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Domestic Animal Endocrinology

E Kamanga-Sollo, K J Thornton, M E White, W R Dayton
In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters in several countries. Treatment with E2 stimulates protein synthesis rate and suppresses protein degradation rate in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not known with certainty. Although the genomic effects of E2 mediated through the classical estrogen receptors have been characterized, recent studies indicate that binding of E2 to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 mediates nongenomic effects of E2 on cellular function...
September 13, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
C K Hughes, M M Xie, S R McCoski, A D Ealy
Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h...
September 13, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
C Kalbe, D Lösel, J Block, L Lefaucheur, K-P Brüssow, O Bellmann, R Pfuhl, B Puppe, W Otten, C C Metges, C Rehfeldt
The aim of our study was to characterize the immediate phenotypic and adaptive regulatory responses of fetuses to different in utero conditions reflecting inadequate maternal protein supply during gestation. The gilts fed high- (250% above control) or low- (50% under control) protein diets isoenergetically adjusted at the expense of carbohydrates from the day of insemination until the fetuses were collected at day 64 or 94 of gestation. We analyzed body composition, histomorphology, biochemistry, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of fetal skeletal muscle...
August 16, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
F X Donadeu, B T Mohammed, J Ioannidis
In a previous microarray study, we identified a subset of micro RNAS (miRNAs), which expression was distinctly higher in atretic than healthy follicles of cattle. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of those miRNAs in granulosa and theca cells during atresia. Reverse Transcription-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) confirmed that miR-21-5p/-3p, miR-150, miR-409a, miR-142-5p, miR-378, miR-222, miR-155, and miR-199a-5p were expressed at higher levels in atretic than healthy follicles (9-17 mm, classified based on steroidogenic capacity)...
August 13, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
M R Plewes, P D Burns, P E Graham, R M Hyslop, B G Barisas
Lipid microdomains are ordered regions on the plasma membrane of cells, rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, ranging in size from 10 to 200 nm in diameter. These lipid-ordered domains may serve as platforms to facilitate colocalization of intracellular signaling proteins during agonist-induced signal transduction. It is hypothesized that fish oil will disrupt the lipid microdomains, increasing spatial distribution of these lipid-ordered domains and lateral mobility of the prostaglandin (PG) F2α (FP) receptors in bovine luteal cells...
August 12, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
M K Reeve-Johnson, J S Rand, S T Anderson, D J Appleton, J M Morton, D Vankan
The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
G Kitahara, R Kamata, Y Sasaki, H El-Sheikh Ali, S Mido, I Kobayashi, K Hemmi, T Osawa
The aim of this study was to clarify the time-course of changes in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and testosterone (T) concentrations in peripheral blood and to determine the relationships between blood AMH concentration and testicular development during the early postnatal and prepubertal periods in beef bull calves. A total of 17 Japanese Black bull calves were enrolled in this study. The wk in which the calf was born (within 6 d after birth) was defined as M 0. Blood samples were taken once in every mo from M 0 to M 6 from each bull calf, and plasma AMH and T concentrations were determined...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
J De Koster, M Hostens, K Hermans, W Van den Broeck, G Opsomer
The aim of the present research was to compare different measures of insulin sensitivity in dairy cows at the end of the dry period. To do so, 10 clinically healthy dairy cows with a varying body condition score were selected. By performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) tests, we previously demonstrated a negative association between the insulin sensitivity and insulin responsiveness of glucose metabolism and the body condition score of these animals. In the same animals, other measures of insulin sensitivity were determined and the correlation with the HEC test, which is considered as the gold standard, was calculated...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
J Y Peng, K X Gao, H Y Xin, P Han, G Q Zhu, B Y Cao
Decorin (DCN), a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), participates in ECM assembly and influences cell proliferation and apoptosis in many mammalian tissues and cells. However, expression and function of DCN in the ovary remain unclear. This study cloned the full-length cDNA of goat DCN obtained from the ovary of an adult goat. Sequence analysis revealed that the putative DCN protein shared a highly conserved amino acid sequence with known mammalian homologs. The tissue distribution of DCN mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR, and the results showed that DCN was widely expressed in the tissues of adult goat...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
A P Foote, K E Hales, H C Freetly
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating dry matter intake (DMI). The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and average daily BW gain (ADG) measurement period and to determine the association of those ghrelin measurements with DMI, ADG, ADG:DMI ratio (G:F), and residual feed intake in finishing beef steers and heifers. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 83 before feeding and between 0730 h and 1130 h...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
O J Ginther
Selection of the dominant follicle (DF) during a follicular wave is manifested by diameter deviation or continued growth rate of the largest follicle (F1) and decreased growth rate of the next largest follicle (F2) when F1 reaches about 8.5 mm in cattle. The process of deviation in the future DF begins about 12 h before diameter deviation and involves an F1 increase in granulosa LH receptors and estradiol and maintenance of intrafollicular free insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Thereby, only F1 is developmentally prepared to use the declining FSH in the wave-stimulating FSH surge and to respond to a transient increase in LH to become the DF...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
