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European Journal of Epidemiology

Corinna Seliger, Christoph R Meier, Claudia Becker, Susan S Jick, Ulrich Bogdahn, Peter Hau, Michael F Leitzmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Sander Greenland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Eva Grill, Martin Müller, Ulrich Mansmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Andreas Stang, Markus Deckert, Charles Poole, Kenneth J Rothman
Since its introduction in the twentieth century, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), a hybrid of significance testing (ST) advocated by Fisher and null hypothesis testing (NHT) developed by Neyman and Pearson, has become widely adopted but has also been a source of debate. The principal alternative to such testing is estimation with point estimates and confidence intervals (CI). Our aim was to estimate time trends in NHST, ST, NHT and CI reporting in abstracts of major medical and epidemiological journals...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Xu Gao, Ute Mons, Yan Zhang, Lutz Philipp Breitling, Hermann Brenner
Telomere length (TL) is associated with an increased risk of aging-related diseases. As a preventable environmental hazard of morbidity and mortality, smoking has been reported to promote TL attrition by producing a variety of oxidants and free radicals. Since DNA methylation has been demonstrated to play an important role in the pathways of smoking and smoking-induced diseases, this study aimed to address whether the smoking-associated DNA methylation changes could be associated with accelerated TL shortening...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Igor Karp, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Michal Abrahamowicz, Karen Leffondré, Jack Siemiatycki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Jonathan Matthew Samet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Kevin Ten Haaf, Ewout Willem Steyerberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Mauricio Avendano, Heta Moustgaard, Pekka Martikainen
This paper uses individual-level longitudinal data on working-age Finns to examine the health effects of economic fluctuations during a period of economic decline (1989-1996) and recovery (1997-2007) in Finland. We used a nationally representative, longitudinal sample formed by linking population, employment and mortality registers (n = 698,484; 7,719,870 person-years). We implemented a region fixed-effect model that exploits within-regional variations over time in the unemployment rate to identify the effect of economic fluctuations on mortality, controlling for individual employment transitions...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Mirjana Barjaktarovic, Tim I M Korevaar, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Yolanda B de Rijke, Theo J Visser, Robin P Peeters, Eric A P Steegers
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy-specific hormone that regulates placental development. hCG concentrations vary widely throughout gestation and differ based on fetal sex. Abnormal hCG concentrations are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We studied the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth and birth weight. In addition, we investigated effect modification by gestational age of hCG measurement and fetal sex. Total serum hCG (median 14...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Takumi Hirata, Daisuke Sugiyama, Shin-Ya Nagasawa, Yoshitaka Murakami, Shigeyuki Saitoh, Akira Okayama, Hiroyasu Iso, Fujiko Irie, Toshimi Sairenchi, Yoshihiro Miyamoto, Michiko Yamada, Shizukiyo Ishikawa, Katsuyuki Miura, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Tomonori Okamura
Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Priyanka Jain, Goodarz Danaei, James M Robins, JoAnn E Manson, Miguel A Hernán
Weight gain after smoking cessation can lessen the health benefits of, and reduce the incentives for, quitting smoking. Randomized clinical trials of smoking cessation have estimated this weight gain only over short periods of follow-up. We provide an estimate of long-term post-cessation weight gain in the Framingham Heart Study, a prospective observational study. We identified 2001 smokers free of diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease in 1952. Using the parametric g-formula we estimated mean weight in 1972 if all smokers had quit at baseline versus if all had continued smoking...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Giuseppe Grosso, Agnieszka Micek, Justyna Godos, Salvatore Sciacca, Andrzej Pajak, Miguel A Martínez-González, Edward L Giovannucci, Fabio Galvano
Coffee consumption has been associated with several benefits toward human health. However, its association with mortality risk has yielded contrasting results, including a non-linear relation to all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and no association with cancer mortality. As smoking habits may affect the association between coffee and health outcomes, the aim of the present study was to update the latest dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies on the association between coffee consumption and mortality risk and conduct stratified analyses by smoking status and other potential confounders...
