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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Hirofumi Tsukada, Satoshi Nihira, Takashi Watanabe, Satoru Takeda
Fifty-four samples of irrigation water were collected in 2014 from agricultural ponds, rivers, and dams within the 80 km zone around TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). The samples were filtered with a 0.45 μm pore-size membrane filter to produce suspended and dissolved fractions. The (137)Cs activity concentration of the suspended fraction varied from 1.5 to 300 Bq g(-1) dry weight and was significantly higher than that in the soil around each sampling site. The range of (137)Cs activity concentrations in the dissolved fraction varied over three orders of magnitude at 0...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Zh А Baigazinov, S N Lukashenko, S S Karatayev, А V Panitski, А S Mamyrbayeva, S А Baigazy, T Ye Kozhakhanov, L F Subbotina
Following a continuous intake of tritium (T) by laying hens' over a 55 day period, an increase of НТО concentration both in eggs and meat was observed over the first 2 weeks for intakes via inhalation and ingestion of water and grass meal. After this time, equilibrium of the T in these products occurred. It was found that when the intake of HTO is from water, air and grass meal, the ratio of its activity concentration in muscular tissue to that in eggs does not exceed 1, 4, and 6 respectively. The ratio of ОBТ concentration to that of НТО in the meat of hens (ОBТ/HTO) when intakes were from water, air and grass meal were 0...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Madhusudan Ghosh, K K Swain, Rakesh Verma
In this work, we report the sorption of Nb on iron oxides and the effect of humic acid. Iron oxides viz. goethite, hematite and magnetite were chemically synthesised and characterised by X-ray diffraction, particle size, surface area and zeta potential measurement. The sorption of Nb on all the three iron oxides was low (∼40%) at pH 1, increased to ∼ 90% at pH 8 and decreased marginally above pH 8. The effect of humic acid on the sorption was very small. Thermodynamic parameters viz. activation energy, enthalpy, entropy, free energy and sticking probability were calculated to understand the mechanism of the sorption process...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Rafael Garcia-Tenorio, Elis Holm
An international conference on Radioecological Concentration Processes was held in Seville, Spain, 6-9 November 2016 at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores. It was attended by 160 participants from 35 different countries. This was the 2nd conference on this item since 1966, 50 years ago. The conference covered aspects of radiological important radionuclides on terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments and has allowed obtaining a clear picture of the status of the Radioecology as a consolidated discipline in the 21st century...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Misael Díaz-Asencio, José Antonio Corcho-Alvarado, Héctor Cartas-Aguila, Anabell Pulido-Caraballé, Carmen Betancourt, Joseph M Smoak, Elizabeth Alvarez-Padilla, Yeny Labaut-Betancourt, Carlos Alonso-Hernández, Mabel Seisdedo-Losa
Hanabanilla and Paso Bonito Reservoirs are the main fresh water sources for about half a million inhabitants in central Cuba. Prior to this investigation precise information about the losses of storage capacity was not available. Sedimentation is the dominant process leading to reduction in water storage capacity. We investigated the sedimentation process in both reservoirs by analyzing environmental radionuclides (e.g. (210)Pb, (226)Ra and (137)Cs) in sediment cores. In the shallow Paso Bonito Reservoir (mean depth of 6...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jaqueline Alves de Almeida Calábria, Stela Dalva Santos Cota, Gustavo Ferrari de Morais, Ana Cláudia Queiroz Ladeira
To be used as backfilling materials in radioactive waste disposal facilities, a natural material must have a suitable permeability, mechanical properties and a high sorption capacity for radionuclides. Also important when considering a material as a backfill is the effect of its interaction with the alkaline solution generated from concrete degradation. This solution promotes mineralogical alterations that result in significant changes in the material key properties influencing its performance as a safety component of the repository...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Yoshifumi Wakiyama, Alexei Konoplev, Toshihiro Wada, Tsugiko Takase, Ian Byrnes, Matthew Carradine, Kenji Nanba
