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Experimental & Applied Acarology

Mahmoud A Ibrahim, Hassan M M Masoud
Blood-sucking arthropods have different types of anticoagulants to allow the ingestion of a blood meal from their hosts. In this study, five anticoagulants prolonging the activated partial thromboplastin time were resolved from the salivary gland crude extract of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii by chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose column. They were designated P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 according to their elution order. P5 was found to be a potent thrombin inhibitor and purified by ultrafiltration through two centrifugal concentrators of 50 and 30 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), respectively...
December 19, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Carl C Childers, Enrico de Lillo, Gary R Bauchan, Michael E Rogers, Ronald Ochoa, Christopher Robinson
Tuckerella japonica Ehara (Acari: Tetranychoidea: Tuckerellidae) was found on stems of seedling plants of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theaceae) in the continental USA. This mite is able to pierce exposed green periderm tissue with its paired stylets on 1- to 3- or 4-year-old stems where the outer bark had split longitudinally. The mite was not found on branches older than 3 or 4 years, where splitting diminished and, eventually, a uniform covering of bark was formed. The mouthparts of T. japonica were examined under scanning electron microscopy and their external morphology was compared with known Tetranychoidea...
December 18, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Karen C Coronel-Benedett, Nadia Florencia Ojeda-Robertos, Roberto González-Garduño, Francisco Martínez Ibañez, Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas
Hard ticks are a perennial problem in livestock systems throughout Mexico. No data are currently available on tick prevalence, infestation intensity and population dynamics for sheep in the humid tropics of Mexico. Blackbelly sheep (n = 30) in Tabasco state, Mexico, were examined every 3 weeks for 1 year, and all Ixodidae ticks were counted and removed for analysis. Tick species were identified, infestation prevalence and intensity calculated per animal, and infestation per body zone determined. Overall infestation on the studied animals was 51...
December 18, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Vincent Piou, Jérémy Tabart, Jean-Louis Hemptinne, Angélique Vétillard
As the main source of lipids and proteins in honey bees, pollen is a major nutrient provider involved in development and health and has been studied for tolerance stimulation against pathogens and parasites. In the case of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari, Mesostigmata: Varroidae) parasitization, the lack of a complete laboratory system to rear both the bee larva and the acarian parasite limited the studies concerning larval nutrition effects on the bee tolerance and resistance against varroatosis...
December 11, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Anna Barczak-Brzyżek, Małgorzata Kiełkiewicz, Magdalena Górecka, Karol Kot, Barbara Karpińska, Marcin Filipecki
Plants growing in constantly changeable environmental conditions are compelled to evolve regulatory mechanisms to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Effective defence to invaders is largely connected with phytohormone regulation, resulting in the production of numerous defensive proteins and specialized metabolites. In our work, we elucidated the role of the Abscisic Acid Insensitive 4 (ABI4) transcription factor in the plant response to the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM). This polyphagous mite is one of the most destructive herbivores, which sucks mesophyll cells of numerous crop and wild plants...
December 5, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Patrick J Moran, M Irene Wibawa, Lincoln Smith
Aceria salsolae (Acari: Eriophyidae) is being evaluated as a candidate biological control agent of Russian thistle (Salsola tragus, Chenopodiaceae), a major invasive weed of rangelands and dryland crops in the western USA. Prior laboratory host range testing under artificial lighting indicated reproduction on non-native Bassia hyssopifolia and on a native plant, Suaeda calceoliformis. However, in field tests in the native range, mite populations released on these 'nontarget' plants remained low. We hypothesized that UV-A light, which can affect behavior of tetranychid mites, would affect populations of the eriophyid A...
December 5, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Maria A Minor, Sergey G Ermilov, Alexei V Tiunov
Due to an unfortunate turn of events, the statistical results for TS1 (F- and p-values) in Table 4 were displayed in reversed order. The correct representation of Table 4 is published here and should be treated as definitive.
