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Experimental & Applied Acarology

Yoshio Yoshioka, Tetsuo Gotoh, Takeshi Suzuki
Developmental errors are often induced in the embryos of many organisms by environmental stress. Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is one of the most serious environmental stressors in embryonic development. Here, we investigated susceptibility to UV-B (0.5 kJ m-2 ) in embryos of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to examine the potential use of UV-B in control of this important agricultural pest worldwide. Peak susceptibility to UV-B (0% hatchability) was found in T. urticae eggs 36-48 h after oviposition at 25 °C, which coincides with the stages of morphogenesis forming the germ band and initial limb primordia...
May 14, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Reghu Ravindran, Gopi Jyothimol, Krishnan Kavillimakkil Amithamol, Athalathil Ramankutty Sunil, Leena Chandrasekhar, Dibya Ranjan Lenka, Achuthkumar Amritha, Kanapadinchareveetil Sreelekha, Nanjundappa Sathish, Darsana Udayan, Thumadath Palayullaparambil Adarsh Krishna, Thirumangalath Meethal Divya, Sanis Juliet, Karapparambu Gopalan Ajith Kumar, Suresh Narayanan Nair, Srikanta Ghosh
The present study compares the in vitro efficacy of four chemical acaricides, viz. amitraz, coumaphos, deltamethrin and lindane, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa ticks based on adult immersion tests. Amitraz, at 350 ppm, elicited 29.2 ± 4.17% mortality against R. (B.) annulatus, 100% inhibition of fecundity and absence of hatching of eggs laid by treated ticks. The same compound at 300 ppm caused 62.5 ± 12.5% mortality against H. bispinosa, 96.7% inhibition of fecundity and complete blocking of eclosion...
May 8, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Rodrigo Giglioti, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Cintia Hiromi Okino, Márcia Cristina de Sena Oliveira
Babesia spp. are tick-transmitted intraerythrocytic apicomplexan parasites that infect wild and domestic animals. Babesia bovis and B. bigemina are endemic and responsible for enormous economic losses to the livestock industry in most of the Brazilian territory, wherein the tick Rhipicephalus microplus is the unique vector. Better understanding of epidemiology and parasite-host interactions may improve the tools for disease control and genetic management for selection of resistant animals. This study aimed to detect, quantify and measure the correlation between B...
May 4, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Agustín Estrada-Peña, José de la Fuente
The fossil record of ticks has been classically used to discern the probable vicariance events of these arthropods, and to date the split moments of the different lineages. Although new techniques based on molecular clock methods are already available, tick fossil record still stands as a valuable source of information if correctly interpreted. Here we report about a male specimen of Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) sp. found in Dominican amber of about 25 millions years, illustrating its main morphological features...
May 2, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Mackenzie L Kwak
Ticks significantly affect the health of humans and animals in Japan. However, no complete checklist has been produced for the Japanese tick fauna in English, and even recent checklists in Japanese do not include all presently known tick species found on the Japanese islands. Here, a complete species list of all tick taxa known to occur within Japan is presented. The status of several controversial Japanese tick species is also discussed.
May 2, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Iva Christova, Elitsa Panayotova, Martin H Groschup, Iva Trifonova, Simona Tchakarova, Miriam Andrada Sas
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne zoonotic disease in humans caused by CCHF virus. It has been observed in Bulgaria since 1952 and over the years more than 1600 cases have been reported in the country. Close contact with viraemic livestock was shown as one of the main causes of the infection. Detection of CCHF virus specific antibodies in livestock can be used as an indicator for virus circulation and risk assessment. CCHF seroprevalence was investigated in 843 cattle, 88 goats and 130 sheep, originating from all 28 districts of Bulgaria...
April 30, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Marco Selmi, Laura Tomassone, Leonardo A Ceballos, Alfonso Crisci, Charlotte Ragagli, Maria D Pintore, Walter Mignone, Alessandra Pautasso, Marco Ballardini, Cristina Casalone, Alessandro Mannelli
Understanding and responding to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial challenge for epidemiologists and health professionals. In this article we integrate knowledge about the human and the vector population, to provide a context from which to examine the underlying causal factors of D. marginatus-borne diseases emergence in the study area. Within this framework we analyse the biotic and abiotic factors that drive D. marginatus population dynamics and the role of its typical host for dispersal...
