Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Opinion in Gastroenterology

(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent advances in the understanding of nutritional immunology and in the development of novel therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). RECENT FINDINGS: We highlight the variety of factors that contribute to the interaction of the immune system and nutrition including the microbiome and the nervous system stimulation of the gut. We describe the potential for therapeutic development in IBD. Further, we review the cellular metabolic effects on immune activation and promising therapeutic targets...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Giorgos Bamias, Fabio Cominelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytokines of the intestinal microenvironment largely dictate immunological responses after mucosal insults and the dominance of homeostatic or proinflammatory pathways. This review presents important recent studies on the role of specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: The particular mucosal effects of cytokines depend on their inherent properties but also the cellular origin, type of stimulatory antigens, intermolecular interactions, and the particular immunological milieu...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Samuel Han, Andrew Hsu, Wahid Y Wassef
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastric cancer remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide and gastroenterologists are playing an increasingly larger role in its management. This article reviews the endoscopic management of gastric cancer, with emphasis on recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term studies comparing surgery and endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer have shown no difference in 10-year survival rates. Second-look endoscopy, performed 2 days after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to address the concern of delayed bleeding, may not affect rebleeding rates...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Hyder Said, Jonathan D Kaunitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and illuminate the recent findings regarding gastroduodenal mucosal defense mechanisms and the specific biomolecules involved in regulating this process, such as glucagon-like peptides (GLPs). RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a growing interest in luminal nutrient chemosensing and its physiological effects throughout the digestive system. From the ingestion of food in the oral cavity to the processing and absorption of nutrients in the intestines, nutrient chemosensing receptors signal the production and release of numerous bioactive peptides from enteroendocrine cells, such as the proglucagon-derived peptides...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Rafaz Hoque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute pancreatitis is a major cause of gastrointestinal morbidity for which specific therapy is greatly needed to prevent progression to and induce resolution of severe disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate immune components and metabolite signaling are recently identified as strong determinants of disease severity and resolution in acute pancreatitis and this work will be discussed herein. SUMMARY: Targeting innate immune cell populations and metabolite signaling pathways in acute pancreatitis may result in broader and ultimately more efficacious re-direction of the inflammatory programme toward disease resolution and improved clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Mitchell L Schubert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
David H Ilson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the recent seminal studies in esophagogastric cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Regular low aspirin use may reduce the risk of esophagogastric cancer. Laparoscopic resection of locally advanced gastric cancer appears equivalent to open resection. There is no survival benefit for the addition of postoperative radiation therapy to adjuvant chemotherapy after primary gastric cancer resection. For tumors of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction, the combination of preoperative radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy may be required to ensure achievement of a negative surgical margin and to reduce local tumor recurrence...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Neena S Abraham, Jennifer L Horsley-Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To quantify direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) related gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), characterize patients at greatest risk and provide a pragmatic approach for the management of these drugs. This review will also summarize risk-management strategies and highlight evolving areas of clinical knowledge. RECENT FINDINGS: DOACs permit anticoagulation with predictable dosing without the need for routine serum monitoring. Since their availability on the market, they have quickly emerged as a popular alternative for patients requiring short-term and lifelong anticoagulation...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion and proper use of antisecretory medications. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid kills microorganisms, modulates the gut microbiome, assists in digestion of protein, and facilitates absorption of iron, calcium, and vitamin B12. The main stimulants of acid secretion are gastrin, released from antral G cells; histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Austin L Chiang, Marvin Ryou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity and its comorbid illnesses affect millions worldwide and are one of the major causes of preventable death in the world. Bariatric surgery is currently offered to individuals with a BMI greater than 40 kg/m or greater than 35 kg/m with obesity-related comorbidities such as hypertension or diabetes. Endoscopic bariatric therapies, with their reduced invasiveness and potential reversibility, may complement surgical approaches for achieving weight loss. RECENT FINDINGS: At the time of this writing, two endoscopically placed intragastric balloons and an endoscopically placed aspiration tube have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for weight loss purposes...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Mitchell S Roslin, Courtney N Cripps
