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Domestic Animal Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195176/oxytocin-is-involved-in-steroid-hormone-stimulated-bovine-satellite-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-vitro
#1
Zhenhe Zhang, Lidan D Zhao, Sally E Johnson, Michelle L Rhoads, Honglin Jiang, Robert P Rhoads
Sex steroid hormones are used in the meat industry due to their ability to regulate muscle hypertrophy. However, the mechanisms underlying their action are not fully elucidated. Recent reports demonstrate that steroid hormones increase oxytocin (OXT) expression in skeletal muscle, indicating that OXT may play a role in satellite cell activity. This hypothesis was tested using steroid hormones (17β-estradiol [E2]; trenbolone acetate [TBA]), tamoxifen (TAM), OXT, and atosiban (A: OXT receptor inhibitor) applied to bovine satellite cells (BSCs) to investigate BSC regulation by OXT...
August 3, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099262/gene-expression-profile-associated-with-thymus-regeneration-in-dexamethasone-treated-beef-cattle
#2
Francesca T Cannizzo, Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza, Sara Divari, Enrica Berio, Frine E Scaglione, Bartolomeo Biolatti
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are illegally used as growth promoters in cattle, and the analytical methods officially applied most likely underestimate the precise frequency of the abuse. As a side effect, the administration of GCs causes fat infiltration, apoptosis, and atrophy of the thymus. However, gross and histological observations carried out previously showed that the thymus preserves an intrinsic ability to regenerate. The aim of this work was to study the transcriptional effects of GCs on genes likely involved in regeneration of the epithelial cell network in the cervical and thoracic thymus of beef cattle treated with dexamethasone (DEX) or prednisolone (PRD) in comparison with a control group...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086525/resistin-regulates-reproductive-hormone-secretion-from-the-ovine-adenohypophysis-depending-on-season
#3
Weronika Biernat, Katarzyna Kirsz, Malgorzata Szczesna, Dorota A Zieba
Work in cattle and rodents has shown that resistin, in addition to its roles in insulin resistance and inflammation, is involved in the regulation of gonadal steroidogenesis. However, the role of resistin in the regulation of reproductive processes in other species, such as seasonally breeding sheep, is completely unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that resistin can influence the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones and that its effect in ewes is dependent on the day length. Thirty Polish Longwool ewes, a breed that exhibits a strong seasonal reproductive pattern, were ovariectomized with estrogen replacement using subcutaneously inserted estradiol implants...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032022/an-fsh-booster-surge-for-resurgence-of-the-preovulatory-follicle-in-heifers
#4
REVIEW
O J Ginther
Emergence of wave 1 during an interovulatory interval (IOI) in heifers is stimulated by FSH surge 1. A minor FSH surge with absence of a dominant follicle in the associated follicular wave occurs immediately before FSH surge 1. This minor surge is termed an FSH booster surge owing to its occurrence temporally during a resurgence of a preovulatory follicle that has been decreasing or lagging in growth rate for several days. The beginning nadir, peak, and ending nadir of the FSH booster surge occur at means of 7, 4, and 3 d before ovulation...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015124/safety-and-efficacy-assessment-of-a-glp-1-mimetic-insulin-glargine-combination-for-treatment-of-feline-diabetes-mellitus
#5
M A Scuderi, M Ribeiro Petito, S Unniappan, C Waldner, S Mehain, C J McMillian, E C Snead
A commonly used therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans involves the use of synthetic incretin hormone-based therapies including exenatide, a glucagon-like pepetide-1 hormone agonist. Glucagon-like pepetide-1 agonists can be used alone or as an ancillary therapy with other agents, including insulin and oral antihyperglycemics. Little is known about the role of these therapies for DM in cats. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of short-acting exenatide combined with insulin, as compared to placebo and insulin for the treatment of DM in cats...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007131/influences-of-maternal-nutrient-restriction-and-arginine-supplementation-on-visceral-metabolism-and-hypothalamic-circuitry-of-offspring
#6
Ligia D Prezotto, Jennifer F Thorson, Pawel P Borowicz, Jena L Peine, Michelle Bedenbaugh, Stanley M Hileman, Clay A Lents, Joel S Caton, Kendall C Swanson
Maternal nutrient restriction during gestation can exert long-term negative effects on offspring health and performance. Arginine supplementation may rescue some of the negative effects elicited by maternal nutrient restriction. We tested the hypothesis that maternal arginine supplementation during gestation would rescue deleterious effects of nutrient restriction on in vitro O2 consumption in the liver and jejunum and hypothalamic protein expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the colocalization of nNOS and active phosphor-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) in female offspring...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007130/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-serum-as-an-animal-welfare-indicator-of-environmental-enrichment-in-pigs
#7
J-L Rault, A J Lawrence, C R Ralph
Environment enrichment is a rising topic for animal welfare but measures to identify effective enrichment interventions are lacking. In humans and rodent species, environmental enrichment increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neurotrophin in the brain. Higher BDNF concentration is ultimately linked to higher stress resilience, and BDNF in the hippocampus enhances learning and memory. In addition, BDNF concentrations in the brain and blood are correlated, offering the opportunity to use peripheral BDNF as a minimally invasive measure of effective enrichment reflecting neural changes...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909240/tissue-specific-expression-and-circulating-concentrations-of-nesfatin-1-in-domestic-animals
