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Domestic Animal Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777899/congenital-dyshormonogenic-hypothyroidism-with-goiter-caused-by-a-sodium-iodide-symporter-slc5a5-mutation-in-a-family-of-shih-tzu-dogs
#1
E A Soler Arias, V A Castillo, J D Garcia, J C Fyfe
An iodide transport defect (ITD) in the thyroid gland was determined to cause congenital dyshormonogenic hypothyroidism with goiter (CDHG) in 2 members of a family of Shih-Tzu dogs. Strikingly, both dogs were also diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy at 24 and 1.5 mo of age. The only sign of hypothyroidism was a moderate growth delay in the adult dog. The ITD was recognized by the absence of uptake of technetium-99m in the salivary glands (sg) and goiter observed by scintigraphy. In the same scan, radiopharmaceutical uptake was found in the anterior mediastinum of both dogs and in the right axillary lymph node in the oldest dog...
April 24, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758402/lactation-related-changes-in-tissue-expression-of-pedf-in-dairy-cows
#2
H Sadri, B Saremi, S Dänicke, J Rehage, M Mielenz, A Hosseini, H Sauerwein
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is evolving as metabolic regulatory protein. Albeit mostly considered in only pathological conditions related to excess energy intake resulting in obesity and insulin resistance, PEDF is likely to be involved in other physiological processes such as the homeorhetic adaptation of metabolism to lactation. We aimed to characterize the expression of PEDF and its association to the concomitant mobilization of body reserves during lactation in nonobese subjects. This mobilization is particularly distinct in dairy cows, and we therefore assessed the mRNA expression of PEDF and its putative receptors in different tissues in 2 trials with dairy cows fed with or without conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs)...
April 17, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754010/influence-of-brain-plasmalogen-changes-on-gonadotropin-secretion-from-the-cultured-bovine-anterior-pituitary-cells
#3
O Kereilwe, K Pandey, H Kadokawa
We recently discovered that the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 61 colocalized with GnRH receptors (GnRHRs) on the surface of most of bovine gonadotrophs. A recent study suggested that ethanolamine plasmalogen (PI) is a ligand for GPR61 in mouse neuroblastoma. Therefore, this study evaluated the hypothesis that PI alters LH and FSH secretion from cultured bovine anterior pituitary (AP) cells. We prepared bovine AP cells from postpubertal heifers (26 mo old) and cultured the cells for 3.5 d. We treated the cells with increasing concentrations (0, 5, 50, 500, 5,000, 50,000, or 500,000 pg/mL) of phosphoethanolamine PI (PEPI) extracted from the bovine brain, or l-α-lysophosphatidylethanolamine PI (LEPI) extracted from the bovine brain, for 5 min before either no treatment or GnRH stimulation...
April 10, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709796/pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacokinetics-of-insulin-detemir-and-insulin-glargine-300-u-ml-in-healthy-dogs
#4
H Fink, C Herbert, C Gilor
Insulin glargine 300 U/mL and insulin detemir are synthetic long-acting insulin analogs associated with minimal day-to-day variability or episodes of hypoglycemia in people. Here, 8 healthy purpose-bred dogs each received 2.4 nmol/kg subcutaneous injections of insulin detemir (0.1 U/kg) and insulin glargine 300 U/mL (0.4 U/kg) on 2 different days, >1 wk apart, in random order. Blood glucose (BG) was measured every 5 min, and glucose was administered intravenously at a variable rate with the goal of maintaining BG within 10% of baseline BG ("isoglycemic clamp")...
April 10, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751248/evaluation-of-glucose-and-insulin-response-to-haylage-diets-with-different-content-of-nonstructural-carbohydrates-in-2-breeds-of-horses
#5
S Lindåse, C Müller, K Nostell, J Bröjer
Information about the effect of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in forage on the postprandial glucose and insulin response in horses is scarce. This is of interest as postprandial hyperinsulinemia in horses is a risk factor for laminitis. In addition, insulin sensitivity (IS) differs between breeds. The aim was to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response to haylage diets with different NSC content in horses of 2 different breeds and to evaluate the relationship between the postprandial insulin response and measures of IS derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT)...
