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Cell Biology and Toxicology

Duojiao Wu, Xiangdong Wang, Hongzhi Sun
Mitochondrial malfunction is related to aging and to the onset of many diseases, such as obesity/diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular principles of biological and toxicological processes the mitochondria can regulate should be disease-specific, cell type-specific, and drug targetable. Mitochondrial biology and toxicology is evolving and undergoing a revolution through fast-developing biotechnologies garnering increasing attention due to the importance of targeted therapies...
March 6, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Jiapei Lv, Lingyan Wang, Hui Shen, Xiangdong Wang
Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Actinidia chinensis Planch root extract (acRoots) was found to have the capacity of the anti-tumor, although the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which lung cancer cells sense to inhibitory effects of acRoots with a special focus on immune-associated gene profiles. We firstly provide a preclinical evidence that acRoots can significantly inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis via the PI3K-OASL signal pathway...
March 5, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Xiao Liu, Jinghua Wu
The diversity of T and B cells in terms of their receptor sequences is huge in the vertebrate's immune system and provides broad protection against the vast diversity of pathogens. Immune repertoire is defined as the sum of T cell receptors and B cell receptors (also named immunoglobulin) that makes the organism's adaptive immune system. Before the emergence of high-throughput sequencing, the studies on immune repertoire were limited by the underdeveloped methodologies, since it was impossible to capture the whole picture by the low-throughput tools...
February 27, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Xuecheng Yang, Xin Mao, Xuemei Ding, Fengju Guan, Yuefeng Jia, Lei Luo, Bin Li, Hailin Tan, Caixia Cao
Oxidative stress and miRNAs have been confirmed to play an important role in neurological diseases. The study aimed to explore the underlying effect and mechanisms of miR-146a in H2 O2 -induced injury of PC12 cells. Here, PC12 cells were stimulated with 200 μM of H2 O2 to construct oxidative injury model. Cell injury was evaluated on the basis of the changes in cell viability, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Results revealed that miR-146a expression was up-regulated in H2 O2 -induced PC12 cells...
February 26, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Maria Laura De Angelis, Alessandro Bruselles, Federica Francescangeli, Flavia Pucilli, Sara Vitale, Ann Zeuner, Marco Tartaglia, Marta Baiocchi
Biobanking of molecularly characterized colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) generated from individual patients and growing as spheroids in defined serum-free media offer a fast, feasible, and multi-level approach for the screening of targeted therapies and drug resistance molecular studies. By combining in vitro and in vivo analyses of cetuximab efficacy with genetic data on an ongoing collection of stem cell-enriched spheroids, we describe the identification and preliminary characterization of microsatellite stable (MSS) CSCs that, despite the presence of the KRAS (G12D) mutation, display epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent growth and are strongly inhibited by anti-EGF-receptor (EGFR) treatment...
February 24, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
JungIn Um, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Yoichiro Kawamura, Jun Takouda, Koji Yoshimoto, Kinichi Nakashima
Neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo self-renewal and generate neurons and glial cells under the influence of specific signals from surrounding environments. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly lethal brain tumor arising from NSCs or glial precursor cells owing to dysregulation of transcriptional and epigenetic networks that control self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs. Highly tumorigenic glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) constitute a small subpopulation of GBM cells, which share several characteristic similarities with NSCs...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Wenbo Yu, Sheng Chen, Liang Cao, Jie Tang, Wei Xiao, Baoguo Xiao
Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is associated to Parkinson's disease (PD). The aggregated form of α-syn has potential neurotoxicity. Thus, the clearance of α-syn aggregation is a plausible strategy to delay disease progression of PD. In our study, we found that the treatment of Ginkgolide B (GB) and Ginkgolide K (GK) reduced cell death, and enhanced cell proliferation in SH-SY5Y cells, which overexpressed A53T mutant α-syn. Surprisingly, GK, but not GB, promoted the clearance of A53T α-syn, which can be abolished by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, indicating that GK-induced autophagy intervened in the clearance of A53T α-syn...
December 6, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Daniel Ruderman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Justyna Sidor-Kaczmarek, Mirosława Cichorek, Jan Henryk Spodnik, Sławomir Wójcik, Janusz Moryś
The incidence of malignant melanoma, the most aggressive skin cancer, is increasing constantly. Despite new targeted therapies, the prognosis for patients with metastatic disease remains poor. Thus, there is a need for new combinational treatments, and antineoplastic agents potentially valuable in this approach are inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In this work, we analyze the cytotoxicity mechanisms of proteasome inhibitors (MG-132, epoxomicin, and lactacystin) in a specific form of melanoma which does not synthesize melanin-the amelanotic melanoma (Ab cells)...
