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European Journal of Epidemiology

Gudrun Weinmayr, Andrea Jaensch, Ann-Kathrin Ruelius, Francesco Forastiere, David P Strachan
Asthma prevalence in children varies substantially around the world, but the contribution of known risk factors to this international variation is uncertain. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Two studied 8-12 year old children in 30 centres worldwide with parent-completed symptom and risk factor questionnaires and aeroallergen skin prick testing. We used multilevel logistic regression modelling to investigate the effect of adjustment for individual and ecological risk factors on the between-centre variation in prevalence of recent wheeze...
November 11, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Yang Xuan, Martin Bobak, Ankita Anusruti, Eugène H J M Jansen, Andrzej Pająk, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Kai-Uwe Saum, Bernd Holleczek, Xin Gao, Hermann Brenner, Ben Schöttker
Oxidative stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction and is involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. However, associations of biomarkers of oxidative stress with MI and stroke have not yet been addressed in large cohort studies. A nested case-control design was applied in four population-based cohort studies from Germany, Czech Republic, Poland and Lithuania. Derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) levels, as a proxy for the reactive oxygen species burden, and total thiol levels (TTL), as a proxy for the reductive capacity, were measured in baseline serum samples of 476 incident MI cases and 454 incident stroke cases as well as five controls per case individually matched by study center, age and sex...
November 7, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Lawrence T Dauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Matthias Möhner
The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study is unquestionably the most suitable data material to date to examine a possible link between diesel engine emissions and lung cancer risk. But the results do not appear to be consistent in themselves. The crucial methodological problem in this study, however, has yet to be discovered, to which the lack of any description of age related information (year of birth, year of hire, year of first exposure, year of death) for the cohort as well as for the cases might have contributed...
October 31, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Henne Holstege, Nina Beker, Tjitske Dijkstra, Karlijn Pieterse, Elizabeth Wemmenhove, Kimja Schouten, Linette Thiessens, Debbie Horsten, Sterre Rechtuijt, Sietske Sikkes, Frans W A van Poppel, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, Marc Hulsman, Philip Scheltens
Although the incidence of dementia increases exponentially with age, some individuals reach more than 100 years with fully retained cognitive abilities. To identify the characteristics associated with the escape or delay of cognitive decline, we initiated the 100-plus Study ( ). The 100-plus Study is an on-going prospective cohort study of Dutch centenarians who self-reported to be cognitively healthy, their first-degree family members and their respective partners. We collect demographics, life history, medical history, genealogy, neuropsychological data and blood samples...
October 25, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Dirk De Bacquer, Delphine De Smedt, Kornelia Kotseva, Catriona Jennings, David Wood, Lars Rydén, Viveca Gyberg, Bahira Shahim, Philippe Amouyel, Jan Bruthans, Almudena Castro Conde, Renata Cífková, Jaap W Deckers, Johan De Sutter, Mirza Dilic, Maryna Dolzhenko, Andrejs Erglis, Zlatko Fras, Dan Gaita, Nina Gotcheva, John Goudevenos, Peter Heuschmann, Aleksandras Laucevicius, Seppo Lehto, Dragan Lovic, Davor Miličić, David Moore, Evagoras Nicolaides, Raphael Oganov, Andrzej Pajak, Nana Pogosova, Zeljko Reiner, Martin Stagmo, Stefan Störk, Lale Tokgözoğlu, Dusko Vulic, Martin Wagner, Guy De Backer
The EUROASPIRE surveys (EUROpean Action on Secondary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) demonstrated that most European coronary patients fail to achieve lifestyle, risk factor and therapeutic targets. Here we report on the 2-year incidence of hard cardiovascular (CV) endpoints in the EUROASPIRE IV cohort. EUROASPIRE IV (2012-2013) was a large cross-sectional study undertaken at 78 centres from selected geographical areas in 24 European countries. Patients were interviewed and examined at least 6 months following hospitalization for a coronary event or procedure...
