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Experimental & Applied Acarology

Shengyong Wu, Haicui Xie, Maoye Li, Xuenong Xu, Zhongren Lei
Entomopathogenic fungi and predatory mites can independently contribute to suppressing the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. It is important to assess the risk of possible fungal infections in predators when a combination of them are being considered as a tandem control strategy for suppressing T. urticae. The first part of this study tested 12 Beauveria bassiana isolates for virulence in T. urticae. Strains SCWJ-2, SDDZ-9, LNSZ-26, GZGY-1-3 and WLMQ-32 were found to be the most potent, causing 37...
October 25, 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Lei Liu, Tian-Yin Cheng, Fen Yan
Tick-borne-diseases (TBD) pose a huge threat to the health of both humans and animals worldwide. Tick vaccines constitute an attractive alternative for tick control, due to their cost-efficiency and environmental-friendliness. Subolesin, a protective antigen against ticks, is reported to be a promising candidate for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines. However, the entire length of its gene, subA, and its gene expression pattern in different tissues and blood-feeding status (or different levels of engorgement) have not been studied extensively...
September 15, 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Marcela Massaro, João Pedro Ignez Martin, Gilberto José de Moraes
Phytoseiid mites are commonly used as biological control agents of mite and small insect pests. To facilitate the production of phytoseiids, alternative food sources have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of different food sources for the rearing of the phytoseiids Amblyseius tamatavensis Blommers, Euseius concordis (Chant) and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant and Baker). This study evaluated the levels of oviposition of these predators when fed with 15 Astigmatina (Sarcoptiformes) mite species, one species of a bacteriophagous nematode, and pollen from five plant species...
September 8, 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Michael L Levin, Lauren B M Schumacher
Use of laboratory animals as hosts for blood-sucking arthropods remains a time-proven and the most efficient method for establishment and propagation of slowly feeding ixodid ticks, despite introduction of techniques involving artificial feeding on either animal skins or synthetic membranes. New Zealand White rabbits are usually the most accessible and most suitable hosts routinely used for establishment and maintenance of a large variety of multi-host tick species. Here we describe standard procedures for maintaining colonies of multi-host ixodid ticks by feeding all developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) upon New Zealand White rabbits...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Joanna Stańczak, Beata Biernat, Anna Matyjasek, Maria Racewicz, Marta Zalewska, Daria Lewandowska
Ixodid ticks are important vectors of a variety of bacterial and protozoan pathogens which cause infections in humans. In this study, altogether 1041 questing Ixodes ricinus (n = 305) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 736), sympatrically occurring in Kampinos National Park (KPN), central-east Poland, were analyzed by PCR for Rickettsia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 27.5 % for I. ricinus and 42.8 % for D. reticulatus. Sequencing analysis showed that the first tick species was exclusively infected with R...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Alicja Gryczyńska, Renata Welc-Falęciak
Seeking evidence to confirm that blackbirds (Turdus merula) may be involved in environmental maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis), we conducted a long-term study over three separate 2-year periods, together embracing a span of almost 20 years, all in the same area in northeastern Poland. We examined a total of 78 blackbirds and collected 623 Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on them. The tick infestation prevalence was found to be very high (89.7 %). Among all ticks collected, 9...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Ole Kilpinen, Tove Steenberg
Desiccant dusts and entomopathogenic fungi have previously been found to hold potential against the poultry red mite, which is an important pest in egg production and notoriously difficult to control. Both control agents may cause repellence in other arthropods and potentially also influence control levels adversely when used against the poultry red mite. Five desiccant dust products with good efficacy against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae caused avoidance behavior in mites when tested in bioassays...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Bojan Gajić, Jevrosima Stevanović, Željko Radulović, Zoran Kulišić, Branislav Vejnović, Uroš Glavinić, Zoran Stanimirović
In the present study, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used for identification of recently described Serbia 1 (S1) and Peshter 1 (P1) mitochondrial haplotypes of Varroa destructor. Based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequences, a total of 64 adult V. destructor females were analyzed from locations where the S1 and P1 haplotypes had been detected previously...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Yukie Sato, Juan M Alba, Martijn Egas, Maurice W Sabelis
When competing with indigenous species, invasive species face a problem, because they typically start with a few colonizers. Evidently, some species succeeded, begging an answer to the question how they invade. Here, we investigate how the invasive spider mite Tetranychus evansi interacts with the indigenous species T. urticae when sharing the solanaceous host plant tomato: do they choose to live together or to avoid each other's colonies? Both species spin protective, silken webs on the leaf surfaces, under which they live in groups of con- and possibly heterospecifics...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Jan Hubert, Jan Kopecky, Marta Nesvorna, M Alejandra Perotti, Tomas Erban
Bacteria associated with mites influence their fitness, nutrition and reproduction. Previously, we found Solitalea-like (Sphingobacteriales) and Candidatus Cardinium (Cytophagales) bacteria in the stored product mite Acarus siro L. by cloning and using pyrosequencing. In this study, taxon-specific primers targeting 16S rRNA gene were used to detect and quantify the bacteria in mites and eggs of three A. siro populations. The specific probes for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to localize Solitalea-like and Cardinium bacteria in mite bodies...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Taro Maeda, Yoshiko Sakamoto
The first record of tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi, in Japan was made in 2010. These mites have since caused serious damage to the colonies of Japanese honey bees, Apis cerana japonica. In the present study, to control the mites on Japanese honey bees with l-menthol, an agent used for European honey bees, Apis mellifera, we investigated (1) the seasonality of menthol efficacy, (2) the overwintering mortality of menthol-treated colonies, and (3) the menthol residue in honey under field conditions in cooperation with private beekeepers of Japanese honey bees...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
M A Minor, S G Ermilov, D A Philippov, A A Prokin
We investigated communities of oribatid mites in five peat bogs in the north-west of the East European plain. We aimed to determine the extent to which geographic factors (latitude, separation distance), local environment (Sphagnum moss species, ground water level, biogeochemistry) and local habitat complexity (diversity of vascular plants and bryophytes in the surrounding plant community) influence diversity and community composition of Oribatida. There was a significant north-to-south increase in Oribatida abundance...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Philipp E Chetverikov, Samuel Bolton
The infracapitulum of eriophyoid mites comprises a cone-like basal infracapitulum, containing a pharynx, and a distal infracapitulum, forming a proboscis ensheathing a bunch of stylets. A well-developed basal labral section was observed in all studied specimens. A newly discerned structure, the suboral fork, situated in the ventral part of the proboscis was discovered. It is larger in diptilomiopids and Nalepella and notably smaller in eriophyids and phytoptids. This structure presumably determines the site of piercing and functions in a similar way to the pressure foot of a sewing machine which controls the movements of a needle...
