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Current Opinion in Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798443/the-consequences-of-campylobacter-infection
#1
Sarah J O'Brien
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the clinical, public health and economic consequences of Campylobacter infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Campylobacter is a leading bacterial cause of food-related illness. Its importance is enhanced by the chronic sequelae that can result from acute infection. Recent advances include a new clinical classification system for neurological sequelae with the aim of speeding accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders, the emergence of Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter showae as potential aetiological agents in inflammatory bowel disease, a new mechanism for antimicrobial resistance in campylobacters and a better appreciation of the economic costs...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798442/the-genetics-and-molecular-biology-of-colonic-neoplasia-practical-implications-for-the-clinician
#2
Sanjib Chowdhury, Hemant K Roy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the large investment of resources from screening, the fact that colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer deaths among Americans underscores the need for alternative strategies. Thus, a major clinical and research imperative is personalize clinical care, while focusing on risk stratification for screening, surveillance, chemoprevention, and therapeutic intervention. RECENT FINDINGS: A complicating factor that colorectal cancer is biologically heterogeneous for at least four consensus molecular subtypes presents clear challenges for developing robust molecular biomarkers...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798441/runner-s-diarrhea-what-is-it-what-causes-it-and-how-can-it-be-prevented
#3
Erick P de Oliveira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Runner's diarrhea is an acute exercise-induced diarrhea. Usually, this is not a pathological situation but it can affect performance. This review focuses on the discussion of the main causes of runner's diarrhea and nutritional recommendations to prevent it. RECENT FINDINGS: Although based on limited data, multiple transportable carbohydrate intake during exercise instead of glucose alone can be recommended for preventing the urge to defecate and (possibly) diarrhea...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798440/role-of-visceral-fat-in-colonic-inflammation-from-crohn-s-disease-to-diverticulitis
#4
Anna Paeschke, Ulrike Erben, Lea I Kredel, Anja A Kühl, Britta Siegmund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The composition of activated adipose tissue with adipocytes secreting a broad spectrum of immune-modulatory adipokines next to adipose tissue-derived stromal cells and professional immune effector cells in the visceral fat creates a complex network of inflammatory processes shaping local immune responses in the adjacent inflamed intestinal mucosa. RECENT FINDINGS: In Crohn's disease a particular phenomenon called 'creeping fat' can be observed...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798439/colonic-ischemia-usual-and-unusual-presentations-and-their-management
#5
Ayah Oglat, Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of colonic ischemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Formerly regarded as a rare cause of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, colonic ischemia is now recognized to be the most common manifestation of intestinal vascular compromise. In contrast to ischemic events in the small intestine wherein thrombotic and embolic events predominate, colonic ischemia typically results from a global reduction in blood flow to the colon and no occlusive lesion(s) are evident...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749397/editorial-introductions
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673381/translating-nutritional-immunology-into-drug-development-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent advances in the understanding of nutritional immunology and in the development of novel therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). RECENT FINDINGS: We highlight the variety of factors that contribute to the interaction of the immune system and nutrition including the microbiome and the nervous system stimulation of the gut. We describe the potential for therapeutic development in IBD. Further, we review the cellular metabolic effects on immune activation and promising therapeutic targets...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673380/cytokines-and-intestinal-inflammation
#8
Giorgos Bamias, Fabio Cominelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytokines of the intestinal microenvironment largely dictate immunological responses after mucosal insults and the dominance of homeostatic or proinflammatory pathways. This review presents important recent studies on the role of specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: The particular mucosal effects of cytokines depend on their inherent properties but also the cellular origin, type of stimulatory antigens, intermolecular interactions, and the particular immunological milieu...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662061/an-update-in-the-endoscopic-management-of-gastric-cancer
#9
Samuel Han, Andrew Hsu, Wahid Y Wassef
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastric cancer remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide and gastroenterologists are playing an increasingly larger role in its management. This article reviews the endoscopic management of gastric cancer, with emphasis on recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term studies comparing surgery and endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer have shown no difference in 10-year survival rates. Second-look endoscopy, performed 2 days after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to address the concern of delayed bleeding, may not affect rebleeding rates...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653163/gastrointestinal-defense-mechanisms
#10
Hyder Said, Jonathan D Kaunitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and illuminate the recent findings regarding gastroduodenal mucosal defense mechanisms and the specific biomolecules involved in regulating this process, such as glucagon-like peptides (GLPs). RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a growing interest in luminal nutrient chemosensing and its physiological effects throughout the digestive system. From the ingestion of food in the oral cavity to the processing and absorption of nutrients in the intestines, nutrient chemosensing receptors signal the production and release of numerous bioactive peptides from enteroendocrine cells, such as the proglucagon-derived peptides...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653162/update-on-innate-immunity-and-perspectives-on-metabolite-regulation-in-acute-pancreatitis
