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Experimental & Applied Acarology

Manuel de Rojas, Jorge Doña, Roger Jovani, Ivan Dimov, Antonio Zurita, Rocío Callejón, María Rodríguez-Plá
The study of cryptic species allows to describe and to understand biodiversity, and the evolutionary processes shaping it. Mites of the family Rhinonyssidae are permanent parasites of the nasal cavities of birds, currently including about 500 described species and 12 genera. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mites from five populations of the genus Tinaminyssus-three isolated from European turtle doves (Streptopelia turtur), and two from Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto; Aves: Columbiformes)-are, in fact, two cryptic species inhabiting different hosts...
June 6, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Katharina Brugger, Melanie Walter, Lidia Chitimia-Dobler, Gerhard Dobler, Franz Rubel
The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Ixodida: Ixodidae), is the principal vector of pathogens causing tick-borne encephalitis or Lyme borreliosis in Europe. It is therefore of general interest to make an estimate of the density of I. ricinus for the whole year at the beginning of the tick season. There are two necessary conditions for making a successful prediction: a long homogeneous time series of observed tick density and a clear biological relationship between environmental predictors and tick density...
May 30, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Olubukola T Adenubi, Muna Ali Abdalla, Aroke S Ahmed, Emmanuel M Njoya, Lyndy J McGaw, Jacobus N Eloff, Vinny Naidoo
The menace caused by ticks and tick-borne diseases is a major limitation to the livestock industry in Africa. The high costs and non-availability of synthetic, chemical acaricides to resource-limited farmers, resistance of ticks to available acaricides and residue problems in meat and milk consumed by humans further complicate matters. The use of plant extracts as a possible source of new acaricides has received much interest in the last decade. In our endeavour to discover natural acaricidal compounds, tick toxicant bioassays were conducted and the chloroform fraction of Calpurnia aurea ethanol leaf extract had good acaricidal activity...
May 30, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Hermes Ribeiro Luz, Ercileide Silva-Santos, Carlos Eduardo Costa-Campos, Igor Acosta, Thiago F Martins, Sebástian Muñoz-Leal, Douglas McIntosh, João Luis Horacio Faccini, Marcelo B Labruna
This study evaluated rickettsial infection in ticks collected on toads from the northern Brazilian Amazon (Amapá state), where to our knowledge there are neither records of ticks from amphibians nor rickettsial infections in ticks. During 2016-2017, a total of 22 free-living toads were captured and identified as Rhinella marina. Overall, 12 (54.5%) toads were parasitized by a total of 97 ticks (6 males, 39 females, 31 nymphs, 21 larvae), giving a mean intensity of 8.1 ticks per infested toad. Two tick species were morphologically identified: Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (31 females, 14 nymphs), and Amblyomma dissimile Koch (6 males, 8 females, 17 nymphs)...
May 30, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Gaurav Nagar, Anil Kumar Sharma, Sachin Kumar, B C Saravanan, Rajesh Kumar, Suman Gupta, Satyanshu Kumar, Srikant Ghosh
The frequently used chemical control method to manage Rhipicephalus microplus is limited by the emergence of resistance populations. Understanding of resistance mechanisms is essential to develop strategy for sustainable management. The present study was focused on working out the molecular mechanisms of resistance against synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) and organophosphates (OPs) in field isolates of R. microplus collected from six districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Adult immersion test with discriminating concentrations (AIT-DC) was used to determine resistance status of isolates to SPs (deltamethrin, cypermethrin) and OPs (diazinon, coumaphos)...
May 30, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Yoshio Yoshioka, Tetsuo Gotoh, Takeshi Suzuki
Developmental errors are often induced in the embryos of many organisms by environmental stress. Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is one of the most serious environmental stressors in embryonic development. Here, we investigated susceptibility to UV-B (0.5 kJ m-2 ) in embryos of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to examine the potential use of UV-B in control of this important agricultural pest worldwide. Peak susceptibility to UV-B (0% hatchability) was found in T. urticae eggs 36-48 h after oviposition at 25 °C, which coincides with the stages of morphogenesis forming the germ band and initial limb primordia...
May 14, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
DongLing Niu, RuiLing Wang, YaE Zhao, Rui Yang, Li Hu
Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst) (Acari: Macronyssidae) is a vector and reservoir of pathogens causing serious infectious diseases, such as epidemic hemorrhagic fever, endemic typhus, tularemia, and leptospirosis. Its genome and transcriptome data are lacking in public databases. In this study, total RNA was extracted from live O. bacoti to conduct RNA-seq, functional annotation, coding domain sequence (CDS) prediction and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) detection. The results showed that 65.8 million clean reads were generated and assembled into 72,185 unigenes, of which 49...
