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Current Opinion in Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212152/an-update-on-small-bowel-endoscopy
#1
Hey-Long Ching, Mark E McAlindon, Reena Sidhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The breakthrough success of capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy has inspired researchers to test and push the boundary of these technologies. The authors herein summarize the latest and most significant studies with clinical impact. RECENT FINDINGS: Competing capsule endoscopy models have enriched the platform of this wireless device. The role of capsule endoscopy in Crohn's disease is expanding as we learn more of the significance of disease distribution and response to treatment...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177956/optimizing-the-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease
#2
Michelle Shui Yee Lau, David Surendran Sanders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnostic approach in celiac disease is continuously evolving as our understanding of its pathophysiology improves. This review aims to provide a summary of contemporary work that supports optimization of the diagnosis of this common yet underdiagnosed condition. RECENT FINDINGS: The recently updated National Institute of Clinical Excellence and European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines and the contentious biopsy-free diagnostic approach will be discussed...
February 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169840/bile-acid-disease-the-emerging-epidemic
#3
Ibironke Oduyebo, Michael Camilleri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our objective was to review advances in bile acids in health and disease published in the last 2 years. Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is recognized as a common cause of chronic diarrhea, and its recognition has been facilitated by development of new screening tests. RECENT FINDINGS: Primary BAD can account for 30% of cases of chronic diarrhea. The mechanisms leading to BAD include inadequate feedback regulation by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) from ileal enterocytes, abnormalities in synthesis or degradation of proteins involved in FGF-19 regulation in hepatocytes and variations as a function of the bile acid receptor, TGR5 (GPBAR1)...
February 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146448/diet-and-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-role-in-pathogenesis-and-management
#4
Sajiv Sethi, Joel E Richter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease that presents with a variety of symptoms including heartburn and acid regurgitation. Although dietary modification is currently regarded as first-line therapy for the disease, the role of diet in the pathogenesis and management of GERD is still poorly understood. The present article aims to review recent literature that examines the relationship of diet and GERD. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased awareness of medications side effects and widespread overuse has brought nonpharmacological therapies to the forefront for the management of GERD...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146447/the-gut-response-to-food-a-physiological-perspective-on-food-induced-gastrointestinal-symptoms-it-s-not-all-allergy-and-intolerance
#5
Eamonn M M Quigley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146446/immunogenetics-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#6
Brian K Chung, Gideon M Hirschfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive biliary liver disorder strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD). We summarize the genetics of PSC-IBD and highlight recent findings that further differentiate PSC-IBD as a unique disease. RECENT FINDINGS: To date, genome-wide studies have uncovered 23 susceptibility loci for PSC-IBD, the majority of which have been previously reported as risk factors in other immune-mediated disorders...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146445/risk-of-cholangiocarcinoma-in-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-diagnosis-and-surveillance
#7
Hanno Ehlken, Roman Zenouzi, Christoph Schramm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is associated with an increased risk of hepatobiliary and extrahepatic malignancy. Particularly the risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is greatly increased. To provide potentially curative treatments for affected patients an early diagnosis of CCA is crucial. We here review the current advances with respect to CCA diagnosis and surveillance and discuss a rational approach on how to perform surveillance of CCA in PSC patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the shortcomings of the current modalities for the surveillance and diagnosis of CCA in PSC, recent studies have focused on novel biomarkers for CCA...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141617/nutritional-management-of-acute-pancreatitis
#8
Kumar Krishnan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common causes for hospitalization related to a gastrointestinal disorder. It carries significant morbidity, and when severe, significant mortality. Multiple interventions have been studied to treat pancreatitis. Of all these interventions, none is more important or impactful than nutrition. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality evidence along with society guidelines have recommended the use of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition in patients with pancreatitis...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141616/editorial-introductions
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079751/updates-on-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#10
Chantal Housset
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030370/the-evolution-of-natural-history-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#11
Will R Takakura, James H Tabibian, Christopher L Bowlus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare, idiopathic biliary disease often with an insidious onset, variable disease course, and premature death related to benign and malignant PSC-related sequelae. This review aims to discuss the epidemiology, clinical variants, and natural history of PSC, incorporating data from recent population-based studies. RECENT FINDINGS: PSC naturally leads to cirrhosis, cholangiocarcinoma, other hepatobiliary malignancies, dominant strictures, hepatic osteodystrophy, and bacterial cholangitis...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030369/intestinal-microbiota-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#12
