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Cell Biology and Toxicology

Wasana K Sumanasekera, Halle Thy Dao, Viktoria Shekhovtsova, Kadi Schultz, Mehul Jani, Felix Gyamfi, David M Tran, Nolan Le
Cigarette smoking causes a vast array of diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Our laboratory focuses on investigating cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cardiovascular malfunction and the responsible mechanisms utilizing the model, c-kit-positive cardiac stem cells (CSCs). The main objective of our study is to investigate whether CS extracts (CSEs) cause impairment of CSC functions via oxidative damage. We hypothesized that CSE, via oxidative modifications of CSC proteins and antioxidant enzymes, can modulate CSC functions and these modifications can be attenuated by ascorbate treatment...
July 13, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Md Sajid Ghufran, Priyanka Soni, Santosh R Kanade
Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites classified into four major groups such as B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 . These natural aflatoxins are designated as group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Among these, the aflatoxin B1 is more potent. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5, an epigenetic modulator, emerged as an oncoprotein, is overexpressed in diverse forms of cancers. The present study aims to explore the AFB1 -mediated overexpression of PRMT5. The AFB1 at nanomolar concentrations increased the cell viability, as well as the expression of PRMT5 and its binding partner methylosome protein 50 level significantly in L-132 and HaCaT cells...
July 6, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
S Lupinacci, Anna Perri, G Toteda, D Vizza, F Puoci, O I Parisi, F Giordano, D Lofaro, A La Russa, M Bonofiglio, R Bonofiglio
The mesothelial cells (MCs) play an important role in the morpho-functional alterations of the peritoneal membrane (PM) undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). MCs, through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process (EMT), progressively acquire a myofibroblast-like phenotype, promoting peritoneal fibrosis (PF) and failure of peritoneal membrane function. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), through canonical and non-canonical pathways, promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process leading to PF...
July 6, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Gilian Fernando Bourckhardt, Manuela Sozo Cecchini, Maria Luísa da Silveira Hahmeyer, Aline Pertile Remor, Alexandra Latini, Dib Ammar, Yara Maria Rauh Müller, Evelise Maria Nazari
Developmental endochondral ossification requires constant blood supply, which is provided by the embryonic vascular network. High levels of homocysteine (Hcy) have vasculotoxic properties, but it remains unclear how Hcy disrupts blood vessel formation in endochondral ossification. Thus, we investigated the toxicity of Hcy on contents of vasculogenic factors (VEGF, VCAM-1, NOS3) and osteocalcin, using developing limbs as model. Chicken embryos were submitted to treatment with 20 μmol D-L Hcy at 12H&H and the analyses occur at 29H&H and 36H&H...
June 30, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Emrah Okur, Azmi Yerlikaya
PURPOSE: The 26S proteasome plays important roles in many intracellular processes and is therefore a critical intracellular cellular target for anticancer treatments. The primary aim of the current study was to identify critical proteins that may play roles in opposing the antisurvival effect of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib together with the calcium-chelator BAPTA-AM in cancer cells using label-free LC-MS/MS. In addition, based on the results of the proteomic technique, a novel and more effective inhibitor combination involving bortezomib as well as OTSSP167 was developed for breast cancer cells...
June 14, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Ruifeng Li, Yuting Liu, Yingping Hou, Jingbo Gan, Pengze Wu, Cheng Li
The chromosomes in eukaryotic cells are highly folded and organized to form dynamic three-dimensional (3D) structures. In recent years, many technologies including chromosome conformation capture (3C) and 3C-based technologies (Hi-C, ChIA-PET) have been developed to investigate the 3D structure of chromosomes. These technologies are enabling research on how gene regulatory events are affected by the 3D genome structure, which is increasingly implicated in the regulation of gene expression and cellular functions...
May 23, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Yiming Zeng, Xiaoyang Chen, Hongzhi Gao, Xiangdong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Xiangdong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Jiapei Lv, Lingyan Wang, Hui Shen, Xiangdong Wang
Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Actinidia chinensis Planch root extract (acRoots) was found to have the capacity of the anti-tumor, although the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which lung cancer cells sense to inhibitory effects of acRoots with a special focus on immune-associated gene profiles. We firstly provide a preclinical evidence that acRoots can significantly inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis via the PI3K-OASL signal pathway...
June 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Devdeep Mukherjee, Niloy Kundu, Lopamudra Chakravarty, Birendra Behera, Prantar Chakrabarti, Nilmoni Sarkar, Tapas Kumar Maiti
Chronic myeloid leukemia is a stem cell disease with the presence of Philadelphia chromosome generated through reciprocal translocation of chromosome 9 and 22. The use of first- and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been successful to an extent. However, resistance against such drugs is an emerging problem. Apart from several drug-resistant mechanisms, drug influx/efflux ratio appears to be one of the key determinants of therapeutic outcomes. In addition, intracellular accumulation of drug critically depends on cell membrane fluidity and lipid raft dynamics...
