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European Journal of Epidemiology

Shivani Padmanabhan, Lucy Carty, Ellen Cameron, Rebecca E Ghosh, Rachael Williams, Helen Strongman
Record linkage is increasingly used to expand the information available for public health research. An understanding of record linkage methods and the relevant strengths and limitations is important for robust analysis and interpretation of linked data. Here, we describe the approach used by Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to link primary care data to other patient level datasets, and the potential implications of this approach for CPRD data analysis. General practice electronic health record software providers separately submit de-identified data to CPRD and patient identifiers to NHS Digital, excluding patients who have opted-out from contributing data...
September 15, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Shabina A Hayat, Robert Luben, Nichola Dalzell, Stephanie Moore, Eef Hogervorst, Fiona E Matthews, Nick Wareham, Carol Brayne, Kay-Tee Khaw
Despite several studies demonstrating an independent and inverse association between cognition and mortality, the nature of this association still remains unclear. To examine the association of cognition and mortality after accounting for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors and to explore both test and population characteristics influencing this relationship. In a population based cohort of 8585 men and women aged 48-92 years, who had cognitive assessments in 2006-2011 and were followed up till 2016 for mortality, we examined the relationship between individual cognitive tests as well as a global cognition score to compare their ability in predicting mortality and whether these differed by population characteristics...
September 10, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Yoon Jin Choi, Dong Ho Lee, Kyung-Do Han, Cheol Min Shin, Nayoung Kim
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components has been thought to be involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the results is often inconsistent according to gender or anatomical location of tumor. This study aimed to investigate the association between MetS and its components and CRC development by gender and tumor location. We evaluated the data of 22,809,722 Korean individuals of the National semi-compulsive cohort who underwent regular health check-ups between 2009 and 2012. Compared to subjects without MetS components, the hazard ratio for CRC development in patients with MetS was 1...
September 8, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Thomas Wiebe, Lars Hjorth, Mercedes Marotta Kelly, Helena M Linge, Stanislaw Garwicz
A population based registry, with the acronym BORISS, was established. It contains all individuals (0-18 years of age at diagnosis) diagnosed with cancer from 1970-01-01 until 2016-12-31 in Southern Sweden. The treatment data has been entered into the registry after confirmation of the diagnosis by the Swedish national cancer registry and updates on vital status from the Swedish population registry. The number of individuals with a pediatric cancer diagnosed during these 46 years are 2928. Of these, 2065 are currently alive and 1882 individuals are 5-year survivors...
September 6, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Katri Saarela, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Reijo Sund, Ilmo Keskimäki, Sirpa Hartikainen, Eero Pukkala
Diabetes and cancer are common diseases both with enormous impact on health burden globally. The increased risk of several types of cancer among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus has been indicated repeatedly. This study aimed at exploring and describing the association between type 2 diabetes and cancer incidence. A cohort of 428,326 people with type 2 diabetes was identified from the Finnish National Diabetes Register and followed up through a register linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry for cancer incidence during 1988-2014...
September 4, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Unal Mutlu, Sonja A Swanson, Caroline C W Klaver, Albert Hofman, Peter J Koudstaal, Muhammad Arfan Ikram, Muhammad Kamran Ikram
A potential mechanism by which smoking affects ischemic stroke is through wider venules, but this mediating role of wider venules has never been quantified. Here, we aimed to estimate to what extent the effect of smoking on ischemic stroke is possibly mediated by the venules via the recently developed four-way effect decomposition. This study was part of a population-based study including 9109 stroke-free persons participated in the study in 1990, 2004, or 2006 (mean age: 63.7 years; 58% women). Smoking behavior (smoking versus non-smoking) was identified by interview...
September 4, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Mark P Little, Cari M Kitahara, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Marie-Odile Bernier, Raquel Velazquez-Kronen, Michele M Doody, David Borrego, Jeremy S Miller, Bruce H Alexander, Steven L Simon, Dale L Preston, Nobuyuki Hamada, Martha S Linet, Craig Meyer
It has long been known that relatively high-dose ionising radiation exposure (> 1 Gy) can induce cataract, but there has been no evidence that this occurs at low doses (< 100 mGy). To assess low-dose risk, participants from the US Radiologic Technologists Study, a large, prospective cohort, were followed from date of mailed questionnaire survey completed during 1994-1998 to the earliest of self-reported diagnosis of cataract/cataract surgery, cancer other than non-melanoma skin, or date of last survey (up to end 2014)...
August 27, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
James A Hanley
With greater access to regression-based methods for confounder control, the etiologic study with individual matching, analyzed by classical (calculator) methods, lost favor in recent decades. This design was costly, and the data sometimes mis-analyzed. Now, with Big Data, individual matching becomes an economical option. To many, however, conditional logistic regression, commonly used to estimate the incidence density ratio parameter, is somewhat of a black box whose output is not easily checked. An epidemiologist-statistician pair recently proposed a new estimator that is easily applied to data from individually-matched series with a 2:1 ratio (and no other confounding variables) using just a hand calculator or spreadsheet...
