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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Charles R Carrigan, Yunwei Sun, Matthew D Simpson
Prompt release of gases at the ground surface resulting from explosively propagated vents or large operational releases has typically been considered to be the only mode of transport for detonation gases from an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) giving rise to detectable levels of radioxenon gases in downwind atmospheric samples captured at distances exceeding 100 km. Using a model for thermally and barometrically driven post-detonation transport across the broad surface of a simulated UNE site, we show in conjunction with the results of an atmospheric tracer-release experiment that even deep, well-contained UNEs, without prompt vents or leaks, are potentially detectable tens of kilometers downwind with current technology; distances that are significant for localizing the source of detected atmospheric signals during on-site monitoring or inspection...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Le Dizès, M A Gonze
This article aims to review up-to-date knowledge and data acquired on 36 Cl transfers to terrestrial soil-plant systems, evaluate the existing modelling approaches and identify priorities for future model improvements. This update has revealed the existence of fairly recent studies, whose results could be used for improving the modelling approaches which have been developed over the last decade. The priority areas include the consideration of the dry deposition process and the transfer of both gaseous and aerosol 36 Cl to plants...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Julie J Loiselle, Jose M Knee, Leslie C Sutherland
Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, after tobacco smoke. While tobacco smoke-induced carcinogenesis has been studied extensively, far less is known about radon-induced carcinogenesis, particularly in relation to the influence of radon on gene expression. The objectives of the work described herein were to (a) determine if and how exposure to low dose radon-emitting rock influences cells, at the gene expression level, and (b) compare any gene expression changes resulting from the exposure to radon-emitting rock with those induced by exposure to tobacco smoke...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Igor Shuryak
Ionizing radiation (IR) produces multiple types of damage to nucleic acids, proteins and other crucial cellular components. Nevertheless, various microorganisms from phylogenetically distant taxa (bacteria, archaea, fungi) can resist IR levels many orders of magnitude above natural background. This intriguing phenomenon of radioresistance probably arose independently many times throughout evolution as a byproduct of selective pressures from other stresses (e.g. desiccation, UV radiation, chemical oxidants)...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Jacqueline Garnier-Laplace, Nicholas A Beresford
The assessment of the ecological impact due to radionuclides at contaminated sites requires estimation of the exposure of wildlife, in order to correlate radiation dose with known radiological effects. The robust interpretation of field data requires consideration of possible confounding effects (e.g., from the tsunami at Fukushima) and an accurate and relevant quantification of radiation doses to biota. Generally, in field studies the exposure of fauna and flora has often been characterised as measurements of the ambient dose rate or activity concentrations in some components of the environment...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Junko Takahashi, Yuichi Onda, Daichi Hihara, Kenji Tamura
After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011, several studies showed that the downward migration of 137 Cs from litter to mineral soil is more rapid in forests in Fukushima than in forests affected by the Chernobyl accident. Therefore, the downward migration within mineral soil layers is more important for predicting long-term dynamics of 137 Cs in forest ecosystems in Fukushima. In the present study, we monitored the detailed vertical distribution of 137 Cs in litter and soil layers for 6 y (2011-2017) following the previous study (2011-2012), and found that temporal changes in those distributions were different among mixed forest (MF), mature cedar (MC) and young cedar (YC) forests...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ronald C G M Smetsers, Jasper M Tomas
Individuals receive a significant part of their radiation exposure indoors. We anticipate that this exposure is likely to increase in the near future, due to a growing use in the building industry of recycled materials and materials previously regarded as waste. Such materials often contain elevated levels of natural radionuclides. Directive 2013/59/Euratom ('Basic Safety Standards', BSS) pays comprehensive attention to indoor exposure from natural radionuclides, but proper implementation of all corresponding BSS regulations is not straightforward, especially when regarding the regulation of building materials containing so-called Annex XIII materials...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Fei Chen, Jun Hu, Yoshio Takahashi, Masatoshi Yamada, M Safiur Rahman, Guosheng Yang
During the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, large amounts of radioactive materials were released into the environment. Among them, a large proportion of the radionuclides, such as Cs, entered into the environment as radioactive microparticles (RMs). In recent years, the characterization of RMs based on synchrotron radiation (SR) techniques has been reported, since their physical and chemical properties played an important role in evaluating the chemical reactions and physical changes that occurred when the nuclear material meltdowns took place...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Youyi Ni, Zhongtang Wang, Jian Zheng, Keiko Tagami, Qiuju Guo, Shigeo Uchida, Hirofumi Tsukada
Reported transfer factor (TF) values of Pu from paddy soil to rice are rather scarce, despite the radiotoxicity of Pu and the irreplaceable role of rice in Asian peoples' diets. Here, we conducted a field study to investigate the transfer of global fallout Pu from paddy soil to rice grain (hulled rice) in Japan. The 240 Pu/239 Pu atomic ratios in two rice grain samples out of 16 samples were determined and the ratios corresponded well with the global fallout value. The soil-to-rice TFPu in 12 Japanese prefectures ranged from 4...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Padilla, J M López-Gutiérrez, G Manjón, R García-Tenorio, J A Galván, M García-León
Cosmogenic radionuclides in the one-million-year half-life range, like 10 Be, find application fields in several Sciences. They are powerful tools in Geology and Geochronology, as they are very important tracers on the Earth, being utilized as chronometer. Meteoric 10 Be (T1/2  = 1.39 × 106  y) associated to aerosols can be used as a tracer of atmospheric processes and specifically as indicators of the cosmogenic interactions in lower Stratosphere, upper Troposphere, the air exchange between both and deposition processes on the Earth surface...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Abdullah E Alali, Khaled F Al-Shboul, Qusai Bani Yaseen, Ayah Alaroud
