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Cell Biology and Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777423/an-artificial-intelligent-single-cell-is-part-of-the-cell-dream-world
#1
EDITORIAL
Yiming Zeng, Xiaoyang Chen, Hongzhi Gao, Xiangdong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691682/clinical-trans-omics-an-integration-of-clinical-phenomes-with-molecular-multiomics
#2
EDITORIAL
Xiangdong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623483/genome-instability-syndromes-caused-by-impaired-dna-repair-and-aberrant-dna-damage-responses
#3
REVIEW
Takeshi Terabayashi, Katsuhiro Hanada
Maintenance of genome integrity is essential for all organisms because genome information regulates cell proliferation, growth arrest, and vital metabolic processes in cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. Because genomes are constantly exposed to intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxic stress, cellular DNA repair machinery and proper DNA damage responses (DDR) have evolved to quickly eliminate genotoxic DNA lesions, thus maintaining the genome integrity suitably. In human, germline mutations in genes involved not only in cellular DNA repair pathways but also in cellular DDR machinery frequently predispose hereditary diseases associated with chromosome aberrations...
April 5, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577183/developing-novel-methods-to-image-and-visualize-3d-genomes
#4
REVIEW
Tszshan Ma, Long Chen, Maoxiang Shi, Jing Niu, Xu Zhang, Xusan Yang, Karl Zhanghao, Miaoyan Wang, Peng Xi, Dayong Jin, Michael Zhang, Juntao Gao
To investigate three-dimensional (3D) genome organization in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, three main strategies are employed, namely nuclear proximity ligation-based methods, imaging tools (such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its derivatives), and computational/visualization methods. Proximity ligation-based methods are based on digestion and re-ligation of physically proximal cross-linked chromatin fragments accompanied by massively parallel DNA sequencing to measure the relative spatial proximity between genomic loci...
March 26, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568981/three-dimensional-organization-and-dynamics-of-the-genome
#5
REVIEW
Przemyslaw Szalaj, Dariusz Plewczynski
Genome is a complex hierarchical structure, and its spatial organization plays an important role in its function. Chromatin loops and topological domains form the basic structural units of this multiscale organization and are essential to orchestrate complex regulatory networks and transcription mechanisms. They also form higher-order structures such as chromosomal compartments and chromosome territories. Each level of this intrinsic architecture is governed by principles and mechanisms that we only start to understand...
March 22, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484527/history-applications-and-challenges-of-immune-repertoire-research
#6
REVIEW
Xiao Liu, Jinghua Wu
The diversity of T and B cells in terms of their receptor sequences is huge in the vertebrate's immune system and provides broad protection against the vast diversity of pathogens. Immune repertoire is defined as the sum of T cell receptors and B cell receptors (also named immunoglobulin) that makes the organism's adaptive immune system. Before the emergence of high-throughput sequencing, the studies on immune repertoire were limited by the underdeveloped methodologies, since it was impossible to capture the whole picture by the low-throughput tools...
February 27, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484526/mir-146a-down-regulation-alleviates-h-2-o-2-induced-cytotoxicity-of-pc12-cells-by-regulating-mcl1-jak-stat-pathway-mir-146a-down-regulation-relieves-h2o2-induced-pc12-cells-cytotoxicity-by-mcl1-jak-stat
#7
Xuecheng Yang, Xin Mao, Xuemei Ding, Fengju Guan, Yuefeng Jia, Lei Luo, Bin Li, Hailin Tan, Caixia Cao
Oxidative stress and miRNAs have been confirmed to play an important role in neurological diseases. The study aimed to explore the underlying effect and mechanisms of miR-146a in H2 O2 -induced injury of PC12 cells. Here, PC12 cells were stimulated with 200 μM of H2 O2 to construct oxidative injury model. Cell injury was evaluated on the basis of the changes in cell viability, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Results revealed that miR-146a expression was up-regulated in H2 O2 -induced PC12 cells...
February 26, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478126/colorectal-cancer-spheroid-biobanks-multi-level-approaches-to-drug-sensitivity-studies
#8
Maria Laura De Angelis, Alessandro Bruselles, Federica Francescangeli, Flavia Pucilli, Sara Vitale, Ann Zeuner, Marco Tartaglia, Marta Baiocchi
Biobanking of molecularly characterized colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) generated from individual patients and growing as spheroids in defined serum-free media offer a fast, feasible, and multi-level approach for the screening of targeted therapies and drug resistance molecular studies. By combining in vitro and in vivo analyses of cetuximab efficacy with genetic data on an ongoing collection of stem cell-enriched spheroids, we describe the identification and preliminary characterization of microsatellite stable (MSS) CSCs that, despite the presence of the KRAS (G12D) mutation, display epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent growth and are strongly inhibited by anti-EGF-receptor (EGFR) treatment...
