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Current Opinion in Gastroenterology

Stefania Chetcuti Zammit, Reena Sidhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective is to provide an overview on the cause of small bowel bleeding. We discuss the role of small bowel endoscopy in the management of small bowel bleeding and provide an outline of pharmacotherapy that can be additionally beneficial. RECENT FINDINGS: Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) is the initial diagnostic investigation of choice in small bowel bleeding. Computed tomography (CT) can be helpful in the context of small bowel tumours...
March 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Tatyana Kushner, Douglas Dieterich, Behnam Saberi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) affects a significant portion of patients with hepatitis C. The use of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has transformed the disease outcomes in this patient group. RECENT FINDINGS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) response to DAAs can be affected by the presence of HCC, whereas DAA therapy may affect the risk of HCC recurrence in patients with a history of HCC. SUMMARY: Emerging data are demonstrating lower sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients with HCC compared with patients without HCC...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Ben L Da, Christopher Koh, Theo Heller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noncirrhotic portal hypertension represents a heterogeneous group of liver disorders that is characterized by portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis. The purpose of this review is to serve as a guide on how to approach a patient with noncirrhotic portal hypertension with a focus on recent developments. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies pertaining to noncirrhotic portal hypertension have investigated aetiological causes, mechanisms of disease, noninvasive diagnostic modalities, clinical characteristics in the paediatric population and novel treatment targets...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Avash Kalra, Scott W Biggins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The 'Final Rule,' issued by the Health Resources and Service Administration in 2000, mandated that liver allocation policy should be based on disease severity and probability of death, and - among other factors - should be independent of a candidate's residence or listing. As a result, the Organ Procurement Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) has explored policy changes addressing geographic disparities without compromising outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Major paradigm shifts are underway in U...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Natasha Kamal, Pallavi Surana, Christopher Koh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the current understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of cystic fibrosis-liver disease (CFLD). RECENT FINDINGS: CFLD has a variety of manifestations. Previously, it was thought that patients progressed from mild cholestatic disease to cirrhosis to decompensated cirrhosis with portal hypertension. Newer evidence suggests that some patients may develop cirrhosis while others develop noncirrhotic portal hypertension...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Foong Way David Tai, Mark E McAlindon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review describes the effects of NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity on the small bowel, wherein injury is as prevalent as in the gastroduodenum. This is well documented by capsule endoscopy, which also provides an endoscopic endpoint for novel treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Appreciation of the prevalence of NSAID enteropathy has grown with capsule endoscopy and the use of composite end points that include obscure haemoglobin decreases in clinical studies...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Rondonotti Emanuele, Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Julius Georgiou, Marco Pennazio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to summarize the role of recently developed diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis and management of patients with small bowel tumours (SBTs). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies show that the overall SBT incidence is increasing. The introduction of small bowel dedicated diagnostic tools [i.e. capsule endoscopy, device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE), computed tomography (CT) and MRI-enterography] might partially explain this trend...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Tony Y Wang, Piero Portincasa, Min Liu, Patrick Tso, David Q-H Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The establishment of mouse models of gallstones, and the contribution of mouse models to genetic studies of gallstone disease, as well as the latest advances in the pathophysiology of gallstones from mouse experiments are summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: The combined uses of genomic strategies and phenotypic studies in mice have successfully led to the identification of many Lith genes, which pave the way for the discovery of human LITH genes. The physical-chemical, genetic, and molecular biological studies of gallstone disease in mice with knockout or transgene of specific target genes have provided many novel insights into the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of this very common hepatobiliary disease worldwide, showing that interactions of five primary defects play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones...
