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Current Opinion in Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537996/ibd-the-need-for-sweeping-new-concepts-in-pathogenesis-and-therapy
#1
Claudio Fiocchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509785/inflammatory-bowel-disease-treatment-in-eastern-europe-current-status-challenges-and-needs
#2
Igor L Khalif, Marina V Shapina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To analyze the available studies of course, diagnosis and treatment of Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Eastern Europe. RECENT FINDINGS: According to published data, full epidemiological studies were conducted only in Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary and Romania. Russia was recently included in the EpiCom study, although only Moscow region data were provided. SUMMARY: We summarize previously published and unpublished data on the epidemiology, IBD diagnosis and treatment in Eastern Europe...
May 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509786/igg4-related-disease-of-the-biliary-tract-and-pancreas-clinical-and-experimental-advances
#3
Lowiek M Hubers, Ulrich Beuers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated disease of unknown cause. It predominantly affects the biliary tract [IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC)] and pancreas [autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP)] of mostly elderly men. Accurate diagnostic tests are lacking. Patients benefit from predniso(lo)ne treatment. However, disease relapse is often seen. This review will address pathophysiological aspects and advances in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of IgG1 and IgG4 in the pathophysiology of IgG4-RD was studied in mice which showed more intense organ damage of pancreas and salivary glands when IgG1 rather than IgG4 of patients with IgG4-RD was injected...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463855/noncardiac-chest-pain-diagnosis-and-management
#4
Takahisa Yamasaki, Ronnie Fass
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) has been defined as recurrent chest pain that is indistinguishable from ischemic heart pain after excluding a cardiac cause. NCCP is a common and highly challenging clinical problem in Gastrointestinal practice that requires targeted diagnostic assessment to identify the underlying cause of the symptoms. Treatment is tailored according to the cause of NCCP: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal dysmotility or functional chest pain...
May 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463854/surgical-rates-in-the-era-of-biological-therapy-up-down-or-unchanged
#5
Pablo Olivera, Antonino Spinelli, Corinne Gower-Rousseau, Silvio Danese, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize data regarding surgical trends in inflammatory bowel disease in the prebiologic and biologic era, with a focus on population-based studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RECENT FINDINGS: There is paucity of data in RCTs regarding surgical rates, with only a few clinical trials reporting them. From the available data, meta-analyses of RCTs have concluded that antitumor necrosis α agents (anti-TNF) reduce surgical rates in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease...
May 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445189/proton-pump-inhibitor-responsive-esophageal-eosinophilia-still-a-valid-diagnosis
#6
Javier Molina-Infante, Pedro L Gonzalez-Cordero, Alfredo J Lucendo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update rapidly evolving concepts regarding the controversial entity of 'proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-responsive esophageal eosinophilia,' referring to patients with clinical, endoscopic and histologic features of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) who achieve remission on PPI therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Up to half of pediatric and adult patients with typical EoE symptoms and histology achieve clinico-pathologic remission on PPI therapy, irrespective of whether esophageal pH monitoring demonstrates abnormal acid reflux...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441152/cryoablation-in-the-management-of-barrett-s-esophagus
#7
Anouk Overwater, Bas L A M Weusten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Providing an overview on types of cryotherapy for esophageal application and their role in the management of Barrett's esophagus. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have involved multiple types of cryotherapy including cryospray techniques that use either liquid nitrogen or carbon dioxide as the cryogenic fluid, and the CryoBalloon focal ablation device that uses nitrous oxide. Overall, studies report cryotherapy to be safe and effective in eradicating Barrett's epithelium...