August 24, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Dong Hoon Lee, NaNa Keum, Frank B Hu, E John Orav, Eric B Rimm, Walter C Willett, Edward L Giovannucci
Obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), is a well-established risk factor of type 2 diabetes, but BMI has been criticized for its inability to discriminate fat mass and lean body mass. We examined the association between predicted fat mass and type 2 diabetes risk in two large US prospective cohorts, and compared the magnitude of the association with BMI and other obesity indicators. Validated anthropometric prediction equations previously developed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to estimate predicted fat mass and percent fat for 97,111 participants from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1987-2012) and the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2012) who were followed up for type 2 diabetes...
August 16, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Marie Søfteland Sandvei, Lars J Vatten, Elisabeth Krefting Bjelland, Anne Eskild, Solveig Hofvind, Giske Ursin, Signe Opdahl
It is not known whether increased breast cancer risk caused by menopausal hormone therapy (HT) depends on body mass patterns through life. In a prospective study of 483,241 Norwegian women aged 50-69 years at baseline, 7656 women developed breast cancer during follow-up (2006-2013). We combined baseline information on recalled body mass in childhood/adolescence and current (baseline) body mass index (BMI) to construct mutually exclusive life-course body mass patterns. We assessed associations of current HT use with breast cancer risk according to baseline BMI and life-course patterns of body mass, and estimated relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI)...
August 6, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Kathleen Bokenberger, Arvid Sjölander, Anna K Dahl Aslan, Ida K Karlsson, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Nancy L Pedersen
This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and incident dementia in two population-based cohorts from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). The STR-1973 sample included 13,283 participants born 1926-1943 who received a mailed questionnaire in 1973 that asked about status (ever/never) and duration (years) of shift work employment. The Screening Across the Lifespan Twin (SALT) sample included 41,199 participants born 1900-1958 who participated in a telephone interview in 1998-2002 that asked about night work status and duration...
August 3, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Stephanie J Weinstein, Alison M Mondul, Kai Yu, Tracy M Layne, Christian C Abnet, Neal D Freedman, Racheal Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Unhee Lim, Mitchell H Gail, Demetrius Albanes
While vitamin D has been associated with improved overall cancer survival in some investigations, few have prospectively evaluated organ-specific survival. We examined the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and cancer survival in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Of 4616 cancer cases with measured serum 25(OH)D, 2884 died of their cancer during 28 years of follow-up and 1732 survived or died of other causes. Proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between pre-diagnostic 25(OH)D and overall and site-specific survival...
August 2, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Dagfinn Aune, Yahya Mahamat-Saleh, Teresa Norat, Elio Riboli
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between adiposity, diabetes, and physical activity and the risk of kidney stones. PubMed and Embase were searched up to April 22nd 2018 for relevant studies. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Thirteen cohort studies were included. The summary relative risk was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.30, I2  = 76%, n = 8) per 5 unit increment in BMI, 1.16 (95% CI 1.12-1...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Simon Timpka, Abigail Fraser, Tommy Schyman, Jennifer J Stuart, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Ingrid Mogren, Paul W Franks, Janet W Rich-Edwards
Women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP; preeclampsia and gestational hypertension) or delivering low birth weight offspring (LBW; < 2500 g) have twice the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to study the extent to which history of these pregnancy complications improves CVD risk prediction above and beyond conventional predictors. Parous women attended standardized clinical visits in Sweden. Data were linked to registries of deliveries and CVD. Participants were followed for a first CVD event within 10 years from age 50 (n = 7552) and/or 60 years (n = 5360) and the predictive value of each pregnancy complication above and beyond conventional predictors was investigated...
July 30, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Stephen Burgess, Jeremy A Labrecque
Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants to make causal inferences about a modifiable exposure. Subject to a genetic variant satisfying the instrumental variable assumptions, an association between the variant and outcome implies a causal effect of the exposure on the outcome. Complications arise with a binary exposure that is a dichotomization of a continuous risk factor (for example, hypertension is a dichotomization of blood pressure). This can lead to violation of the exclusion restriction assumption: the genetic variant can influence the outcome via the continuous risk factor even if the binary exposure does not change...
July 23, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Cecilia Galbete, Lukas Schwingshackl, Carolina Schwedhelm, Heiner Boeing, Matthias B Schulze
Several meta-analyses have been published summarizing the associations of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with chronic diseases. We evaluated the quality and credibility of evidence from these meta-analyses as well as characterized the different indices used to define MedDiet and re-calculated the associations with the different indices identified. We conducted an umbrella review of meta-analyses on cohort studies evaluating the association of the MedDiet with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and cognitive-related diseases...
July 20, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Ronny Wickström, Beatrice Skiöld, Gunnar Petersson, Olof Stephansson, Maria Altman
To determine whether moderate neonatal hypoglycemia in otherwise healthy infants is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in pre-school children. Population-based cohort study with prospectively collected register data from Sweden. All singletons born July 1st 2008 through December 31st 2012 (n = 101,060) in the region were included. Infants with congenital malformations, infants treated in neonatal intensive care unit, infants with inborn errors of metabolism and infants to mothers with diabetes were excluded...
July 20, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Stephen Burgess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 25, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Lewis H Kuller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Uwe Siebert, Lára R Hallsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
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