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Cell Biology and Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083810/comparative-microarray-analyses-of-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-impacts-on-fat-cell-bioenergetics-and-adipokine-network
#1
Huai-Chih Chiang, Chih-Hong Wang, Szu-Ching Yeh, Yi-Hua Lin, Ya-Ting Kuo, Chih-Wei Liao, Feng-Yuan Tsai, Wei-Yu Lin, Wen-Han Chuang, Tsui-Chun Tsou
Cellular accumulation of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) has been recently demonstrated to disturb fat cell energy metabolism; however, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. The study aimed to determine how MEHP influenced fat cell transcriptome and how the changes might contribute to bioenergetics. Because of the pivotal role of PPARγ in energy metabolism of fat cells, comparative microarray analysis of gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with both MEHP and rosiglitazone was performed. Pathway enrichment analysis and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that both treatments caused up-regulation of genes involved in PPAR signaling/energy metabolism-related pathways and down-regulation of genes related to adipokine/inflammation signals...
January 12, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064403/knockdown-of-clusterin-alters-mitochondrial-dynamics-facilitates-necrosis-in-camptothecin-induced-cancer-stem-cells
#2
Parthasarathy Arumugam, Annie Samson, Jieun Ki, Joon Myong Song
The existence of a well-established drug resistance mechanism in cancer stem cells (CSC) complicates the cancer treatment. Clusterin (CLU) plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during drug-induced stress. Hence, silencing the CLU could significantly reduce the inherent drug resistance mechanism of CSC. The combination of drug-induced cytotoxicity, as well as the suppression of drug resistance in CSC, could circumvent the recurrence capability of the tumor. In the present study, camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis and necrosis in CSC with and without siCLU treatment were simultaneously measured using Qdot-based total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRF)...
January 7, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039590/ten-years-of-ipsc-clinical-potential-and-advances-in-vitro-hematopoietic-differentiation
#3
REVIEW
Bárbara Cristina Martins Fernandes Paes, Pablo Diego Moço, Cristiano Gonçalves Pereira, Geciane Silveira Porto, Elisa Maria de Sousa Russo, Luiza Cunha Junqueira Reis, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Virginia Picanço-Castro
Ten years have passed since the first publication announcing the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Issues related to ethics, immune rejection, and cell availability seemed to be solved following this breakthrough. The development of iPSC technology allows advances in in vitro cell differentiation for cell therapy purpose and other clinical applications. This review provides a perspective on the iPSC potential for cell therapies, particularly for hematological applications. We discuss the advances in in vitro hematopoietic differentiation, the possibilities to employ iPSC in hematology studies, and their potential clinical application in hematologic diseases...
December 30, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987184/look-who-s-talking-the-crosstalk-between-oxidative-stress-and-autophagy-supports-exosomal-dependent-release-of-hcv-particles
#4
REVIEW
Regina Medvedev, Eberhard Hildt, Daniela Ploen
Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated intracellular lysosomal degradation pathway that is essential for cell survival. Dysregulation has been linked to the development of various human diseases, including neurodegeneration and tumorigenesis, infection, and aging. Besides, many viruses hijack the autophagosomal pathway to support their life cycle. The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, has been described to induce autophagy. The autophagosomal pathway can be further activated in response to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 16, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981389/pro-differentiating-effects-of-a-synthetic-flavagline-on-human-teratocarcinomal-cancer-stem-like-cells
#5
Fathi Emhemmed, Sarah Ali Azouaou, Qian Zhao, Aline Appert-Collin, Amar Bennasroune, Valérie B Schini-Kerth, Christian D Muller, Laurent Désaubry, Guy Fuhrmann
As initiators of the carcinogenic process, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as new targets for anti-cancer therapies. However, these cells are hidden in the cancer bulk and remain relatively insensitive to chemotherapy, which targets their proliferative capacities. Alternatively, growing evidences have pointed out that a differentiation therapy could adversely affect these cells, which consequently should lose their self-renewal properties and become less aggressive. In order to evaluate the differentiation potential of an emerging class of anti-cancer drugs, we used the poorly differentiated teratocarcinomal cell as a model of Oct4-expressing CSC and determined the molecular mechanisms induced by the highly active flavagline FL3...
December 15, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957648/autophagy-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-clinical-relevance
#6
REVIEW
Mónika Lippai, Zsuzsanna Szatmári
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway of eukaryotic cells that is highly conserved from yeast to mammals. During this process, cooperating protein complexes are recruited in a hierarchic order to the phagophore assembly site (PAS) to mediate the elongation and closure of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, which sequester cytosolic components and deliver their content to the endolysosomal system for degradation. As a major cytoprotective mechanism, autophagy plays a key role in the stress response against nutrient starvation, hypoxia, and infections...
