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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

V Moreno, J Bach, M Zarroca, Ll Font, C Roqué, R Linares
Radon levels in the soil and groundwater in the North Maladeta Fault area (located in the Aran Valley sector, Central Pyrenees) are analysed from both geological and radiation protection perspectives. This area is characterized by the presence of two important normal faults: the North Maladeta fault (NMF) and the Tredós Fault (TF). Two primary aspects make this study interesting: (i) the NMF shows geomorphic evidence of neotectonic activity and (ii) the presence of a thermal spa, Banhs de Tredós, which exploits one of the several natural springs of the area and needs to be evaluated for radiation dosing from radon according to the European regulation on basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Brian W Dess, John Cardarelli, Mark J Thomas, Jeff Stapleton, Robert T Kroutil, David Miller, Timothy Curry, Gary W Small
A generalized methodology was developed for automating the detection of radioisotopes from gamma-ray spectra collected from an aircraft platform using sodium-iodide detectors. Employing data provided by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) program, multivariate classification models based on nonparametric linear discriminant analysis were developed for application to spectra that were preprocessed through a combination of altitude-based scaling and digital filtering...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Christian Maurer, Jonathan Baré, Jolanta Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Alice Crawford, Paul W Eslinger, Petra Seibert, Blake Orr, Anne Philipp, Ole Ross, Sylvia Generoso, Pascal Achim, Michael Schoeppner, Alain Malo, Anders Ringbom, Olivier Saunier, Denis Quèlo, Anne Mathieu, Yuichi Kijima, Ariel Stein, Tianfeng Chai, Fong Ngan, Susan J Leadbetter, Pieter De Meutter, Andy Delcloo, Rich Britton, Ashley Davies, Lee G Glascoe, Donald D Lucas, Matthew D Simpson, Phil Vogt, Martin Kalinowski, Theodore W Bowyer
After performing a first multi-model exercise in 2015 a comprehensive and technically more demanding atmospheric transport modelling challenge was organized in 2016. Release data were provided by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization radiopharmaceutical facility in Sydney (Australia) for a one month period. Measured samples for the same time frame were gathered from six International Monitoring System stations in the Southern Hemisphere with distances to the source ranging between 680 (Melbourne) and about 17,000 km (Tristan da Cunha)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Rajendran Selvakumar, Govindarajan Ramadoss, Mridula P Menon, Karuppuli Rajendran, Palanisami Thavamani, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Uranium contamination of soil has been a major concern with respect to its toxicity, accumulation in the food chain and persistence in the environment. Owing to these problems, remediation of uranium-contaminated soils has been investigated by various techniques. This review focuses on the challenges and complexities associated with the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil at field level. Therefore, laboratory studies have been excluded from this review. Challenges faced during remediation of uranium-contaminated soil using various techniques such as microbial/phyto/chemical/material based strategies have been discussed with suitable examples...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Monica Galan, Martin Kalinowski, Abdelhakim Gheddou, Kassoum Yamba
This work presents the last updated evaluations of the nuclear and decay data of the four radioxenon isotopes of interest for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT): Xe-131 m, Xe-133, Xe-133 m and Xe-135. This includes the most recent measured values on the half-lives, gamma emission probabilities (Pγ) and internal conversion coefficients (ICC). The evaluation procedure has been made within the Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP) framework and using the latest available versions of nuclear and atomic data evaluation software tools and compilations...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
R Periáñez, I Brovchenko, K T Jung, K O Kim, V Maderich
The behavior of marine distribution coefficients is analyzed with the help of numerical experiments and analytical solutions of equations describing kinetic models for uptake/release of radionuclides. The difficulties in measuring true kd in a marine environment perturbed by an external radionuclide source are highlighted. Differences between suspended matter and bed sediment kd are analyzed. The performances of different kinetic models (1-step/2step; single-layer/multi-layer) are studied in model/model and model/experiment comparisons...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Chieh-Ming Wu, Olorunfemi Adetona, Luke Naeher, Brian J Viner, Tim Jannik, Allan Hepworth, Eric Doman, Teresa Eddy
The aim of this study is to comprehensively investigate radionuclide concentrations in surface soil and un-decayed vegetative litter along four stream systems (i.e. Fourmile Branch, Lower Three Runs, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. Soil and litter samples from systematically spaced 12 pairs (contaminated or uncontaminated) of plots along the four streams were analyzed for 16 distinct radionuclide activities. Lower radionuclide concentrations were observed in soil and litter samples collected along Pen Branch compared to the other 3 streams...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Emiko Oguri, Hironori Deguchi
We investigated134 Cs and137 Cs activity concentrations in the common Japanese moss species Hypnum plumaeforme collected from 32 sites within ca. 100 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. A total of 32 samples of H. plumaeforme were collected during the field surveys from November 2013 to September 2014. The maximum radiocesium activity concentrations in H. plumaeforme were 60.9 ± 1.8 kBq kg-1 for134 Cs and 123 ± 2.3 kBq kg-1 for137 Cs. The mean value for the134 Cs/137 Cs was 1...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Z B Serzhanova, A K Aidarkhanova, S N Lukashenko, O N Lyakhova, L V Timonova, A M Raimkanova
Speciation of tritium (3 Н) in soils from the "Balapan" site in Semipalatinsk are presented in this study. Three interrelated objects were chosen for further study: "Atomic" lake, the Shagan River and an external reservoir. The main speciation forms of3 Н in soil were:3 Н in surface-adsorbed water,3 Н in interlayer water, hydroxylic3 Н, organically bound3 Н and crystalline-bound3 Н. Results will allow an estimation of contamination mechanism to be made, and will also allow the potential for migration and bioavailability of3 Н to be assessed...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Perko Vukotic, Nevenka Antovic, Andrija Djurovic, Ranko Zekic, Nikola Svrkota, Tomislav Andjelic, Ranko Svrkota, Radivoje Mrdak, Natasa Bjelica, Tamara Djurovic, Aleksandar Dlabac, Marija Bogicevic
