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Domestic Animal Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063290/relationship-between-serum-adiponectin-concentration-body-condition-score-and-peripheral-tissue-insulin-response-of-dairy-cows-during-the-dry-period
#1
J De Koster, C Urh, M Hostens, W Van den Broeck, H Sauerwein, G Opsomer
The aim of the present study was to describe the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and peripheral tissue insulin response in dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS) during the dry period. Cows were selected at the beginning of the dry period based on BCS (BCS <3.75, n = 4; BCS >3.75, n = 5). Animals were followed from the beginning of the dry period by weekly blood sampling and assessment of BCS and backfat thickness. Weekly blood samples were analyzed for adiponectin concentration using a bovine specific ELISA...
December 18, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063291/glucogenic-treatment-creates-an-optimal-metabolic-milieu-for-the-conception-period-in-ewes
#2
C Porcu, V Pasciu, S Succu, E Baralla, M E Manca, E Serra, G G Leoni, M Dattena, G C Bomboi, G Molle, S Naitana, F Berlinguer
This study determined the influence of a short-term glucogenic nutritional treatment on circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and urea, and on their correspondent levels in follicular fluid (FF) collected 12 h after the end of the treatment. After estrous synchronization with intravaginal progestagen-impregnated sponges, 20 Sarda ewes were randomly allocated into two experimental groups (GLU and WAT) and, from day 7 to day 10 (day 0 = day of sponge removal), the GLU group was gavaged with a glycogenic mixture, whereas the WAT group was gavaged with water (control group)...
December 11, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040605/g-protein-coupled-receptor-34-in-ovarian-granulosa-cells-of-cattle-changes-during-follicular-development-and-potential-functional-implications
#3
L J Spicer, L F Schütz, J A Williams, N B Schreiber, J R Evans, M L Totty, J N Gilliam
Abundance of G protein-coupled receptor 34 (GPR34) mRNA is greater in granulosa cells (GCs) of cystic vs normal follicles of cattle. The present experiments were designed to determine if GPR34 mRNA in granulosa cell [GC] changes during selection and growth of dominant follicles in cattle as well as to investigate the hormonal regulation of GPR34 mRNA in bovine GC in vitro. In Exp. 1, estrous cycles of nonlactating cows were synchronized and then ovariectomized on either day 3-4 or 5-6 after ovulation. GPR34 mRNA abundance in GC was 2...
December 11, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038404/the-impact-of-flutamide-on-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-synthase-and-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-receptor-expression-and-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-concentration-in-the-porcine-corpus-luteum-of-pregnancy
#4
M Grzesiak, K Knapczyk-Stwora, M Slomczynska
Recently, we have indicated that flutamide-induced androgen deficiency diminished progesterone production in the porcine corpus luteum (CL) during late pregnancy and before parturition, as a sign of functional luteolysis. In pigs, the main luteolytic factor is prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), which acts via specific receptors (PTGFRs), and its biosynthesis is catalyzed by prostaglandin F2α synthase (PGFS). The present study investigated the impact of flutamide on luteal PGFS and PTGFR expression, as well as intraluteal PGF2α content during pregnancy in pigs...
December 11, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940099/a-novel-method-for-assessing-chronic-cortisol-concentrations-in-dogs-using-the-nail-as-a-source
#5
Z Mack, H B Fokidis
Cortisol, a glucocorticoid secreted in response to stress, is used to assess adrenal function and mental health in clinical settings. Current methods assess cortisol sources that reflect short-term secretion that can vary with current stress state. Here, we present a novel method for the extraction and quantification of cortisol from the dog nail using solid phase extraction coupled to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Validation experiments demonstrated accuracy (r = 0.836, P < 0.001) precision (15.1% coefficients of variation), and repeatability (14...
November 17, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940098/plasma-transport-of-ergocalciferol-and-cholecalciferol-and-their-25-hydroxylated-metabolites-in-dairy-cows
#6
L Hymøller, S K Jensen
In cattle, there are 2 significant forms of vitamin D: ergocalciferol (ERG) from fungi on roughage and cholecalciferol (CHO) from vitamin supplements or endogenous synthesis in the skin. The hypothesis of the present study is that vitamin D from the 3 sources is transported in different plasma fractions in the body. This is hypothesized to explain the lower efficiency of ERG compared to CHO in securing a sufficient plasma status of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and explain the inefficient excretion of dietary CHO into milk compared to endogenous CHO...
November 16, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013044/involvement-of-salsolinol-in-the-suckling-induced-oxytocin-surge-in-sheep
#7
K Górski, T Misztal, E Marciniak, M K Zielińska-Górska, F Fülöp, K Romanowicz
During lactation, the main surge of oxytocin is induced by a suckling stimulus. Previous studies have shown that salsolinol (1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline), a dopamine-derived compound, stimulates both the synthesis and the release of oxytocin in lactating sheep. The objective of the present study was to verify the hypothesis that salsolinol is involved in the mechanism that generates the oxytocin surge that occurs during suckling. Thus, a structural analogue of salsolinol, 1-methyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline (1MeDIQ), known to antagonize some of its actions, was infused into the third ventricle of the brain of lactating sheep nursing their offspring...
