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Domestic Animal Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888738/oxyntomodulin-analog-and-exendin-4-derivative-lower-plasma-glucose-in-cattle
#1
S ThanThan, Y Asada, T Saito, K Ochiiwa, H Zhao, S W Naing, H Kuwayama
The present study was undertaken with the aim of examining whether and how exendin-4 (1-3) fragment, ie, Ex-4 (1-3) fragment, contributes to the regulation of glucose. An analog of oxyntomodulin (OXM) ([Gly(2), Glu(3)]-OXM), a glucagon analog ([Gly(2), Glu(3)]-glucagon), and two derivatives of Ex-4 (glucandin and [Gly(2), Glu(3)]-glucandin) were synthesized by substituting with Gly(2), Glu(3) at the N-terminuses of OXM and glucagon and/or by attaching Ex-4 (30-39) amide at the C-terminus of glucagon. Effects of these peptides on plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were investigated in cattle by conducting 3 in vivo experiments...
November 2, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866059/glucocorticoid-metabolism-in-equine-follicles-and-oocytes
#2
D Scarlet, N Ille, R Ertl, B G Alves, G D A Gastal, S O Paiva, M O Gastal, E L Gastal, C Aurich
The objective of this study was to determine whether (1) systemic and intrafollicular cortisol concentrations in horses are directly related and (2) supraphysiological levels of glucocorticoids affect in vitro maturation (IVM) rates of oocytes. Specifically, we studied the (1) changes in the intrafollicular cortisol and progesterone in context with granulosa cell gene expression during maturation of equine follicles (from 5-9 mm, 10-14 mm, 15-19 mm, 20-24 mm, and ≥25 mm in diameter) and (2) effects of cortisol supplementation on IVM rates and gene expression of equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs)...
October 29, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866058/timing-and-duration-of-nursing-from-birth-affect-neonatal-porcine-uterine-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-and-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-1
#3
T Y Ho, K M Rahman, M E Camp, A A Wiley, F F Bartol, C A Bagnell
Nursing for 2 d from birth supports neonatal porcine uterine and cervical development. However, it is not clear how timing or duration of lactocrine signaling from birth (postnatal day = PND 0) affects development of neonatal female reproductive tract tissues. Therefore, studies were conducted to determine effects of age at first nursing and duration of nursing from birth on specific elements of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) system in uterine and cervical tissues at PND 2...
October 27, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875754/the-impact-of-diet-and-arginine-supplementation-on-pancreatic-mass-digestive-enzyme-activity-and-insulin-containing-cell-cluster-morphology-during-the-estrous-cycle-in-sheep
#4
F E Keomanivong, A T Grazul-Bilska, D A Redmer, C S Bass, S L Kaminski, P P Borowicz, J D Kirsch, K C Swanson
To determine the effect of feed intake and arginine treatment during different stages of the estrous cycle on pancreatic mass, digestive enzyme activity, and histological measurements, ewes (n = 120) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary groups; control (CON; 2.14-Mcal metabolizable energy/kg), underfed (UF; 0.6 × CON), or overfed (OF; 2 × CON) over 2 yr. Estrus was synchronized using a controlled internal drug release device for 14 d. At controlled internal drug release withdrawal, ewes from each dietary group were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments; Arg (L-Arg HCl, 155-μmol/kg BW) or Sal (approximately 10-mL saline)...
October 21, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835804/gap-junctional-connexin-messenger-rna-expression-in-the-ovine-uterus-and-placenta-effects-of-estradiol-17%C3%AE-treatment-early-pregnancy-stages-and-embryo-origin
#5
M L Johnson, D A Redmer, L P Reynolds, A T Grazul-Bilska
Gap junctions play a major role in direct, contact-dependent cell-cell communication, and they have been implicated in the regulation of cellular metabolism and the coordination of cellular functions during growth and differentiation of organs and tissues. Gap junctional channels, composed of connexin (Cx) proteins, have been detected and shown to be influenced by hormones (eg, estrogen and progesterone) in uterine and placental tissues in several species. We hypothesized that (1) the messenger RNA (mRNA) for Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, and Cx43 is expressed in the uterus of ovariectomized sheep treated with estradiol-17β (E2) and in ovine placenta during early pregnancy, (2) E2-treatment of ovariectomized ewes would cause time-specific changes in Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, and Cx43 mRNA expression (experiment 1), and (3) expression of these 4 Cx would vary across the days of early pregnancy (experiment 2) and will be affected by embryo origin (ie, after application of assisted reproductive technologies [ARTs]; experiment 3)...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792889/salsolinol-a-potential-inhibitor-of-the-gonadotropic-axis-in-sheep-during-lactation
#6
E Marciniak, M Hasiec, F Fülöp, T Misztal
