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Current Opinion in Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282323/growth-factors-and-their-use-in-short-bowel
#1
Siddhartha Oke, Merlin N M Walter, Tahera Ansari, Simon M Gabe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the most recent literature on the clinical trials associated with the relevant growth factors that have been of interest in the treatment of short bowel. RECENT FINDINGS: Short bowel is a rare but devastating condition that condemns patients to lifelong parenteral support. Historically, treatment options negating the need for parenteral support were limited. Therapeutic growth factor use is of interest, but the clinical trial data are inconclusive...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282322/the-dawn-of-the-small-bowel-expert-cometh
#2
David S Sanders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282321/intestinal-transplantation-a-review
#3
Larry Loo, Georgio Vrakas, Srikanth Reddy, Philip Allan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the existing literature on the current indications, surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapy and outcomes following intestinal transplantation (ITx). RECENT FINDINGS: Over recent years, ITx has become a more common operation with approximately 2500 procedures carried out worldwide by 2014. It is reserved for patients with intestinal failure and who have developed complications of home parenteral nutrition or who have a high risk of dying from their underlying disease...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282320/alcoholic-hepatitis-current-trends-in-management
#4
Ariel W Aday, Mack C Mitchell, Lisa C Casey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alcohol consumption is increasing globally, as are complications of alcohol-related liver disease, including the most severe manifestation, alcoholic hepatitis. Despite the increased prevalence, many patients hospitalized with alcoholic hepatitis are either not diagnosed or inadequately treated leading to significant morbidity and high mortality rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss current challenges in the diagnosis and management of this frequently fatal condition...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257308/emerging-pharmacologic-therapies-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#5
Angela C Cheung, Konstantinos N Lazaridis, Nicholas F LaRusso, Gregory J Gores
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The only currently approved treatment for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is liver transplantation, with a median time to transplant of 12-18 years after diagnosis. There are a number of emerging drugs that have the potential to meet this critically unmet need that will be summarized and discussed herein. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the cause of PSC is unknown, there are a number of novel therapeutics under development. These drugs target presumed pathogenic mechanisms largely extrapolated from ex-vivo and in-vivo preclinical models, as well as translational observations...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257307/small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-as-a-cause-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-guilty-or-not-guilty
#6
Imran Aziz, Hans Törnblom, Magnus Simrén
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been proposed as a cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, this relationship has been subject to controversy. This review aims to provide a current perspective on the SIBO-IBS hypothesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Case-control studies evaluating the prevalence of SIBO in IBS and healthy individuals have shown conflicting results. Moreover, the tests available in routine clinical practice to diagnose SIBO are not valid and lack both sensitivity and specificity...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257306/intestinal-microbiota-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#7
Katharina Brandl, Bernd Schnabl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver disease with high prevalence in western countries. Progression from NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs in 10-20%. NASH pathogenesis is multifactorial including genetic and environmental factors. The gut microbiota is involved in disease progression and its role is complex. RECENT FINDINGS: NASH is associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota, although findings in recent studies are inconsistent...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234770/update-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-coinfection-in-the-direct-acting-antiviral-era
#8
Eric G Meissner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Availability of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) that demonstrate remarkable clinical efficacy and safety has revolutionized the ability to treat chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). An equal measure of clinical success has now been achieved in persons coinfected with HCV and the HIV, a historically harder to cure cohort with interferon-based therapy. Global goals include identifying all HIV-HCV-infected persons, gaining access to DAA therapy, preventing de novo and reinfection, and managing the sequelae of chronic infection...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212152/an-update-on-small-bowel-endoscopy
#9
Hey-Long Ching, Mark E McAlindon, Reena Sidhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The breakthrough success of capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy has inspired researchers to test and push the boundary of these technologies. The authors herein summarize the latest and most significant studies with clinical impact. RECENT FINDINGS: Competing capsule endoscopy models have enriched the platform of this wireless device. The role of capsule endoscopy in Crohn's disease is expanding as we learn more of the significance of disease distribution and response to treatment...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177956/optimizing-the-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease
#10
Michelle Shui Yee Lau, David Surendran Sanders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnostic approach in celiac disease is continuously evolving as our understanding of its pathophysiology improves. This review aims to provide a summary of contemporary work that supports optimization of the diagnosis of this common yet underdiagnosed condition. RECENT FINDINGS: The recently updated National Institute of Clinical Excellence and European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines and the contentious biopsy-free diagnostic approach will be discussed...