October 3, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Hao Peng, Mihriye Mete, Sameer Desale, Amanda M Fretts, Shelley A Cole, Lyle G Best, Jue Lin, Elizabeth Blackburn, Elisa T Lee, Barbara V Howard, Jinying Zhao
Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors. Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH), defined by the American Heart Association (AHA), has also been associated with a reduced risk of CVD, but the relationship between telomere length and ideal CVH is unclear. We measured leukocyte telomere length (LTL) by qPCR in 2568 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). All participants were free of overt CVD at enrollment (2001-2003)...
September 22, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen, Jim Oeppen, Silvia Rizzi, Sören Möller, Virginia Zarulli, Kaare Christensen, James W Vaupel
The general health status of a population changes over time, generally in a positive direction. Some generations experience more unfavourable conditions than others. The health of Danish women in the interwar generations is an example of such a phenomenon. The stagnation in their life expectancy between 1977 and 1995 is thought to be related to their smoking behaviour. So far, no study has measured the absolute effect of smoking on the mortality of the interwar generations of Danish women and thus the stagnation in Danish women's life expectancy...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Andreea Monica Rawlings, Yingying Sang, Albert Richey Sharrett, Josef Coresh, Michael Griswold, Anna Maria Kucharska-Newton, Priya Palta, Lisa Miller Wruck, Alden Lawrence Gross, Jennifer Anne Deal, Melinda Carolyn Power, Karen Jean Bandeen-Roche
Longitudinal studies of cognitive performance are sensitive to dropout, as participants experiencing cognitive deficits are less likely to attend study visits, which may bias estimated associations between exposures of interest and cognitive decline. Multiple imputation is a powerful tool for handling missing data, however its use for missing cognitive outcome measures in longitudinal analyses remains limited. We use multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE) to impute cognitive performance scores of participants who did not attend the 2011-2013 exam of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study...
September 12, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Anthony P Khawaja, Henriët Springelkamp, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher, Cécile Delcourt, Albert Hofman, René Höhn, Adriana I Iglesias, Roger C W Wolfs, Jean-François Korobelnik, Rufino Silva, Fotis Topouzis, Katie M Williams, Alain M Bron, Gabriëlle H S Buitendijk, Maria da Luz Cachulo, Audrey Cougnard-Grégoire, Jean-François Dartigues, Christopher J Hammond, Norbert Pfeiffer, Angeliki Salonikiou, Cornelia M van Duijn, Johannes R Vingerling, Robert N Luben, Alireza Mirshahi, Julia Lamparter, Caroline C W Klaver, Nomdo M Jansonius, Paul J Foster
Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for developing glaucoma, the second commonest cause of blindness globally. Understanding associations with IOP and variations in IOP between countries may teach us about mechanisms underlying glaucoma. We examined cross-sectional associations with IOP in 43,500 European adults from 12 cohort studies belonging to the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) consortium. Each study conducted multivariable linear regression with IOP as the outcome variable and results were pooled using random effects meta-analysis...
September 9, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Ylva Trolle Lagerros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Lewis H Kuller
Epidemiology has been remarkably successful in the past in identifying the important agents of disease, the impact of the environment, both physical and social, and interrelationship with host susceptibility (genomics). Many of the advances in improving the health of individuals and populations have been the result of epidemiology studies that have identified the specific "agents" of disease and application of public health and preventive medicine. In recent years, large longitudinal studies have dominated epidemiology research, especially long incubation period chronic diseases...
October 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Maria Morales-Suárez-Varela, Ellen A Nohr, Bodil H Bech, Chunsen Wu, Jørn Olsen
The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National Birth Cohort. Information about lifestyle, occupational, medical and obstetric factors was obtained from a telephone interview and data on pregnancy outcomes came from the Danish population based registries. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (adjusted for potential confounders) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth)...
October 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
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