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European Journal of Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825166/adherence-to-the-2015-dutch-dietary-guidelines-and-risk-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-mortality-in-the-rotterdam-study
#1
Trudy Voortman, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, M Arfan Ikram, Bruno H Stricker, Frank J A van Rooij, Lies Lahousse, Henning Tiemeier, Guy G Brusselle, Oscar H Franco, Josje D Schoufour
We aimed to evaluate the criterion validity of the 2015 food-based Dutch dietary guidelines, which were formulated based on evidence on the relation between diet and major chronic diseases. We studied 9701 participants of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort in individuals aged 45 years and over [median 64.1 years (95%-range 49.0-82.8)]. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline with a food-frequency questionnaire. For all participants, we examined adherence (yes/no) to fourteen items of the guidelines: vegetables (≥200 g/day), fruit (≥200 g/day), whole-grains (≥90 g/day), legumes (≥135 g/week), nuts (≥15 g/day), dairy (≥350 g/day), fish (≥100 g/week), tea (≥450 mL/day), ratio whole-grains:total grains (≥50%), ratio unsaturated fats and oils:total fats (≥50%), red and processed meat (<300 g/week), sugar-containing beverages (≤150 mL/day), alcohol (≤10 g/day) and salt (≤6 g/day)...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819710/epidemiology-and-big-data
#2
Bruno H Stricker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815360/epidemiology-in-germany-general-development-and-personal-experience
#3
Heinz-Erich Wichmann
Did you ever hear about epidemiology in Germany? Starting from an epidemiological desert the discipline has grown remarkably, especially during the last 10-15 years: research institutes have been established, research funding has improved, multiple curriculae in Epidemiology and Public Health are offered. This increase has been quite steep, and now the epidemiological infrastructure is much better. Several medium-sized and even big population cohorts are ongoing, and the number and quality of publications from German epidemiologists has reached a respectable level...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803329/childhood-body-mass-index-and-height-in-relation-to-site-specific-risks-of-colorectal-cancers-in-adult-life
#4
Britt W Jensen, Michael Gamborg, Ismail Gögenur, Andrew G Renehan, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Jennifer L Baker
As colorectal cancers have a long latency period, their origins may lie early in life. Therefore childhood body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and height may be associated with adult colorectal cancer. Using a cohort design, 257,623 children from The Copenhagen School Health Records Register born from 1930 to 1972 with measured heights and weights at ages 7 to 13 years were followed for adult colon and rectal adenocarcinomas by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regressions...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780640/trends-in-cervical-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-in-poland-is-there-an-impact-of-the-introduction-of-the-organised-screening
#5
LETTER
Andrzej Nowakowski, Urszula Wojciechowska, Paulina Wieszczy, Marek Cybulski, Michał F Kamiński, Joanna Didkowska
Aside from existing opportunistic screening, an organised screening programme (OSP) for cervical cancer (CC) was implemented in 2006/2007 in Poland. We applied joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort model to look for the impact of the OSP on CC incidence/mortality trends. Decline of age-standardised incidence rates (ASIRs) in the screening-age group (25-59 years) accelerated from -2.2% (95% CI -2.7 to -1.7%) between 1993 and 2008 to -6.1% (95% CI -7.7 to -4.4%) annually after 2008. In women aged 60+ years, ASIRs declined from 1986 until 2005 [annual percent change (APC) = -2...
August 5, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776115/social-justice-epidemiology-and-health-inequalities
#6
Michael Marmot
A lifetime spent studying how social determinants of health lead to health inequalities has clarified many issues. First is that social stratification is an appropriate topic of study for epidemiologists. To ignore it would be to ignore a major source of variation in health in society. Not only is the social gradient in health appropriate to study but we have made progress both in understanding its causes and what can be done to address them. Post-modern 'critical theory' raises questions about the social construction of science...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770358/target-trial-emulation-teaching-epidemiology-and-beyond
#7
Jeremy A Labrecque, Sonja A Swanson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762124/a-randomized-trial-of-early-detection-of-clinically-significant-prostate-cancer-proscreen-study-design-and-rationale
#8
Anssi Auvinen, Antti Rannikko, Kimmo Taari, Paula Kujala, Tuomas Mirtti, Anu Kenttämies, Irina Rinta-Kiikka, Terho Lehtimäki, Niku Oksala, Kim Pettersson, Teuvo L Tammela
The current evidence of PSA-based prostate cancer screening shows a reduction in cause-specific mortality, but with substantial overdiagnosis. Recently, new developments in detection of clinically relevant prostate cancer include multiple kallikreins as biomarkers besides PSA, and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for biopsy decision. They offer opportunities for improving the outcomes in screening, particularly reduction in overdiagnosis and higher specificity for potentially lethal cancer...
