journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cell Biology and Toxicology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289984/in-silico-characterization-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-nif-family-genes-from-anabaena-sp-pcc7120
#1
Shilpi Singh, Alok Kumar Shrivastava
In silico approaches in conjunction with morphology, nitrogenase activity, and qRT-PCR explore the impact of selected abiotic stressor such as arsenic, salt, cadmium, copper, and butachlor on nitrogen fixing (nif family) genes of diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. A total of 19 nif genes are present within the Anabaena genome that is involved in the process of nitrogen fixation. Docking studies revealed the interaction between these nif gene-encoded proteins and the selected abiotic stressors which were further validated through decreased heterocyst frequency, fragmentation of filaments, and downregulation of nitrogenase activity under these stresses indicating towards their toxic impact on nitrogen fixation potential of filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp...
March 14, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285358/fluoroquinolones-and-propionic-acid-derivatives-induce-inflammatory-responses-in-vitro
#2
Akira Nakajima, Hiroki Sato, Shingo Oda, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Fluoroquinolones and propionic acid derivatives are widely used antibacterials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively, which have been reported to frequently trigger drug hypersensitivity reactions. Such reactions are induced by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. The present study investigated whether levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, and loxoprofen, a propionic acid derivative, have the potential to induce immune-related gene expression in dendritic cell-like cell lines such as HL-60, K562, and THP-1, and immortalized keratinocytes such as HaCaT...
March 11, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281027/proteasome-inhibitors-against-amelanotic-melanoma
#3
Justyna Sidor-Kaczmarek, Mirosława Cichorek, Jan Henryk Spodnik, Sławomir Wójcik, Janusz Moryś
The incidence of malignant melanoma, the most aggressive skin cancer, is increasing constantly. Despite new targeted therapies, the prognosis for patients with metastatic disease remains poor. Thus, there is a need for new combinational treatments, and antineoplastic agents potentially valuable in this approach are inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In this work, we analyze the cytotoxicity mechanisms of proteasome inhibitors (MG-132, epoxomicin, and lactacystin) in a specific form of melanoma which does not synthesize melanin-the amelanotic melanoma (Ab cells)...
March 9, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275881/unraveling-the-role-of-membrane-microdomains-during-microbial-infections
#4
REVIEW
Prathyusha Bagam, Dhirendra P Singh, Maria Eugenia Inda, Sanjay Batra
Infectious diseases pose major socioeconomic and health-related threats to millions of people across the globe. Strategies to combat infectious diseases derive from our understanding of the complex interactions between the host and specific bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that play important role in life cycle of microbes. Interaction of microbial pathogens with host membrane rafts influences not only their initial colonization but also their spread and the induction of inflammation...
March 9, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265775/altered-microrna-expression-patterns-during-the-initiation-and-promotion-stages-of-neonatal-diethylstilbestrol-induced-dysplasia-neoplasia-in-the-hamster-mesocricetus-auratus-uterus
#5
Ramesh Padmanabhan, Isabel R Hendry, Jennifer R Knapp, Bin Shuai, William J Hendry
Treatment of Syrian hamsters on the day of birth with the prototypical endocrine disruptor and synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), leads to 100% occurrence of uterine hyperplasia/dysplasia in adulthood, a large proportion of which progress to neoplasia (endometrial adenocarcinoma). Consistent with our prior gene expression analyses at the mRNA and protein levels, we now report (based on microarray, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization analyses) that progression of the neonatal DES-induced dysplasia/neoplasia phenomenon in the hamster uterus also includes a spectrum of microRNA expression alterations (at both the whole-organ and cell-specific level) that differ during the initiation (upregulated miR-21, 200a, 200b, 200c, 29a, 29b, 429, 141; downregulated miR-181a) and promotion (downregulated miR-133a) stages of the phenomenon...
March 6, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251411/a-fish-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-model-established-from-the-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-cell-line-rtgutgc
#6
Matteo Minghetti, Carolin Drieschner, Nadine Bramaz, Hannah Schug, Kristin Schirmer
The intestine of fish is a multifunctional organ: lined by only a single layer of specialized epithelial cells, it has various physiological roles including nutrient absorption and ion regulation. It moreover comprises an important barrier for environmental toxicants, including metals. Thus far, knowledge of the fish intestine is limited largely to in vivo or ex vivo investigations. Recently, however, the first fish intestinal cell line, RTgutGC, was established, originating from a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
March 1, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247283/fam3d-inhibits-glucagon-secretion-via-mkp1-dependent-suppression-of-erk1-2-signaling
#7
Ting Cao, Dan Yang, Xiong Zhang, Yueqian Wang, Zhengdong Qiao, Lili Gao, Yongjun Liang, Bo Yu, Peng Zhang
Dysregulated glucagon secretion is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). To date, few effective therapeutic agents target on deranged glucagon secretion. Family with sequence similarity 3 member D (FAM3D) is a novel gut-derived cytokine-like protein, and its secretion timing is contrary to that of glucagon. However, the roles of FAM3D in metabolic disorder and its biological functions are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether FAM3D modulates glucagon production in mouse pancreatic alpha TC1 clone 6 (αTC1-6) cells...