A continuous passive measurement of indoor and outdoor radon R222n, concentration is carried out in the nearby residential areas surrounding a high capacity gas-fired power station. The mean value for indoor measurements was 26.5 ± 1.75 Bq/m3 that is below the worldwide indoor mean of 40 Bq/m3 and for outdoor was 39.4 ± 4.04 Bq/m3 which is higher than the worldwide average outdoor radon concentration of 10 Bq/m3 . The annual estimated effective doses were found to vary from 0.54 to 1.05 mSv/y with an average value of 0...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Primož Mlakar, Marija Zlata Božnar, Boštjan Grašič
Radiological atmospheric releases require population dose calculation for proper determination of preventive measures. The old concept of relative concentrations requires long lasting constant emission which is not realistic. The proposed concept of the "relative doses" is the generalization and expansion of the known concept of relative concentrations. Relative doses allow an evaluation of the general non-stationary pollutants emission under the real weather conditions over complex terrain. Relative doses can be calculated even before the actual source term - quantified emission - is known...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Masaki Andoh, Satoshi Mikami, Shuichi Tsuda, Tadayoshi Yoshida, Norihiro Matsuda, Kimiaki Saito
As part of the investigation of the distribution of ambient dose equivalent rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), car-borne surveys using Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) systems have been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since 2011. The enormous volume of measurement data collected until 2016, including those until 2012 which were reported in the previous paper, was analyzed, and dependencies of the decreasing trend of the dose rates in regions within 80 km of the FDNPP on land-use categories, evacuation order areas and magnitude of the dose rates were examined...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Kazuyuki Sakuma, Hideki Tsuji, Seiji Hayashi, Hironori Funaki, Alex Malins, Kazuya Yoshimura, Hiroshi Kurikami, Akihiro Kitamura, Kazuki Iijima, Masaaki Hosomi
A study is presented on the applicability of the distribution coefficient (Kd ) absorption/desorption model to simulate dissolved 137 Cs concentrations in Fukushima river water. The upstream Ota River basin was simulated using GEneral-purpose Terrestrial Fluid-flow Simulator (GETFLOWS) for the period 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2015. Good agreement was obtained between the simulations and observations on water and suspended sediment fluxes, and on particulate bound 137 Cs concentrations under both base and high flow conditions...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Masahiko Okumura, Sebastien Kerisit, Ian C Bourg, Laura N Lammers, Takashi Ikeda, Michel Sassi, Kevin M Rosso, Masahiko Machida
Insights at the microscopic level of the process of radiocesium adsorption and interaction with clay mineral particles have improved substantially over the past several years, triggered by pressing social issues such as management of huge amounts of waste soil accumulated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. In particular, computer-based molecular modeling supported by advanced hardware and algorithms has proven to be a powerful approach. Its application can now generally encompass the full complexity of clay particle adsorption sites from basal surfaces to interlayers with inserted water molecules, to edges including fresh and weathered frayed ones...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hiroko Yoshida-Ohuchi, Norihiro Matsuda, Kimiaki Saito
In order to estimate residents' external dose due to radionuclide exposure resulting from fallout deposit on the ground, the shielding and dose reduction effects provided by structures such as houses and workplaces are taken into account as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. Many works on both calculation and measurement for European and American settlements have been reported and factors such as, shielding factors, protection factors, reduction factors, and location factors have been determined...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Haruko M Wainwright, Akiyuki Seki, Satoshi Mikami, Kimiaki Saito
In this study, we quantify the temporal changes of air dose rates in the regional scale around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, and predict the spatial distribution of air dose rates in the future. We first apply the Bayesian geostatistical method developed by Wainwright et al. (2017) to integrate multiscale datasets including ground-based walk and car surveys, and airborne surveys, all of which have different scales, resolutions, spatial coverage, and accuracy. This method is based on geostatistics to represent spatial heterogeneous structures, and also on Bayesian hierarchical models to integrate multiscale, multi-type datasets in a consistent manner...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Yukihisa Sanada, Yoshimi Urabe, Miyuki Sasaki, Kotaro Ochi, Tatsuo Torii
Airborne radiation monitoring was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of radionuclides emitted by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident throughout Japan. Carrying out airborne radiation monitoring using manned and unmanned helicopters, the we have developed and established an analysis method concurrently with the development of this monitoring method. In particular, because the background radiation level differs greatly between East and West regions of Japan, we have developed a discrimination method for natural radionuclide and cosmic rays using the gamma energy spectra...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hiroaki Kato, Yuichi Onda, Zul Hilmi Saidin, Wataru Sakashita, Keigo Hisadome, Nicolas Loffredo
The study investigated temporal changes in the 137 Cs concentrations in vegetal and hydrological samples collected from various forests in Yamakiya District, Kawamata Town of Fukushima prefecture over six years following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Cesium-137 was detected in all forest environmental samples. However, the concentration in most samples decreased exponentially with time. The 137 Cs concentrations in throughfall samples exhibited a double-exponential decreasing trend with time...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Minsik Kim, Alex Malins, Kazuya Yoshimura, Kazuyuki Sakuma, Hiroshi Kurikami, Akihiro Kitamura, Masahiko Machida, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Hideaki Yanagi
The influence of buildings, trees and paved surfaces on outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates (H˙∗ (10)) in suburban areas near to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) was investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. Simulation models of three un-decontaminated sites in Okuma and Tomioka were created with representations of individual buildings, trees and roads created using geographic information system (GIS) data. The 134 Cs and 137 Cs radioactivity distribution within each model was set using in-situ gamma spectroscopy measurements from December 2014 and literature values for the relative radioactive cesium concentration on paved surfaces, unpaved land, building outer surfaces, forest litter and soil layers, and different tree compartments...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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