July 31, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756534/statistical-science-a-grammar-for-research
#9
David R Cox
I greatly appreciate the invitation to give this lecture with its century long history. The title is a warning that the lecture is rather discursive and not highly focused and technical. The theme is simple. That statistical thinking provides a unifying set of general ideas and specific methods relevant whenever appreciable natural variation is present. To be most fruitful these ideas should merge seamlessly with subject-matter considerations. By contrast, there is sometimes a temptation to regard formal statistical analysis as a ritual to be added after the serious work has been done, a ritual to satisfy convention, referees, and regulatory agencies...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752198/renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-and-risk-of-fractures-a-prospective-cohort-study-and-meta-analysis-of-published-observational-cohort-studies
#10
Setor K Kunutsor, Ashley W Blom, Michael R Whitehouse, Patrick G Kehoe, Jari A Laukkanen
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) represents an important target of antihypertensive medications. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), which are widely-used RAS inhibiting drugs, have been suggested to have beneficial effects on bone tissue. We aimed to assess the associations of use of ACEIs and/or ARBs with the risk of fractures using a population-based prospective cohort and a meta-analysis of published prospective cohort studies. Information on antihypertensive medication use (including both ACEIs and ARBs) were assessed in 1743 men and women of the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study...
July 27, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748498/the-value-of-explicitly-emulating-a-target-trial-when-using-real-world-evidence-an-application-to-colorectal-cancer-screening
#11
Xabier García-Albéniz, John Hsu, Miguel A Hernán
Observational analyses for causal inference often rely on real world data collected for purposes other than research. A frequent goal of these observational analyses is to use the data to emulate a hypothetical randomized experiment, i.e., the target trial, that mimics the design features of a true experiment, including a clear definition of time zero with synchronization of treatment assignment and determination of eligibility. We review a recent observational analysis that explicitly emulated a target trial of screening colonoscopy using insurance claims from U...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718029/serum-c-reactive-protein-increases-the-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-a-prospective-study-and-meta-analysis-of-published-prospective-evidence
#12
Setor K Kunutsor, Samuel Seidu, Ashley W Blom, Kamlesh Khunti, Jari A Laukkanen
Evolving debate suggests that C-reactive protein (CRP) might be associated with the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE); however, the evidence is conflicting. We aimed to assess the prospective association of CRP with VTE risk. C-reactive protein was measured in serum samples at baseline from 2420 men aged 42-61 years, from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease study. Within-person variability in CRP levels was corrected for using repeat measurements of CRP taken 11 years after baseline. Incident VTE events (n = 119) were recorded during a median follow-up of 24...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710542/a-possible-dual-effect-of-cigarette-smoking-on-the-risk-of-postmenopausal-breast-cancer
#13
Piet A van den Brandt
Smoking seems modestly associated with breast cancer, but the potential dual effect of smoking (with opposing properties: carcinogenic vs anti-estrogenic) is understudied. The relationship between smoking before and after menopause and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). In the NLCS, 62,573 women aged 55-69 years provided information on smoking, dietary and other lifestyle habits in 1986. Follow-up for cancer incidence until 2007 (20.3 years) consisted of record linkages with the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the Dutch Pathology Registry PALGA...
