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Cell Biology and Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426330/the-insect-galleria-mellonella-is-a-compatible-model-for-evaluating-the-toxicology-of-okadaic-acid
#1
Christopher J Coates, Jenson Lim, Katie Harman, Andrew F Rowley, David J Griffiths, Helena Emery, Will Layton
The polyether toxin, okadaic acid, causes diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in humans. Despite extensive research into its cellular targets using rodent models, we know little about its putative effect(s) on innate immunity. We inoculated larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, with physiologically relevant doses of okadaic acid by direct injection into the haemocoel (body cavity) and/or gavage (force-feeding). We monitored larval survival and employed a range of cellular and biochemical assays to assess the potential harmful effects of okadaic acid...
November 13, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30386960/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-leads-to-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-cells-treated-with-anti-hiv-protease-inhibitor-ritonavir
#2
Krishna Kumar Ganta, Binay Chaubey
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a growing concern for drug-induced toxicity which causes several side effects. Ritonavir, a potent HIV protease inhibitor, induces both ER and mitochondrial stress; however, the missing link between ER stress and mitochondrial damage has been unknown. In the present study, we have studied the sequential events that occur during ritonavir-induced cell cytotoxicity and elucidate the link between ER stress and mitochondrial damage...
November 1, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368635/biochemical-effects-of-some-ceo-2-sio-2-and-tio-2-nanomaterials-in-hepg2-cells
#3
Kirk T Kitchin, Judy A Richards, Brian L Robinette, Kathleen A Wallace, Najwa H Coates, Benjamin T Castellon, Eric A Grulke
The potential mammalian hepatotoxicity of nanomaterials was explored in dose-response and structure-activity studies in human hepatic HepG2 cells exposed to between 10 and 1000 μg/ml of five different CeO2 , three SiO2 , and one TiO2 -based particles for 3 days. Various biochemical parameters were then evaluated to study cytotoxicity, cell growth, hepatic function, and oxidative stress. Few indications of cytotoxicity were observed between 10 and 30 μg/ml. In the 100 to 300 μg/ml exposure range, a moderate degree of cytotoxicity was often observed...
October 27, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357519/challenging-the-heterogeneity-of-disease-presentation-in-malignant-melanoma-impact-on-patient-treatment
#4
REVIEW
A Marcell Szasz, Johan Malm, Melinda Rezeli, Yutaka Sugihara, Lazaro H Betancourt, Daniel Rivas, Balázs Gyorffy, György Marko-Varga
There is an increasing global interest to support research areas that can assist in understanding disease and improving patient care. The National Cancer Institute (NIH) has identified precision medicine-based approaches as key research strategies to expedite advances in cancer research. The Cancer Moonshot program ( https://www.cancer.gov/research/key-initiatives/moonshot-cancer-initiative ) is the largest cancer program of all time, and has been launched to accelerate cancer research that aims to increase the availability of therapies to more patients and, ultimately, to eradicate cancer...
October 24, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220009/identification-of-cancer-type-specific-expression-patterns-for-active-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-aldh-isoforms-in-aldefluor-assay
#5
Lei Zhou, Dandan Sheng, Dong Wang, Wei Ma, Qiaodan Deng, Lu Deng, Suling Liu
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) defend intracellular homeostasis by catalyzing the conversion of toxic aldehydes into non-toxic carboxylic acids, which is of particular importance to the self-renewal of stem cells and cancer stem cells. The widely used ALDEFLUOR assay was initially designed to indicate the activity of ALDH1A1 in leukemia and has been demonstrated to detect the enzyme activity of several other ALDH isoforms in various cancer types in recent years. However, it is still elusive which isoforms, among the 19 ALDH isoforms in human genome, are the potential contributors in catalyzing ALDEFLUOR assay in different cancers...
September 15, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120652/znf143-is-a-regulator-of-chromatin-loop
#6
Zi Wen, Zhi-Tao Huang, Ran Zhang, Cheng Peng
It is known that transcription factor ZNF143 frequently co-binds with CTCF-Cohesin complex in the anchor regions of chromatin loops. However, there is currently no genome-wide experiment to explore the functional roles of ZNF143 in chromatin loops. In this work, we used both computational and experimental analyses to investigate the regulatory effect of ZNF143 on chromatin loops. By jointly analyzing the ZNF143 and CTCF motifs underlying the isolated ZNF143-binding sites, ZNF143-CTCF co-binding sites and ZNF143-CTCF-RAD21 co-binding sites, our result shows that the ZNF143-CTCF-RAD21 co-binding sites are enriched with CTCF motifs but depleted of Znf143 motifs, implying that the CTCF but not ZNF143 may directly binds to the genome and thus ZNF143 may act as a cofactor instead of pioneer factor of ZNF143-CTCF-Cohesin complex...