This study tested the hypothesis that salsolinol, a derivative of dopamine, affects GnRH and LH secretion in lactating sheep. In the in vivo experiment, the structural analogue of salsolinol, 1-methyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline (1-MeDIQ), was infused into the infundibular nucleus-median eminence of sheep at the fifth wk of lactation to antagonize salsolinol's action. Simultaneously, cerebrospinal fluid from the third brain ventricle, to determine GnRH concentration, and plasma samples, to measure LH concentration, were collected...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769009/role-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-1-in-estradiol-17%C3%AE-induced-alterations-in-protein-synthesis-and-protein-degradation-rates-in-fused-bovine-satellite-cell-cultures
#7
E Kamanga-Sollo, K J Thornton, M E White, W R Dayton
In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters in several countries. Treatment with E2 stimulates protein synthesis rate and suppresses protein degradation rate in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not known with certainty. Although the genomic effects of E2 mediated through the classical estrogen receptors have been characterized, recent studies indicate that binding of E2 to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 mediates nongenomic effects of E2 on cellular function...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743526/activities-for-leptin-in-bovine-trophoblast-cells
#8
C K Hughes, M M Xie, S R McCoski, A D Ealy
Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664382/a-mirna-target-network-putatively-involved-in-follicular-atresia
#9
F X Donadeu, B T Mohammed, J Ioannidis
In a previous microarray study, we identified a subset of micro RNAS (miRNAs), which expression was distinctly higher in atretic than healthy follicles of cattle. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of those miRNAs in granulosa and theca cells during atresia. Reverse Transcription-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) confirmed that miR-21-5p/-3p, miR-150, miR-409a, miR-142-5p, miR-378, miR-222, miR-155, and miR-199a-5p were expressed at higher levels in atretic than healthy follicles (9-17 mm, classified based on steroidogenic capacity)...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664381/moderate-high-or-low-maternal-protein-diets-change-gene-expression-but-not-the-phenotype-of-skeletal-muscle-from-porcine-fetuses
#10
C Kalbe, D Lösel, J Block, L Lefaucheur, K-P Brüssow, O Bellmann, R Pfuhl, B Puppe, W Otten, C C Metges, C Rehfeldt
The aim of our study was to characterize the immediate phenotypic and adaptive regulatory responses of fetuses to different in utero conditions reflecting inadequate maternal protein supply during gestation. The gilts fed high- (250% above control) or low- (50% under control) protein diets isoenergetically adjusted at the expense of carbohydrates from the day of insemination until the fetuses were collected at day 64 or 94 of gestation. We analyzed body composition, histomorphology, biochemistry, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of fetal skeletal muscle...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658124/prostaglandin-synthesis-by-the-porcine-corpus-luteum-effect-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE
#11
J Chang, S Frandsen, J E Gadsby
The porcine corpus luteum (CL) displays delayed sensitivity to PGF-2α (luteolytic sensitivity, [LS]) until days 12 to 13 of cycle. The control of LS is unknown, but it is temporally associated with macrophage (which secrete tumor necrosis factor-α; TNF-α) infiltration into the CL. Other studies showed that TNF-α induces LS in vitro and that prostaglandins (PGs) may be involved in this mechanism. In experiment 1, PGF-2α and PGE secretion by luteal cells (LCs) was measured on days 4 to 14 of the estrous cycle, and the expression of PTGFS/AKR1B1 and PTGES/mPGES-1, determined by Western blot, before (day 7) vs after (day 13) the onset of LS...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643975/effect-of-fish-oil-on-lateral-mobility-of-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-fp-receptors-and-spatial-distribution-of-lipid-microdomains-in-bovine-luteal-cell-plasma-membrane-in%C3%A2-vitro
#12
M R Plewes, P D Burns, P E Graham, R M Hyslop, B G Barisas
Lipid microdomains are ordered regions on the plasma membrane of cells, rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, ranging in size from 10 to 200 nm in diameter. These lipid-ordered domains may serve as platforms to facilitate colocalization of intracellular signaling proteins during agonist-induced signal transduction. It is hypothesized that fish oil will disrupt the lipid microdomains, increasing spatial distribution of these lipid-ordered domains and lateral mobility of the prostaglandin (PG) F2α (FP) receptors in bovine luteal cells...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639459/is-progesterone-the-key-regulatory-factor-behind-ovulation-rate-in-sheep
#13
P M Bartlewski, J Sohal, V Paravinja, T Baby, M E F Oliveira, M Murawski, T Schwarz, D A Zieba, D H Keisler
Ovarian antral follicles in the ewe grow in an orderly succession, producing 3 to 4 waves per estrous cycle. In prolific sheep, some large antral follicles from the second-to-last wave of the estrous cycle are added to the ovulatory follicles emerging just before estrus to give a higher ovulation rate; it is feasible that regression of these follicles is prevented by an increase in serum concentrations of FSH or LH pulsatility at proestrus. Prolific sheep tend to have a shorter luteal phase than nonprolific ewes and there is a great deal of evidence that luteal progesterone (P4), in addition to regulating LH release, may govern the secretion of FSH heralding the emergence of follicular waves...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639033/expression-of-progesterone-receptor-in-the-porcine-uterus-and-placenta-throughout-gestation-correlation-with-expression-of-uteroferrin-and-osteopontin