June 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Reghu Ravindran, Gopi Jyothimol, Krishnan Kavillimakkil Amithamol, Athalathil Ramankutty Sunil, Leena Chandrasekhar, Dibya Ranjan Lenka, Achuthkumar Amritha, Kanapadinchareveetil Sreelekha, Nanjundappa Sathish, Darsana Udayan, Thumadath Palayullaparambil Adarsh Krishna, Thirumangalath Meethal Divya, Sanis Juliet, Karapparambu Gopalan Ajith Kumar, Suresh Narayanan Nair, Srikanta Ghosh
The present study compares the in vitro efficacy of four chemical acaricides, viz. amitraz, coumaphos, deltamethrin and lindane, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa ticks based on adult immersion tests. Amitraz, at 350 ppm, elicited 29.2 ± 4.17% mortality against R. (B.) annulatus, 100% inhibition of fecundity and absence of hatching of eggs laid by treated ticks. The same compound at 300 ppm caused 62.5 ± 12.5% mortality against H. bispinosa, 96.7% inhibition of fecundity and complete blocking of eclosion...
June 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Rodrigo Giglioti, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Cintia Hiromi Okino, Márcia Cristina de Sena Oliveira
Babesia spp. are tick-transmitted intraerythrocytic apicomplexan parasites that infect wild and domestic animals. Babesia bovis and B. bigemina are endemic and responsible for enormous economic losses to the livestock industry in most of the Brazilian territory, wherein the tick Rhipicephalus microplus is the unique vector. Better understanding of epidemiology and parasite-host interactions may improve the tools for disease control and genetic management for selection of resistant animals. This study aimed to detect, quantify and measure the correlation between B...
June 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Agustín Estrada-Peña, José de la Fuente
The fossil record of ticks has been classically used to discern the probable vicariance events of these arthropods, and to date the split moments of the different lineages. Although new techniques based on molecular clock methods are already available, tick fossil record still stands as a valuable source of information if correctly interpreted. Here we report about a male specimen of Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) sp. found in Dominican amber of about 25 millions years, illustrating its main morphological features...
June 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Mackenzie L Kwak
Ticks significantly affect the health of humans and animals in Japan. However, no complete checklist has been produced for the Japanese tick fauna in English, and even recent checklists in Japanese do not include all presently known tick species found on the Japanese islands. Here, a complete species list of all tick taxa known to occur within Japan is presented. The status of several controversial Japanese tick species is also discussed.
June 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Iva Christova, Elitsa Panayotova, Martin H Groschup, Iva Trifonova, Simona Tchakarova, Miriam Andrada Sas
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne zoonotic disease in humans caused by CCHF virus. It has been observed in Bulgaria since 1952 and over the years more than 1600 cases have been reported in the country. Close contact with viraemic livestock was shown as one of the main causes of the infection. Detection of CCHF virus specific antibodies in livestock can be used as an indicator for virus circulation and risk assessment. CCHF seroprevalence was investigated in 843 cattle, 88 goats and 130 sheep, originating from all 28 districts of Bulgaria...
June 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Marco Selmi, Laura Tomassone, Leonardo A Ceballos, Alfonso Crisci, Charlotte Ragagli, Maria D Pintore, Walter Mignone, Alessandra Pautasso, Marco Ballardini, Cristina Casalone, Alessandro Mannelli
Understanding and responding to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial challenge for epidemiologists and health professionals. In this article we integrate knowledge about the human and the vector population, to provide a context from which to examine the underlying causal factors of D. marginatus-borne diseases emergence in the study area. Within this framework we analyse the biotic and abiotic factors that drive D. marginatus population dynamics and the role of its typical host for dispersal...
June 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Pamela Murillo, Pavel Klimov, Jan Hubert, Barry OConnor
Mites of the genus Tyrophagus (Acari: Acaridae) are among the most widespread and common mites, inhabiting diverse natural and anthropogenic habitats. Some species are pests of agricultural products and stored food and/or live in house dust, causing allergies to humans. We sequenced 1.2 kb of the mitochondrial COI gene for 38 individuals belonging to seven species of Tyrophagus, including T. curvipenis, T. putrescentiae, T. fanetzhangorum, T. longior, T. perniciosus, and T. cf. similis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses (1) recovered two major clades corresponding to the presence or absence of eyespots, and (2) separated all included morphological species...
