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European Journal of Epidemiology

Dagfinn Aune, Sabrina Schlesinger, Teresa Norat, Elio Riboli
Smoking is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease and stroke, however, data regarding smoking and sudden cardiac death have not been summarized in a meta-analysis previously. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify this association. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies of smoking and sudden cardiac death up to July 20th 2017. Prospective studies were included if they reported adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for smoking and sudden cardiac death...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Dagfinn Aune, Sabrina Schlesinger, Teresa Norat, Elio Riboli
Although overweight and obesity are established risk factors for some types of heart disease including ischemic heart disease, heart failure and atrial fibrillation, less is known about the association between adiposity and sudden cardiac death. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to clarify the association between adiposity and risk of sudden cardiac death. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to July 20th 2017. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Amanda M Fretts, Mihriye Mete, Barbara V Howard, Lyle G Best, David S Siscovick, Sigal Eilat-Adar, Jinying Zhao
Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with many chronic diseases, but its relations with physical activity remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of objectively measured ambulatory activity with leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of biological aging, among American Indians. This cross-sectional study included 2312 AI participants from the Strong Heart Family Study. Steps per day were measured using Accusplit AE120 pedometers. Quantitative PCR was used to measure LTL...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Anna Karin Hedström, Leszek Stawiarz, Lars Klareskog, Lars Alfredsson
Smoking is one of the most established risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to estimate how age at smoking debut, smoking cessation, duration, intensity, and cumulative dose of smoking influence the risk of developing anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) positive and ACPA negative RA. The present report is based on a Swedish population-based, case-control study with incident cases of RA (3655 cases, 5883 matched controls). Using logistic regression models, subjects with different smoking habits were compared regarding risk of developing the two variants of RA, by calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Piet A van den Brandt
Coffee and tea intake have been associated with reduced mortality, but no studies have investigated possible substitution effects. The relationship of mortality with coffee, tea, and substituting coffee with tea was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. In 1986, 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits. Mortality follow-up until 1996 consisted of linkage to Statistics Netherlands. Multivariate case-cohort analyses were based on 8665 deaths and 3166 subcohort members with complete data on coffee, tea and confounders...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Essi Hantikainen, Marie Löf, Alessandra Grotta, Ylva Trolle Lagerros, Mauro Serafini, Rino Bellocco, Elisabete Weiderpass
Foods rich in antioxidants have been associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction. However, findings from randomized clinical trials on the role of antioxidant supplementation remain controversial. It has been suggested that antioxidants interact with each other to promote cardiovascular health. We therefore investigated the association between dietary Non Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity (NEAC), measuring the total antioxidant potential of the whole diet, and the risk of myocardial infarction. We followed 45,882 women aged 30-49 years and free from cardiovascular diseases through record linkages from 1991 until 2012...
January 25, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Neil Pearce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Eirin B Haug, Julie Horn, Amanda Rose Markovitz, Abigail Fraser, Corrie Macdonald-Wallis, Kate Tilling, Pål Richard Romundstad, Janet Wilson Rich-Edwards, Bjørn Olav Åsvold
The drop in blood pressure during pregnancy may persist postpartum, but the impact of pregnancy on blood pressure across the life course is not known. In this study we examined blood pressure trajectories for women in the years preceding and following pregnancy and compared life course trajectories of blood pressure for parous and nulliparous women. We linked information on all women who participated in the population-based, longitudinal HUNT Study, Norway with pregnancy information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway...
January 24, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Rockli Kim, Ichiro Kawachi, Brent Andrew Coull, Sankaran Venkata Subramanian
Modeling variation at population level has become increasingly valued, but no clear application exists for modeling differential variation in health between individuals within a given population. We applied Goldstein's method (in: Everrit, Howell (eds) Encyclopedia of statistics in behavioral science, Wiley, Hoboken, 2005) to model individual heterogeneity in body mass index (BMI) as a function of basic sociodemographic characteristics, each independently and jointly. Our analytic sample consisted of 643,315 non-pregnant women aged 15-49 years pooled from the latest Demographic Health Surveys (rounds V, VI, or VII; years 2005-2014) across 57 low- and middle-income countries...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Mette Bliddal, Anne Broe, Anton Pottegård, Jørn Olsen, Jens Langhoff-Roos
The Danish Medical Birth Register was established in 1973. It is a key component of the Danish health information system. The register enables monitoring of the health of pregnant women and their offspring, it provides data for quality assessment of the perinatal care in Denmark, and it is used extensively for research. The register underwent major changes in construction and content in 1997, and new variables have been added during the last 20 years. The aim was to provide an updated description of the register focusing on structure, content, and coverage since 1997...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Richard W Harbron, Claire-Louise Chapple, John J O'Sullivan, Choonsik Lee, Kieran McHugh, Manuel Higueras, Mark S Pearce
Children and young adults with heart disease appear to be at increased risk of developing cancer, although the reasons for this are unclear. A cohort of 11,270 individuals, who underwent cardiac catheterizations while aged ≤ 22 years in the UK, was established from hospital records. Radiation doses from cardiac catheterizations and CT scans were estimated. The cohort was matched with the NHS Central Register and NHS Transplant Registry to determine cancer incidence and transplantation status. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with associated confidence intervals (CI) were calculated...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Nicholas R V Jones, Nita G Forouhi, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nicholas J Wareham, Pablo Monsivais