December 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Sophia M Swanson, Jason Harper, Timothy L Zisman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes our current understanding of how obesity impacts diagnostic studies and therapies used in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as the safety and efficacy of medical and surgical weight loss therapies in the obese IBD patient. RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the diagnostic tools we rely on in the identification and monitoring of IBD can be altered by obesity. Obesity is associated with increased acute phase proteins and fecal calprotectin...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Agostino Di Ciaula, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gallstone disease is a major epidemiologic and economic burden worldwide, and the most frequent form is cholesterol gallstone disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Major pathogenetic factors for cholesterol gallstones include a genetic background, hepatic hypersecretion of cholesterol, and supersaturated bile which give life to precipitating cholesterol crystals that accumulate and grow in a sluggish gallbladder. Additional factors include mucin and inflammatory changes in the gallbladder, slow intestinal motility, increased intestinal absorption of cholesterol, and altered gut microbiota...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Heidi M Staudacher, Matthew Kurien, Kevin Whelan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize some of the key dietary interventions recommended for common gastrointestinal disorders and to discuss recent evidence regarding their nutritional implications. RECENT FINDINGS: The gluten-free diet has been shown to negatively influence overall diet quality. The gluten-free diet is essential in celiac disease, although it is increasingly used for other perceived health benefits for which an analysis of perceived benefit should be weighed against any nutritional risks...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Chantal Housset
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Marco Arrese, Víctor Cortés, Francisco Barrera, Flavio Nervi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gallstone disease (GSD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD often coexist in a given patient and both conditions are associated to obesity and insulin resistance. The relationship between GSD and NAFLD is complex and bidirectional. In the present review, we summarize the existing information on the complex link between GSD and NAFLD and the potential implications for patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: Several clinical studies and systematic reviews have addressed the association between NAFLD and GSD underscoring that NAFLD is an independent risk factor for GSD...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Mark P Lamberts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies showed new insights in the indication and timing of cholecystectomy in gallstone disease. This review will provide an overview. RECENT FINDINGS: Considerable variations in indication for gallbladder surgery have been noticed leading to a significant number of unnecessary cholecystectomies. As a consequence, up to 33% of patients with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstone disease have persistent abdominal pain after cholecystectomy...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
John P Mills, Krishna Rao, Vincent B Young
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Probiotics may prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a leading healthcare-associated infection in the United States. However, prior studies were limited by heterogeneity in products and patient populations. Recent clinical evidence and new approaches to probiotic development are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Probiotic use may reduce incident CDI in high-risk populations by as much as 50%, though prior clinical trials have yielded conflicting results...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Mark H Wilcox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Javier A Villafuerte-Gálvez, Ciarán P Kelly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rising burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) requires urgent identification of preventable risk factors. Observational studies suggest an association between proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use and CDI risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Key historical literature on PPI and CDI associations is reviewed as a prelude to evaluating the plausibility of a causative association. Impactful literature from the past 18 months is examined in detail and critically appraised through the lens of the Bradford Hill Criteria for determination of causality...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Orla Craig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence supporting the use of recently developed pharmacological treatments for IBS together with new evidence supporting more traditional therapies in order to understand where the new agents are best used in the treatment pathway. RECENT FINDINGS: There is evidence to support the use of traditional treatments such as antispasmodics, antidepressants and dietary alteration in IBS. New therapeutic agents such as Linaclotide, Lubiprostone, Plecanatide, Rifaxamin and Eluxadoline are all more effective than placebo in treating symptoms of IBS with Tenapanor being a promising new agent...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Danny O Jacobs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Efforts continue to improve the treatment of patients with symptomatic hemorrhoidal disease by interventions designed to improve efficiency and effectiveness, including by reducing intraoperative and postoperative pain, decreasing operating times, minimizing blood loss and controlling symptoms and recurrence rates. Simultaneously, there are also renewed efforts to minimize the number of patients who will require procedural intervention by focusing on conservative measures that encourage better bowel regulation and habits...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Louissa R Macfarlane-Smith, Shadia Ahmed, Mark H Wilcox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Molecular-based diagnostic methods for the detection of gastrointestinal pathogens are becoming increasingly commonplace in microbiology laboratories. This review aims to summarize recent developments in this field and discuss the clinical application and limitations of implementing these techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evaluations of multiplex PCR assays show increased sensitivity whenever compared with standard microbiological culture-based methods...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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