February 28, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185110/foxm1-mediated-rfc5-expression-promotes-temozolomide-resistance
#8
Wan-Xin Peng, Xiu Han, Chun-Li Zhang, Lu Ge, Feng-Yi Du, Jie Jin, Ai-Hua Gong
Although methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) plays an important role in resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) in glioma, 40% of gliomas with MGMT inactivation are still resistant to TMZ. The underlying mechanism is not clear. Here, we report that forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcriptionally activates the expression of DNA repair gene replication factor C5 (RFC5) to promote TMZ resistance in glioma cells independent of MGMT activation. We showed that RFC5 expression is positively correlated with FoxM1 expression in human glioma cells and FoxM1 is able to transcriptionally activate RFC expression by interaction with the RFC5 promoter...
February 9, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176010/clinical-potentials-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Cristina Mora, Marialaura Serzanti, Antonella Consiglio, Maurizio Memo, Patrizia Dell'Era
Aging, injuries, and diseases can be considered as the result of malfunctioning or damaged cells. Regenerative medicine aims to restore tissue homeostasis by repairing or replacing cells, tissues, or damaged organs, by linking and combining different disciplines including engineering, technology, biology, and medicine. To pursue these goals, the discipline is taking advantage of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), a peculiar type of cell possessing the ability to differentiate into every cell type of the body. Human PSCs can be isolated from the blastocysts and maintained in culture indefinitely, giving rise to the so-called embryonic stem cells (ESCs)...
February 8, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154998/upregulated-expression-of-substance-p-sp-and-nk1r-in-eczema-and-sp-induced-mast-cell-accumulation
#10
Mengmeng Zhan, Wenjiao Zheng, Qijun Jiang, Zuotao Zhao, Zhiyun Wang, Junling Wang, Huiyun Zhang, Shaoheng He
Substance P (SP) was reported to be associated with eczema and acts as a potent skin mast cell secretagogue. However, little is known of its expression in inflammatory cells in eczema and its ability in induction of mast cell accumulation. In the present study, we investigated expression of SP and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) on peripheral blood leukocytes and mast cells from patients with eczema and influence of SP on mast cell accumulation by using flow cytometry analysis, trans-epithelial cell migration assay and mouse peritoneal model...
February 2, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144825/a-transcriptomic-study-suggesting-human-ipsc-derived-hepatocytes-potentially-offer-a-better-in-vitro-model-of-hepatotoxicity-than-most-hepatoma-cell-lines
#11
Xiugong Gao, Yitong Liu
Hepatocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise as an in vitro liver model by virtue of their unlimited long-term supply, stability and consistency in functionality, and affordability of donor diversity. However, the suitability of iPSC-derived hepatocytes (iPSC-Heps) for toxicology studies has not been fully validated. In the current study, we characterized global gene expression profiles of iPSC-Heps in comparison to those of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and several human hepatoma cell lines (HepaRG, HuH-7, HepG2, and HepG2/C3A)...
January 31, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144824/cellular-reprogramming-for-clinical-cartilage-repair
#12
REVIEW
Britta J H Driessen, Colin Logie, Lucienne A Vonk
The repair of articular cartilage needs a sufficient number of chondrocytes to replace the defect tissue, and therefore, expansion of cells is generally required. Chondrocytes derived by cellular reprogramming may provide a solution to the limitations of current (stem) cell-based therapies. In this article, two distinct approaches-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-mediated reprogramming and direct lineage conversion-are analysed and compared according to criteria that encompass the qualification of the method and the derived chondrocytes for the purpose of clinical application...
January 31, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083810/comparative-microarray-analyses-of-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-impacts-on-fat-cell-bioenergetics-and-adipokine-network
#13
Huai-Chih Chiang, Chih-Hong Wang, Szu-Ching Yeh, Yi-Hua Lin, Ya-Ting Kuo, Chih-Wei Liao, Feng-Yuan Tsai, Wei-Yu Lin, Wen-Han Chuang, Tsui-Chun Tsou
Cellular accumulation of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) has been recently demonstrated to disturb fat cell energy metabolism; however, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. The study aimed to determine how MEHP influenced fat cell transcriptome and how the changes might contribute to bioenergetics. Because of the pivotal role of PPARγ in energy metabolism of fat cells, comparative microarray analysis of gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with both MEHP and rosiglitazone was performed. Pathway enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that both treatments caused up-regulation of genes involved in PPAR signaling/energy metabolism-related pathways and down-regulation of genes related to adipokine/inflammation signals...
