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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

R Lal, L K Fifield, S G Tims, R J Wasson
At present there is a need for the development of new radioisotopes for soil erosion and sediment tracing especially as fallout (137)Cs levels become depleted. Recent studies have shown that (239)Pu can be a useful new soil erosion and sediment radioisotope tracer. (239)Pu was released in the major atmospheric nuclear weapons tests of 1950's and 1960's. However (239)Pu has a half-life of 24110 years and more than 99% of this isotope is still present in the environment today. In contrast (137)Cs with a half-life of 30...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hiroshi Fujiwara, Hidetoshi Kuramochi, Kazutaka Nomura, Tomoharu Maeseto, Masahiro Osako
Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (<1%). These results are significantly different from those obtained for the incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Mathilde Zebracki, Xavier Cagnat, Stéphanie Gairoard, Nicolas Cariou, Frédérique Eyrolle-Boyer, Béatrice Boulet, Christelle Antonelli
The large rivers are main pathways for the delivery of suspended sediments into coastal environments, affecting the biogeochemical fluxes and the ecosystem functioning. The radionuclides from (238)U and (232)Th-series can be used to understand the dynamic processes affecting both catchment soil erosion and sediment delivery to oceans. Based on annual water discharge the Rhone River represents the largest river of the Mediterranean Sea. The Rhone valley also represents the largest concentration in nuclear power plants in Europe...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
J Guillén, N A Beresford, A Baeza, M Izquierdo, M D Wood, A Salas, A Muñoz-Serrano, J M Corrales-Vázquez, J G Muñoz-Muñoz
A system for the radiological protection of the environment (or wildlife) based on Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) has been suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To assess whole-body activity concentrations for RAPs and the resultant internal dose rates, transfer parameters are required. However, transfer values specifically for the taxonomic families defined for the RAPs are often sparse and furthermore can be extremely site dependent. There is also a considerable geographical bias within available transfer data, with few data for Mediterranean ecosystems...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Elise Conte, Elisabeth Widom, David Kuentz
Inappropriate handling of radioactive waste at nuclear facilities can introduce non-natural uranium (U) into the environment via the air or groundwater, leading to anthropogenic increases in U concentrations. Uranium isotopic analyses of natural materials (e.g. soil, plants or water) provide a means to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic U in areas near sources of radionuclides to the environment. This study examines the utility of two different tree bark transects for resolving the areal extent of U atmospheric contamination using several locations in southwest Ohio that historically processed U...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
D Marčiulionienė, B Lukšienė, D Montvydienė, O Jefanova, J Mažeika, R Taraškevičius, R Stakėnienė, R Petrošius, E Maceika, N Tarasiuk, Z Žukauskaitė, L Kazakevičiūtė, M Volkova
Knowledge of the background activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides before the start of operations of the new nuclear facilities in Belarus is of great value worldwide. Inland water bodies in Lithuania (specifically the Neris River, the Nemunas River and the Curonian Lagoon) are near the site of the Belarusian NPP under construction and, for this reason, sediments and flooded soils from these sensitive areas were analysed for radiocesium and plutonium isotopes (macrophytes were analysed only for (137)Cs) in 2011-2012...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
K F Al-Shboul, A E Alali, I M Batayneh, H Y Al-Khodire
In this work, two complementary techniques, viz. liquid scintillation counting and high-resolution gamma spectrometry are utilized to analyze radionuclides concentrations in tap water of Irbid governorate, Jordan, and study their correlation. Gross alpha and gross beta concentrations, in the tap water samples collected from the nine districts of Irbid governorate, ranged from <82 to 484 mBq/L with a mean of 295 mBq/L and from <216 to 984 mBq/L with a mean of 611 mBq/L, respectively. Furthermore, gamma spectrometry analysis, for the tap water samples, shows that the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K ranged between <19 and 302 mBq/L, 24 to 119 mBq/L, and <101 to 342 mBq/L, respectively...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Taavi Vaasma, Marko Kaasik, Jüri Loosaar, Madis Kiisk, Alan H Tkaczyk
Two of the world's largest oil shale-fired power plants (PPs) in Estonia have been operational over 40 years, emitting various pollutants, such as fly ash, SOx, NOx, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds as well as radionuclides to the environment. The emissions from these PPs have varied significantly during this period, with the maximum during the 1970s and 1980s. The oil shale burned in the PPs contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the (238)U and (232)Th decay series as well as (40)K. These radionuclides become enriched in fly ash fractions (up to 10 times), especially in the fine fly ash escaping the purification system...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Masakazu Ota, Nana-Owusua A Kwamena, Steve Mihok, Volodymyr Korolevych
Environmental transfer models assume that organically-bound tritium (OBT) is formed directly from tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) in environmental compartments. Nevertheless, studies in the literature have shown that measured OBT/HTO ratios in environmental samples are variable and generally higher than expected. The importance of soil-to-leaf HTO transfer pathway in controlling the leaf tritium dynamics is not well understood. A model inter-comparison of two tritium transfer models (CTEM-CLASS-TT and SOLVEG-II) was carried out with measured environmental samples from an experimental garden plot set up next to a tritium-processing facility...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A Diener, P Hartmann, L Urso, J Vives I Batlle, M A Gonze, P Calmon, M Steiner
Modelling the radionuclide cycle in forests is important in case of contamination due to acute or chronic releases to the atmosphere and from underground waste repositories. This article describes the most important aspects to consider in forest model development. It intends to give an overview of the modelling approaches available and to provide guidance on how to address the quantification of radionuclide transport in forests. Furthermore, the most important gaps in modelling the radionuclide cycle in forests are discussed and suggestions are presented to address the variability of forest sites...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Tomas Hrncir, Roman Strazovec, Matej Zachar