February 24, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508110/regulatory-roles-of-oasl-in-lung-cancer-cell-sensitivity-to-actinidia-chinensis-planch-root-extract-acroots
#9
Jiapei Lv, Lingyan Wang, Hui Shen, Xiangdong Wang
Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Actinidia chinensis Planch root extract (acRoots) was found to have the capacity of the anti-tumor, although the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which lung cancer cells sense to inhibitory effects of acRoots with a special focus on immune-associated gene profiles. We firstly provide a preclinical evidence that acRoots can significantly inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis via the PI3K-OASL signal pathway...
June 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511917/the-role-of-mitochondria-in-cellular-toxicity-as-a-potential-drug-target
#10
EDITORIAL
Duojiao Wu, Xiangdong Wang, Hongzhi Sun
Mitochondrial malfunction is related to aging and to the onset of many diseases, such as obesity/diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular principles of biological and toxicological processes the mitochondria can regulate should be disease-specific, cell type-specific, and drug targetable. Mitochondrial biology and toxicology is evolving and undergoing a revolution through fast-developing biotechnologies garnering increasing attention due to the importance of targeted therapies...
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397478/the-future-is-now-cutting-edge-science-and-understanding-toxicology
#11
EDITORIAL
JungIn Um, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914393/costunolide-induces-micronuclei-formation-chromosomal-aberrations-cytostasis-and-mitochondrial-mediated-apoptosis-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#12
Soma Shiva Nageswara Rao Singireesu, Sunil Misra, Sujan Kumar Mondal, Suresh Yerramsetty, Nivedita Sahu, Suresh Babu K
Costunolide (CE) is a sesquiterpene lactone well-known for its antihepatotoxic, antiulcer, and anticancer activities. The present study focused on the evaluation of the cytogenetic toxicity and cellular death-inducing potential of CE in CHO cells, an epithelial cell line derived from normal ovary cells of Chinese hamster. The cytotoxic effect denoting MTT assay has shown an IC50 value of 7.56 μM CE, where 50% proliferation inhibition occurs. The oxidative stress caused by CE was confirmed based on GSH depletion induced cell death, conspicuously absent in N-acetylcysteine (GSH precursor) pretreated cells...
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815372/do-trpv1-antagonists-increase-the-risk-for-skin-tumourigenesis-a-collaborative-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment
#13
Miyoung Park, Anita A Naidoo, Angie Burns, Jin Kyu Choi, Kelly M Gatfield, Martin Vidgeon-Hart, Il-Hong Bae, Chang Seok Lee, Gyeyoung Choi, Andrew J Powell, Young-Ho Park, Rajni Fagg
A recent hypothesis suggesting that the pharmacological target TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1) may function as a tumour suppressor, which potentially impacts the development of TRPV1 antagonist therapeutics for a range of conditions. However, little is known about the long-term physiologic effects of TRPV1 blockade in the skin. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that the potent TRPV1 competitive antagonist AMG-9810 promoted proliferation in N/TERT1 cells (telomerase-immortalised primary human keratinocytes 1) and tumour development in mouse skin that was mediated through EGFR/Akt/mTOR signalling...
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779230/selection-of-aecopd-specific-immunomodulatory-biomarkers-by-integrating-genomics-and-proteomics-with-clinical-informatics
#14
Lin Shi, Bijun Zhu, Menglin Xu, Xiangdong Wang
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) as a serious event has high mortality and medical costs. Systemic inflammation and immune response are the major factors influencing the outcome and quality of patient with AECOPD. On basis of identification and validation of AECOPD-specific inflammatory biomarkers, the present study aimed to identify AECOPD-specific immunomodulatory mediators by evaluating dynamic genomic and proteomic profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma in patients with AECOPD on day 1, 3, and 10 after the hospital admission, to compare with healthy controls or patients with stable COPD...