June 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Mina Hwang, Hyun-Hee Park, Hojin Choi, Kyu-Yong Lee, Young Joo Lee, Seong-Ho Koh
Cerebral infarction causes severe morbidity and mortality. Most patients with cerebral infarction should take antiplatelet drugs daily, so the effects of those drugs on the regeneration of the brain need to be investigated. Aspirin and clopidogrel are the most widely used antiplatelet drugs for the prevention of ischemic stroke. We investigated the effects of aspirin and clopidogrel on neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs were dissociated from fetal rat cortex and cultured with basic fibroblast growth factor and N2 medium...
June 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Marie-Caroline Smith, Stéphanie Madec, Samuel Troadec, Emmanuel Coton, Nolwenn Hymery
Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T2), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA), and moniliformin (MON) mycotoxins are common food and feed contaminants produced by Fusarium spp. However, while they are usually found to co-occur in a large range of commodities, only few data are available on mycotoxin co-exposure effects and cellular response mechanisms. In this study, the individual and combined toxic effects of these fusariotoxins were evaluated on the THP-1 human immune cell line as major fusariotoxins are mostly potent immunomodulators...
June 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Hsiu-Ching Hsu, Sin-Jin Li, Ching-Yi Chen, Ming-Fong Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The cardiovascular health benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been demonstrated previously; however, the exact mechanism underlying them remains unclear. Our previous study found that lipotoxicity induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via the inhibition of autophagy. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated whether EPA attenuated lipotoxicity-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through autophagy regulation. The role of EPA in mitochondrial dynamics was analyzed as well...
June 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Loretta Müller, Selina K Steiner, Laura Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Philipp Latzin
Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in linking innate and adaptive immune responses, especially during viral infections and tumor surveillance. They have two major effector functions: the killing of stressed/abnormal cells and the release of cytokines. Their activity is regulated via inhibitory and activating surface receptors. At the same time that the production and use of engineered nanoparticles is steadily increasing, the risk for exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from consumer products or biomedical applications is growing...
June 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Takeshi Terabayashi, Katsuhiro Hanada
Maintenance of genome integrity is essential for all organisms because genome information regulates cell proliferation, growth arrest, and vital metabolic processes in cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. Because genomes are constantly exposed to intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxic stress, cellular DNA repair machinery and proper DNA damage responses (DDR) have evolved to quickly eliminate genotoxic DNA lesions, thus maintaining the genome integrity suitably. In human, germline mutations in genes involved not only in cellular DNA repair pathways but also in cellular DDR machinery frequently predispose hereditary diseases associated with chromosome aberrations...
April 5, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Duojiao Wu, Xiangdong Wang, Hongzhi Sun
Mitochondrial malfunction is related to aging and to the onset of many diseases, such as obesity/diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular principles of biological and toxicological processes the mitochondria can regulate should be disease-specific, cell type-specific, and drug targetable. Mitochondrial biology and toxicology is evolving and undergoing a revolution through fast-developing biotechnologies garnering increasing attention due to the importance of targeted therapies...
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
JungIn Um, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Soma Shiva Nageswara Rao Singireesu, Sunil Misra, Sujan Kumar Mondal, Suresh Yerramsetty, Nivedita Sahu, Suresh Babu K
Costunolide (CE) is a sesquiterpene lactone well-known for its antihepatotoxic, antiulcer, and anticancer activities. The present study focused on the evaluation of the cytogenetic toxicity and cellular death-inducing potential of CE in CHO cells, an epithelial cell line derived from normal ovary cells of Chinese hamster. The cytotoxic effect denoting MTT assay has shown an IC50 value of 7.56 μM CE, where 50% proliferation inhibition occurs. The oxidative stress caused by CE was confirmed based on GSH depletion induced cell death, conspicuously absent in N-acetylcysteine (GSH precursor) pretreated cells...
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Miyoung Park, Anita A Naidoo, Angie Burns, Jin Kyu Choi, Kelly M Gatfield, Martin Vidgeon-Hart, Il-Hong Bae, Chang Seok Lee, Gyeyoung Choi, Andrew J Powell, Young-Ho Park, Rajni Fagg
A recent hypothesis suggesting that the pharmacological target TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1) may function as a tumour suppressor, which potentially impacts the development of TRPV1 antagonist therapeutics for a range of conditions. However, little is known about the long-term physiologic effects of TRPV1 blockade in the skin. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that the potent TRPV1 competitive antagonist AMG-9810 promoted proliferation in N/TERT1 cells (telomerase-immortalised primary human keratinocytes 1) and tumour development in mouse skin that was mediated through EGFR/Akt/mTOR signalling...
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Lin Shi, Bijun Zhu, Menglin Xu, Xiangdong Wang
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) as a serious event has high mortality and medical costs. Systemic inflammation and immune response are the major factors influencing the outcome and quality of patient with AECOPD. On basis of identification and validation of AECOPD-specific inflammatory biomarkers, the present study aimed to identify AECOPD-specific immunomodulatory mediators by evaluating dynamic genomic and proteomic profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma in patients with AECOPD on day 1, 3, and 10 after the hospital admission, to compare with healthy controls or patients with stable COPD...
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
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