October 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Althiéris Souza de Saraiva, Renato Almeida Sarmento, Marçal Pedro-Neto, Adenir Vieira Teodoro, Eduardo Andrea Lemus Erasmo, Diana Cléssia Vieira Belchior, Emiliano Brandão de Azevedo
Weed management in physic nut plantations has generally been performed by spraying the herbicide glyphosate. However, the effects of glyphosate on non-target organisms present in the crop system are unknown. Here, we evaluated the toxicity of glyphosate (Roundup Transorb(®)) against the pest species Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Acari: Tetranychidae) which can be exposed by drift. These mites are considered pests of the physic nut; however, they can also feed and reside on weeds associated with the crop, serving as food sources for predatory mites...
October 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Ruohan Liu, Teresia W Nyoike, Oscar E Liburd
Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of site-specific tactics for management of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, a major pest of greenhouse and field-grown strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). Two site-specific (spot) treatments, the miticide bifenazate (Acramite(®)) and the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor, were compared with whole-plot treatments of bifenazate or N. californicus to determine whether T. urticae could be effectively managed in field-grown strawberry using only site-specific tactics...
October 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Haralabos Tsolakis, Dennj Principato, Raoul Jordà Palomero, Alberto Lombardo
Typhlodromus laurentii and Iphiseius degenerans are two generalist phytoseiid mites, broadly spread in the Mediterranean area, especially in citrus orchards. In the present work we report results on various biological and life table parameters of the two phytoseiids, fed on pollen of Oxalis pes-caprae and various stages of the tetranychid Panonychus citri. Iphiseius degenerans had the shortest post embryonic development (6.53 days), the highest oviposition rate (1.83 eggs/female/day) and the shortest mean time between eggs laid (0...
October 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Debora B Lima, José W S Melo, Manoel G C Gondim, Raul N C Guedes, José E M Oliveira
The coconut production system, in which the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis is considered a key pest, provides an interesting model for integration of biological and chemical control. In Brazil, the most promising biological control agent for the coconut mite is the phytoseiid predator Neoseiulus baraki. However, acaricides are widely used to control the coconut mite, although they frequently produce unsatisfactory results. In this study, we evaluated the simultaneous direct effect of dry residue contact and contaminated prey ingestion of the main acaricides used on coconut palms (i...
October 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Helisama Colín-Martínez, Carlos García-Estrada
Studies of mites on bats in the Mexican state Oaxaca are scarce. Our objective was therefore to evaluate the richness, infestation, and specificity of spinturnicid mites on bats in southern Oaxaca, Mexico. Bats were monthly captured from April 2010 to February 2011, in four sites using four mist-nets; also, we visited natural (crevices) and artificial roosts (tunnel). Of each bat we account the number of spinturnicid mites, considering the area of the body where they were collected. Mites were preserved in 70 % ethanol and later they were mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium...
October 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Nicole Stephenson, Johnny Wong, Janet Foley
The Holarctic tick Ixodes angustus is a competent vector for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, and possibly Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the etiologic agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, as well. From 2005 to 2013, we collected host-feeding I. angustus individuals from live-trapped small mammals and by flagging vegetation from 12 study sites in northern and central California, and tested for B. burgdorferi sensu lato, A. phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. DNA by real-time PCR. Among 261 I...
October 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Sori Teshale, Bersissa Kumsa, Maria Luisa Menandro, Rudi Cassini, Marco Martini
Although ticks are widely distributed in all agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia, information on tick-borne pathogens is scarce. This study was conducted to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Rickettsia spp. in Rhipicephalus evertsi and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus collected from cattle and sheep at Bako, western Oromia, Ethiopia, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in Rh. decoloratus, whereas only A...
October 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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