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Cell Biology and Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220009/identification-of-cancer-type-specific-expression-patterns-for-active-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-aldh-isoforms-in-aldefluor-assay
#1
Lei Zhou, Dandan Sheng, Dong Wang, Wei Ma, Qiaodan Deng, Lu Deng, Suling Liu
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) defend intracellular homeostasis by catalyzing the conversion of toxic aldehydes into non-toxic carboxylic acids, which is of particular importance to the self-renewal of stem cells and cancer stem cells. The widely used ALDEFLUOR assay was initially designed to indicate the activity of ALDH1A1 in leukemia and has been demonstrated to detect the enzyme activity of several other ALDH isoforms in various cancer types in recent years. However, it is still elusive which isoforms, among the 19 ALDH isoforms in human genome, are the potential contributors in catalyzing ALDEFLUOR assay in different cancers...
September 15, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120652/znf143-is-a-regulator-of-chromatin-loop
#2
Zi Wen, Zhi-Tao Huang, Ran Zhang, Cheng Peng
It is known that transcription factor ZNF143 frequently co-binds with CTCF-Cohesin complex in the anchor regions of chromatin loops. However, there is currently no genome-wide experiment to explore the functional roles of ZNF143 in chromatin loops. In this work, we used both computational and experimental analyses to investigate the regulatory effect of ZNF143 on chromatin loops. By jointly analyzing the ZNF143 and CTCF motifs underlying the isolated ZNF143-binding sites, ZNF143-CTCF co-binding sites and ZNF143-CTCF-RAD21 co-binding sites, our result shows that the ZNF143-CTCF-RAD21 co-binding sites are enriched with CTCF motifs but depleted of Znf143 motifs, implying that the CTCF but not ZNF143 may directly binds to the genome and thus ZNF143 may act as a cofactor instead of pioneer factor of ZNF143-CTCF-Cohesin complex...
August 17, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094641/cd8-it-cell-a-budding-star-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
EDITORIAL
Ling Xu, Zhenyi Jin, Yangqiu Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032454/is-the-clinical-lipidomics-a-potential-goldmine
#4
Linlin Zhang, Xianlin Han, Xiangdong Wang
Clinical lipidomics is a new extension of lipidomics to study lipid profiles, pathways, and networks by characterizing and quantifying the complete lipid molecules in cells, biopsy, or body fluids of patients. It undoubtfully has more values if lipidomics can be integrated with the data of clinical proteomic, genomic, and phenomic profiles. A number of challenges, e.g., instability, specificity, and sensitivity, in lipidomics have to be faced and overcome before clinical application. The association of lipidomics data with gene expression and sequencing of lipid-specific proteins/enzymes should be furthermore clarified...
July 21, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008069/genome-dimensions-control-biological-and-toxicological-functions-myth-or-reality
#5
EDITORIAL
Diane C Wang, Xiangdong Wang
The multidimensional genome offers a new perspective to understand molecular mechanisms of genotoxicity and provide deeper knowledge of how genome organization and reorganization in dimensions can alter cell sensitivity, tolerance, resistance, or toxicity to drugs, whether drugs per se can influence the 3D architecture of the genome directly or indirectly through transcriptional factors, and how we can improve cell sensitivity to drugs through the reorganization of genome and regulation of gene expression. We address roles of 3D genome organization and reorganization in the pathogenesis and progression of disease by evaluating various methodologies of studying the 3D genome, and in the genome integrity and stability susceptible to chemicals as mechanisms of genotoxicity...
July 14, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006751/the-mechanistic-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-cigarette-smoke-induced-cardiac-stem-cell-dysfunction-and-prevention-by-ascorbic-acid
#6
Wasana K Sumanasekera, Halle Thy Dao, Viktoria Shekhovtsova, Kadi Schultz, Mehul Jani, Felix Gyamfi, David M Tran, Nolan Le
Cigarette smoking causes a vast array of diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Our laboratory focuses on investigating cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cardiovascular malfunction and the responsible mechanisms utilizing the model, c-kit-positive cardiac stem cells (CSCs). The main objective of our study is to investigate whether CS extracts (CSEs) cause impairment of CSC functions via oxidative damage. We hypothesized that CSE, via oxidative modifications of CSC proteins and antioxidant enzymes, can modulate CSC functions and these modifications can be attenuated by ascorbate treatment...