The first nationwide indoor radon survey in Montenegro started in 2002 and year-long radon measurements with CR-39 track-etch detectors, within the national grid of 5 km × 5 km and local grids in urban areas of 0.5 km × 0.5 km, were performed in homes in half of the country's territory. The survey continued in 2014 and measurements in the rest of the country were completed at the end of 2015. The 953 valid results, obtained in the national radon survey, give an average radon activity concentration in Montenegrin homes of 110 Bq/m3 ...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
N A Beresford, C L Barnett, S Gashchak, A Maksimenko, E Guliaichenko, M D Wood, M Izquierdo
This study addresses a significant data deficiency in the developing environmental protection framework of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, namely a lack of radionuclide transfer data for some of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). It is also the first study that has sampled such a wide range of species (invertebrates, plants, amphibians and small mammals) from a single terrestrial site in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). Samples were collected in 2014 from the 0.4 km2 sampling site, located 5 km west of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power complex...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jacek Kapała, Maria Karpińska, Stanisław Mnich, Anna Gromotowicz-Popławska, Grzegorz Kulesza
Weekly measurements of air7 Be concentrations (n = 769) were performed in the years 1992-2010 in Bialystok (north-eastern Poland) using gamma spectrometry. The arithmetic mean (AM) concentration of7 Be was 2.51 mBq m-3 , and the median (M) was 2.24 mBq m-3 (range 0.47-7.81 mBq m-3 ). The observed7 Be concentrations were within the range of levels recorded in Europe. Typical seasonal variability was observed. Concentrations of7 Be in the warm season (May, June, July) were almost twice as high as those in the cold season (November, December, January)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Giorgia Cinelli, Tore Tollefsen, Peter Bossew, Valeria Gruber, Konstantins Bogucarskis, Luca De Felice, Marc De Cort
The European Atlas of Natural Radiation is a collection of maps displaying the levels of natural radioactivity caused by different sources. It has been developed and is being maintained by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, in line with its mission, based on the Euratom Treaty: to collect, validate and report information on radioactivity levels in the environment of the EU Member States. This work describes the first version of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation, available in digital format through a web portal, as well as the methodology and results for the maps already developed...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hiroko Yoshida-Ohuchi, Norihiro Matsuda, Kimiaki Saito
In order to estimate residents' external dose due to radionuclide exposure resulting from fallout deposit on the ground, the shielding and dose reduction effects provided by structures such as houses and workplaces are taken into account as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. Many works on both calculation and measurement for European and American settlements have been reported and factors such as, shielding factors, protection factors, reduction factors, and location factors have been determined...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Eugene Druker
The acquisition of information from the airborne gamma-ray spectra is based on the ability to evaluate photopeak areas in regular spectra from natural and other sources. In airborne gamma-ray spectrometry, extraction of photopeaks of radionuclides from regular one-second spectra is a complex problem. In the region of higher energies, difficulties are associated with low signal level, i.e. low count rates, whereas at lower energies difficulties are associated with high noises due to a high signal level. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for processing the measured spectra up to and including the extraction of evident photopeaks...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Holly B C Pearson, Lorna J Dallas, Sean D W Comber, Charlotte B Braungardt, Paul J Worsfold, Awadhesh N Jha
Release of tritium (3 H) in the marine environment is of concern with respect to its potential bioaccumulation and detrimental impact on the biota. Previous studies have investigated the uptake and toxicity of this radionuclide in marine mussels, and the interaction of3 H with dissolved organic ligands and elevated temperature. However, despite the well-established view that toxicity is partly governed by chemical speciation, and that toxic effects of mixture of contaminants are not always additive, there have been no studies linking the prevailing chemistry of exposure waters with observed biological effects and tissue specific accumulation of3 H in combination with other constituents commonly found in natural waters...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
G Bátor, A Bednár, T J Glover, T Kovács, S Landsberger
Food-chain models are used to predict radionuclide ingestion after fallout deposition. These models include those transfer processes (soil-to-plant transfer factor(s) [TF], plant-to-animal transfer coefficient(s) [TC] and concentration ratio [CR]) that are likely to be important for radiological assessment. The range of variability for transfer factors for the same plant groups is great, about 4-5 orders of magnitude, which limits their applicability. A better way to determine the best estimate the factors for radiocaesium and other important radionuclides is if the site-specific data are available...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
I Hoffman, B Lewis, P Chan
Using a recently published global data set of22 Na and7 Be from the global monitoring network of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), atmospheric circulation and stratosphere-troposphere interactions are examined. Cosmogenic22 Na has a half-life well-suited to environmental processes with durations from several months to a decade. Combined with corresponding7 Be observations, these two cosmogenic isotopes form a useful environmental tracer and new radiochronometer to study physical interactions of air masses in the stratosphere and troposphere...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Leif Persson, Jonas Boson, Torbjörn Nylén, Henrik Ramebäck
In situ gamma-ray spectrometry has since the introduction of portable germanium detectors been a widely used method for the assessment of radionuclide ground deposition activity levels. It is, however, a method that is most often associated with fairly large and, more important, poorly known combined measurement uncertainties. In this work an uncertainty analysis of in situ gamma ray spectrometry in accordance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements is presented. The uncertainty analysis takes into account uncertainty contributions from the calibration of the detector system, the assumed activity distribution in soil, soil density, detector height and air density...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Monken-Fernandes Horst, Michal Vladimir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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