Johannes R Hov, Martin Kummen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alterations of the gut-liver axis have been linked to the pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) since the disease was first described. The purpose of this review is to discuss multiple recent studies on the intestinal microbiota in human PSC and experimental models of this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Data are available from eight cross-sectional studies of human PSC, which include a variable number of patients (n = 11-85), material (mucosal or fecal), and microbiota profiling methodology...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134690/mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-therapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-updated-review-with-maintenance-of-remission
#13
Maneesh Dave, Palashkumar Jaiswal, Fabio Cominelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a need for novel therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that are well tolerated and effective. Currently, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are being investigated in clinical trials for treatment of IBD. In this review, we update the recently published studies with an emphasis on the long-term efficacy of MSC therapy for IBD. RECENT FINDINGS: A cumulative body of data, including a recent phase III randomized controlled trial demonstrated excellent fistula healing in patients with refractory Crohn's perianal fistulae treated via local injections of MSCs and with a good safety profile...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134689/the-care-of-the-colorectal-cancer-survivor
#14
Andrea Cercek, Peter R Holt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The gastroenterology literature emphasizes factors that increase colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence but presents little about management after initial CRC treatments. The purpose of this review is to describe the remarkably increasing numbers of CRC survivors in whom surveillance guidelines are often not followed and patient care is fragmented. The gastroenterologist can play an important role in this care to improve prognosis and overall health. RECENT FINDINGS: Existing surveillance recommendations by specialty societies for CRC survivors are fairly consistent but implementation occurs in less than half...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134688/progress-with-treating-the-microbial-dysbiosis-associated-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#15
James S Pearson, Peter J Whorwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbial dysbiosis is receiving increasing attention as possibly being important in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. This review will summarize the most recent literature addressing attempts to explore and target the microbiome in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome is receiving increasing attention. Traditionally, dietary manipulation has been utilized...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134687/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#16
Thomas Malikowski, Sahil Khanna, Darrell S Pardi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of the gut microbiome in human health is being increasingly recognized. The purpose of this review is to examine the existing literature pertaining to alterations in the gut microbiome and the utility of microbiome restoration therapies in gastrointestinal disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Imbalance and maladaptation of the microbiome, termed dysbiosis, has been associated with several disease states such as irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity among others...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134686/novel-antibiotics-in-development-to-treat-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
Eugénie Bassères, Bradley T Endres, Kierra M Dotson, M Jahangir Alam, Kevin W Garey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) remain a challenge to treat clinically due primarily to limited number of antibiotics available and unacceptably high recurrence rates. Because of this, there has been significant demand for creating innovative therapeutics, which has resulted in the development of several novel antibiotics. RECENT FINDINGS: This review updates seven different antibiotics that are currently in development to treat CDI including fidaxomicin, surotomycin, ridinilazole, ramoplanin, cadazolid, LFF571, and CRS3123...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673381/translating-nutritional-immunology-into-drug-development-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent advances in the understanding of nutritional immunology and in the development of novel therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). RECENT FINDINGS: We highlight the variety of factors that contribute to the interaction of the immune system and nutrition including the microbiome and the nervous system stimulation of the gut. We describe the potential for therapeutic development in IBD. Further, we review the cellular metabolic effects on immune activation and promising therapeutic targets...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673380/cytokines-and-intestinal-inflammation
#19
Giorgos Bamias, Fabio Cominelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytokines of the intestinal microenvironment largely dictate immunological responses after mucosal insults and the dominance of homeostatic or proinflammatory pathways. This review presents important recent studies on the role of specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: The particular mucosal effects of cytokines depend on their inherent properties but also the cellular origin, type of stimulatory antigens, intermolecular interactions, and the particular immunological milieu...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662061/an-update-in-the-endoscopic-management-of-gastric-cancer
#20
Samuel Han, Andrew Hsu, Wahid Y Wassef
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastric cancer remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide and gastroenterologists are playing an increasingly larger role in its management. This article reviews the endoscopic management of gastric cancer, with emphasis on recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term studies comparing surgery and endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer have shown no difference in 10-year survival rates. Second-look endoscopy, performed 2 days after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to address the concern of delayed bleeding, may not affect rebleeding rates...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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