron respectively...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914775/assessment-of-background-gamma-radiation-levels-using-airborne-gamma-ray-spectrometer-data-over-uranium-deposits-cuddapah-basin-india-a-comparative-study-of-dose-rates-estimated-by-agrs-and-pgrs
#7
D Srinivas, V Ramesh Babu, I Patra, Shailesh Tripathi, M S Ramayya, A K Chaturvedi
The Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) has conducted high-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometer (AGRS), magnetometer and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys for uranium exploration, along the northern margins of Cuddapah Basin. The survey area includes well known uranium deposits such as Lambapur-Peddagattu, Chitrial and Koppunuru. The AGRS data collected for uranium exploration is utilised for estimating the average absorbed rates in air due to radio-elemental (potassium in %, uranium and thorium in ppm) distribution over these known deposit areas...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913083/different-biosorption-mechanisms-of-uranium-vi-by-live-and-heat-killed-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-under-environmentally-relevant-conditions
#8
Tieshan Wang, Xinyan Zheng, Xiaoyu Wang, Xia Lu, Yanghao Shen
Uranium adsorption mechanisms of live and heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae in different pH values and biomass concentrations were studied under environmentally relevant conditions. Compared with live cells, the adsorption capacity of heat-killed cells is almost one order of magnitude higher in low biomass concentration and highly acidic pH conditions. To explore the mesoscopic surface interactions between uranium and cells, the characteristic of uranium deposition was investigated by SEM-EDX, XPS and FTIR...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908461/the-vato-project-an-original-methodology-to-study-the-transfer-of-tritium-as-ht-and-hto-in-grassland-ecosystem
#9
D Maro, F Vermorel, M Rozet, C Aulagnier, D Hébert, S Le Dizès, C Voiseux, L Solier, C Cossonnet, C Godinot, B Fiévet, P Laguionie, O Connan, O Cazimajou, M Morillon, M Lamotte
Tritium ((3)H) is mainly released into the environment by nuclear power plants, military nuclear facilities and nuclear reprocessing plants. The construction of new nuclear facilities in the world as well as the evolution of nuclear fuel management might lead to an increase of (3)H discharges from the nuclear industry. The VATO project was set up by IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire) and EDF (Electricité de France) to reduce the uncertainties in the knowledge about transfers of (3)H from an atmospheric source (currently releasing HT and HTO) to a grassland ecosystem...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903421/-210-po-in-the-marine-biota-of-korean-coastal-waters-and-the-effective-dose-from-seafood-consumption
#10
S H Kim, G H Hong, H M Lee, B E Cho
The activity concentrations of (210)Po were determined in plankton and selected species of macroalgae, crustaceans, molluscs, and fish from Korean coastal waters to understand (210)Po distribution in these trophic levels and to assess the effective dose of (210)Po from seafood ingested by the average Korean. The activity concentration of (210)Po in macroalgae, mixed plankton, anchovy (whole body), abalone muscle, and abalone viscera was 0.97-1.43, 32-137, 59-392, 2.93 ± 0.86, and 1495 ± 484 Bq kg(-1) (w...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894743/transfer-factors-for-natural-radioactivity-into-date-palm-pits
#11
Mohammad Abu Shayeb, Thamer Alharbi, Muzahir Ali Baloch, Omar Abdul Rahman Alsamhan
Palm pits are used in various human and animal feed products. In this study, the natural radioactivity levels from soil and date palm pits of 9 samples collected from major date palm farms in three different regions (Buraidah, Al-Zulfi and Al-Majmaah) of Saudi Arabia were determined by using the high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K in soil samples were 12.8 ± 2.2, 10.2 ± 2.1, 0.28 ± 0.10 and 329 ± 87 Bg kg(-1), respectively...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890299/monte-carlo-simulations-of-the-gamma-ray-exposure-rates-of-common-rocks
#12
Daniel A Haber, Russell L Malchow, Pamela C Burnley
Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to model the gamma ray emission and attenuation properties of common rocks. In geologic materials, (40)K, (238)U, and (232)Th are responsible for most gamma ray production. If the concentration of these radioelements and attenuation factors such as degree of water saturation are known, an estimate of the gamma-ray exposure rate can be made. The results show that there are no significant differences in gamma-ray screening between major rock types. If the total number of radionuclide atoms are held constant then the major controlling factor is density of the rock...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890298/heterogeneity-of-90-sr-radioactive-contamination-at-the-head-part-of-the-east-ural-radioactive-trace-eurt
#13
M Modorov, A Seleznev, L Mikhailovskaya
1: We measured (90)Sr concentrations and beta particle flux density (BPFD) in 44 soil samples collected from four soil profiles across a central transect on the head of the East Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT). The relationship between BPFD and (90)Sr concentration of each soil sample can be characterised by a linear regression model; (90)Sr concentration in the upper 12 cm soil layer can thus be assessed by measuring BPFD in the soil surface. 2: The BPFD on the soil surface was measured at 969 points at seven sites with linear dimensions ranging from 140 × 20 m to 140 × 320 m...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889078/activities-and-geochronology-of-137-cs-in-lake-sediments-resulting-from-sediment-resuspension