July 14, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702880/atrial-fibrillation-in-immigrant-groups-a-cohort-study-of-all-adults-45%C3%A2-years-of-age-and-older-in-sweden
#14
Per Wändell, Axel C Carlsson, Xinjun Li, Danijela Gasevic, Johan Ärnlöv, Martin J Holzmann, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
To study the association between country of birth and incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in several immigrant groups in Sweden. The study population included all adults (n = 3,226,752) aged 45 years and older in Sweden. AF was defined as having at least one registered diagnosis of AF in the National Patient Register. The incidence of AF in different immigrant groups, using Swedish-born as referents, was assessed by Cox regression, expressed in hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). All models were stratified by sex and adjusted for age, geographical residence in Sweden, educational level, marital status, and neighbourhood socioeconomic status...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698923/sequence-symmetry-analysis-in-pharmacovigilance-and-pharmacoepidemiologic-studies
#15
REVIEW
Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Nicole Pratt, Cheng-Yang Hsieh, Swu-Jane Lin, Anton Pottegård, Elizabeth E Roughead, Yea-Huei Kao Yang, Jesper Hallas
Sequence symmetry analysis (SSA) is a method for detecting adverse drug events by utilizing computerized claims data. The method has been increasingly used to investigate safety concerns of medications and as a pharmacovigilance tool to identify unsuspected side effects. Validation studies have indicated that SSA has moderate sensitivity and high specificity and has robust performance. In this review we present the conceptual framework of SSA and discuss advantages and potential pitfalls of the method in practice...
July 11, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688065/airway-obstruction-and-the-risk-of-myocardial-infarction-and-death-from-coronary-heart-disease-a-national-health-examination-survey-with-a-33-year-follow-up-period
#16
Tiina Mattila, Tuula Vasankari, Harri Rissanen, Paul Knekt, Pauli Puukka, Markku Heliövaara
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with coronary mortality. Yet, data about the association between COPD and acute myocardial infarction (MI) remain scarce. We aimed to study airway obstruction as a predictor of MI and coronary mortality among 5576 Finnish adults who participated in a national health examination survey between 1978 and 1980. Subjects underwent spirometry, had all necessary data, showed no indications of cardiovascular disease at baseline, and were followed up through record linkage with national registers through 2011...
July 7, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688064/the-death-toll-of-french-former-prisoners
#17
LETTER
Aline Désesquelles, Annie Kensey
Several studies have documented that ex-prisoners are at higher risk of death than the general population but only one study, concerning one single prison, has examined the French case. This study relies on a nationally representative sample of all inmates released from French prisons between June and December 2002. A linkage between two administrative databases makes it possible to study mortality within 5 years after release. The magnitude of ex-prisoners' excess mortality is similar to that observed in other studies...
July 7, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667447/the-association-between-leisure-time-physical-activity-low-hdl-cholesterol-and-mortality-in-a-pooled-analysis-of-nine-population-based-cohorts
#18
Gary O'Donovan, David Stensel, Mark Hamer, Emmanuel Stamatakis
The objective of this study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical activity, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and mortality. Self-reported leisure-time physical activity, HDL-C concentration, and mortality were assessed in 37,059 adults in Health Survey for England and Scottish Health Survey. Meeting physical activity guidelines was defined as ≥150 min wk(-1) of moderate-intensity activity, ≥75 min wk(-1) of vigorous-intensity activity, or equivalent combinations...
June 30, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667446/diagnostic-performance-of-flexible-sigmoidoscopy-combined-with-fecal-immunochemical-test-in-colorectal-cancer-screening-meta-analysis-and-modeling
#19
Tobias Niedermaier, Korbinian Weigl, Michael Hoffmeister, Hermann Brenner
Once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS), which reliably detects neoplasms in the distal colon and rectum but not in the proximal colon, has been shown to reduce incidence and mortality of distal colorectal cancer (CRC). Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) detect the majority of CRCs and some proportion of adenomas also in the proximal colon. We assessed the expected diagnostic performance of combined application of FS and FIT. We systematically reviewed screening studies conducted in an average risk population that reported specificities and site-specific sensitivities of FITs for detection of CRC or advanced adenoma (AA)...
June 30, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624884/age-at-menarche-and-lung-function-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#20
Dipender Gill, Nuala A Sheehan, Matthias Wielscher, Nick Shrine, Andre F S Amaral, John R Thompson, Raquel Granell, Bénédicte Leynaert, Francisco Gómez Real, Ian P Hall, Martin D Tobin, Juha Auvinen, Susan M Ring, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Louise V Wain, John Henderson, Deborah Jarvis, Cosetta Minelli
A trend towards earlier menarche in women has been associated with childhood factors (e.g. obesity) and hypothesised environmental exposures (e.g. endocrine disruptors present in household products). Observational evidence has shown detrimental effects of early menarche on various health outcomes including adult lung function, but these might represent spurious associations due to confounding. To address this we used Mendelian randomization where genetic variants are used as proxies for age at menarche, since genetic associations are not affected by classical confounding...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
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