October 23, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Jungyeon Choi, Olaf M Dekkers, Saskia le Cessie
Propensity score analysis is a popular method to control for confounding in observational studies. A challenge in propensity methods is missing values in confounders. Several strategies for handling missing values exist, but guidance in choosing the best method is needed. In this simulation study, we compared four strategies of handling missing covariate values in propensity matching and propensity weighting. These methods include: complete case analysis, missing indicator method, multiple imputation and combining multiple imputation and missing indicator method...
October 19, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Merete Osler, Gunhild Tidemann Christensen, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Kaare Christensen, Ellen Garde, Maarten Pieter Rozing
Hearing loss in later life has been associated with risk of dementia. The impact of risk factors for dementia may change during life, and it is unknown whether hearing loss early in midlife represents a risk factor for dementia. We examined whether hearing loss diagnosed in midlife was associated with an increased risk of dementia. A cohort comprising 942,567 Danish men enrolled in the mandatory conscription board examination was followed from conscription (age 19). Cognitive ability was measured at conscription, while hearing loss was ascertained either by physicians diagnosis at conscription or by the Danish National Patient Registry from 1977 to 2016 (ICD-8:388; 389; ICD-10:H90; H91)...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Lindsay C Kobayashi, Lisa F Berkman, Ryan G Wagner, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, S V Subramanian
We aimed to estimate the relationship between height (a measure of early-life cumulative net nutrition) and later-life cognitive function among older rural South African adults, and whether education modified this relationship. Data were from baseline in-person interviews with 5059 adults ≥ 40 years in the population-based "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa" (HAALSI) study in Agincourt sub-district, South Africa, in 2015. Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between height quintile and latent cognitive function z-score (representing episodic memory, time orientation, and numeracy), with adjustment for life course covariates and a height-by-education interaction...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Anne-Sophie Sillesen, Anna Axelsson Raja, Christian Pihl, Ruth Ottilia Birgitta Vøgg, Morten Hedegaard, Pernille Emmersen, Karin Sundberg, Ann Tabor, Cathrine Vedel, Helle Zingenberg, Charlotte Kruse, Charlotte Wilken-Jensen, Tina Holm Nielsen, Finn Stener Jørgensen, Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen, Lars Søndergaard, Pia R Kamstrup, Børge G Nordestgaard, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Niels Vejlstrup, Heather A Boyd, Henning Bundgaard, Kasper Iversen
Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are reported in 0.8% of newborns. Numerous factors influence cardiovascular development and CHD prevalence, and possibly also development of cardiovascular disease later in life. However, known factors explain the probable etiology in only a fraction of patients. Past large-scale population-based studies have made invaluable contributions to the understanding of cardiac disease, but none recruited participants prenatally and focused on the neonatal period. The Copenhagen Baby Heart Study (CBHS) is a population-based study of the prevalence, spectrum, and prognosis of structural and functional cardiac abnormalities...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Tamara V Azizova, Nobuyuki Hamada, Evgeniya S Grigoryeva, Evgeny V Bragin
This study is the first to report cataract type specific risks in a cohort of Russian Mayak Production Association workers following chronic occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. In this retrospective cohort study, 22,377 workers (females 25.4%) first employed in 1948-1982 were followed up till the end of 2008. All cataract subtypes were significantly dependent on sex, attained age, diabetes mellitus, myopia and glaucoma. For each of posterior subcapsular (PSC), cortical and nuclear cataracts, the risk of cataract incidence significantly linearly increased with increasing radiation dose...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Amirhossein Modabbernia, Sven Sandin, Raz Gross, Helen Leonard, Mika Gissler, Erik T Parner, Richard Francis, Kim Carter, Michaeline Bresnahan, Diana Schendel, Mady Hornig, Abraham Reichenberg
Low Apgar score has been associated with higher risk for several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. Studies of the association between Apgar score and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been inconsistent. We aimed to investigate (1) the association between low Apgar score at 5 min and risk for ASD, and (2) the modifying effects of gestational age and sex on this association in the largest multinational database of ASD. We included prospective data from 5...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Ellena Badrick, Isabella Renehan, Andrew G Renehan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Kristin Benjaminsen Borch, Elisabete Weiderpass, Tonje Braaten, Merethe Selnes Hansen, Idlir Licaj