November 11, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951413/immunometabolic-parameters-in-overweight-dogs-during-weight-loss-with-or-without-an-exercise-program
#8
A D Vitger, B M Stallknecht, J E Miles, S L Hansen, A Vegge, C R Bjørnvad
The influence of physical activity on metabolic health in overweight dogs is unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate biomarkers of immunometabolic health in relation to changes in physical activity and adiposity. Client-owned overweight dogs participated in a 12-wk intervention based on caloric restriction combined with a training program (fitness and diet [FD] group, n = 8), or caloric restriction alone (diet-only [DO] group, n = 8). Physical activity was monitored by accelerometry. All dogs were fed the same diet and achieved similar weight loss...
November 11, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930936/sunlight-exposure-increases-vitamin-d-sufficiency-in-growing-pigs-fed-a-diet-formulated-to-exceed-requirements
#9
B M Alexander, B C Ingold, J L Young, S R Fensterseifer, P J Wechsler, K J Austin, D E Larson-Meyer
Traditional confinement practices limit exposure to sunlight and vitamin D synthesis, and vitamin insufficiency occurs even with dietary supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of limited sun exposure on serum concentration of vitamin D and the expression of vitamin D synthesizing enzymes in the liver and kidney of pigs on a vitamin D sufficient diet. White-pigmented grower pigs (29.7 ± 2.3 kg) fed 15% CP diet ad libitum providing >1,200 IU vitamin D3/kg of feed were exposed to sunlight for 1 h each day at solar noon for 14 d at the spring equinox (March pigs, n = 10) or summer solstice (June pigs, n = 5) and again before slaughter in June (March pigs) and September (June pigs)...
November 11, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888738/oxyntomodulin-analog-and-exendin-4-derivative-lower-plasma-glucose-in-cattle
#10
S ThanThan, Y Asada, T Saito, K Ochiiwa, H Zhao, S W Naing, H Kuwayama
The present study was undertaken with the aim of examining whether and how exendin-4 (1-3) fragment, ie, Ex-4 (1-3) fragment, contributes to the regulation of glucose. An analog of oxyntomodulin (OXM) ([Gly(2), Glu(3)]-OXM), a glucagon analog ([Gly(2), Glu(3)]-glucagon), and two derivatives of Ex-4 (glucandin and [Gly(2), Glu(3)]-glucandin) were synthesized by substituting with Gly(2), Glu(3) at the N-terminuses of OXM and glucagon and/or by attaching Ex-4 (30-39) amide at the C-terminus of glucagon. Effects of these peptides on plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were investigated in cattle by conducting 3 in vivo experiments...
November 2, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866059/glucocorticoid-metabolism-in-equine-follicles-and-oocytes
#11
D Scarlet, N Ille, R Ertl, B G Alves, G D A Gastal, S O Paiva, M O Gastal, E L Gastal, C Aurich
The objective of this study was to determine whether (1) systemic and intrafollicular cortisol concentrations in horses are directly related and (2) supraphysiological levels of glucocorticoids affect in vitro maturation (IVM) rates of oocytes. Specifically, we studied the (1) changes in the intrafollicular cortisol and progesterone in context with granulosa cell gene expression during maturation of equine follicles (from 5-9 mm, 10-14 mm, 15-19 mm, 20-24 mm, and ≥25 mm in diameter) and (2) effects of cortisol supplementation on IVM rates and gene expression of equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs)...
October 29, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002761/an-intraovarian-mechanism-that-enhances-the-effect-of-an-fsh-surge-on-recovery-of-subordinate-follicles-in-heifers
#12
O J Ginther, M A R Siddiqui, J M Baldrighi, E R Araujo
The effect of the future dominant follicle (DF), corpus luteum (CL), and side (left ovary [LO] and right ovary [RO]) on FSH-induced recovery (increase in diameter) of regressing subordinate follicles was studied in heifers. The DF of wave 2 and the largest subordinate follicle remained intact (controls, n = 14 heifers) or were ablated (n = 14 heifers) on a mean of 13 d postovulation when the DF was ∼10 mm (hour 0). Concentration of FSH (P < 0.0004) and diameter of subordinate follicles (P < 0.0002) decreased between hours -48 to 0 combined for the control and ablation groups...
October 27, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866058/timing-and-duration-of-nursing-from-birth-affect-neonatal-porcine-uterine-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-and-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-1
#13
T Y Ho, K M Rahman, M E Camp, A A Wiley, F F Bartol, C A Bagnell
Nursing for 2 d from birth supports neonatal porcine uterine and cervical development. However, it is not clear how timing or duration of lactocrine signaling from birth (postnatal day = PND 0) affects development of neonatal female reproductive tract tissues. Therefore, studies were conducted to determine effects of age at first nursing and duration of nursing from birth on specific elements of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) system in uterine and cervical tissues at PND 2...