April 30, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Pamela Murillo, Pavel Klimov, Jan Hubert, Barry OConnor
Mites of the genus Tyrophagus (Acari: Acaridae) are among the most widespread and common mites, inhabiting diverse natural and anthropogenic habitats. Some species are pests of agricultural products and stored food and/or live in house dust, causing allergies to humans. We sequenced 1.2 kb of the mitochondrial COI gene for 38 individuals belonging to seven species of Tyrophagus, including T. curvipenis, T. putrescentiae, T. fanetzhangorum, T. longior, T. perniciosus, and T. cf. similis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses (1) recovered two major clades corresponding to the presence or absence of eyespots, and (2) separated all included morphological species...
April 26, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Saeid Javadi Khederi, Mohammad Khanjani, Mansur Gholami, Giovanni Luigi Bruno
Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to study the expression of some marker genes involved in the interaction between grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and the erineum mite Colomerus vitis Pagenstecher (Acari: Eriophyidae). Potted vines of cultivars Atabaki (resistant to C. vitis), Ghalati (susceptible to C. vitis) and Muscat Gordo (moderately resistant to C. vitis) were infested at the six-leaf stage. The expression of protease inhibitor (PIN), beta-1,3-glucanase (GLU), polygalacturonase inhibitor (PGIP), Vitis vinifera proline-rich protein 1 (PRP1), stilbene synthase (STS), and lipoxygenase (LOX) genes was assessed on young leaves collected 96, 120 and 144 h after mite infestation (hami)...
April 2, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Xiao-Na Zhang, Jian-Jun Guo, Xiao Zou, Dao-Chao Jin
Isaria cateniannulata and Euseius nicholsi are two important biological control agents currently being used in many areas of China to control a variety of pests. In order to determine the possibility of a concomitant application with the two agents in a biocontrol program involving the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, we quantified the pathogenicity of a strain of I. cateniannulata (08XS-1) against females of both T. urticae and E. nicholsi. We observed the infection process using scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy to distinguish differences in fungal performance...
April 2, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Saeid Javadi Khederi, Mohammad Khanjani, Mansur Gholami, Onofrio Panzarino, Enrico de Lillo
Grape (Vitis vinifera) is commonly affected by the erineum strain of Colomerus vitis (GEM) in Iran and the susceptibility of grape cultivars to GEM is poorly understood. In order to evaluate the impact of GEM on grape and its defense mechanisms against the mite, an exploratory study was carried out on 19 cultivars (18 Iranian and the non-native Muscat Gordo). The differential susceptibility of cultivars to GEM was compared on the basis of the area of leaf damage induced by GEM. The cultivars White Thompson seedless of Bovanat, Atabaki Zarghan, Koladari Ghoochan and Sahebi Uroomie were less susceptible to GEM, whereas Ghalati Dodaj, Rishbaba, Muscat Gordo and Neyshaboori Birjand appeared to be the most affected by the mite...
April 2, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Blažena Vargová, Igor Majláth, Juraj Kurimský, Roman Cimbala, Michal Kosterec, Piotr Tryjanowski, Łukasz Jankowiak, Tomáš Raši, Viktória Majláthová
Factors associated with the increased usage of electronic devices, wireless technologies and mobile phones nowadays are present in increasing amounts in our environment. All living organisms are constantly affected by electromagnetic radiation which causes serious environmental pollution. The distribution and density of ticks in natural habitats is influenced by a complex of abiotic and biotic factors. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) constitutes a potential cause altering the presence and distribution of ticks in the environment...
March 31, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Maria João Coimbra-Dores, Mariana Maia-Silva, Wilson Marques, Ana Cristina Oliveira, Fernanda Rosa, Deodália Dias
A multigene phylogeny including 24 Rhipicephalus species from the Afrotropical and Mediterranean regions, based on mitochondrial DNA genes (COI, 12S and 16S), was constructed based on Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood estimations. The phylogenetic reconstruction revealed 31 Rhipicephalus clades, which include the first molecular records of Rhipicephalus duttoni (Neumann), and Rhipicephalus senegalensis (Koch). Our results support the R. pulchellus, R. evertsi and R. pravus complexes as more phylogenetically close to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) than to the remaining Rhipicephalus clades, suggesting two main monophyletic groups within the genus...