June 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Ya-Jun Gong, Li-Jun Cao, Ze-Hua Wang, Xiao-Yi Zhou, Jin-Cui Chen, Ary Anthony Hoffmann, Shu-Jun Wei
To develop a new control method for the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae, we investigated the effect of controlled atmospheres of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) on TSSM mortality under different concentrations and treatment periods, and evaluated the impact of treatments on seedlings of five host plants of TSSM. Egg hatching rate of TSSM was reduced to 37.7, 5.4 or 0% after 24 h treatment involving concentrations of 16.7, 33.3 or 50%, respectively. Mobile stages (nymphs and adult) of TSSM were completely controlled after 24 h treatment at concentrations higher than 33...
June 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Saeid Javadi Khederi, Mohammad Khanjani, Mansur Gholami, Giovanni Luigi Bruno
Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to study the expression of some marker genes involved in the interaction between grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and the erineum mite Colomerus vitis Pagenstecher (Acari: Eriophyidae). Potted vines of cultivars Atabaki (resistant to C. vitis), Ghalati (susceptible to C. vitis) and Muscat Gordo (moderately resistant to C. vitis) were infested at the six-leaf stage. The expression of protease inhibitor (PIN), beta-1,3-glucanase (GLU), polygalacturonase inhibitor (PGIP), Vitis vinifera proline-rich protein 1 (PRP1), stilbene synthase (STS), and lipoxygenase (LOX) genes was assessed on young leaves collected 96, 120 and 144 h after mite infestation (hami)...
May 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Xiao-Na Zhang, Jian-Jun Guo, Xiao Zou, Dao-Chao Jin
Isaria cateniannulata and Euseius nicholsi are two important biological control agents currently being used in many areas of China to control a variety of pests. In order to determine the possibility of a concomitant application with the two agents in a biocontrol program involving the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, we quantified the pathogenicity of a strain of I. cateniannulata (08XS-1) against females of both T. urticae and E. nicholsi. We observed the infection process using scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy to distinguish differences in fungal performance...
May 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Saeid Javadi Khederi, Mohammad Khanjani, Mansur Gholami, Onofrio Panzarino, Enrico de Lillo
Grape (Vitis vinifera) is commonly affected by the erineum strain of Colomerus vitis (GEM) in Iran and the susceptibility of grape cultivars to GEM is poorly understood. In order to evaluate the impact of GEM on grape and its defense mechanisms against the mite, an exploratory study was carried out on 19 cultivars (18 Iranian and the non-native Muscat Gordo). The differential susceptibility of cultivars to GEM was compared on the basis of the area of leaf damage induced by GEM. The cultivars White Thompson seedless of Bovanat, Atabaki Zarghan, Koladari Ghoochan and Sahebi Uroomie were less susceptible to GEM, whereas Ghalati Dodaj, Rishbaba, Muscat Gordo and Neyshaboori Birjand appeared to be the most affected by the mite...
May 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Blažena Vargová, Igor Majláth, Juraj Kurimský, Roman Cimbala, Michal Kosterec, Piotr Tryjanowski, Łukasz Jankowiak, Tomáš Raši, Viktória Majláthová
Factors associated with the increased usage of electronic devices, wireless technologies and mobile phones nowadays are present in increasing amounts in our environment. All living organisms are constantly affected by electromagnetic radiation which causes serious environmental pollution. The distribution and density of ticks in natural habitats is influenced by a complex of abiotic and biotic factors. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) constitutes a potential cause altering the presence and distribution of ticks in the environment...
May 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Maria João Coimbra-Dores, Mariana Maia-Silva, Wilson Marques, Ana Cristina Oliveira, Fernanda Rosa, Deodália Dias
A multigene phylogeny including 24 Rhipicephalus species from the Afrotropical and Mediterranean regions, based on mitochondrial DNA genes (COI, 12S and 16S), was constructed based on Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood estimations. The phylogenetic reconstruction revealed 31 Rhipicephalus clades, which include the first molecular records of Rhipicephalus duttoni (Neumann), and Rhipicephalus senegalensis (Koch). Our results support the R. pulchellus, R. evertsi and R. pravus complexes as more phylogenetically close to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) than to the remaining Rhipicephalus clades, suggesting two main monophyletic groups within the genus...
May 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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