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Current Opinion in Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901966/mouse-models-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-for-investigating-mucosal-immunity-in-the-intestine
#1
Giorgos Bamias, Kristen O Arseneau, Fabio Cominelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Currently several mouse models are considered representative of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This review presents recent developments regarding the role of animal models of intestinal inflammation as research tools in IBD. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies in animal models of intestinal inflammation have generated novel findings in several areas of IBD research. The combination of chemical and genetically engineered models have revealed protective or harmful roles for various components of the innate immune system in response to acute injury and repair mechanisms for the intestinal mucosa...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877044/novel-insights-into-microbiome-in-colitis-and-colorectal-cancer
#2
Ye Yang, Christian Jobin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbiota is a major player in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we summarize the key advances achieved in the past 18 months (ending June 2017) toward a better understanding of the role of microbiota in colitis and CRC development. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence shows the essential role of intestinal barrier function (e.g. mucus, IgA, LCN2, LYPD8) in protecting against bacteria-induced inflammation and tumor development...
September 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877045/advances-in-the-treatment-of-gastric-cancer
#3
David H Ilson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent studies in esophagogastric cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Positive emission tomography (PET) scan in follow-up after curative treatment of esophagogastric cancer did not lead to improved survival. In the preoperative treatment of esophagogastric cancer, the addition of the antivascular endothelial growth factor agent bevacizumab to perioperative chemotherapy with combination epirubicin, cisplatinum, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; ECF) failed to improve survival compared with chemotherapy alone...
September 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832361/stomach-and-duodenum
#4
Mitchell L Schubert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832360/gastric-interventional-endoscopy
#5
Mohamed Mahmoud, Erik Holzwanger, Wahid Wassef
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review new advances in gastric interventional endoscopy. RECENT FINDINGS: Implementation of gastric endoscopy as a therapeutic option in obesity, gastric cancer, and gastroparesis. SUMMARY: Less invasive new gastric endoscopic procedures can potentially replace currently offered laparoscopic approaches in many fields. In this article, we will review the use of endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty as a weight loss procedure, endoscopic submucosal dissection in treatment of early gastric cancer, and gastric per-oral endoscopic myotomy in treatment of refractory gastroparesis...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832359/functional-dyspepsia-and-gastroparesis
#6
Jan Tack, Florencia Carbone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent progress in the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis. RECENT FINDINGS: The definition of functional dyspepsia and its subgroups has been revised in the recent Rome IV consensus. In gastroparesis, the symptom pattern and its similarities and differences from functional dyspepsia have been a focus of recent research. In functional dyspepsia, pathophysiological research continued to evaluate gastric sensorimotor dysfunctions, but low-grade inflammatory changes and loss of mucosal integrity in the duodenum is a new topic of intense research...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806271/luminal-chemosensing-in-the-gastroduodenal-mucosa
#7
Izumi Kaji, Jonathan D Kaunitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We report recently published knowledge regarding gut chemosensory mechanisms focusing on nutrient-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on gut enteroendocrine cells (EECs), tuft cells, and in afferent nerves in the gastroduodenal mucosa and submucosa. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene profiling of EECs and tuft cells have revealed expression of a variety of nutrient-sensing GPCRs. The density of EEC and tuft cells is altered by luminal environmental changes that may occur following bypass surgery or in the presence of mucosal inflammation...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806270/new-clinical-paradigms-for-treating-and-preventing-antiplatelet-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#8
Neena S Abraham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To quantify antiplatelet-related gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), characterize patients at greatest risk and summarize risk-management strategies emphasizing evolving knowledge in acute management of antiplatelet-related bleeding. RECENT FINDINGS: New paradigms for acute management of antiplatelet-related GIB exist in the domains of resuscitation and the transfusion of blood products, strategic use of proton pump therapy and identification and eradication of Helicobacter pylori...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787289/physiologic-pathophysiologic-and-pharmacologic-regulation-of-gastric-acid-secretion
#9
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding physiologic and pharmacologic regulation of gastric acid secretion in health and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid kills microorganisms, assists digestion, and facilitates absorption of iron, calcium, and vitamin B12. The main stimulants of acid secretion are the hormone gastrin, released from antral G cells; paracrine agent histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and neuropeptide acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771447/chronic-pancreatitis
#10
Dennis Yang, Chris E Forsmark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize key clinical advances in chronic pancreatitis reported in 2016. RECENT FINDINGS: Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis remains elusive. Recent studies suggest that endoscopic ultrasound may be less accurate than previously thought and new MRI techniques may be helpful. Genetic predisposition may independently affect the clinical course of chronic pancreatitis and the risk for pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoking may have a greater negative impact on chronic pancreatitis than previously thought and moderate alcohol consumption may be protective...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767501/endoscopic-gastroenterostomy-techniques-and-review
#11
Shayan Irani, Todd H Baron, Takao Itoi, Mouen A Khashab