The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet could be an important population-level strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the UK, but there is little UK-based evidence on this diet pattern in relation to CVD risk. We tested whether dietary accordance with DASH was associated with risk of CVD in a population-based sample of 23,655 UK adults. This prospective analysis of the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study analysed dietary intake (assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire) to measure accordance with DASH, based on intakes of eight food groups and nutrients, ranking the sample into quintiles...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Lukas Schwingshackl, Anna Chaimani, Georg Hoffmann, Carolina Schwedhelm, Heiner Boeing
The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a systematic review of the literature. Electronic and hand searches were performed until July 2017. The inclusion criteria were defined as follows: (1) randomized trial with a dietary approach; (2) adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus; (3) outcome either HbA1c (%) and/or fasting glucose (mmol/l); (4) minimum intervention period of 12 weeks. For each outcome measure, random effects network meta-analysis was performed in order to determine the pooled effect of each intervention relative to each of the other interventions...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Maria Blettner, Roman Pokora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Andreas Stang, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Oliver Heidinger
Germany is the first nation that implemented a nationwide skin cancer screening program in 2008. The aim is to study the effect of the program on skin cancer rates and to estimate the number needed to screen for an unselected and a hypothetical high-risk population in Germany. We used population-based data on skin cancer incidence (2000-2014), mortality, hospitalization and sick leave (2000-2015) from North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (18 million population). We calculated annual age-standardized rates per 100,000 person years and calculated the relative change of the rates (%) including 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)...
January 2, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Anne M Vangen-Lønne, Peter Ueda, Pablo Gulayin, Tom Wilsgaard, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, Goodarz Danaei
The effects of interventions on multiple lifestyle and metabolic risk factors, initiated in midlife or later in a healthy population, on the long-term risk of first-ever stroke is not known. A particular methodological challenge in observational studies is to estimate the unbiased effect of a time-varying exposure in presence of time-varying confounders, if those confounders are affected by prior exposure. In such cases, the parametric g-formula can be applied to estimate an unbiased effect. We applied the parametric g-formula to estimate the 18-years (1994-2012) cumulative stroke risk under different scenarios of hypothetical interventions on levels of blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, physical activity, smoking and alcohol intake; and compared these to the observed scenario, to calculate the population risk ratios and risk differences...
January 2, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Martin Chi-Sang Wong, Chun-Hei Chan, Wilson Cheung, Din-Hei Fung, Miaoyin Liang, Jason Li-Wen Huang, Yan-Hong Wang, Johnny Yu Jiang, Chun-Pong Yu, Harry Haoxiang Wang, Justin Che-Yuen Wu, Francis Ka-Leung Chan, Joseph Jao-Yiu Sung
The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the odds of colorectal adenoma (CRA) in colorectal cancer screening participants with different body mass index (BMI) levels, and examine if this association was different according to gender and ethnicity. The EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched to enroll high quality observational studies that examined the association between investigator-measured BMI and colonoscopy-diagnosed CRA. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the summary odds ratio (SOR) for the association between BMI and CRA...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
Baowen Xue, Dorina Cadar, Maria Fleischmann, Stephen Stansfeld, Ewan Carr, Mika Kivimäki, Anne McMunn, Jenny Head
According to the 'use it or lose it' hypothesis, a lack of mentally challenging activities might exacerbate the loss of cognitive function. On this basis, retirement has been suggested to increase the risk of cognitive decline, but evidence from studies with long follow-up is lacking. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort of 3433 civil servants who participated in the Whitehall II Study, including repeated measurements of cognitive functioning up to 14 years before and 14 years after retirement. Piecewise models, centred at the year of retirement, were used to compare trajectories of verbal memory, abstract reasoning, phonemic verbal fluency, and semantic verbal fluency before and after retirement...
December 26, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
Angela A Mulligan, Marleen A H Lentjes, Robert N Luben, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw
Studies have reported a higher mortality risk associated with weight loss, particularly in middle-aged and older adults, although some of these studies did find that gaining weight was also associated with an increased mortality risk. We examined changes in weight in relation to mortality in a prospective population-based cohort study of men and women, resident in Norfolk, UK. Participants were assessed at baseline (1993-1997) and at a second examination (1998-2000), as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) study, and followed up to 2015 for mortality...
December 20, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
Li Liu, Daniel Nevo, Reiko Nishihara, Yin Cao, Mingyang Song, Tyler S Twombly, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Tyler J VanderWeele, Molin Wang, Shuji Ogino
As one of causal inference methodologies, the inverse probability weighting (IPW) method has been utilized to address confounding and account for missing data when subjects with missing data cannot be included in a primary analysis. The transdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) integrates molecular pathological and epidemiological methods, and takes advantages of improved understanding of pathogenesis to generate stronger biological evidence of causality and optimize strategies for precision medicine and prevention...
December 20, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
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