We aimed to investigate physical activity (PA) and risk of different histological subtypes of lung cancer according to smoking status and body mass index using repeated measurements in a large cohort of women in Norway. The study sample for the multiple imputation analyses consisted of 86,499 and for the complete-case analysis 80,802 women. Repeated measurements of PA level, smoking habits, weight, and height were available for 54,691 women (63.2%), who were included in repeated measurement analyses combined with multiple imputation to address attrition...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Jinluan Chen, Daniel van der Duin, Natalia Campos-Obando, Mohammad Arfan Ikram, Tamar E C Nijsten, André G Uitterlinden, Maria Carola Zillikens
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in tissues with aging and may influence age-related diseases. They can be estimated non-invasively by skin autofluorescence (SAF) using the AGE Reader™. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3 ) may inhibit AGEs accumulation through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties but evidence in humans is scarce. The objective was to investigate the association between serum 25(OH)D3 and SAF in the population-based cohort study. Serum 25(OH)D3 and other covariates were measured at baseline...
September 25, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Shivani Padmanabhan, Lucy Carty, Ellen Cameron, Rebecca E Ghosh, Rachael Williams, Helen Strongman
Record linkage is increasingly used to expand the information available for public health research. An understanding of record linkage methods and the relevant strengths and limitations is important for robust analysis and interpretation of linked data. Here, we describe the approach used by Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to link primary care data to other patient level datasets, and the potential implications of this approach for CPRD data analysis. General practice electronic health record software providers separately submit de-identified data to CPRD and patient identifiers to NHS Digital, excluding patients who have opted-out from contributing data...
September 15, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Katri Saarela, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Reijo Sund, Ilmo Keskimäki, Sirpa Hartikainen, Eero Pukkala
Diabetes and cancer are common diseases both with enormous impact on health burden globally. The increased risk of several types of cancer among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus has been indicated repeatedly. This study aimed at exploring and describing the association between type 2 diabetes and cancer incidence. A cohort of 428,326 people with type 2 diabetes was identified from the Finnish National Diabetes Register and followed up through a register linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry for cancer incidence during 1988-2014...
September 4, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Unal Mutlu, Sonja A Swanson, Caroline C W Klaver, Albert Hofman, Peter J Koudstaal, Muhammad Arfan Ikram, Muhammad Kamran Ikram
A potential mechanism by which smoking affects ischemic stroke is through wider venules, but this mediating role of wider venules has never been quantified. Here, we aimed to estimate to what extent the effect of smoking on ischemic stroke is possibly mediated by the venules via the recently developed four-way effect decomposition. This study was part of a population-based study including 9109 stroke-free persons participated in the study in 1990, 2004, or 2006 (mean age: 63.7 years; 58% women). Smoking behavior (smoking versus non-smoking) was identified by interview...
September 4, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Mark P Little, Cari M Kitahara, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Marie-Odile Bernier, Raquel Velazquez-Kronen, Michele M Doody, David Borrego, Jeremy S Miller, Bruce H Alexander, Steven L Simon, Dale L Preston, Nobuyuki Hamada, Martha S Linet, Craig Meyer
It has long been known that relatively high-dose ionising radiation exposure (> 1 Gy) can induce cataract, but there has been no evidence that this occurs at low doses (< 100 mGy). To assess low-dose risk, participants from the US Radiologic Technologists Study, a large, prospective cohort, were followed from date of mailed questionnaire survey completed during 1994-1998 to the earliest of self-reported diagnosis of cataract/cataract surgery, cancer other than non-melanoma skin, or date of last survey (up to end 2014)...
August 27, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
John P A Ioannidis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
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