December 4, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Miguel G Ximénez-Embún, Joris J Glas, Felix Ortego, Juan M Alba, Pedro Castañera, Merijn R Kant
Climate change is expected to bring longer periods of drought and this may affect the plant's ability to resist pests. We assessed if water deficit affects the tomato russet mite (TRM; Aculops lycopersici), a key tomato-pest. TRM thrives on tomato by suppressing the plant's jamonate defenses while these defenses typically are modulated by drought stress. We observed that the TRM population grows faster and causes more damage on drought-stressed plants. To explain this observation we measured several nutrients, phytohormones, defense-gene expression and the activity of defensive proteins in plants with or without drought stress or TRM...
November 29, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Diann S Achor, Carl C Childers, Michael E Rogers
Tuckerella japonica Ehara (Acari: Tuckerellidae) feeds on predigested plant cells beneath exposed periderm tissue of 1- to 3+-year-old stems of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theaceae) where longitudinal bark splitting occurs. Control samples from these tissues were compared with areas fed upon by T. japonica adults and immatures to characterize types of cellular injury. Stylet diameters ranged from 1.6 to 2.3 µm and were consistent with observed stylet punctures in the stems. Mite saliva was injected along tracts within the cortical tissue and resulted in cell wall disruption, collapsed cells and, in older tissue, hyperplasia...
November 29, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Y Takano, M S Ullah, T Gotoh
Previous studies on the spider mite Eotetranychus smithi Pritchard & Baker have shown that diapause in eggs is induced by low temperature alone and that females developed at ≤ 17.5 °C laid diapause eggs, regardless of the photoperiod. In this study, diapause eggs were kept at 5 °C and a photoperiod of 16L:8D for 0-120 days and then maintained at 25 °C to know the effect of chilling on diapause termination. Diapause eggs mostly hatched when they were maintained at 25 °C after chilling for 30-90 days at 5 °C, which suggests that diapause termination is favored by low temperatures...
November 28, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Jun-Ran Kim, Haribalan Perumalsamy, He Min Shin, Sang-Guei Lee, Young-Joon Ahn
The American house dust mite (AHDM), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (Acari: Pyroglyphidae), is recognized as an important source of allergens in the domestic environment. This study was conducted to determine whether 19 constituents from essential oil of cade, Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae), eight structurally related compounds, and another 16 previously known cade oil constituents were toxic for adult AHDMs and to determine the route of acaricidal action of the test compounds, as well as to assess the control efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing the oil (10-40 mg/L sprays)...
November 27, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Hong-Yu Li, Shan-Shan Zhao, Sándor Hornok, Róbert Farkas, Li-Ping Guo, Chuang-Fu Chen, Ren-Fu Shao, Ji-Zhou Lv, Yuan-Zhi Wang
Rhipicephalus turanicus is an important tick species potentially carrying tick-borne pathogens. Several tick species have obvious subspecies divergence. However few studies aimed to examine the existence of divergence within R. turanicus. Therefore, a detailed morphological and molecular analysis was conducted for comparing R. turanicus from the Mediterranean Basin (represented by Albania) and Central Asia (Northwestern China). Altogether 315 adult ticks of R. turanicus (103 from Albania and 212 from China) were morphologically and molecularly analysed...
November 27, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Nicole O Moura-Martiniano, Erik Machado-Ferreira, Gilberto S Gazêta, Carlos Augusto Gomes Soares
Ticks endure stressful off-host periods and perform as vectors of a diversity of infectious agents, thus engaging pathways that expectedly demand for autophagy. Little is known of ticks' autophagy, a conserved eukaryotic machinery assisting in homeostasis processes that also participates in tissue-dependent metabolic functions. Here, the autophagy-related ATG4 (autophagin-1), ATG6 (beclin-1) and ATG8 (LC3) mRNAs from the human diseases vector Amblyomma sculptum and the cattle-tick Rhipicephalus microplus were identified...
November 27, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Katharina Brugger, Melanie Walter, Lidia Chitimia-Dobler, Gerhard Dobler, Franz Rubel
Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus (L.) are the major vectors for tick-borne diseases in Europe. The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of environmental variables on the seasonal cycle of questing I. ricinus. Therefore, an 8-year time series of nymphal I. ricinus flagged at monthly intervals in Haselmühl (Germany) was compiled. For the first time, cross correlation maps were applied to identify optimal associations between observed nymphal I. ricinus densities and time-lagged as well as temporal averaged explanatory variables...