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) can result from benign and malignant causes. Until recently, surgical gastrojejunostomy was the treatment of choice for patient with benign and malignant GOO with a good functional status. Endoscopic placement of luminal self-expandable metal stents is currently widely accepted as the first line of treatment for malignant GOO because of its effectiveness and minimally invasive nature. The main shortcoming of luminal stents is the high incidence of recurrent GOO most commonly because of tumor ingrowth/overgrowth...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767500/editorial-introductions
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742537/update-in-natural-orifice-translumenal-endoscopic-surgery-notes
#13
Joern Bernhardt, Sarah Sasse, Kaja Ludwig, Peter N Meier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent developments and clinical applications of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES)-procedures and technologies are going to be presented. RECENT FINDINGS: In experimental as well as clinical settings, NOTES-procedures are predominantly performed in hybrid technique. Current experimental studies focus on the implementation of new surgical approaches as well as on the training of procedures. One emphasis in the clinical application is transrectal and transanal interventions...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719397/obesity-and-pancreatitis
#14
Biswajit Khatua, Bara El-Kurdi, Vijay P Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The obesity pandemic poses a unique set of problems for acute pancreatitis - both by increasing acute pancreatitis incidence, and worsening acute pancreatitis severity. This review explores these associations, underlying mechanisms, and potential therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: We review how the obesity associated increase in gallstones, surgical, and endoscopic interventions for obesity management, diabetes, and related medications such as incretin-based therapies and hypertriglyceridemia may increase the incidence of acute pancreatitis...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704212/endoscopic-mucosal-resection-and-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-technique-and-new-directions
#15
Toshihiro Nishizawa, Naohisa Yahagi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most of small tumours in gastrointestinal tract are easily removed by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). However, EMR are sometimes not reliable to ensure the complete resection for large tumours. Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was developed, it had a higher risk for complications such as perforation and bleeding. The techniques and clinical outcomes of EMR and ESD are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: ESD is more effective for early gastric and oesophageal cancer with higher en-bloc resection rate and lower local recurrence in comparison to EMR...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700371/total-pancreatectomy-for-recurrent-acute-and-chronic-pancreatitis-a-critical-review-of-patient-selection-criteria
#16
Mahya Faghih, Francisco Garcia Gonzalez, Martin A Makary, Vikesh K Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Critical review of the indications for total pancreatectomy and highlight limitations in current diagnostic criteria for chronic pancreatitis. RECENT FINDINGS: The diagnosis of noncalcific chronic pancreatitis remains controversial because of an overreliance on nonspecific imaging and laboratories findings. Endoscopic ultrasound, s-magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and/or endoscopic pancreatic function testing are often used to diagnose noncalcific chronic pancreatitis despite the fact that there is no gold standard for this condition...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682796/immunology-of-pancreatitis-and-environmental-factors
#17
Bomi Lee, Qinglan Zhao, Aida Habtezion
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This report reviews recent aspects of pancreatitis immunology and environmental factors that link to development and progression of disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Limited human and animal model studies have recently attempted to understand immune mechanisms that lead to the pathogenesis of acute and chronic pancreatitis. Based on these studies innate immune responses emerge as critical elements in disease pathogenesis and severity of inflammation. The immune basis for environmental factors such as smoking, which are highly associated with disease progression highlight novel cross talk mechanisms between immune and nonimmune pancreatic cells such as the pancreatic stellate cells...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682795/genetics-of-pancreatic-cyst-cancer-progression-standing-on-the-shoulders-of-giants
#18
Bhuwan Giri, Vrishketan Sethi, Vikas Dudeja, Sulagna Banerjee, Alan Livingstone, Ashok Saluja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pancreatic cancer, despite years of study and some progress, presents with a grim prognosis in almost all cases. In the current review, we have discussed recent studies that have attempted to decipher the genetic makeup of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and preneoplastic pancreatic cystic neoplasms. RECENT FINDINGS: With the advent of high throughput sequencing, the genetic code of pancreatic cancer is beginning to unravel and this new-found information heralds an era of precision cancer care where treatment will be guided by the genetic code of the neoplasm...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682794/bariatric-endoscopy-state-of-the-art
#19
Vivek Kumbhari, Christine Hill, Shelby Sullivan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to present the current state of the field, highlight recent developments, and describe the clinical outcomes of these endoscopic bariatric and metabolic procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: There are an increasing number of devices and techniques that are available for the endoluminal treatment of obesity. It is now possible to offer FDA approved endoscopic therapies for patients with BMI as high as 55 kg/m. Although tremendous advances have been made, there is room for additional emphasis with regards to the metabolic improvements seen with these therapies, in addition to highlighting weight loss outcomes...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650852/techniques-for-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-in-altered-gastrointestinal-anatomy
#20
Tom G Moreels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the current status of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) techniques in patients with altered anatomy. Endoscopic treatment of biliopancreatic disorders is particularly challenging in patients with altered anatomy. RECENT FINDINGS: There are two main approaches to perform ERCP in patients with altered anatomy: the transluminal access and the transmural access. The transluminal access uses device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) to reach and cannulate the biliopancreatic system...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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