#14
C B Steinhauser, F W Bazer, R C Burghardt, G A Johnson
Progesterone (P4) stimulates production and secretion of histotroph, a mixture of hormones, growth factors, nutrients, and other substances required for growth and development of the conceptus (embryo or fetus and placental membranes). Progesterone acts through the progesterone receptor (PGR); however, there is a gap in our understanding of P4 during pregnancy because PGR have not been localized in the uteri and placentae of pigs beyond day 18. Therefore, we determined endometrial expression of PGR messenger RNA (mRNA) and localized PGR protein in uterine and placental tissues throughout the estrous cycle and through day 85 of pregnancy in pigs...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591980/development-of-the-independent-function-of-fetal-thyroid-glands-in-the-dog-in-connection-with-iodothyronine-concentrations-in-pregnant-bitches-fetal-fluids-and-fetal-serum
#15
J Thuróczy, J Szilágyi, L Müller, L Balogh
Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant bitches were measured. The allantoic and amniotic fluid samples were collected separately in the third week of pregnancy, and fetal blood samples were collected in the fourth week of pregnancy. There was no difference between T4 results in the pregnant and nonpregnant animals, but the measured serum concentrations exceeded the healthy range for normal adults. Serum T4 concentrations were lower in the fetus than those in adults (P < 0...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591979/prolactin-role-in-the-bovine-uterus-during-adenomyosis
#16
M Łupicka, B M Socha, A A Szczepańska, A J Korzekwa
Adenomyosis is uterine dysfunction defined as the presence of endometrial glands within the myometrium. It is suggested that adenomyosis is estrogen-dependent pathology, and prolactin (PRL) also affects its development. In the uterus of ruminants, PRL stimulates gland proliferation and function. We hypothesized that in the bovine uterus, the expression of PRL and its receptors (PRLRs) during adenomyosis is disturbed and modulated by estradiol (E2). Uterine tissues were collected postmortem from cows; epithelial, stromal, and myometrial cells were isolated; and cultured and treated with E2...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26542941/bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-and-bone-morphogenetic-protein-receptor-expression-in-the-pituitary-gland-of-adult-dogs-in-healthy-condition-and-with-acth-secreting-pituitary-adenoma
#17
A Sato, H Ochi, Y Harada, T Yogo, N Kanno, Y Hara
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its receptors, bone morphogenetic protein receptor I (BMPRI) and BMPRII, in the pituitary gland of healthy adult dogs and in those with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the BMP4 messenger RNA expression level in the ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma samples was significantly lower than that in the normal pituitary gland samples (P = 0.03). However, there were no statistically significant differences between samples with respect to the messenger RNA expression levels of the receptors BMPRIA, BMPRIB, and BMPRII...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26416263/supplementation-of-metabolizable-protein-during-late-gestation-and-fetal-number-impact-ewe-organ-mass-maternal-serum-hormone-and-metabolite-concentrations-and-conceptus-measurements
#18
T J Swanson, L A Lekatz, M L Van Emon, G A Perry, C S Schauer, K R Maddock Carlin, C J Hammer, K A Vonnahme
To examine the effects of maternal metabolizable protein (MP) supplementation during late gestation on serum hormone and metabolites and organ masses, multiparous ewes (n = 45) carrying singletons or twins were allotted randomly (within pregnancy group) to 1 of 3 treatments: 60% (MP60), 80% (MP80), or 100% (MP100) of MP requirements. Blood samples were drawn before the initiation of diets (day 100) and before slaughter (day 130) for chemistry panel analysis and weekly for hormone analysis including progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17β (E2)...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572923/dosing-obese-cats-based-on-body-weight-spuriously-affects-some-measures-of-glucose-tolerance
#19
M K Reeve-Johnson, J S Rand, S T Anderson, D J Appleton, J M Morton, D Vankan
The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565239/changes-in-peripheral-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-concentration-and-their-relationship-with-testicular-structure-in-beef-bull-calves
#20
G Kitahara, R Kamata, Y Sasaki, H El-Sheikh Ali, S Mido, I Kobayashi, K Hemmi, T Osawa
The aim of this study was to clarify the time-course of changes in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and testosterone (T) concentrations in peripheral blood and to determine the relationships between blood AMH concentration and testicular development during the early postnatal and prepubertal periods in beef bull calves. A total of 17 Japanese Black bull calves were enrolled in this study. The wk in which the calf was born (within 6 d after birth) was defined as M 0. Blood samples were taken once in every mo from M 0 to M 6 from each bull calf, and plasma AMH and T concentrations were determined...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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