November 27, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Olcay Hekimoglu, Ayşe Nurdan Ozer
The genus Hyalomma includes some of the most medically and veterinarily important tick species in the world. To clarify and identify the current distribution of the species of Hyalomma, field studies were conducted in 65 localities in Turkey and five localities in Cyprus. Additionally, using mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal DNA, specimens of Hyalomma from Turkey, H. excavatum from Cyprus, H. marginatum from Spain and Italy were evaluated together with the available sequences obtained from Genbank. Morphological and molecular analyses demonstrated the presence of four species in Turkey: H...
November 24, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Erika T Machtinger, Andrew Y Li
Lone star ticks are aggressive ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, as well as humans. These ticks can transmit many pathogens that cause disease including Erhlichia and tularemia. Common compounds used for personal protection and area sprays are N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET) and permethrin, but public concern over personal and environmental safety require the development of new, safer products. In the current study, four commercially available products (Wondercide, Essentria IC(3), Vet's Best, and Mosquito Barrier) were tested for both repellent and toxic effects against lone star tick nymphs and adults...
November 22, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Maria A Minor, Sergey G Ermilov, Alexei V Tiunov
We analysed species-level datasets representing Oribatida assemblages along a gradient of old-growth primary tropical forests, secondary forests, and plantation forests in Dong Nai Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam. We identified patterns in abundance, species richness and species assemblages of Oribatida, then applied taxonomic sufficiency approach to the datasets. Using three levels of higher-taxon aggregation, we evaluated whether aggregated datasets are useful in identifying ecological patterns, in comparison to species-level data...
November 11, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Somayyeh Ghasemzadeh, Ada Leman, Gerben J Messelink
The poinsettia thrips, Echinothrips americanus Morgan, is an upcoming pest in greenhouse crops, causing serious damage in various vegetable and ornamental crops through extensive foliage feeding. We assessed which stages of E. americanus are attacked and killed by the phytoseiid predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot), Amblydromalus limonicus (Garman and McGregor), Euseius gallicus Kreiter and Tixier and Euseius ovalis (Evans). Both the predation and oviposition rates were assessed in the laboratory to evaluate which mite species is potentially the most effective predator of E...
November 11, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Adem Keskin, Ahmet Bursali, David E Snow, Scot E Dowd, Saban Tekin
Ticks are among the most significant human-biting ectoparasites and they play a major role in transmission of many pathogenic agents to humans. In the present study, three species of Hyalomma ticks, Hyalomma aegyptium, H. marginatum and H. excavatum, were examined for the presence of zoonotic bacteria, both male and female ticks alike. Examination of microbial diversity with tag-encoded pyrosequencing indicates that H. marginatum and H. excavatum were more diversity rich than H. aegyptium. Although numerous pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial genera were detected, including Acidovorax, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Bdellovibrio, Clostridium, Curvibacter, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, Limnohabitans, Paenibacillus, Ralstonia, Sarcina, Sediminibacterium, Segetibacter Stenotrophomonas and Variovorax, the predominant zoonotic bacteria represented in these ticks were genera Borrelia, Francisella, and Rickettsia...
November 9, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Yi-Dan Mo, Si-Xia Yang, Jing-Yu Zhao, Peng-Yu Jin, Xiao-Yue Hong
Tetranychus urticae Koch is a worldwide agricultural pest. There are two color forms: red and green. The molecular mechanism underlying this color variation is unknown. To elucidate the mechanism, we characterized differentially expressed pigment pathway genes shared in the transcriptomes of these two forms using RNA sequencing and reciprocal best hit analysis. Differentially expressed pigment pathway genes were determined by qRT-PCR to confirm the accuracy of RNA-Seq. The transcriptomes revealed 963 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 687 DEGs were higher in the green form...
November 7, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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