December 12, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942899/screening-of-molecular-cell-targets-for-carcinogenic-heterocyclic-aromatic-amines-by-using-calux%C3%A2-reporter-gene-assays
#7
Pablo Steinberg, Peter A Behnisch, Harrie Besselink, Abraham A Brouwer
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are compounds formed when meat or fish are cooked at high temperatures for a long time or over an open fire. To determine which pathways of toxicity are activated by HCAs, nine out of the ten HCAs known to be carcinogenic in rodents (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAαC), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2)) were tested in the estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), Nrf2, and p53 CALUX® reporter gene assays...
December 10, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915387/the-translational-potential-of-human%C3%A2-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-clinical-neurology-the-translational-potential-of-hipscs-in-neurology
#8
REVIEW
Helen Devine, Rickie Patani
The induced pluripotent state represents a decade-old Nobel prize-winning discovery. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are generated by the nuclear reprogramming of any somatic cell using a variety of established but evolving methods. This approach offers medical science unparalleled experimental opportunity to model an individual patient's disease "in a dish." HiPSCs permit developmentally rationalized directed differentiation into any cell type, which express donor cell mutation(s) at pathophysiological levels and thus hold considerable potential for disease modeling, drug discovery, and potentially cell-based therapies...
December 3, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900567/clinical-potential-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-perspectives-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
REVIEW
Dharmendra Kumar, Taruna Anand, Wilfried A Kues
The recent establishment of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells promises the development of autologous cell therapies for degenerative diseases, without the ethical concerns associated with human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Initially, iPS cells were generated by retroviral transduction of somatic cells with core reprogramming genes. To avoid potential genotoxic effects associated with retroviral transfection, more recently, alternative non-viral gene transfer approaches were developed. Before a potential clinical application of iPS cell-derived therapies can be planned, it must be ensured that the reprogramming to pluripotency is not associated with genome mutagenesis or epigenetic aberrations...
November 29, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900566/autophagy-regulates-death-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#10
REVIEW
Kai Kaarniranta, Paulina Tokarz, Ali Koskela, Jussi Paterno, Janusz Blasiak
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease underlined by the degradation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, photoreceptors, and choriocapillares, but the exact mechanism of cell death in AMD is not completely clear. This mechanism is important for prevention of and therapeutic intervention in AMD, which is a hardly curable disease. Present reports suggest that both apoptosis and pyroptosis (cell death dependent on caspase-1) as well as necroptosis (regulated necrosis dependent on the proteins RIPK3 and MLKL, caspase-independent) can be involved in the AMD-related death of RPE cells...
November 29, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837347/tamoxifen-resistance-and-metastasis-of-human-breast-cancer-cells-were-mediated-by-the-membrane-associated-estrogen-receptor-er-%C3%AE-36-signaling-in-vitro
#11
Wenwen Gu, Nian Dong, Peng Wang, Changgen Shi, Jun Yang, Jian Wang
The drug resistance and tumor metastasis have been the main obstacles for the longer-term therapeutic effects of tamoxifen (TAM) on estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer, but the mechanisms underlying the TAM resistance are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the membrane-associated estrogen receptor ER-α36 signaling, but not the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) signaling, might be involved in the TAM resistance and metastasis of breast cancer cells. In this study, a model of ER(+) breast cancer cell MCF-7 that involves the up-regulated expression of ER-α36 and unchanged expression of ER-α66 and GPER1 was established via the removal of insulin from the cell culture medium...
November 11, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822587/disruption-of-endolysosomal-trafficking-pathways-in-glioma-cells-by-methuosis-inducing-indole-based-chalcones
#12
Nneka E Mbah, Jean H Overmeyer, William A Maltese
Methuosis is a form of non-apoptotic cell death involving massive vacuolization of macropinosome-derived endocytic compartments, followed by a decline in metabolic activity and loss of membrane integrity. To explore the induction of methuosis as a potential therapeutic strategy for killing cancer cells, we have developed small molecules (indole-based chalcones) that trigger this form of cell death in glioblastoma and other cancer cell lines. Here, we report that in addition to causing fusion and expansion of macropinosome compartments, the lead compound, 3-(5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propen-1-one (MOMIPP), disrupts vesicular trafficking at the lysosomal nexus, manifested by impaired degradation of EGF and LDL receptors, defective processing of procathepsins, and accumulation of autophagosomes...
November 7, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796700/benzophenone-3-increases-metastasis-potential-in-lung-cancer-cells-via-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#13
Preeyaporn Plaimee Phiboonchaiyanan, Kesarin Busaranon, Chuanpit Ninsontia, Pithi Chanvorachote
Exposure to compounds with cancer-potentiating effects can contribute to the progression of cancer. Herein we have discovered for the first time that benzophenone-3 (BP-3), a chemical used as sunscreen in various cosmetic products, enhances the ability of lung cancer cells to undergo metastasis. The exposure of the lung cancer cells to BP-3 at non-toxic concentrations significantly increased the number of anoikis resistant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Also, BP-3 increased the growth rate as well as the number of colonies accessed by anchorage-independent growth assay...