February 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169840/bile-acid-disease-the-emerging-epidemic
#11
Ibironke Oduyebo, Michael Camilleri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our objective was to review advances in bile acids in health and disease published in the last 2 years. Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is recognized as a common cause of chronic diarrhea, and its recognition has been facilitated by development of new screening tests. RECENT FINDINGS: Primary BAD can account for 30% of cases of chronic diarrhea. The mechanisms leading to BAD include inadequate feedback regulation by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) from ileal enterocytes, abnormalities in synthesis or degradation of proteins involved in FGF-19 regulation in hepatocytes and variations as a function of the bile acid receptor, TGR5 (GPBAR1)...
February 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146448/diet-and-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-role-in-pathogenesis-and-management
#12
Sajiv Sethi, Joel E Richter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease that presents with a variety of symptoms including heartburn and acid regurgitation. Although dietary modification is currently regarded as first-line therapy for the disease, the role of diet in the pathogenesis and management of GERD is still poorly understood. The present article aims to review recent literature that examines the relationship of diet and GERD. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased awareness of medications side effects and widespread overuse has brought nonpharmacological therapies to the forefront for the management of GERD...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146447/the-gut-response-to-food-a-physiological-perspective-on-food-induced-gastrointestinal-symptoms-it-s-not-all-allergy-and-intolerance
#13
Eamonn M M Quigley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146446/immunogenetics-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#14
Brian K Chung, Gideon M Hirschfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive biliary liver disorder strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD). We summarize the genetics of PSC-IBD and highlight recent findings that further differentiate PSC-IBD as a unique disease. RECENT FINDINGS: To date, genome-wide studies have uncovered 23 susceptibility loci for PSC-IBD, the majority of which have been previously reported as risk factors in other immune-mediated disorders...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146445/risk-of-cholangiocarcinoma-in-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-diagnosis-and-surveillance
#15
Hanno Ehlken, Roman Zenouzi, Christoph Schramm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is associated with an increased risk of hepatobiliary and extrahepatic malignancy. Particularly the risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is greatly increased. To provide potentially curative treatments for affected patients an early diagnosis of CCA is crucial. We here review the current advances with respect to CCA diagnosis and surveillance and discuss a rational approach on how to perform surveillance of CCA in PSC patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the shortcomings of the current modalities for the surveillance and diagnosis of CCA in PSC, recent studies have focused on novel biomarkers for CCA...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141617/nutritional-management-of-acute-pancreatitis
#16
Kumar Krishnan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common causes for hospitalization related to a gastrointestinal disorder. It carries significant morbidity, and when severe, significant mortality. Multiple interventions have been studied to treat pancreatitis. Of all these interventions, none is more important or impactful than nutrition. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality evidence along with society guidelines have recommended the use of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition in patients with pancreatitis...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141616/editorial-introductions
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079751/updates-on-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#18
Chantal Housset
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030370/the-evolution-of-natural-history-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#19
Will R Takakura, James H Tabibian, Christopher L Bowlus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare, idiopathic biliary disease often with an insidious onset, variable disease course, and premature death related to benign and malignant PSC-related sequelae. This review aims to discuss the epidemiology, clinical variants, and natural history of PSC, incorporating data from recent population-based studies. RECENT FINDINGS: PSC naturally leads to cirrhosis, cholangiocarcinoma, other hepatobiliary malignancies, dominant strictures, hepatic osteodystrophy, and bacterial cholangitis...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030369/intestinal-microbiota-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#20
Johannes R Hov, Martin Kummen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alterations of the gut-liver axis have been linked to the pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) since the disease was first described. The purpose of this review is to discuss multiple recent studies on the intestinal microbiota in human PSC and experimental models of this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Data are available from eight cross-sectional studies of human PSC, which include a variable number of patients (n = 11-85), material (mucosal or fecal), and microbiota profiling methodology...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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