Read by QxMD icon Read

Cell Biology and Toxicology

Michael P Chu, Jitra Kriangkum, Christopher P Venner, Irwindeep Sandhu, Joanne Hewitt, Andrew R Belch, Linda M Pilarski
Cancer heterogeneity is a significant factor in response to treatment and escape leading to relapse. Within an individual cancer, especially blood cancers, there exists multiple subclones as well as distinct clonal expansions unrelated to the clinically detected, dominant clone. Over time, multiple subclones and clones undergo emergence, expansion, and extinction. Although sometimes this intra-clonal and inter-clonal heterogeneity can be detected and/or quantified in tests that measure aggregate populations of cells, frequently, such heterogeneity can only be detected using single cell analysis to determine its frequency and to detect minor clones that may subsequently emerge to become drug resistant and dominant...
October 19, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Cristiane C Denardin, Leo A M Martins, Mariana M Parisi, Moema Queiroz Vieira, Silvia R Terra, Florencia M Barbé-Tuana, Radovan Borojevic, Márcia Vizzotto, Tatiana Emanuelli, Fátima Costa Rodrigues Guma
Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the major source of collagen I in liver fibrosis. Eugenia uniflora L. is a tree species that is widely distributed in South America. E. uniflora L. fruit-popularly known as pitanga-has been shown to exert beneficial properties. Autophagy contributes to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival under stress situation, but it has also been suggested to be an alternative cell death pathway. Mitochondria play a pivotal role on signaling cell death. Mitophagy of damaged mitochondria is an important cell defense mechanism against organelle-mediated cell death signaling...
October 15, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Madhav Bhatia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Carmen Fierbinteanu-Braticevici, Crina Sinescu, Alexandru Moldoveanu, Ana Petrisor, Sorina Diaconu, Dragos Cretoiu, Bogdan Braticevici
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is very prevalent and now considered the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Staging the severity of liver damage is very important because the prognosis of NAFLD is highly variable. The long-term prognosis of patients with NAFLD remains incompletely elucidated. Even though the annual fibrosis progression rate is significantly higher in patients with nonalcoholic hepatitis (NASH), both types of NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) can lead to fibrosis...
September 28, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Krishna Kumar Ganta, Anirban Mandal, Binay Chaubey
Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and an active constituent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy regime. It has significantly contributed in control and management of human immunodeficiency virus propagation. However, EFV administration has also led to severe adverse effects, several reports highlighted the role of EFV in mitochondrial dysfunction and toxicity but the molecular mechanism has been poorly understood. In present study, human hepatoma cells Huh 7.5 were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of EFV and parameters like cytotoxicity, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, mitochondrial morphology, cytochrome c release, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, mtDNA and mtRNA levels and EFV distribution into mitochondrial compartment were evaluated to understand sequence of events leading to cell death in EFV-treated cells...
September 17, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Hao Fang, William Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Gamze Guney Eskiler, Gulsah Cecener, Berrin Tunca, Unal Egeli
The development of resistance to tamoxifen (Tam) remains a challenging clinical problem for ER+ breast cancer patients. To understand the mechanisms underlying of resistance, previous studies have driven the acquisition of Tam resistance by exposing cells to varying concentration of drug for varying lengths of time. However, a detailed protocol for the establishment of Tam-resistant cells remains to be clarified. In the present study, we aimed to determine and compare the effect of different in vitro protocols on the degree of resistance to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OH Tam) for MCF7 cells...
September 1, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Sankar Jagadeeshan, R Vivek Sagayaraj, Navina Paneerselvan, Syed Shabin Ghouse, Raghunathan Malathi
p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1)-a key node protein kinase regulating various cellular process including angiogenesis-has been recognised to be a therapeutic target for multitude of diseases, and hence, various small molecule inhibitors targeting its activity have been tested. However, the direct toxic and anti-angiogenic effects of these pharmacologic agents have not been examined. In this study, we evaluate the translational efficacy of Pak1 inhibitor IPA-3 using zebrafish toxicity model system to stratify its anti-angiogenic potential and off-target effects to streamline the compound for further therapeutic usage...
August 31, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Zhihong Chen, Jue Pan, Yi Jia, Dandan Li, Zhihui Min, Xiaoqiong Su, Honglei Yuan, Geng Shen, Shengxuan Cao, Lei Zhu, Xiangdong Wang
BACKGROUND: Recent data have demonstrated that long-lived memory T cells are present in the human lung and can play significant roles in the pathogenesis of specific allergic and autoimmune diseases. However, most evidence has been obtained from mouse studies, and the potential roles of memory T cells in human allergic diseases, such as asthma, remain largely unknown. METHODS: Thirty-three asthmatics, 26 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, and 22 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study...
August 31, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Xin Liu, Huiyun Zhang, Xin Chang, Jirong Shen, Wenjiao Zheng, Yanan Xu, Junling Wang, Wei Gao, Shaoheng He
It is recognized that CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) is associated with numerous inflammatory conditions and fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) invasiveness correlates with articular damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, little is known of the expression and action of CCR3 on FLS in RA. In the present study, we investigated the expression of CCR3 on dispersed synovial tissue and peripheral blood cells in RA and influence of eotaxin-1 on FLS functions by using flow cytometry analysis, FLS challenge, and real-time PCR techniques...
