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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Hiroshi Kurikami, Alex Malins, Minoru Takeishi, Kimiaki Saito, Kazuki Iijima
Radiocesium is an important environmental contaminant in fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and atomic weapons testing. A modified Diffusion-Sorption-Fixation (mDSF) model, based on the advection-dispersion equation, is proposed to describe the vertical migration of radiocesium in soils following fallout. The model introduces kinetics for the reversible binding of radiocesium. We test the model by comparing its results to depth profiles measured in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, since 2011. The results from the mDSF model are a better fit to the measurement data (as quantified by R(2)) than results from a simple diffusion model and the original DSF model...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jan Škrkal, Pavel Fojtík, Irena Malátová, Miluše Bartusková
Ingestion intakes of (137)Cs of the Czech population were calculated in two different ways - either from the measured activity of (137)Cs in components of food in combination with statistical data about consumption rates or from retention of (137)Cs in the human body obtained by whole body counting or calculated from daily urinary excretion of (137)Cs. Data from the time period since 1986 to 2015 are used. The daily ingestion intake was about 25 Bq d(-1) in 1986 and is around 0.1 Bq d(-1) at present. Both approaches of ingestion intake calculation have their advantages and disadvantages...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
D May, A N Nelson, M K Schultz
Determination of Pb-210 ((210)Pb) in aqueous solution is a common radioanalytical challenge in environmental science. Widely used methods for undertaking these analyses (e.g., ASTM D7535) rely on the use of stable lead (Pb) as a yield tracer that takes into account losses of (210)Pb that inevitably occur during elemental/radiochemical separations of the procedures. Although effective, these methods introduce technical challenges that can be difficult to track and potentially introduce uncertainty that can be difficult to quantify...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Le Dizès, C Aulagnier, D Maro, M Rozet, F Vermorel, D Hébert, C Voiseux, L Solier, C Godinot, B Fievet, P Laguionie, O Connan, O Cazimajou, M Morillon
In this paper, a dynamic compartment model with a high temporal resolution has been investigated to describe tritium transfer in grassland ecosystems exposed to atmospheric (3)H releases from nuclear facilities under normal operating or accidental conditions. TOCATTA-χ model belongs to the larger framework of the SYMBIOSE modelling and simulation platform that aims to assess the fate and transport of a wide range of radionuclides in various environmental systems. In this context, the conceptual and mathematical models of TOCATTA-χ have been designed to be relatively simple, minimizing the number of compartments and input parameters required...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Laurent Pourcelot, Olivier Masson, Lionel Saey, Sébastien Conil, Béatrice Boulet, Nicolas Cariou
In the present paper the activity of uranium isotopes measured in plants and aerosols taken downwind of the releases of three nuclear fuel settlements was compared between them and with the activity measured at remote sites. An enhancement of (238)U activity as well as (235)U/(238)U anomalies and (236)U are noticeable in wheat, grass, tree leaves and aerosols taken at the edge of nuclear fuel settlements, which show the influence of uranium chronic releases. Further plants taken at the edge of the studied sites and a few published data acquired in the same experimental conditions show that the (238)U activity in plants is influenced by the intensity of the U atmospheric releases...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Akyil Erenturk, A Kilincarslan Kaygun
In this study, the composite adsorbent as granule was prepared by mixing of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) in specific conditions. The prepared composite adsorbent was used for investigating the adsorption behaviour of (210)Po. Adsorption of (210)Po was studied in a column system. The effective parameters such as initial activity concentration of (210)Po, pH of the aqueous solution, contact time and temperature of solution for adsorption behaviour of (210)Po were studied. Adsorption yield of (210)Po on composite adsorbent from aqueous solution in optimum conditions were determined as 75...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hidenao Hasegawa, Hideki Kakiuchi, Naofumi Akata, Yoshihito Ohtsuka, Shun'ichi Hisamatsu
We measured the monthly atmospheric deposition flux of (129)I at Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan-the location of a commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant-from 2006 to 2015 to assess the impact of the plant on environmental (129)I levels. The plant is now under final safety assessment by a national authority after test operation using actual spent nuclear fuel. During cutting and chemical processing in test operations from April 2006 to October 2008, (129)I was discharged to the atmosphere and detected in our deposition samples...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Mária Horváth, Amin Shahrokhi, Péter Bátor, Edit Tóth-Bodrogi, Tibor Kovács
The Po-210 content of tobacco has been known for a long time, however, different results can be found about the estimated amount of Po-210 that is inhaled by humans as a result of smoking cigarettes. Because of the unique properties of Po-210, the smoking machines available on the market are not suitable because of their failure to quantitatively collect Po-210 for measurement. Therefore, to estimate precisely the amount of Po-210 entering the lungs as a result of smoking, a smoking machine and sampling protocol based on relevant ISO standards - ISO-3308, ISO-3402 and ISO-4387 - was developed...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Daniel A Haber, Pamela C Burnley, Christopher T Adcock, Russell L Malchow, Kara E Marsac, Elisabeth M Hausrath
Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials by creating a high resolution background model. The intention is for this method to be used in an emergency response scenario where the background radiation environment is unknown...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Anthony Wickham, Hans-Jürgen Steinmetz, Patrick O'Sullivan, Michael I Ojovan
Demonstrating competence in planning and executing the disposal of radioactive wastes is a key factor in the public perception of the nuclear power industry and must be demonstrated when making the case for new nuclear build. This work addresses the particular waste stream of irradiated graphite, mostly derived from reactor moderators and amounting to more than 250,000 tonnes world-wide. Use may be made of its unique chemical and physical properties to consider possible processing and disposal options outside the normal simple classifications and repository options for mixed low or intermediate-level wastes...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Mark Coletti, Carolynne Hultquist, William G Kennedy, Guido Cervone