(137)Cs activity concentration in the water of four ponds, Suzuuchi (SU), Funasawa (FS), Inkyozaka (IZ), and Kashiramori (KM), that are within 10 km of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant were observed from April 2015 to August 2016. (137)Cs inventories in soils surrounding SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 6.4, 2.9, 2.1, and 0.9 MBq m(-2), respectively. (137)Cs inventories in the bottom sediments of SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 13, 8.9, 1.6, and 1.1 MBq m(-2), respectively. Higher (137)Cs inventories in bottom sediment than those of soil in SU and FS suggest that (137)Cs was delivered to and accumulated in these ponds...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shingo Kobayashi, Takayuki Shinomiya, Takahiro Ishikawa, Hitoshi Imaseki, Kazuki Iwaoka, Hisashi Kitamura, Satoshi Kodaira, Keisuke Kobayashi, Masakazu Oikawa, Norihiro Miyaushiro, Yoshio Takashima, Yukio Uchihori
A low (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly in the north-northwest (NNW) direction from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) is identified by a new analysis of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio dataset which we had obtained in 2011-2015 by a series of car-borne surveys that employed a germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. We found that the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio is slightly lower (0.95, decay-corrected to March 11, 2011) in an area with a length of about 15 km and a width of about 3 km in the NNW direction from the FDNPS than in other directions from the station...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Zhengzhong He, Detao Xiao, Lidan Lv, Qingzhi Zhou, Jian Shan, Shoukang Qiu, Xijun Wu
It is necessary to establish a reference atmosphere in a thoron chamber containing various ratios of (212)Bi to (212)Pb activity concentrations (C((212)Bi)/C((212)Pb)) to simulate typical environmental conditions (e.g., indoor or underground atmospheres). In this study, a novel method was developed for establishing and controlling C((212)Bi)/C((212)Pb) in a thoron chamber system based on an aging chamber and air recirculation loops which alter the ventilation rate. The effects of main factors on the C((212)Bi)/C((212)Pb) were explored, and a steady-state theoretical model was derived to calculate the ratio...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Mobbs, P Orr, I Weber
Nuclear sites around the world are being decommissioned and remedial actions are being undertaken to enable the sites or parts of the sites to be reused. Although this is relatively straightforward for most sites, experience has suggested that preventative action is needed to minimise the impact of remediation activities on the environment and the potential burden to future generations. Removing all contamination in order to make a site suitable for any use generates waste and has associated environmental, social and economic detriments and benefits that should be taken into account...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ekaterina M Dutova, Aleksei N Nikitenkov, Vitaly D Pokrovskiy, David Banks, Bjørn S Frengstad, Valerii P Parnachev
Generic hydrochemical modelling of a grantoid-groundwater system, using the Russian software "HydroGeo", has been carried out with an emphasis on simulating the accumulation of uranium in the aqueous phase. The baseline model run simulates shallow granitoid aquifers (U content 5 ppm) under conditions broadly representative of southern Norway and southwestern Siberia: i.e. temperature 10 °C, equilibrated with a soil gas partial CO2 pressure (PCO2, open system) of 10(-2.5) atm. and a mildly oxidising redox environment (Eh = +50 mV)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Volker Hormann, Helmut W Fischer
As a consequence of therapeutic and diagnostic treatment of patients with thyroid diseases, (131)I is introduced into the sewage system on a regular basis. This presents an opportunity to use the (131)I as a tracer to study its partitioning and transport within a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In the case of nuclear accidents where (131)I is one of the most prominent nuclides, an understanding of iodine partitioning and transport will be valuable for developing models that may prognosticate the activity concentrations in sludge and outflow, especially after an accidental input...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
K Yoshimura, K Saito, K Fujiwara
Distribution of (137)Cs on components in urban areas such as roofs and roads is crucial for evaluating the behavior of radiocesium and ambient dose rates in the area. This study evaluated relative (137)Cs inventories, which are defined as the relative values of (137)Cs inventory on each component to that on a nearby permeable plane field, for 11 buildings in the evacuation zone about four years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The average relative inventory of paved ground accounted for 0...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Xiaole Zhang, Wolfgang Raskob, Claudia Landman, Dmytro Trybushnyi, Christoph Haller, Hongyong Yuan