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094641/cd8-it-cell-a-budding-star-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#7
EDITORIAL
Ling Xu, Zhenyi Jin, Yangqiu Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032454/is-the-clinical-lipidomics-a-potential-goldmine
#8
Linlin Zhang, Xianlin Han, Xiangdong Wang
Clinical lipidomics is a new extension of lipidomics to study lipid profiles, pathways, and networks by characterizing and quantifying the complete lipid molecules in cells, biopsy, or body fluids of patients. It undoubtfully has more values if lipidomics can be integrated with the data of clinical proteomic, genomic, and phenomic profiles. A number of challenges, e.g., instability, specificity, and sensitivity, in lipidomics have to be faced and overcome before clinical application. The association of lipidomics data with gene expression and sequencing of lipid-specific proteins/enzymes should be furthermore clarified...
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484527/history-applications-and-challenges-of-immune-repertoire-research
#9
REVIEW
Xiao Liu, Jinghua Wu
The diversity of T and B cells in terms of their receptor sequences is huge in the vertebrate's immune system and provides broad protection against the vast diversity of pathogens. Immune repertoire is defined as the sum of T cell receptors and B cell receptors (also named immunoglobulin) that makes the organism's adaptive immune system. Before the emergence of high-throughput sequencing, the studies on immune repertoire were limited by the underdeveloped methodologies, since it was impossible to capture the whole picture by the low-throughput tools...
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484526/mir-146a-down-regulation-alleviates-h-2-o-2-induced-cytotoxicity-of-pc12-cells-by-regulating-mcl1-jak-stat-pathway-mir-146a-down-regulation-relieves-h2o2-induced-pc12-cells-cytotoxicity-by-mcl1-jak-stat
#10
Xuecheng Yang, Xin Mao, Xuemei Ding, Fengju Guan, Yuefeng Jia, Lei Luo, Bin Li, Hailin Tan, Caixia Cao
Oxidative stress and miRNAs have been confirmed to play an important role in neurological diseases. The study aimed to explore the underlying effect and mechanisms of miR-146a in H2 O2 -induced injury of PC12 cells. Here, PC12 cells were stimulated with 200 μM of H2 O2 to construct oxidative injury model. Cell injury was evaluated on the basis of the changes in cell viability, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Results revealed that miR-146a expression was up-regulated in H2 O2 -induced PC12 cells...
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478126/colorectal-cancer-spheroid-biobanks-multi-level-approaches-to-drug-sensitivity-studies
#11
Maria Laura De Angelis, Alessandro Bruselles, Federica Francescangeli, Flavia Pucilli, Sara Vitale, Ann Zeuner, Marco Tartaglia, Marta Baiocchi
Biobanking of molecularly characterized colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) generated from individual patients and growing as spheroids in defined serum-free media offer a fast, feasible, and multi-level approach for the screening of targeted therapies and drug resistance molecular studies. By combining in vitro and in vivo analyses of cetuximab efficacy with genetic data on an ongoing collection of stem cell-enriched spheroids, we describe the identification and preliminary characterization of microsatellite stable (MSS) CSCs that, despite the presence of the KRAS (G12D) mutation, display epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent growth and are strongly inhibited by anti-EGF-receptor (EGFR) treatment...
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383547/new-aspects-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-revealed-by-similarities-between-neural-and-glioblastoma-stem-cells
#12
REVIEW
Yoichiro Kawamura, Jun Takouda, Koji Yoshimoto, Kinichi Nakashima
Neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo self-renewal and generate neurons and glial cells under the influence of specific signals from surrounding environments. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly lethal brain tumor arising from NSCs or glial precursor cells owing to dysregulation of transcriptional and epigenetic networks that control self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs. Highly tumorigenic glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) constitute a small subpopulation of GBM cells, which share several characteristic similarities with NSCs...