October 27, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835804/gap-junctional-connexin-messenger-rna-expression-in-the-ovine-uterus-and-placenta-effects-of-estradiol-17%C3%AE-treatment-early-pregnancy-stages-and-embryo-origin
#14
M L Johnson, D A Redmer, L P Reynolds, A T Grazul-Bilska
Gap junctions play a major role in direct, contact-dependent cell-cell communication, and they have been implicated in the regulation of cellular metabolism and the coordination of cellular functions during growth and differentiation of organs and tissues. Gap junctional channels, composed of connexin (Cx) proteins, have been detected and shown to be influenced by hormones (eg, estrogen and progesterone) in uterine and placental tissues in several species. We hypothesized that (1) the messenger RNA (mRNA) for Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, and Cx43 is expressed in the uterus of ovariectomized sheep treated with estradiol-17β (E2) and in ovine placenta during early pregnancy, (2) E2-treatment of ovariectomized ewes would cause time-specific changes in Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, and Cx43 mRNA expression (experiment 1), and (3) expression of these 4 Cx would vary across the days of early pregnancy (experiment 2) and will be affected by embryo origin (ie, after application of assisted reproductive technologies [ARTs]; experiment 3)...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792889/salsolinol-a-potential-inhibitor-of-the-gonadotropic-axis-in-sheep-during-lactation
#15
E Marciniak, M Hasiec, F Fülöp, T Misztal
This study tested the hypothesis that salsolinol, a derivative of dopamine, affects GnRH and LH secretion in lactating sheep. In the in vivo experiment, the structural analogue of salsolinol, 1-methyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline (1-MeDIQ), was infused into the infundibular nucleus-median eminence of sheep at the fifth wk of lactation to antagonize salsolinol's action. Simultaneously, cerebrospinal fluid from the third brain ventricle, to determine GnRH concentration, and plasma samples, to measure LH concentration, were collected...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769009/role-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-1-in-estradiol-17%C3%AE-induced-alterations-in-protein-synthesis-and-protein-degradation-rates-in-fused-bovine-satellite-cell-cultures
#16
E Kamanga-Sollo, K J Thornton, M E White, W R Dayton
In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters in several countries. Treatment with E2 stimulates protein synthesis rate and suppresses protein degradation rate in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not known with certainty. Although the genomic effects of E2 mediated through the classical estrogen receptors have been characterized, recent studies indicate that binding of E2 to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 mediates nongenomic effects of E2 on cellular function...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743526/activities-for-leptin-in-bovine-trophoblast-cells
#17
C K Hughes, M M Xie, S R McCoski, A D Ealy
Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664382/a-mirna-target-network-putatively-involved-in-follicular-atresia
#18
F X Donadeu, B T Mohammed, J Ioannidis
In a previous microarray study, we identified a subset of micro RNAS (miRNAs), which expression was distinctly higher in atretic than healthy follicles of cattle. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of those miRNAs in granulosa and theca cells during atresia. Reverse Transcription-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) confirmed that miR-21-5p/-3p, miR-150, miR-409a, miR-142-5p, miR-378, miR-222, miR-155, and miR-199a-5p were expressed at higher levels in atretic than healthy follicles (9-17 mm, classified based on steroidogenic capacity)...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664381/moderate-high-or-low-maternal-protein-diets-change-gene-expression-but-not-the-phenotype-of-skeletal-muscle-from-porcine-fetuses
#19
C Kalbe, D Lösel, J Block, L Lefaucheur, K-P Brüssow, O Bellmann, R Pfuhl, B Puppe, W Otten, C C Metges, C Rehfeldt
The aim of our study was to characterize the immediate phenotypic and adaptive regulatory responses of fetuses to different in utero conditions reflecting inadequate maternal protein supply during gestation. The gilts fed high- (250% above control) or low- (50% under control) protein diets isoenergetically adjusted at the expense of carbohydrates from the day of insemination until the fetuses were collected at day 64 or 94 of gestation. We analyzed body composition, histomorphology, biochemistry, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of fetal skeletal muscle...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658124/prostaglandin-synthesis-by-the-porcine-corpus-luteum-effect-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE
#20
J Chang, S Frandsen, J E Gadsby
The porcine corpus luteum (CL) displays delayed sensitivity to PGF-2α (luteolytic sensitivity, [LS]) until days 12 to 13 of cycle. The control of LS is unknown, but it is temporally associated with macrophage (which secrete tumor necrosis factor-α; TNF-α) infiltration into the CL. Other studies showed that TNF-α induces LS in vitro and that prostaglandins (PGs) may be involved in this mechanism. In experiment 1, PGF-2α and PGE secretion by luteal cells (LCs) was measured on days 4 to 14 of the estrous cycle, and the expression of PTGFS/AKR1B1 and PTGES/mPGES-1, determined by Western blot, before (day 7) vs after (day 13) the onset of LS...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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