March 31, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Samira Khodayari, Fatemeh Abedini, David Renault
The plant stress hypothesis posits that a herbivore's reproductive success increases when it feeds on stressed plants, while the plant vigor hypothesis predicts that a herbivore preferentially feeds on more vigorous plants. We examined these opposing hypotheses by growing spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) on the leaves of stressed and healthy (vigorous) cucumber plants. Host plants were grown under controlled conditions at low, moderate, and high concentrations of NaCl (to induce salinity stress), at low, moderate, and high fertilizer concentrations (to support growth), and without these additions (control)...
March 29, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
C Sadanandane, M D Gokhale, A Elango, P Yadav, D T Mourya, P Jambulingam
Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a major tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever caused by KFD virus (KFDV) (Flaviviridae). The disease was reported to be confined to five districts of Karnataka state India until 2011. During 2012-2016, emergence of KFD has been reported in newer areas of Karnataka and adjoining states. Therefore, survey of tick vectors was carried out in these new areas of Karnataka and adjoining states reported with monkey deaths and human cases of KFD. In all selected sites, ticks from the forest floor were collected by lint clothes using flagging method...
March 28, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Ya-Jun Gong, Li-Jun Cao, Ze-Hua Wang, Xiao-Yi Zhou, Jin-Cui Chen, Ary Anthony Hoffmann, Shu-Jun Wei
To develop a new control method for the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae, we investigated the effect of controlled atmospheres of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) on TSSM mortality under different concentrations and treatment periods, and evaluated the impact of treatments on seedlings of five host plants of TSSM. Egg hatching rate of TSSM was reduced to 37.7, 5.4 or 0% after 24 h treatment involving concentrations of 16.7, 33.3 or 50%, respectively. Mobile stages (nymphs and adult) of TSSM were completely controlled after 24 h treatment at concentrations higher than 33...
March 28, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Evelina L Tarragona, Mariano Mastropaolo, Daniel Zurvera, Pablo M Beldomenico, Alberto A Guglielmone
The parasitism of Ixodes loricatus Neumann on white-eared opposum, Didelphis albiventris Lund, was analysed in the southern ranges of both. In central Argentina, 118 wild opossums were captured from 2005 to 2012. Adults of I. loricatus were collected (prevalence = 66.1%, mean = 7.03, median = 4), but no immature stage. Tick infestation was not affected by sex (p = 0.27) or age (p = 0.37) of hosts. In line with previous studies about seasonality of larvae and nymphs of I. loricatus, adult tick infestation showed no seasonal trend...
March 28, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Saeid Javadi Khederi, Mohammad Khanjani, Mansur Gholami, Enrico de Lillo
The present experiment was aimed at determining the influence of the grape erineum strain of Colomerus vitis (GEM) (Acari: Eriophyidae) on responses of local grapevine cultivars. GEM was applied at five density levels to each of five cultivars, i.e. Shahani, Sahebi Uroomie, Khalili Bovanat, Rishbaba and Sezdang Ghalat (listed from early to late grape ripening). The experiment was performed in a full factorial design (12 replicates each) and effects of the mite on the relative content of leaf chlorophyll, internode and cane length, leaf area and weight, number and size of the erinea, and percentage of leaves with erinea were investigated...
March 23, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
L A Grigoryeva, M K Stanyukovich
We developed a method for differential diagnosis of nymphs and larvae of sheep (Ixodes ricinus (L.)) and taiga (I. persulcatus Sch.) ticks (Parasitiformes: Ixodidae) which allows to identify live material in the field.
March 23, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Walter Santos de Araújo, Rodrigo Damasco Daud
Differences in the feeding habits between phytophagous and predatory species can determine distinct ecological interactions between mites and their host plants. Herein, plant-mite networks were constructed using available literature on plant-dwelling mites from Brazilian natural vegetation in order to contrast phytophagous and predatory mite networks. The structural patterns of plant-mite networks were described through network specialization (connectance) and modularity. A total of 187 mite species, 65 host plant species and 646 interactions were recorded in 14 plant-mite networks...
March 23, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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