Safecast is a volunteered geographic information (VGI) project where the lay public uses hand-held sensors to collect radiation measurements that are then made freely available under the Creative Commons CC0 license. However, Safecast data fidelity is uncertain given the sensor kits are hand assembled with various levels of technical proficiency, and the sensors may not be properly deployed. Our objective was to validate Safecast data by comparing Safecast data with authoritative data collected by the U. S...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Lily Ranjbar, Abi T Farsoni, Eric M Becker
Measurement of elevated concentrations of xenon radioisotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) in the atmosphere has been shown to be a very powerful method for verifying whether or not a detected explosion is nuclear in nature. These isotopes are among the few with enough mobility and with half-lives long enough to make their detection at long distances realistic. Existing radioxenon detection systems used by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) suffer from problems such as complexity, need for high maintenance and memory effect...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Kazuyuki Sakuma, Akihiro Kitamura, Alex Malins, Hiroshi Kurikami, Masahiko Machida, Koji Mori, Kazuhiro Tada, Takamaru Kobayashi, Yasuhiro Tawara, Hiroyuki Tosaka
This paper describes watershed modeling of catchments surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant to understand radio-cesium redistribution by water flows and sediment transport. We extended our previously developed three-dimensional hydrogeological model of the catchments to calculate the migration of radio-cesium in both sediment-sorbed and dissolved forms. The simulations cover the entirety of 2013, including nine heavy rainfall events, as well as Typhoon Roke in September 2011. Typhoons Man-yi and Wipha were the strongest typhoons in 2013 and had the largest bearing on radio-cesium redistribution...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Lezhang Wei, Tsuyoshi Kinouchi, Kazuya Yoshimura, Mark L Velleux
The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 resulted in (137)Cs contamination of large areas in northeast Japan. A watershed-scale (137)Cs transport model was developed and applied to a forested catchment in Fukushima area. This model considers (137)Cs wash-off from vegetation, movement through soils, and transport of dissolved and particulate (137)Cs adsorbed to clay, silt and sand. Comparisons between measurements and simulations demonstrated that the model well reproduced (137)Cs concentrations in the stream fed from the catchment...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A Zali, M Shamsaei Zafarghandi, S A Feghhi, A M Taherian
In this work, public dose resulting from fission products released from Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) under normal operation is assessed. Due to the long range transport of radionuclides in this work (80 km) and considering terrain and meteorological data, HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYsplit) model, which uses three dimensional long-range numerical models, has been employed to calculate atmospheric dispersion. Annual effective dose calculation is carried out for inhalation, ingestion, and external exposure pathways in 16directions and within 80 km around the site for representative person...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
David Werth, Robert Buckley
The detectability of emission sources, defined by a low-level of mixing with other sources, was estimated for various locations surrounding the Sea of Japan, including a site within North Korea. A high-resolution meteorological model coupled to a dispersion model was used to simulate plume dynamics for four periods, and two metrics of airborne plume mixing were calculated for each source. While emissions from several known sources in this area tended to blend with others while dispersing downwind, the North Korean plume often remained relatively distinct, thereby making it potentially easier to unambiguously 'backtrack' it to its source...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Nasrin Fathabadi, Ali Akbar Salehi, Kazem Naddafi, Mohammad Reza Kardan, Masud Yunesian, Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi, Mohammad Reza Deevband, Molood Gooniband Shooshtari, Saeedeh Sadat Hosseini, Mahtab Karimi
Among High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRAs) all over the world, the northern coastal city of Ramsar has been considered enormously important. Many studies have measured environmental radioactivity in Ramsar, however, no survey has been undertaken to measure concentrations in the diets of residents. This study determined the (226)Ra activity concentration in the daily diet of people of Ramsar. The samples were chosen from both normal and high level natural radiation areas and based on the daily consumption patterns of residents...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Y Y Ebaid, A E M Khater
In this study the commonly used f-value for the 1001.03 keV (0.835 ± 0.004%) energy transition of the (234m)Pa was re-evaluated due to an obvious consistent overestimation of the (238)U activity concentration. Different calibration protocols, samples' matrices and geometries, and gamma-ray spectrometers were exploited in order to assure the accuracy of the derived data. An average positive relative bias of about 24% from the currently used f-value was estimating leading to newly adopted f-value of 1.037 ± 0...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Nataša Todorović, Ivana Stojković, Jovana Nikolov, Branislava Tenjović
A procedure for the determination of (90)Sr in environmental water samples using Čerenkov radiation and low-level liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220 was applied and optimized. Low diffusion polyethylene vials, high performance glass counting vials and low potassium borosilicate glass vilas of 20 ml volume (all from PerkinElmer) were used in order to examine their potential effect on counting process. The derived efficiencies were 45.86(9)%, and a minimum detectable activity of 0.32 Bq l(-1) in a 20 ml polyethylene vial (20 ml water sample) has been achieved during 300 min of measurement...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Issam A Al-Khatib, Hamzeh Al Zabadi, Ghassan Saffarini
The main objective of this study was to assess Radon concentration in the harvested rainwater (HRW) at the household level in Yatta area, Palestine. HRW is mainly used for drinking as it is the major source of water for domestic uses due to water scarcity. Ninety HRW samples from the household cisterns were collected from six localities (a town and five villages) and Radon concentrations were measured. The samples were randomly collected from different households to represent the Yatta area. Fifteen samples were collected from each locality at the same day...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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