July 13, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980893/aflatoxin-induced-upregulation-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-is-mediated-by-protein-kinase-c-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase
#7
Md Sajid Ghufran, Priyanka Soni, Santosh R Kanade
Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites classified into four major groups such as B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 . These natural aflatoxins are designated as group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Among these, the aflatoxin B1 is more potent. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5, an epigenetic modulator, emerged as an oncoprotein, is overexpressed in diverse forms of cancers. The present study aims to explore the AFB1 -mediated overexpression of PRMT5. The AFB1 at nanomolar concentrations increased the cell viability, as well as the expression of PRMT5 and its binding partner methylosome protein 50 level significantly in L-132 and HaCaT cells...
July 6, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978330/olive-leaf-extract-counteracts-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-process-induced-by-peritoneal-dialysis-through-the-inhibition-of-tgf%C3%AE-1-signaling
#8
S Lupinacci, Anna Perri, G Toteda, D Vizza, F Puoci, O I Parisi, F Giordano, D Lofaro, A La Russa, M Bonofiglio, R Bonofiglio
The mesothelial cells (MCs) play an important role in the morpho-functional alterations of the peritoneal membrane (PM) undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). MCs, through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process (EMT), progressively acquire a myofibroblast-like phenotype, promoting peritoneal fibrosis (PF) and failure of peritoneal membrane function. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), through canonical and non-canonical pathways, promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process leading to PF...
July 6, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961152/impact-of-homocysteine-on-vasculogenic-factors-and-bone-formation-in-chicken-embryos
#9
Gilian Fernando Bourckhardt, Manuela Sozo Cecchini, Maria Luísa da Silveira Hahmeyer, Aline Pertile Remor, Alexandra Latini, Dib Ammar, Yara Maria Rauh Müller, Evelise Maria Nazari
Developmental endochondral ossification requires constant blood supply, which is provided by the embryonic vascular network. High levels of homocysteine (Hcy) have vasculotoxic properties, but it remains unclear how Hcy disrupts blood vessel formation in endochondral ossification. Thus, we investigated the toxicity of Hcy on contents of vasculogenic factors (VEGF, VCAM-1, NOS3) and osteocalcin, using developing limbs as model. Chicken embryos were submitted to treatment with 20 μmol D-L Hcy at 12H&H and the analyses occur at 29H&H and 36H&H...
June 30, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796744/3d-genome-and-its-disorganization-in-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Ruifeng Li, Yuting Liu, Yingping Hou, Jingbo Gan, Pengze Wu, Cheng Li
The chromosomes in eukaryotic cells are highly folded and organized to form dynamic three-dimensional (3D) structures. In recent years, many technologies including chromosome conformation capture (3C) and 3C-based technologies (Hi-C, ChIA-PET) have been developed to investigate the 3D structure of chromosomes. These technologies are enabling research on how gene regulatory events are affected by the 3D genome structure, which is increasingly implicated in the regulation of gene expression and cellular functions...
October 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623483/genome-instability-syndromes-caused-by-impaired-dna-repair-and-aberrant-dna-damage-responses
#11
REVIEW
Takeshi Terabayashi, Katsuhiro Hanada
Maintenance of genome integrity is essential for all organisms because genome information regulates cell proliferation, growth arrest, and vital metabolic processes in cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. Because genomes are constantly exposed to intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxic stress, cellular DNA repair machinery and proper DNA damage responses (DDR) have evolved to quickly eliminate genotoxic DNA lesions, thus maintaining the genome integrity suitably. In human, germline mutations in genes involved not only in cellular DNA repair pathways but also in cellular DDR machinery frequently predispose hereditary diseases associated with chromosome aberrations...
October 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577183/developing-novel-methods-to-image-and-visualize-3d-genomes
#12
REVIEW
Tszshan Ma, Long Chen, Maoxiang Shi, Jing Niu, Xu Zhang, Xusan Yang, Karl Zhanghao, Miaoyan Wang, Peng Xi, Dayong Jin, Michael Zhang, Juntao Gao
To investigate three-dimensional (3D) genome organization in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, three main strategies are employed, namely nuclear proximity ligation-based methods, imaging tools (such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its derivatives), and computational/visualization methods. Proximity ligation-based methods are based on digestion and re-ligation of physically proximal cross-linked chromatin fragments accompanied by massively parallel DNA sequencing to measure the relative spatial proximity between genomic loci...
October 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568981/three-dimensional-organization-and-dynamics-of-the-genome
#13
REVIEW
Przemyslaw Szalaj, Dariusz Plewczynski
Genome is a complex hierarchical structure, and its spatial organization plays an important role in its function. Chromatin loops and topological domains form the basic structural units of this multiscale organization and are essential to orchestrate complex regulatory networks and transcription mechanisms. They also form higher-order structures such as chromosomal compartments and chromosome territories. Each level of this intrinsic architecture is governed by principles and mechanisms that we only start to understand...