Ambient gamma dose rate (GDR) is the primary observation quantity for nuclear emergency management due to its high acquisition frequency and dense spatial deployment. However, ambient GDR is the sum of both cloud and ground shine, which hinders its effective utilization. In this study, an automatic method is proposed to identify the radioactive plume passage and to separate the cloud and ground shine in the total GDR. The new method is evaluated against a synthetic GDR dataset generated by JRODOS (Real Time On-line Decision Support) System and compared with another method (Hirayama, H...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
J I McIntyre, C E Aalseth, T R Alexander, H O Back, B J Bellgraph, T W Bowyer, V Chipman, M W Cooper, A R Day, S Drellack, M P Foxe, B G Fritz, J C Hayes, P Humble, M E Keillor, R R Kirkham, E J Krogstad, J D Lowrey, E K Mace, M F Mayer, B D Milbrath, A Misner, S M Morley, M E Panisko, K B Olsen, M D Ripplinger, A Seifert, R Suarez
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory reports on the detection of (39)Ar at the location of an underground nuclear explosion on the Nevada Nuclear Security Site. The presence of (39)Ar was not anticipated at the outset of the experimental campaign but results from this work demonstrated that it is present, along with (37)Ar and (85)Kr in the subsurface at the site of an underground nuclear explosion. Our analysis showed that by using state-of-the-art technology optimized for radioargon measurements, it was difficult to distinguish (39)Ar from the fission product (85)Kr...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Mamoru Sato, Tsugiko Takase, Katsuhiko Yamaguchi
The effects of bark washing, and of epiphytic moss growing on the bark surfaces, on the (137)Cs activity concentrations in bark and stemflow samples were evaluated at two Japanese persimmon orchards located in Fukushima City and Date City, both approximately 60-65 km northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The means of (137)Cs in stemflow captured by 1 g of sphagnum placed on the main trunks of washed and unwashed trees, and on sites with moss and with no moss growing on bark of the non-washed trees in Date City, were 0...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Mattias Jönsson, Martin Tondel, Mats Isaksson, Robert Finck, Robert Wålinder, Afrah Mamour, Christopher Rääf
In connection with the Chernobyl fallout and the subsequent deposition of radionuclides in Sweden, Swedish municipalities launched a measurement program to monitor the external radiation exposure. This program encompasses measurements of the ambient dose equivalent rate 1 m above ground at selected locations, and repeats those measurements at the same locations at 7-month intervals. Measurement data compiled from the seven locations with the highest deposition were combined with data from aerial surveys since May 1986 of ground deposition of (137)Cs, high-resolution gamma spectrometry performed at four locations in May 1986, and measurements from fixed continuous air gamma rate monitoring stations from 28 April to 15 May 1986...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Lucrezia Terzi, Martin Kalinowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
E Muñoz, B Frutos, M Olaya, J Sánchez
The focus of this study is broadly to define the physics involved in radon generation and transport through the soil and other materials using different parameter-estimation tools from the literature. The effect of moisture in the soil and radon transport via water in the pore space was accounted for with the application of a porosity correction coefficient. A 2D finite element model is created, which reproduces the diffusion and advection mechanisms resulting from specified boundary conditions. A comparison between the model and several analytical and numerical solutions obtained from the literature and field studies validates the model...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ross A Jeffree, Scott J Markich, Francois Oberhaensli, Jean-Louis Teyssie
The biokinetics of eight radionuclides ((241)Am, (109)Cd, (134)Cs, (75)Se, (54)Mn, (110m)Ag, (65)Zn, (60)Co) absorbed from the aquatic medium by juvenile Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) were experimentally determined in fresh (0.42‰) and brackish (9.0‰) waters, of a similar salinity range to the Caspian Sea, and in conjunction with chemical speciation modelling. Uptake and loss rate constants were determined for each radionuclide for a 14 day exposure at each salinity and during 28 days of exposure to radionuclide-free conditions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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