December 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796744/3d-genome-and-its-disorganization-in-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Ruifeng Li, Yuting Liu, Yingping Hou, Jingbo Gan, Pengze Wu, Cheng Li
The chromosomes in eukaryotic cells are highly folded and organized to form dynamic three-dimensional (3D) structures. In recent years, many technologies including chromosome conformation capture (3C) and 3C-based technologies (Hi-C, ChIA-PET) have been developed to investigate the 3D structure of chromosomes. These technologies are enabling research on how gene regulatory events are affected by the 3D genome structure, which is increasingly implicated in the regulation of gene expression and cellular functions...
October 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623483/genome-instability-syndromes-caused-by-impaired-dna-repair-and-aberrant-dna-damage-responses
#14
REVIEW
Takeshi Terabayashi, Katsuhiro Hanada
Maintenance of genome integrity is essential for all organisms because genome information regulates cell proliferation, growth arrest, and vital metabolic processes in cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. Because genomes are constantly exposed to intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxic stress, cellular DNA repair machinery and proper DNA damage responses (DDR) have evolved to quickly eliminate genotoxic DNA lesions, thus maintaining the genome integrity suitably. In human, germline mutations in genes involved not only in cellular DNA repair pathways but also in cellular DDR machinery frequently predispose hereditary diseases associated with chromosome aberrations...
October 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577183/developing-novel-methods-to-image-and-visualize-3d-genomes
#15
REVIEW
Tszshan Ma, Long Chen, Maoxiang Shi, Jing Niu, Xu Zhang, Xusan Yang, Karl Zhanghao, Miaoyan Wang, Peng Xi, Dayong Jin, Michael Zhang, Juntao Gao
To investigate three-dimensional (3D) genome organization in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, three main strategies are employed, namely nuclear proximity ligation-based methods, imaging tools (such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its derivatives), and computational/visualization methods. Proximity ligation-based methods are based on digestion and re-ligation of physically proximal cross-linked chromatin fragments accompanied by massively parallel DNA sequencing to measure the relative spatial proximity between genomic loci...
October 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568981/three-dimensional-organization-and-dynamics-of-the-genome
#16
REVIEW
Przemyslaw Szalaj, Dariusz Plewczynski
Genome is a complex hierarchical structure, and its spatial organization plays an important role in its function. Chromatin loops and topological domains form the basic structural units of this multiscale organization and are essential to orchestrate complex regulatory networks and transcription mechanisms. They also form higher-order structures such as chromosomal compartments and chromosome territories. Each level of this intrinsic architecture is governed by principles and mechanisms that we only start to understand...
October 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168077/progress-and-challenges-of-sequencing-and-analyzing-circulating-tumor-cells
#17
REVIEW
Zhongyi Zhu, Si Qiu, Kang Shao, Yong Hou
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) slough off primary tumor tissues and are swept away by the circulatory system. These CTCs can remain in circulation or colonize new sites, forming metastatic clones in distant organs. Recently, CTC analyses have been successfully used as effective clinical tools to monitor tumor progression and prognosis. With advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single-cell sequencing (SCS) technologies, scientists can obtain the complete genome of a CTC and compare it with corresponding primary and metastatic tumors...
October 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777423/an-artificial-intelligent-single-cell-is-part-of-the-cell-dream-world
#18
EDITORIAL
Yiming Zeng, Xiaoyang Chen, Hongzhi Gao, Xiangdong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214369/ginkgolide-k-promotes-the-clearance-of-a53t-mutation-alpha-synuclein-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#19
Wenbo Yu, Sheng Chen, Liang Cao, Jie Tang, Wei Xiao, Baoguo Xiao
Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is associated to Parkinson's disease (PD). The aggregated form of α-syn has potential neurotoxicity. Thus, the clearance of α-syn aggregation is a plausible strategy to delay disease progression of PD. In our study, we found that the treatment of Ginkgolide B (GB) and Ginkgolide K (GK) reduced cell death, and enhanced cell proliferation in SH-SY5Y cells, which overexpressed A53T mutant α-syn. Surprisingly, GK, but not GB, promoted the clearance of A53T α-syn, which can be abolished by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, indicating that GK-induced autophagy intervened in the clearance of A53T α-syn...
August 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127567/the-root-of-actinidia-chinensis-inhibits-hepatocellular-carcinomas-cells-through-lamb3
#20
Jiayun Hou, Lingyan Wang, Duojiao Wu
The root of Actinidia chinensis, as traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation in numerous cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying its inhibitory activity remain unclear. Death rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are increasing, but therapies for advanced HCC are not well developed. We choose the extract from root of Actinidia chinensis (ERAC) to treat the HCC cell lines in vitro, displaying distinct effects on cell proliferation, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis...
August 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
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