October 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168077/progress-and-challenges-of-sequencing-and-analyzing-circulating-tumor-cells
#14
REVIEW
Zhongyi Zhu, Si Qiu, Kang Shao, Yong Hou
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) slough off primary tumor tissues and are swept away by the circulatory system. These CTCs can remain in circulation or colonize new sites, forming metastatic clones in distant organs. Recently, CTC analyses have been successfully used as effective clinical tools to monitor tumor progression and prognosis. With advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single-cell sequencing (SCS) technologies, scientists can obtain the complete genome of a CTC and compare it with corresponding primary and metastatic tumors...
October 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777423/an-artificial-intelligent-single-cell-is-part-of-the-cell-dream-world
#15
EDITORIAL
Yiming Zeng, Xiaoyang Chen, Hongzhi Gao, Xiangdong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214369/ginkgolide-k-promotes-the-clearance-of-a53t-mutation-alpha-synuclein-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#16
Wenbo Yu, Sheng Chen, Liang Cao, Jie Tang, Wei Xiao, Baoguo Xiao
Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is associated to Parkinson's disease (PD). The aggregated form of α-syn has potential neurotoxicity. Thus, the clearance of α-syn aggregation is a plausible strategy to delay disease progression of PD. In our study, we found that the treatment of Ginkgolide B (GB) and Ginkgolide K (GK) reduced cell death, and enhanced cell proliferation in SH-SY5Y cells, which overexpressed A53T mutant α-syn. Surprisingly, GK, but not GB, promoted the clearance of A53T α-syn, which can be abolished by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, indicating that GK-induced autophagy intervened in the clearance of A53T α-syn...
August 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127567/the-root-of-actinidia-chinensis-inhibits-hepatocellular-carcinomas-cells-through-lamb3
#17
Jiayun Hou, Lingyan Wang, Duojiao Wu
The root of Actinidia chinensis, as traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation in numerous cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying its inhibitory activity remain unclear. Death rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are increasing, but therapies for advanced HCC are not well developed. We choose the extract from root of Actinidia chinensis (ERAC) to treat the HCC cell lines in vitro, displaying distinct effects on cell proliferation, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis...
August 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101605/cholesterol-homeostasis-and-cell-proliferation-by-mitogenic-homologs-insulin-benzo-%C3%AE-pyrene-and-uv-radiation
#18
Hemlata Pandey, Ayantika Talukdar, Jeremy S Gangte, S Datta Gupta, N C Chandra
Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) is known to promote the unregulated proliferation of cells that is progression of cancer. We aimed to investigate the effect of mitogens on the expression of cell cycle proteins, nuclear cholesterol and cell proliferation. We observed that insulin and benzo-α-pyrene (BaP) induced the expression of Low-Density Lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) on HepG2 cells, thereby enhancing the uptake of LDL. The internalized LDL increased the concentration of cholesterol in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cell...
August 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063978/mst1-regulates-colorectal-cancer-stress-response-via-inhibiting-bnip3-related-mitophagy-by-activation-of-jnk-p53-pathway
#19
Qi Li, Feng Qi, Xiangchao Meng, Chenpei Zhu, Yingtang Gao
The Hippo-Mst1 pathway is associated with tumor development and progression. However, little evidence is available for its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) stress response via mitochondrial homeostasis. In this study, we conducted gain-of function assay about Mst1 in CRC via adenovirus transfection. Then, cellular viability and apoptosis were measured via MTT, TUNEL assay, and typan blue staining. Mitochondrial function was detected via JC1 staining, mPTP opening assay, and immunofluorescence of cyt-c. Mitophagy was observed via western blots and immunofluorescence...
August 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871429/elucidating-the-rapid-action-of-2-2-chlorophenyl-ethylbiguanide-on-ht-29-cells-under-a-serum-and-glucose-deprived-condition
#20
Kentaro Oh-Hashi, Shiori Matsumoto, Takayuki Sakai, Yuki Nomura, Kensuke Okuda, Hideko Nagasawa, Yoko Hirata
We recently demonstrated the cytotoxic action of a novel phenformin derivative, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)ethylbiguanide (2-Cl-Phen), on HT-29 cells under a serum- and glucose-deprived condition. In that study, we showed that the ATF6 arm of the ER stress pathway and c-Myc expression were downregulated 12 h after the treatment with 2-Cl-Phen. Through characterization of intracellular events at the early phase of the 2-Cl-Phen treatment before noticeable morphological changes, we found rapid fluctuations in the c-Myc and ATF4 proteins but not in their mRNAs in 2-Cl-Phen-treated HT-29 cells under the serum- and glucose-deprived condition...
August 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
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