April 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437259/utility-of-esophageal-mucosal-impedance-as-a-diagnostic-test-for-esophageal-disease
#8
Dhyanesh A Patel, Michael F Vaezi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize the use of direct mucosal impedance (MI) for the evaluation and management of esophageal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance with pH (MII-pH) monitoring has been considered the most sensitive test for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but recent studies have failed to establish impedance parameters that reliably predict treatment response to medical and surgical GERD therapies...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426463/treatments-for-achalasia-in-2017-how-to-choose-among-them
#9
Peter J Kahrilas, John E Pandolfino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in achalasia diagnostics and therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: The cardinal feature of achalasia, impaired lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, can occur in association with varied patterns of esophageal contractility. The Chicago Classification distinguishes among these as follows: without contractility (type I), with panesophageal pressurization (type II), with premature (spastic) distal esophageal contractions (type III), or even with preserved peristalsis [esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outlet obstruction]...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426462/high-resolution-esophageal-manometry-interpretation-in-clinical-practice
#10
Rena Yadlapati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) is the current state-of-the-art diagnostic tool to evaluate esophageal motility patterns and, as such, is widely adopted in clinical practice. This article will review the interpretation of esophageal HRM in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: HRM uses a high-resolution catheter to transmit intraluminal pressure data that are subsequently converted into dynamic esophageal pressure topography (EPT) plots...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402995/etiopathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-today-and-tomorrow
#11
Heitor S P de Souza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), represent chronic diseases of unknown cause, and they are regarded as prototypical complex diseases. Despite all the recent advances, a complete appreciation of the pathogenesis of IBD is still limited. In this review, we present recent information contributing to a better understanding of mechanisms underlying IBD. RECENT FINDINGS: Here, we attempt to highlight novel environmental triggers, data on the gut microbiota, its interaction with the host, and the potential influence of diet and food components...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402994/intestinal-fibrosis-ready-to-be-reversed
#12
Giovanni Latella, Florian Rieder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of several enteropathies, with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) being the major cause. Intestinal fibrosis affects both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and no specific antifibrotic therapy exists. This review highlights recent developments in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: The pathophysiology of intestinal stricture formation includes inflammation-dependent and inflammation-independent mechanisms...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402993/volumetric-laser-endomicroscopy-in-the-management-of-barrett-s-esophagus
#13
Arvind J Trindade, Cadman L Leggett, Kenneth J Chang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is on the rise despite widespread appreciation that the precursor lesion is Barrett's esophagus. Studies have shown that some patients known to have Barrett's esophagus develop cancer despite their enrollment in conventional endoscopic surveillance programs. This highlights the need for advanced endoscopic imaging to help identify early neoplasia and prevent its progression to esophageal cancer. Recently, a wide-field, second-generation optical coherence tomography endoscopic platform called volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) was cleared by the Food and Drug Administration and made commercially available for advanced imaging in Barrett's esophagus...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350558/updates-on-hepatitis-c-virus-therapy-in-the-direct-acting-antiviral-era
#14
Ramakrishna Behara, Nancy Reau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of clinical burden in the United States and worldwide, as a percentage of patients can develop complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapy for chronic HCV infection was previously interferon-based, but with the advent of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), there has been a dramatic improvement in eradicating the virus with favourable side effect profiles. SUMMARY: Emerging data are demonstrating new successful agents in difficult-to-manage populations...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346237/current-and-future-pharmacologic-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#15
Bubu A Banini, Arun J Sanyal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the aggressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in 5-15% of patients and is rapidly becoming the leading cause for end-stage liver disease. Dietary caloric restriction and exercise, currently the cornerstone of therapy for NAFLD, can be difficult to achieve and maintain, underscoring the dire need for pharmacotherapy. This review presents the agents currently used in managing NAFLD and their pharmacologic targets...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346236/current-concepts-in-ischemic-hepatitis
#16
Joseph M Lightsey, Don C Rockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review seeks to define ischemic hepatitis and its associated comorbidities. It means to review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, clinical course, outcomes, and any potential therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Ischemic hepatitis has long been associated with cardiovascular disease; recent reports have found a substantial link between preexisting cardiovascular disease and the risk for developing ischemic hepatitis. A proposed mechanism by which hepatic congestion predisposes the liver to hemodynamic injury further defines this link...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346235/advances-in-hepatology
#17
Don C Rockey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333690/diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-hyperbilirubinemia
#18
Jeremy I Sullivan, Don C Rockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Jaundice, the physical finding associated with hyperbilirubinemia, results when the liver is unable to properly metabolize or excrete bilirubin. The purpose of this review is to examine some of the most common causes of jaundice in adults, provide insight into the diagnostic evaluation of jaundice, and review information on the outcomes of patients with jaundice. RECENT FINDINGS: An elevated level of bilirubin almost always indicates the presence of an underlying disease state...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282323/growth-factors-and-their-use-in-short-bowel
#19
Siddhartha Oke, Merlin N M Walter, Tahera Ansari, Simon M Gabe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the most recent literature on the clinical trials associated with the relevant growth factors that have been of interest in the treatment of short bowel. RECENT FINDINGS: Short bowel is a rare but devastating condition that condemns patients to lifelong parenteral support. Historically, treatment options negating the need for parenteral support were limited. Therapeutic growth factor use is of interest, but the clinical trial data are inconclusive...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282322/the-dawn-of-the-small-bowel-expert-cometh
#20
David S Sanders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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