October 28, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878403/lutein-protects-against-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-induced-oxidative-stress-in-cerebrovascular-endothelial-cells-through-modulation-of-nrf-2-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#14
Tao Liu, Wei-Hong Liu, Jin-Sheng Zhao, Fan-Zheng Meng, Heng Wang
In the present study, we determined the protective role of lutein against Aβ 25-35 peptide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in bEND.3 cells. Cell viability was determined through MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxides, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated to analyze the oxidative stress status. NF-κB and Nrf-2 downstream target protein expressions were determined through western blot. Apoptosis was analyzed through caspase activities and subG1 accumulation. The results showed that Aβ 25-35 significantly increased (p < 0...
February 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714471/understanding-toxicology-mechanisms-and-applications
#15
EDITORIAL
Madhav Bhatia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680752/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-one-entity-multiple-impacts-on-liver-health
#16
REVIEW
Carmen Fierbinteanu-Braticevici, Crina Sinescu, Alexandru Moldoveanu, Ana Petrisor, Sorina Diaconu, Dragos Cretoiu, Bogdan Braticevici
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is very prevalent and now considered the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Staging the severity of liver damage is very important because the prognosis of NAFLD is highly variable. The long-term prognosis of patients with NAFLD remains incompletely elucidated. Even though the annual fibrosis progression rate is significantly higher in patients with nonalcoholic hepatitis (NASH), both types of NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) can lead to fibrosis...
February 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639578/depolarization-of-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-is-the-initial-event-in-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-efavirenz-induced-cytotoxicity
#17
Krishna Kumar Ganta, Anirban Mandal, Binay Chaubey
Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and an active constituent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy regime. It has significantly contributed in control and management of human immunodeficiency virus propagation. However, EFV administration has also led to severe adverse effects, several reports highlighted the role of EFV in mitochondrial dysfunction and toxicity but the molecular mechanism has been poorly understood. In present study, human hepatoma cells Huh 7.5 were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of EFV and parameters like cytotoxicity, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, mitochondrial morphology, cytochrome c release, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, mtDNA and mtRNA levels and EFV distribution into mitochondrial compartment were evaluated to understand sequence of events leading to cell death in EFV-treated cells...
February 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581547/toxicity-and-anti-angiogenicity-evaluation-of-pak1-inhibitor-ipa-3-using-zebrafish-embryo-model
#18
Sankar Jagadeeshan, R Vivek Sagayaraj, Navina Paneerselvan, Syed Shabin Ghouse, Raghunathan Malathi
p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1)-a key node protein kinase regulating various cellular process including angiogenesis-has been recognised to be a therapeutic target for multitude of diseases, and hence, various small molecule inhibitors targeting its activity have been tested. However, the direct toxic and anti-angiogenic effects of these pharmacologic agents have not been examined. In this study, we evaluate the translational efficacy of Pak1 inhibitor IPA-3 using zebrafish toxicity model system to stratify its anti-angiogenic potential and off-target effects to streamline the compound for further therapeutic usage...
February 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581546/effect-of-memory-cd4-t-cells-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-stats-functional-shift-on-cytokine-releasing-properties-in-asthma
#19
Zhihong Chen, Jue Pan, Yi Jia, Dandan Li, Zhihui Min, Xiaoqiong Su, Honglei Yuan, Geng Shen, Shengxuan Cao, Lei Zhu, Xiangdong Wang
BACKGROUND: Recent data have demonstrated that long-lived memory T cells are present in the human lung and can play significant roles in the pathogenesis of specific allergic and autoimmune diseases. However, most evidence has been obtained from mouse studies, and the potential roles of memory T cells in human allergic diseases, such as asthma, remain largely unknown. METHODS: Thirty-three asthmatics, 26 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, and 22 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study...
February 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495116/upregulated-expression-of-ccr3-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-ccr3-dependent-activation-of-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes
#20
Xin Liu, Huiyun Zhang, Xin Chang, Jirong Shen, Wenjiao Zheng, Yanan Xu, Junling Wang, Wei Gao, Shaoheng He
It is recognized that CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is associated with numerous inflammatory conditions and fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) invasiveness correlates with articular damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, little is known of the expression and action of CCR3 on FLS in RA. In the present study, we investigated the expression of CCR3 on dispersed synovial tissue and peripheral blood cells in RA and influence of eotaxin-1 on FLS functions by using flow cytometry analysis, FLS challenge, and real-time PCR techniques...
February 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
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