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, having profound effects on Western populations. Bariatric surgery has long been employed to treat obesity and its related comorbidities. Over time, researchers have amassed significant data to support bariatric surgery in the pursuit of treating diabetes mellitus. This review serves to introduce the most recent findings and their relation to the various bariatric surgical options as bariatric surgery will continue to cement itself in the treatment paradigm of diabetes mellitus...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Nicholas J Talley, Marjorie M Walker, Gerald Holtmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional dyspepsia affects 10% of the population. Emerging data are beginning to unravel the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disorder, and new data on treatment are helping to guide evidence-based practice. In this review, the latest advances are summarized and discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The Rome IV criteria were published in 2016 and are similar to Rome III but further emphasize the subtypes (postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome) rather than focussing on the syndrome as a whole, and conclude that gastroesophageal reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome are part of the functional dyspepsia spectrum...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Fred S Gorelick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Alexander M Sarkisian, Iman Andalib, Nikhil A Kumta, Reem Z Sharaiha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been recognized for its potential in palliative treatment for pancreatic cancer as well as malignant biliary strictures. The purpose of this review is to describe the technology, endoscopic technique, and reported outcomes of endoscopic RFA in the management of malignant biliary strictures and unresectable pancreatic cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Intraductal biliary RFA is safe and feasible and appears to confer a survival advantage...
July 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Smrita Sinha, Steven D Leach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review intends to describe recent studies on the development of pancreatic cancer from a genetic, molecular, and microenvironment perspective. RECENT FINDINGS: Pancreatic cancer has been discovered to have distinct molecular subtypes based on transcriptome analyses that may have implications for treatment. Recent studies are also mapping the complex molecular biology of this cancer as it relates to the core signaling abnormalities inherent to this disease...
July 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Ashok K Saluja, Vikas Dudeja, Sulagna Banerjee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pancreatic cancer is the most devastating of all cancers with an extremely poor prognosis. In US alone, over 50 000 new cases of pancreatic cancer are reported annually, and about the same number succumb to it, making pancreatic cancer the third most common cause of cancer deaths. Most patients with pancreatic cancer present with advanced disease, which cannot be resected surgically, and for these patients chemotherapy is the only option. Even patients who undergo resection require adjuvant therapy to decrease the risk of recurrence...
July 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Daniel Hartmann, Benedikt Kaufmann, Helmut Friess
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surgery for pancreatic diseases is one of the most studied fields in general surgery and continues to evolve. This review focuses on recent advances in pancreatic surgery and summarizes the published research. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgery for pancreatic diseases is an evolving field with a wide range of innovations. Especially, contributions by high-volume pancreas centers have greatly improved outcomes in pancreatic surgery. In chronic pancreatitis, recent studies demonstrate that early surgical treatment should be favored over repeated endoscopic interventions, and local organ-preserving resection techniques should be preferred over classic Whipple resection...
July 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Joanna K Law
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endoscopic technology has evolved such that device-assisted enteroscopes (DAEs) are readily available and utilized to diagnose and treat patients with small bowel disease. In this review, we briefly discuss the DAE platforms and the expanding role for small bowel enteroscopy. RECENT FINDINGS: The indications for small bowel endoscopy are rapidly increasing with new diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers that are allowing patients to obtain treatments that would have otherwise required more invasive or higher risk procedures...
July 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Anna S Gukovskaya, Stephen J Pandol, Ilya Gukovsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we discuss recent studies that advance our understanding of molecular and cellular factors initiating and driving pancreatitis, with the emphasis on the role of acinar cell organelle disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The central physiologic function of the pancreatic acinar cell - to synthesize, store, and secrete digestive enzymes - critically relies on coordinated actions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the endolysosomal system, mitochondria, and autophagy...
July 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"