#8
K A Morton, L Hargreaves, S Mortazavi, L P Weber, A M Blanco, S Unniappan
Nesfatin-1 is a naturally occurring 82-amino acid protein encoded in the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) and has been implicated in multiple physiological functions, including food intake and blood glucose regulation. This study aimed to characterize nesfatin-1 in domestic species, especially cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Our in silico analysis demonstrated that the NUCB2/nesfatin-1 amino acid sequence, especially the bioactive core region of the peptide, is very highly conserved (more than 90% identity) in domestic animals...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894894/excess-deposition-of-collagen-in-mammary-glands-of-tamoxifen-treated-holstein-heifers-is-associated-with-impaired-mammary-growth
#9
H L M Tucker, J Holdridge, C L M Parsons, R M Akers
It is established that the ovary and estrogen are essential to bovine mammary development with the onset of puberty. Recent studies have shown that ovariectomy in the very early prepubertal period, well before onset of puberty, also dramatically impairs mammary growth. Similarly, prepubertal heifers treated with the antiestrogen tamoxifen (TAM) also exhibit markedly impaired mammary growth in correspondence with reduced estrogen receptor α (ESR1) expression. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of TAM on the mammary stroma and specifically to determine if the reported decrease in mammary development was related to changes in TAM-induced alterations in the stroma surrounding the mammary parenchyma...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890304/supplementation-with-ctgf-sdf1-ngf-and-hgf-promotes-ovine-in-vitro-oocyte-maturation-and-early-embryo-development
#10
D H Wang, J Ren, C J Zhou, Z Han, L Wang, C G Liang
The strategies for improving the in vitro maturation (IVM) of domestic animal oocytes focus on promoting nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. The identification of paracrine factors and their supplementation in the culture medium represent effective approaches for oocyte maturation and embryo development. This study investigated the effects of paracrine factor supplementation including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and stromal derived factor 1 (SDF1) on ovine oocytes and early parthenogenetic embryos using an in vitro culture system...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870919/influence-of-postweaning-feeding-management-of-beef-heifers-on-performance-and-physiological-profiles-through-rearing-and-first-lactation
#11
J A Rodríguez-Sánchez, A Sanz, J Ferrer, I Casasús
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 2 postweaning feeding management approaches (FEED: 0.8 [HIGH] vs 0.6 [MOD] kg/d target ADG) on the performance of heifers of 2 beef breeds (BREED: Parda de Montaña [PA] vs Pirenaica) calving at 2 yr. Twenty-five heifers previously creep fed before weaning (6 mo) were assigned to 2 planes of nutrition from 6 to 15 mo of age. At 15 mo, they were inseminated, and then received similar diets until weaning of their first calf (4 mo postcalving). Several parameters were measured to analyze growth and development (BW; ADG; size measures at 6 mo, 15 mo, calving, and weaning), performance at puberty and first breeding, and dam and calf performance in the first lactation (calving traits, ADG, milk yield)...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860204/mirna-seq-reveals-that-mir-124-3p-inhibits-adipogenic-differentiation-of-the-stromal-vascular-fraction-in-sheep-via-targeting-c-ebp%C3%AE
#12
Y Pan, J Jing, L Qiao, J Liu, L An, B Li, D Ren, W Liu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding 20-25 nt RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by posttranscriptional repression of messenger RNA. There have been few investigations on the profiles and functions of miRNAs in ovine subcutaneous fat; their roles in the metabolism and deposition of subcutaneous fat also remain unclear. In this study, small RNA libraries were constructed for 2 important Chinese local sheep breeds, Small-tailed Han Sheep, and Shanxi Meat Sheep Dam Line, and used for high-throughput sequencing...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803110/effects-of-chronic-dexamethasone-exposure-on-bile-acid-metabolism-and-cecal-epithelia-function-in-goats
#13
C Hua, Y Geng, Q Chen, L Niu, L Cai, S Tao, Y Ni, R Zhao
Bile acids (BAs) are synthesized in the liver via the oxidation of cholesterol and further metabolized by microbiota in the gut, where they simultaneously impact gut function. In the present study, 10 goats were randomly divided into 2 groups; 1 group was injected with dexamethasone (Dex; 0.2 mg/kg), and the other group was injected with saline as the control (Con) for 21 d. Expression levels of key genes and proteins in the liver and gut mucosa were analyzed and compared to investigate the impact of chronic stress on BA metabolism and related functions in ruminants...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777899/congenital-dyshormonogenic-hypothyroidism-with-goiter-caused-by-a-sodium-iodide-symporter-slc5a5-mutation-in-a-family-of-shih-tzu-dogs
#14
E A Soler Arias, V A Castillo, J D Garcia, J C Fyfe
An iodide transport defect (ITD) in the thyroid gland was determined to cause congenital dyshormonogenic hypothyroidism with goiter (CDHG) in 2 members of a family of Shih-Tzu dogs. Strikingly, both dogs were also diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy at 24 and 1.5 mo of age. The only sign of hypothyroidism was a moderate growth delay in the adult dog. The ITD was recognized by the absence of uptake of technetium-99m in the salivary glands (sg) and goiter observed by scintigraphy. In the same scan, radiopharmaceutical uptake was found in the anterior mediastinum of both dogs and in the right axillary lymph node in the oldest dog...