January 12, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064403/knockdown-of-clusterin-alters-mitochondrial-dynamics-facilitates-necrosis-in-camptothecin-induced-cancer-stem-cells
#14
Parthasarathy Arumugam, Annie Samson, Jieun Ki, Joon Myong Song
The existence of a well-established drug resistance mechanism in cancer stem cells (CSC) complicates the cancer treatment. Clusterin (CLU) plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during drug-induced stress. Hence, silencing the CLU could significantly reduce the inherent drug resistance mechanism of CSC. The combination of drug-induced cytotoxicity, as well as the suppression of drug resistance in CSC, could circumvent the recurrence capability of the tumor. In the present study, camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis and necrosis in CSC with and without siCLU treatment were simultaneously measured using Qdot-based total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRF)...
January 7, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039590/ten-years-of-ipsc-clinical-potential-and-advances-in-vitro-hematopoietic-differentiation
#15
REVIEW
Bárbara Cristina Martins Fernandes Paes, Pablo Diego Moço, Cristiano Gonçalves Pereira, Geciane Silveira Porto, Elisa Maria de Sousa Russo, Luiza Cunha Junqueira Reis, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Virginia Picanço-Castro
Ten years have passed since the first publication announcing the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Issues related to ethics, immune rejection, and cell availability seemed to be solved following this breakthrough. The development of iPSC technology allows advances in in vitro cell differentiation for cell therapy purpose and other clinical applications. This review provides a perspective on the iPSC potential for cell therapies, particularly for hematological applications. We discuss the advances in in vitro hematopoietic differentiation, the possibilities to employ iPSC in hematology studies, and their potential clinical application in hematologic diseases...
December 30, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957648/autophagy-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-clinical-relevance
#16
REVIEW
Mónika Lippai, Zsuzsanna Szatmári
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway of eukaryotic cells that is highly conserved from yeast to mammals. During this process, cooperating protein complexes are recruited in a hierarchic order to the phagophore assembly site (PAS) to mediate the elongation and closure of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, which sequester cytosolic components and deliver their content to the endolysosomal system for degradation. As a major cytoprotective mechanism, autophagy plays a key role in the stress response against nutrient starvation, hypoxia, and infections...
April 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915387/the-translational-potential-of-human%C3%A2-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-clinical-neurology-the-translational-potential-of-hipscs-in-neurology
#17
REVIEW
Helen Devine, Rickie Patani
The induced pluripotent state represents a decade-old Nobel prize-winning discovery. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are generated by the nuclear reprogramming of any somatic cell using a variety of established but evolving methods. This approach offers medical science unparalleled experimental opportunity to model an individual patient's disease "in a dish." HiPSCs permit developmentally rationalized directed differentiation into any cell type, which express donor cell mutation(s) at pathophysiological levels and thus hold considerable potential for disease modeling, drug discovery, and potentially cell-based therapies...
April 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900567/clinical-potential-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-perspectives-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Dharmendra Kumar, Taruna Anand, Wilfried A Kues
The recent establishment of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells promises the development of autologous cell therapies for degenerative diseases, without the ethical concerns associated with human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Initially, iPS cells were generated by retroviral transduction of somatic cells with core reprogramming genes. To avoid potential genotoxic effects associated with retroviral transfection, more recently, alternative non-viral gene transfer approaches were developed. Before a potential clinical application of iPS cell-derived therapies can be planned, it must be ensured that the reprogramming to pluripotency is not associated with genome mutagenesis or epigenetic aberrations...
April 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900566/autophagy-regulates-death-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#19
REVIEW
Kai Kaarniranta, Paulina Tokarz, Ali Koskela, Jussi Paterno, Janusz Blasiak
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease underlined by the degradation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, photoreceptors, and choriocapillares, but the exact mechanism of cell death in AMD is not completely clear. This mechanism is important for prevention of and therapeutic intervention in AMD, which is a hardly curable disease. Present reports suggest that both apoptosis and pyroptosis (cell death dependent on caspase-1) as well as necroptosis (regulated necrosis dependent on the proteins RIPK3 and MLKL, caspase-independent) can be involved in the AMD-related death of RPE cells...
April 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837347/tamoxifen-resistance-and-metastasis-of-human-breast-cancer-cells-were-mediated-by-the-membrane-associated-estrogen-receptor-er-%C3%AE-36-signaling-in-vitro
#20
Wenwen Gu, Nian Dong, Peng Wang, Changgen Shi, Jun Yang, Jian Wang
The drug resistance and tumor metastasis have been the main obstacles for the longer-term therapeutic effects of tamoxifen (TAM) on estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer, but the mechanisms underlying the TAM resistance are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the membrane-associated estrogen receptor ER-α36 signaling, but not the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) signaling, might be involved in the TAM resistance and metastasis of breast cancer cells. In this study, a model of ER(+) breast cancer cell MCF-7 that involves the up-regulated expression of ER-α36 and unchanged expression of ER-α66 and GPER1 was established via the removal of insulin from the cell culture medium...
April 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
journal
journal
29065
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"