The decommissioning of nuclear installations represents a complex process resulting in the generation of large amounts of waste materials containing various concentrations of radionuclides. Selection of an appropriate strategy of management of the mentioned materials strongly influences the effectiveness of decommissioning process keeping in mind safety, financial and other relevant aspects. In line with international incentives for optimization of radioactive material management, concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are widely discussed and applications of these concepts are analysed...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
N Karunakara, P Ujwal, I Yashodhara, K Sudeep Kumara, M P Mohan, K Bhaskar Shenoy, P V Geetha, B N Dileep, Joshi P James, P M Ravi
Air-to-grass mass interception factors for radionuclide are important basic input parameter for the estimation of radiation dose to the public around a nuclear power plant. In this paper, we present the determination of air-to- grass mass interception factors for iodine using a 2 m × 2 m × 2 m (l × b × h) size environmental chamber. The temperature, humidity, and rainfall inside the environmental chamber was controlled to required values to simulate different environmental conditions. Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum), grown in pots, was kept inside the environmental chamber and stable iodine in elemental form was sublimed quickly inside the chamber to simulate an accidental release of iodine to the environment...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M García-León
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) provides with an excellent sensitivity for the determination of radionuclides in the environment. In fact, conventional radiometric techniques can hardly compete with AMS in the solution of many problems involving the measurement of very low levels of radioactivity in Nature. For that reason, during the last years AMS has become a powerful tool for Radioecology studies. In this paper a review is done on the evolution of AMS applications to the measurement of environmental radioactivity and, therefore, its contribution to the understanding of radionuclide behavior in Nature...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Edyta Łokas, Przemysław Wachniew, Paweł Jodłowski, Michał Gąsiorek
A survey of artificial ((137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Am) and natural ((226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (210)Pb) radioactive isotopes in proglacial soils of an Arctic glacier have revealed high spatial variability of activity concentrations and inventories of the airborne radionuclides. Soil column (137)Cs inventories range from below the detection limit to nearly 120 kBq m(-2), this value significantly exceeding direct atmospheric deposition. This variability may result from the mixing of materials characterised by different contents of airborne radionuclides...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Bertil R R Persson, Runhild Gjelsvik, Elis Holm
This work deals with analysis and modelling of the radionuclides (210)Pb and(210)Po in the food-chain lichen-reindeer-man in addition to (210)Po and (137)Cs in top predators. By using the methods of Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) the atmospheric deposition of (210)Pb and (210)Po is predicted at the sample locations. Dynamic modelling of the activity concentration with differential equations is fitted to the sample data. Reindeer lichen consumption, gastrointestinal absorption, organ distribution and elimination is derived from information in the literature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Frank Tawussi, Dharmendra K Gupta, Elena L Mühr-Ebert, Stephanie Schneider, Stefan Bister, Clemens Walther
Bioavailability and plant uptake of radionuclides depend on various factors. Transfer into different plant parts depends on chemical and physical processes, which need to be known for realistic ingestion dose modelling when these plants are used for food. Within the scope of the present work, the plutonium uptake by potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) was investigated in hydroponic solution of low concentration [Pu] = 10(-9) mol L(-1). Particular attention was paid to the speciation of radionuclides in the solution which was modelled by the speciation code PHREEQC...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A Konoplev, V Golosov, Y Wakiyama, T Takase, V Yoschenko, T Yoshihara, O Parenyuk, A Cresswell, M Ivanov, M Carradine, K Nanba, Y Onda
Processes of vertical and lateral migration lead to gradual reduction in contamination of catchment soil, particularly its top layer. The reduction can be considered as natural attenuation. This, in turn, results in a gradual decrease of radiocesium activity concentrations in the surface runoff and river water, in both dissolved and particulate forms. The purpose of this research is to study the dynamics of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in undisturbed soils and floodplain deposits exposed to erosion and sedimentation during floods...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shigeo Uchida, Keiko Tagami
Transfer of radiocesium from soil to crops is an important pathway for human intake. In the period from one to two years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, food monitoring results showed that radiocesium concentrations in soybean (a legume) were higher than those in other annual agricultural crops; in these crops, root uptake is the major pathway of radiocesium from soil to plant. However, it was not clear whether or not leguminous and non-leguminous herbaceous plants have different Cs uptake abilities from the same soil because crop sample collection fields were different...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
UkJae Lee, Jun Woo Bae, Hee Reyoung Kim
This study presents a real-time measurement-based rapid radiation distribution visualization system for radionuclide recognition, which can quickly scan a contaminated environment. The system combines a portable detector with a digital map and a program for quick data treatment. Radiation information at the measurement location is transferred between a detector and a laptop. It includes environmental and artificial components, specific radionuclides, and total radionuclides. After scanning the area, the radiation distributions are comprehensively displayed in 2D and 3D maps corresponding to the measured area, all in a few tens of seconds...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M R Kardan, N Fathabdi, A Attarilar, M T Esmaeili-Gheshlaghi, M Karimi, A Najafi, S S Hosseini
In the past, some efforts have been made for measuring natural radioactivity and evaluating public exposure to natural radiation in certain areas of Iran especially in well-known High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRA) in Ramsar and Mahallat. However, the information on radionuclide concentrations, and, consequently, terrestrial radiation exposure for many other areas are not available. There was therefore a need for a systematic and nation-wide survey. For this purpose, 979 soil samples from 31 provinces were collected...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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