August 5, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Tingting Fang, Jiayun Hou, Mingyan He, Lingyan Wang, Minghuan Zheng, Xiangdong Wang, Jinglin Xia
A wide range of studies has demonstrated the potent anticancer activity of Chinese herbs. Here, we evaluated the anticancer activity and molecular mechanisms of Actinidia chinensis root extract (acRoots) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HepG2 HCC cells were treated with various concentrations of acRoots for 72 h and examined by mRNA expression profiling, revealing alterations in cellular immunity, inflammation, proliferation, cell cycle, and metabolic signaling responses. Further analysis of the altered genes in cellular immunity and inflammation gene clusters identified prostaglandin E receptor 3 (EP3) as a key regulator of gene expression in response to acRoots...
July 30, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Behrooz Soltani, Nasser Ghaemi, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Farhood Najafi
Protection against ionizing radiation (IR) and sensitization of cancer cells to IR are apparently contrasting phenomena. However, curcumin takes on these contrasting roles leading to either protection or enhanced apoptosis in different irradiated cells. Here we studied whether pretreatment with free curcumin or a novel dendrosomal nanoformulation of curcumin (DNC) could exert protective/sensitizing effects on irradiated THP-1 leukemia cells. We employed assays including MTT viability, clonogenic survival, DNA fragmentation, PI/Annexin V flow cytometry, antioxidant system (ROS, TBARS for lipid peroxidation, 8-OHdG and γH2AX for DNA damage, glutathione, CAT and GPx activity, enzymes gene expression), ELISA (NF-κB and Nrf2 binding, TNF-α release), caspase assay, siRNA silencing of caspase-3, and western blotting to illustrate the observed protective role of curcumin in comparison with the opposite sensitizing role of its nanoformulation at a similar 10 μM concentration...
July 29, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Maurish Bukhari, Hayley Burm, Damien S K Samways
Ionic "vital dyes" are commonly used to assess cell viability based on the idea that their permeation is contingent on a loss of membrane integrity. However, the possibility that dye entry is conducted into live cells by endogenous membrane transporters must be recognized and controlled for. Several cation-selective plasma membrane-localized ion channels, including the adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-gated P2X receptors, have been reported to conduct entry of the DNA-binding fluorescence dye, YO-PRO-1, into live cells...
October 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Xiangdong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Thamizhiniyan Venkatesan, Young-Woong Choi, Sung-Phil Mun, Young-Kyoon Kim
In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of Pinus radiata bark extract (PRE) against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. First, we observed that PRE induces potent cytotoxic effects in MCF-7 cells. The cell death had features of cytoplasmic vacuolation, plasma membrane permeabilization, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, absence of executioner caspase activation, insensitivity to z-VAD-fmk (caspase inhibitor), increased accumulation of autophagic markers, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP)...
October 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Georgios Divolis, Panagiota Mavroeidi, Olga Mavrofrydi, Panagiota Papazafiri
Calcium signaling participates in the regulation of numberless cellular functions including cell cycle progression and cellular migration, important processes for cancer expansion. Cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion are typically supported by PI3K/Akt activation, while a hypoxic environment is critical in cancer development. Accordingly, in the present study, we aimed at investigating whether perturbations in calcium homeostasis induce alterations of HIF-1α and activate Akt levels in epithelial A549 and A431 cells...
October 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Lianmin Bao, Yong Zhang, Jian Wang, Haiyun Wang, Nian Dong, Xiaoqiong Su, Menglin Xu, Xiangdong Wang
Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate specific genotypes of different subtypes or stages of lung cancer through gene expression variations of chromosome 2 genes, trying to identify predictors for diagnosis or prognosis of lung cancer. About 537 patients with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), 140 patients with lung squamous carcinoma (SQC), 9 patients with lung large cell carcinoma (LCC), 56 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and 590 patients without cancer were analyzed in present study...
October 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Seok-Jin Kang, Hyuk-Mi Lee, Young-Il Park, Hee Yi, Hunjoo Lee, ByungJae So, Jae-Young Song, Hwan-Goo Kang
Stem cell-induced hepatocytes (SC-iHeps) have been suggested as a valuable model for evaluating drug toxicology. Here, human-induced pluripotent stem cells (QIA7) and embryonic stem cells (WA01) were differentiated into hepatocytes, and the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen (AAP) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were compared with primary hepatocytes (p-Heps) and HepG2. In a cytotoxicity assay, the IC50 of SC-iHeps was similar to that in p-Heps and HepG2 in the AAP groups but different from that in p-Heps of the AFB1 groups...
October 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Chun-Yang Zhang, Ren-Ke Li, Yu Qi, Xiang-Nan Li, Yang Yang, Dong-Lei Liu, Jia Zhao, Deng-Yan Zhu, Kai Wu, Xu-Dong Zhou, Song Zhao
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide, especially in Eastern Asia. Recent studies show that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have critical roles in diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. In the present study, we find that the expression of lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 is significantly upregulated in ESCC cell lines as compared with human esophageal epithelial cell line HEEC. Overexpression of SPRY4-IT1 can increase in vitro motility of ESCC cells via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is characterized by increasing the expression of vimentin (Vim) and fibronectin (FN) with a concomitant decrease of E-cadherin (E-Cad) and ZO-1, while silencing of SPRY4-IT1 significantly inhibits the in vitro motility of ESCC cells...
October 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Mahima Vedi, Evan Prince Sabina
Bromobenzene is a well-known environmental toxin which causes liver and kidney damage through CYP450-mediated bio-activation to generate reactive metabolites and, consequently, oxidative stress. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible protective role of withaferin A against bromobenzene-induced liver and kidney damage in mice. Withaferin A (10 mg/kg) was administered orally to the mice for 8 days before intragastric intubation of bromobenzene (10 mmol/kg). As results of this experiment, the levels of liver and kidney functional markers, lipid peroxidation, and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) presented an increase and there was a decrease in anti-oxidant activity in the bromobenzene-treated group of mice...
October 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"