#11
Rafaz Hoque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute pancreatitis is a major cause of gastrointestinal morbidity for which specific therapy is greatly needed to prevent progression to and induce resolution of severe disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate immune components and metabolite signaling are recently identified as strong determinants of disease severity and resolution in acute pancreatitis and this work will be discussed herein. SUMMARY: Targeting innate immune cell populations and metabolite signaling pathways in acute pancreatitis may result in broader and ultimately more efficacious re-direction of the inflammatory programme toward disease resolution and improved clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636305/stomach-and-duodenum
#12
Mitchell L Schubert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636304/an-update-in-the-nonendoscopic-treatment-of-gastric-cancer
#13
David H Ilson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the recent seminal studies in esophagogastric cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Regular low aspirin use may reduce the risk of esophagogastric cancer. Laparoscopic resection of locally advanced gastric cancer appears equivalent to open resection. There is no survival benefit for the addition of postoperative radiation therapy to adjuvant chemotherapy after primary gastric cancer resection. For tumors of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction, the combination of preoperative radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy may be required to ensure achievement of a negative surgical margin and to reduce local tumor recurrence...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636303/gastrointestinal-bleeding-secondary-to-the-new-anticoagulants
#14
Neena S Abraham, Jennifer L Horsley-Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To quantify direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) related gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), characterize patients at greatest risk and provide a pragmatic approach for the management of these drugs. This review will also summarize risk-management strategies and highlight evolving areas of clinical knowledge. RECENT FINDINGS: DOACs permit anticoagulation with predictable dosing without the need for routine serum monitoring. Since their availability on the market, they have quickly emerged as a popular alternative for patients requiring short-term and lifelong anticoagulation...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607343/gastric-acid-secretion
#15
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion and proper use of antisecretory medications. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid kills microorganisms, modulates the gut microbiome, assists in digestion of protein, and facilitates absorption of iron, calcium, and vitamin B12. The main stimulants of acid secretion are gastrin, released from antral G cells; histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607342/endoscopic-treatment-of-obesity
#16
Austin L Chiang, Marvin Ryou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity and its comorbid illnesses affect millions worldwide and are one of the major causes of preventable death in the world. Bariatric surgery is currently offered to individuals with a BMI greater than 40 kg/m or greater than 35 kg/m with obesity-related comorbidities such as hypertension or diabetes. Endoscopic bariatric therapies, with their reduced invasiveness and potential reversibility, may complement surgical approaches for achieving weight loss. RECENT FINDINGS: At the time of this writing, two endoscopically placed intragastric balloons and an endoscopically placed aspiration tube have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for weight loss purposes...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607341/bariatric-surgery-in-managing-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Mitchell S Roslin, Courtney N Cripps
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, having profound effects on Western populations. Bariatric surgery has long been employed to treat obesity and its related comorbidities. Over time, researchers have amassed significant data to support bariatric surgery in the pursuit of treating diabetes mellitus. This review serves to introduce the most recent findings and their relation to the various bariatric surgical options as bariatric surgery will continue to cement itself in the treatment paradigm of diabetes mellitus...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540688/functional-dyspepsia
#18
Nicholas J Talley, Marjorie M Walker, Gerald Holtmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional dyspepsia affects 10% of the population. Emerging data are beginning to unravel the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disorder, and new data on treatment are helping to guide evidence-based practice. In this review, the latest advances are summarized and discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The Rome IV criteria were published in 2016 and are similar to Rome III but further emphasize the subtypes (postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome) rather than focussing on the syndrome as a whole, and conclude that gastroesophageal reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome are part of the functional dyspepsia spectrum...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454030/advances-in-pancreatology-2016
#19
Fred S Gorelick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454029/radiofrequency-ablation-for-pancreatobiliary-disease
#20
Alexander M Sarkisian, Iman Andalib, Nikhil A Kumta, Reem Z Sharaiha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been recognized for its potential in palliative treatment for pancreatic cancer as well as malignant biliary strictures. The purpose of this review is to describe the technology, endoscopic technique, and reported outcomes of endoscopic RFA in the management of malignant biliary strictures and unresectable pancreatic cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Intraductal biliary RFA is safe and feasible and appears to confer a survival advantage...
July 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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