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656345/cobalt-inhibits-motility-of-axonal-mitochondria-and-induces-axonal-degeneration-in-cultured-dorsal-root-ganglion-cells-of-rat
#15
Shin Kikuchi, Takafumi Ninomiya, Takayuki Kohno, Takashi Kojima, Haruyuki Tatsumi
Cobalt is a trace element that localizes in the human body as cobalamin, also known as vitamin B12. Excessive cobalt exposure induces a peripheral neuropathy, the mechanisms of which are yet to be elucidated. We investigated how cobalt may affect mitochondrial motility in primary cultures of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG). We observed mitochondrial motility by time-lapse imaging after DsRed2 tagging via lentivirus, mitochondrial structure using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and axonal swelling using immunocytochemical staining...
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733864/can-single-cell-rna-sequencing-crack-the-mystery-of-cells
#16
EDITORIAL
William Wang, Danyan Gao, Xiangdong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638955/lipopolysaccharide-induced-ccn1-production-enhances-interleukin-6-secretion-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#17
Lin Shi, Nian Dong, Dongxiang Ji, Xiaomin Huang, Zhaojian Ying, Xiangdong Wang, Chengshui Chen
Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a clinical complication caused by primary or secondary lung injury, as well as by systemic inflammation. Researches regarding molecular pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS are immerging with an ultimate aim towards developing prognostic molecular biomarkers and molecule-based therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms concerning ALI/ARDS are still not completely understood. The purpose of the present study was to identify a crucial role of CCN1 in inflammatory microenvironment during ALI/ARDS and focus on a potential communication between CCN1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the airway epithelial cells...
February 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589243/rnai-targeting-stmn-alleviates-the-resistance-to-taxol-and-collectively-contributes-to-down-regulate-the-malignancy-of-nsclc-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Dan Long, Ting Yu, Xian Chen, Ying Liao, Xuechi Lin
Stathmin (STMN) plays a vital role in maintaining the malignant behavior of cancer through directly regulating microtubule dynamics equilibrium. Taxol, an effective chemotherapeutics mainly acting to promote microtubule polymerization, has been commercially applied in treating solid tumors, which results in serious drug resistance. Our study demonstrated that STMN RNA interference (RNAi) enlarged taxol-induced inhibitions in cellular proliferation, colony formation, and multidimensional spaces of cell immigration and decreased half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of taxol in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) NCI-H1299 cells; STMN RNAi and taxol jointly attenuated the expressions of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), but up regulated Bax expression and initiated intrinsic cell death pathway by activating caspase-3 and caspase-9, while inhibited interleukin 10 (IL-10) autocrine from cell culture supernatant and xenografted mouse serum, as well as intracellular expressions of IL-10 protein and mRNA in vitro; additionally, neutralizing IL-10 alone would incur cell apoptosis to some degree; the further study confirmed that RNAi targeting STMN promoted the sensitivity of taxol in different NSCLC cells...
February 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455626/influences-of-flavones-on-cell-viability-and-camp-dependent-steroidogenic-gene-regulation-in-ma-10-leydig-cells
#19
Michelle Cormier, Firas Ghouili, Pauline Roumaud, William Bauer, Mohamed Touaibia, Luc J Martin
Testicular Leydig cells are major contributors of androgen synthesis and secretion, which play an important role in testis development, normal masculinization, maintenance of spermatogenesis, and general male fertility. The rate-limiting step in testosterone biosynthesis involves the transfer of cholesterol to the mitochondrial inner membrane by the steroidogenic acute regulatory (Star) protein, a critical factor in steroid hormone biosynthesis. Once inside the mitochondria, cholesterol is metabolized by the steroidogenic enzyme Cyp11a1 to pregnenolone, which is further converted to testosterone by the action of other steroidogenic enzymes...
February 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382404/prediction-of-hepatotoxicity-for-drugs-using-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hepatocytes
#20
Jong Hyun Kim, Min Wang, Jaehun Lee, Han-Jin Park, Chungseong Han, Hee Su Hong, Jeong Seong Kim, Geun Ho An, Kijung Park, Hee-Kyung Park, Shi Feng Zhu, Xiao-Bo Sun, Jong-Hoon Kim, Dong-Hun Woo
Drug-induced liver toxicity is a main reason for withdrawals of new drugs in late clinical phases and post-launch of the drugs. Thus, hepatotoxicity screening of drug candidates in pre-clinical stage is important for reducing drug attrition rates during the clinical development process. Here, we show commercially available hepatocytes that could be used for early toxicity evaluation of drug candidates. From our hepatic differentiation technology, we obtained highly pure (≥98%) hepatocytes from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) having mature phenotypes and similar gene expression profiles with those of primary human tissues...
February 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
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