#14
Gerald Matisoff
In lakes with a large surface area to watershed ratio (137)Cs delivery is primarily by direct atmospheric fallout to the lake surface, where its activity in the sediments has been used to estimate the exposure to organisms and sediment mass deposition rates. Comparison of (137)Cs in the historical atmospheric fallout record with (137)Cs activity profiles in sediment cores reveals that although the general features of a maxima in the fallout deposition can be matched to activity peaks in the core, the general shape of the (137)Cs profile is not an exact replica of the fallout history...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887973/decommissioning-strategy-for-liquid-low-level-radioactive-waste-surface-storage-water-reservoir
#15
S S Utkin, I I Linge
The Techa Cascade of water reservoirs (TCR) is one of the most environmentally challenging facilities resulted from FSUE "PA "Mayak" operations. Its reservoirs hold over 360 mln m(3) of liquid radioactive waste with a total activity of some 5 × 10(15) Bq. A set of actions implemented under a special State program involving the development of a strategic plan aimed at complete elimination of TCR challenges (Strategic Master-Plan for the Techa Cascade of water reservoirs) resulted in considerable reduction of potential hazards associated with this facility...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887972/radon-as-a-natural-tracer-for-underwater-cave-exploration
#16
Katalin Csondor, Anita Erőss, Ákos Horváth, Dénes Szieberth
The Molnár János cave is one of the largest hypogenic caves of the Buda Thermal Karst (Budapest, Hungary) and mainly characterized by water-filled passages. The major outflow point of the waters of the cave system is the Boltív spring, which feeds the artificial Malom Lake. Previous radon measurements in the cave system and in the spring established the highest radon concentration (71 BqL(-1)) in the springwater. According to previous studies, the origin of radon was identified as iron-hydroxide containing biofilms, which form where there is mixing of cold and thermal waters, and these biofilms efficiently adsorb radium from the thermal water component...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887971/biosorption-of-u-vi-by-modified-hottentot-fern-kinetics-and-equilibrium-studies
#17
Ke Zhou, Yaochi Liu, Zhaoguang Yang, Houzhi Liu
Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the biosorption of U(VI) onto Hottentot Fern (Cyclosorus interruptus). The selective adsorption, the adsorption of different sections of Cyclosorus interruptus (CI), and the adsorption of polluted CI compared with that of unpolluted one were studied in detail. The raw CI and the CI modified by CaCl2, MgCl2, MgCl2/H2O2 were investigated for adsorption of U(VI) from aqueous solution. The results indicate that raw CI showed good adsorption selectivity for U(VI), compared with the adsorption of Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887970/production-and-release-rate-of-37-ar-from-the-ut-triga-mark-ii-research-reactor
#18
Christine Johnson, Steven R Biegalski, Edward J Artnak, Ethan Moll, Derek A Haas, Justin D Lowrey, Craig E Aalseth, Allen Seifert, Emily K Mace, Vincent T Woods, Paul Humble
Air samples were taken at various locations around The University of Texas at Austin's TRIGA Mark II research reactor and analyzed to determine the concentrations of (37)Ar, (41)Ar, and (133)Xe present. The measured ratio of (37)Ar/(41)Ar and historical records of (41)Ar releases were then utilized to estimate an annual average release rate of (37)Ar from the reactor facility. Using the calculated release rate, atmospheric transport modeling was performed in order to determine the potential impact of research reactor operations on nearby treaty verification activities...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884533/thoron-radon-and-air-ions-spatial-distribution-in-indoor-air
#19
Predrag Kolarž, Janja Vaupotič, Ivan Kobal, Predrag Ujić, Zdenka Stojanovska, Zora S Žunić
Spatial distribution of radioactive gasses thoron (Tn) and radon (Rn) in indoor air of 9 houses mostly during winter period of 2013 has been studied. According to properties of alpha decay of both elements, air ionization was also measured. Simultaneous continual measurements using three Rn/Tn and three air-ion active instruments deployed on to three different distances from the wall surface have shown various outcomes. It has turned out that Tn and air ions concentrations decrease with the distance increase, while Rn remained uniformly distributed...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876160/an-analysis-of-the-radioactive-contamination-due-to-radon-in-a-granite-processing-plant-and-its-decontamination-by-ventilation
#20
Pedro M Dieguez-Elizondo, Tomas Gil-Lopez, Paul G O'Donohoe, Juan Castejon-Navas, Miguel A Galvez-Huerta
This work focuses on studying concentration distribution of (222)Rn radioisotope in a granite processing plant. Using Computational Fluid Dynamic Techniques (CFD), the exposure of the workers to radiation was assessed and, in order to minimise this exposure, different decontamination scenarios using ventilation were analysed. Natural ventilation showed not sufficient to maintain radon concentration below acceptable limits, so a forced ventilation was used instead. Position of the granite blocks also revealed as a determining factor in the radioactive level distribution...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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