J M Baldrighi, M A R Siddiqui, O J Ginther
The number and day of emergence (first detection) of 2-mm follicles and the number and day when the 2-mm follicles reached 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-mm during wave 1 were determined every 0.5 d (n = 9 heifers). Emergence of the follicles at each of the indicated diameters was normalized to the beginning and ending nadir and the peak of each of a minor FSH surge, the preovulatory surge, and the periovulatory surge. Relative to the day of ovulation (day 0), the minor FSH surge, preovulatory surge, and periovulatory surge encompassed (nadir to nadir) days -7...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
E L Larimore, O L Amundson, G A Bridges, A K McNeel, R A Cushman, G A Perry
These studies were conducted to evaluate causes for differences in circulating concentrations of estradiol before a GnRH-induced ovulation. Beef cows were synchronized by an injection of GnRH on day -7 and an injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on day 0. In experiment 1, blood samples were collected every 3 h from PGF2α on day 0 to hour 33 after PGF2α and at slaughter (hour 36 to 42; n = 10). Cows were assigned to treatment group based on circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2): HighE2 vs LowE2...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
J X Zhao, X D Liu, K Li, W Z Liu, Y S Ren, J X Zhang
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the mechanisms through which different levels of dietary energy affect postnatal skeletal muscle development in ewe lambs. Twelve Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred ewe lambs (100 d of age; 20 ± 0.5 kg BW) were selected randomly and divided into 2 groups in a completely randomized design. Animals were offered identical diets at 100% or 65% of ad libitum intake. Lambs were euthanized when BW in the ad libitum group reached 35 kg and the semitendinosus muscle was sampled...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
M K Reeve-Johnson, J S Rand, D Vankan, S T Anderson, R Marshall, J M Morton
Diabetes is typically diagnosed in cats once clinical signs are evident. Diagnostic criteria for prediabetes in cats have not been defined. The objective of the study was to establish methodology and cut points for fasting and 2-h blood glucose concentrations in healthy client-owned senior cats (≥8 yr) using ear/paw samples and a portable glucose meter calibrated for feline blood. Of the 78 cats, 27 were ideal (body condition score [BCS] 4 or 5 of 9), 31 overweight (BCS 6 or 7), and 20 obese (BCS 8 or 9); 19 were Burmese and 59 non-Burmese...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
I Małysz-Cymborska, A Andronowska
The influence of induction of ovulation and superovulation with eCG and hCG on LH and FSH receptor levels in porcine oviducts on day 3 postcoitum was studied. In experiment I, gilts were assigned into cyclic (control; n = 5) and inseminated (n = 5) groups. In experiment II, there were 3 groups of animals: inseminated (n = 5), induced ovulation/inseminated (750 IU eCG, 500 IU hCG; n = 5) and superovulated/inseminated (1500 IU eCG, 1000 IU hCG; n = 5) gilts. Oviduct tissues were collected 3 d after insemination or PBS infusion...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
M D Scheidegger, V Gerber, A Ramseyer, G Schüpbach-Regula, R M Bruckmaier, J H van der Kolk
The aim of this study was to further characterize the ACTH stimulation test as reflected by salivary cortisol response and to measure the short- and long-term repeatability of it in healthy horses as a tool to assess the capacity of the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. Nineteen healthy horses were subjected to 3 ACTH stimulation tests. Intervals were 2 wk and 5 mo between the first and second and the second and third tests, respectively. A dose of 1-μg/kg BW synthetic ACTH was injected intravenously. Saliva samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after administration for cortisol measurements using a competitive enzyme immunoassay...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
M L Cobb, K Iskandarani, V M Chinchilli, N A Dreschel
Salivary cortisol is widely used as an indicator of stress and welfare in canine research. However, much remains unclear about the basic features of this hormone marker in domestic dogs. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine a reference range for cortisol concentration in the saliva of dogs and examine how canine characteristics, environmental effects and experimental considerations relate to salivary cortisol concentrations. A systematic review of literature databases and conference proceedings from 1992 to 2012 identified 61 peer-reviewed studies using domestic dog salivary cortisol...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
K Kusama, R Bai, T Sakurai, H Bai, A Ideta, Y Aoyagi, K Imakawa
Interferon tau (IFNT) is the pregnancy recognition protein in all ruminants, and its expression is restricted to trophoblast cells. Interferon tau production increases as the conceptus elongates; however, its expression is downregulated soon after the initiation of conceptus attachment to the uterine epithelium. Our previous study identified that among 8 bovine IFNT genes, only 2 forms of IFNTs, IFNT2 and IFN-tau-c1, were expressed by the conceptuses during the periattachment period. To characterize whether Hippo signaling including a transcription cofactor yes-associated protein (YAP) was involved in the IFNT regulation, we examined the expression and effects of YAP and/or TEAD in human choriocarcinoma JEG3 and bovine trophoblast CT-1 cells, and in bovine conceptuses obtained from day 17, 20 or 22 pregnant animals (pregnant day 19...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
W Lim, G Song
Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Accumulation of tyrosine in the body due to a genetic mutation in the TAT gene causes tyrosomia type II in humans. The TAT gene is regarded as a model for studying steroid-inducible factors regulating a variety of biological functions of TAT. However, little is known of the effects of estrogen on the expression of the TAT gene in chickens. Therefore, in the present study, we identified expression of the avian TAT gene in various organs...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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