December 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Matteo Minghetti, Carolin Drieschner, Nadine Bramaz, Hannah Schug, Kristin Schirmer
The intestine of fish is a multifunctional organ: lined by only a single layer of specialized epithelial cells, it has various physiological roles including nutrient absorption and ion regulation. It moreover comprises an important barrier for environmental toxicants, including metals. Thus far, knowledge of the fish intestine is limited largely to in vivo or ex vivo investigations. Recently, however, the first fish intestinal cell line, RTgutGC, was established, originating from a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
December 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Wan-Xin Peng, Xiu Han, Chun-Li Zhang, Lu Ge, Feng-Yi Du, Jie Jin, Ai-Hua Gong
Although methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) plays an important role in resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) in glioma, 40% of gliomas with MGMT inactivation are still resistant to TMZ. The underlying mechanism is not clear. Here, we report that forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcriptionally activates the expression of DNA repair gene replication factor C5 (RFC5) to promote TMZ resistance in glioma cells independent of MGMT activation. We showed that RFC5 expression is positively correlated with FoxM1 expression in human glioma cells and FoxM1 is able to transcriptionally activate RFC expression by interaction with the RFC5 promoter...
December 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Huai-Chih Chiang, Chih-Hong Wang, Szu-Ching Yeh, Yi-Hua Lin, Ya-Ting Kuo, Chih-Wei Liao, Feng-Yuan Tsai, Wei-Yu Lin, Wen-Han Chuang, Tsui-Chun Tsou
Cellular accumulation of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) has been recently demonstrated to disturb fat cell energy metabolism; however, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. The study aimed to determine how MEHP influenced fat cell transcriptome and how the changes might contribute to bioenergetics. Because of the pivotal role of PPARγ in energy metabolism of fat cells, comparative microarray analysis of gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with both MEHP and rosiglitazone was performed. Pathway enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that both treatments caused up-regulation of genes involved in PPAR signaling/energy metabolism-related pathways and down-regulation of genes related to adipokine/inflammation signals...
December 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Zhongyi Zhu, Si Qiu, Kang Shao, Yong Hou
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) slough off primary tumor tissues and are swept away by the circulatory system. These CTCs can remain in circulation or colonize new sites, forming metastatic clones in distant organs. Recently, CTC analyses have been successfully used as effective clinical tools to monitor tumor progression and prognosis. With advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single-cell sequencing (SCS) technologies, scientists can obtain the complete genome of a CTC and compare it with corresponding primary and metastatic tumors...
November 22, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Jiayun Hou, Lingyan Wang, Duojiao Wu
The root of Actinidia chinensis, as traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation in numerous cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying its inhibitory activity remain unclear. Death rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are increasing, but therapies for advanced HCC are not well developed. We choose the extract from root of Actinidia chinensis (ERAC) to treat the HCC cell lines in vitro, displaying distinct effects on cell proliferation, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis...
November 10, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Hemlata Pandey, Ayantika Talukdar, Jeremy S Gangte, S Datta Gupta, N C Chandra
Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) is known to promote the unregulated proliferation of cells that is progression of cancer. We aimed to investigate the effect of mitogens on the expression of cell cycle proteins, nuclear cholesterol and cell proliferation. We observed that insulin and benzo-α-pyrene (BaP) induced the expression of Low-Density Lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) on HepG2 cells, thereby enhancing the uptake of LDL. The internalized LDL increased the concentration of cholesterol in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cell...
November 3, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Qi Li, Feng Qi, Xiangchao Meng, Chenpei Zhu, Yingtang Gao
The Hippo-Mst1 pathway is associated with tumor development and progression. However, little evidence is available for its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) stress response via mitochondrial homeostasis. In this study, we conducted gain-of function assay about Mst1 in CRC via adenovirus transfection. Then, cellular viability and apoptosis were measured via MTT, TUNEL assay, and typan blue staining. Mitochondrial function was detected via JC1 staining, mPTP opening assay, and immunofluorescence of cyt-c. Mitophagy was observed via western blots and immunofluorescence...
October 24, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Devdeep Mukherjee, Niloy Kundu, Lopamudra Chakravarty, Birendra Behera, Prantar Chakrabarti, Nilmoni Sarkar, Tapas Kumar Maiti
Chronic myeloid leukemia is a stem cell disease with the presence of Philadelphia chromosome generated through reciprocal translocation of chromosome 9 and 22. The use of first- and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been successful to an extent. However, resistance against such drugs is an emerging problem. Apart from several drug-resistant mechanisms, drug influx/efflux ratio appears to be one of the key determinants of therapeutic outcomes. In addition, intracellular accumulation of drug critically depends on cell membrane fluidity and lipid raft dynamics...
October 18, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
William Wang, Bijun Zhu, Xiangdong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
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