October 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758402/lactation-related-changes-in-tissue-expression-of-pedf-in-dairy-cows
#15
H Sadri, B Saremi, S Dänicke, J Rehage, M Mielenz, A Hosseini, H Sauerwein
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is evolving as metabolic regulatory protein. Albeit mostly considered in only pathological conditions related to excess energy intake resulting in obesity and insulin resistance, PEDF is likely to be involved in other physiological processes such as the homeorhetic adaptation of metabolism to lactation. We aimed to characterize the expression of PEDF and its association to the concomitant mobilization of body reserves during lactation in nonobese subjects. This mobilization is particularly distinct in dairy cows, and we therefore assessed the mRNA expression of PEDF and its putative receptors in different tissues in 2 trials with dairy cows fed with or without conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs)...
July 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754011/prolonged-exposure-of-dietary-phytoestrogens-on-semen-characteristics-and-reproductive-performance-of-rabbit-bucks
#16
N M Hashem, M A Abo-Elsoud, A N M Nour El-Din, K I Kamel, G A Hassan
The effects of inclusion of different sources of dietary phytoestrogens on antioxidant capacity, hormonal balance, libido, semen quality, and fertility of rabbit bucks were studied. Twenty-one, adult, fertile, V-line bucks were randomly allocated into 3 homogenous groups (n = 7/treatment) and received control diet (phytoestrogens-free diet, CON) or soybean meal isoflavones-containing diet (SMI) or linseed meal lignans-containing diet (LML) for 12 wk. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous...
July 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754010/influence-of-brain-plasmalogen-changes-on-gonadotropin-secretion-from-the-cultured-bovine-anterior-pituitary-cells
#17
O Kereilwe, K Pandey, H Kadokawa
We recently discovered that the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 61 colocalized with GnRH receptors (GnRHRs) on the surface of most of bovine gonadotrophs. A recent study suggested that ethanolamine plasmalogen (PI) is a ligand for GPR61 in mouse neuroblastoma. Therefore, this study evaluated the hypothesis that PI alters LH and FSH secretion from cultured bovine anterior pituitary (AP) cells. We prepared bovine AP cells from postpubertal heifers (26 mo old) and cultured the cells for 3.5 d. We treated the cells with increasing concentrations (0, 5, 50, 500, 5,000, 50,000, or 500,000 pg/mL) of phosphoethanolamine PI (PEPI) extracted from the bovine brain, or l-α-lysophosphatidylethanolamine PI (LEPI) extracted from the bovine brain, for 5 min before either no treatment or GnRH stimulation...
July 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754009/dietary-nitrogen-and-calcium-modulate-cyp27b1-expression-in-young-goats
#18
M R Wilkens, K Elfers, M Schmicke, G Breves, A S Muscher-Banse
In livestock, feeding a reduced nitrogen (N) diet is favored for economic and ecological reasons. Ruminants cope more easily with a reduced N diet than monogastric species. However, changes in mineral homeostasis such as a reduction in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2 D3 ) concentrations, calcium (Ca), and IGF1 levels were observed in goats kept on a reduced N diet. The decrease in 1,25-(OH)2 D3 occurred even during a simultaneous reduction in dietary N and Ca, whereas a solitary Ca reduction stimulated 1,25-(OH)2 D3 synthesis...
July 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753196/impact-of-an-auditory-stimulus-on-baseline-cortisol-concentrations-in-clinically-normal-dogs
#19
T E Gin, M L Puchot, A K Cook
Baseline cortisol concentrations are routinely used to screen dogs for hypoadrenocorticism (HOC); this diagnosis must then be confirmed with an ACTH stimulation test. A baseline cortisol concentration less than 55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) is highly sensitive for HOC but lacks specificity, with a false positive rate >20%. Many dogs with nonadrenal disease are therefore subjected to unnecessary additional testing. It was hypothesized that exposure to an unpleasant auditory stimulus before sample collection would improve the specificity of baseline cortisol measurements in dogs with nonadrenal disease by triggering cortisol production...
July 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753195/effect-of-l-tryptophan-and-its-metabolites-on-food-passage-from-the-crop-in-chicks
#20
T Tachibana, Y Kadomoto, M S I Khan, R Makino, M A Cline
l-tryptophan (l-Trp), an essential amino acid, is well known as a precursor of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and melatonin. In mammals, l-Trp itself has been reported to suppress gastric emptying in mammals. In addition, 5-HT and melatonin are found in the gastrointestinal tract and affect food passage from the digestive tract in mammals. While the function of these factors in mammals is documented, there is little knowledge on their function in the digestive tract of birds. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine if l-Trp and its metabolites affect the crop emptying rate in chicks (Gallus gallus)...
July 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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