April 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733985/orexin-a-in-swine-corpus-luteum
#6
G Basini, R Ciccimarra, S Bussolati, S Grolli, L Ragionieri, F Ravanetti, M Botti, F Gazza, A Cacchioli, R Di Lecce, A M Cantoni, F Grasselli
Orexin A (OXA) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide which acts on 2 known G-protein-coupled receptors. It has been demonstrated that OXA is a central molecular link between food intake and reproduction. More recently, its peripheral role has been investigated, and we demonstrated its involvement in regulating ovarian follicle function. The present study was undertaken to explore a potential physiological role of orexin system in swine corpus luteum, a transient ovarian endocrine organ. Our aim was, first, to analyze the localization and eventual colocalization of OXA and its 2 receptors within the different cell types composing the corpus luteum structure...
April 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730537/association-of-body-weight-gain-with-muscle-fat-and-liver-expression-levels-of-growth-hormone-receptor-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-beta-adrenergic-receptor-mrnas-in-steers
#7
W Zheng, X Leng, M Vinsky, C Li, H Jiang
The physiological basis of feed efficiency is unclear. Administration of GH or beta-adrenergic agonists improves feed efficiency in various animals. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that more efficient cattle have greater expression of GH receptor (GHR) or beta-adrenergic receptor (ADRB) mRNA in skeletal muscle, fat, and liver, the major target tissues of GH and beta-adrenergic agonists. Fifty Angus steers were fed a finishing diet for 75 d to determine residual feed intake (RFI). Carcass measures, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat, and liver samples were collected from the top 10 high-RFI steers and top 10 low-RFI steers at slaughter...
April 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754009/dietary-nitrogen-and-calcium-modulate-cyp27b1-expression-in-young-goats
#8
M R Wilkens, K Elfers, M Schmicke, G Breves, A S Muscher-Banse
In livestock, feeding a reduced nitrogen (N) diet is favored for economic and ecological reasons. Ruminants cope more easily with a reduced N diet than monogastric species. However, changes in mineral homeostasis such as a reduction in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2 D3 ) concentrations, calcium (Ca), and IGF1 levels were observed in goats kept on a reduced N diet. The decrease in 1,25-(OH)2 D3 occurred even during a simultaneous reduction in dietary N and Ca, whereas a solitary Ca reduction stimulated 1,25-(OH)2 D3 synthesis...
April 3, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698908/the-expression-of-autophagy-related-proteins-within-the-corpus-luteum-lifespan-in-pigs
#9
M Grzesiak, A Michalik, A Rak, K Knapczyk-Stwora, A Pieczonka
Autophagy is a cellular process that involves the degradation of intracellular components. Recent studies suggested a role for autophagy in corpus luteum (CL) regression; however, a complete understanding of its contribution to CL function remains unclear. The present research using porcine CLs obtained from gilts at the early (CL1, n = 5), middle (CL2, n = 5), and late (CL3, n = 5) luteal phase of the estrous cycle aimed to assess the incidence of autophagy during CL development. The stages of collected CLs were verified through morphological analysis and intraluteal progesterone concentration...
April 3, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754011/prolonged-exposure-of-dietary-phytoestrogens-on-semen-characteristics-and-reproductive-performance-of-rabbit-bucks
#10
N M Hashem, M A Abo-Elsoud, A N M Nour El-Din, K I Kamel, G A Hassan
The effects of inclusion of different sources of dietary phytoestrogens on antioxidant capacity, hormonal balance, libido, semen quality, and fertility of rabbit bucks were studied. Twenty-one, adult, fertile, V-line bucks were randomly allocated into 3 homogenous groups (n = 7/treatment) and received control diet (phytoestrogens-free diet, CON) or soybean meal isoflavones-containing diet (SMI) or linseed meal lignans-containing diet (LML) for 12 wk. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous...
March 28, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753196/impact-of-an-auditory-stimulus-on-baseline-cortisol-concentrations-in-clinically-normal-dogs
#11
T E Gin, M L Puchot, A K Cook
Baseline cortisol concentrations are routinely used to screen dogs for hypoadrenocorticism (HOC); this diagnosis must then be confirmed with an ACTH stimulation test. A baseline cortisol concentration less than 55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) is highly sensitive for HOC but lacks specificity, with a false positive rate >20%. Many dogs with nonadrenal disease are therefore subjected to unnecessary additional testing. It was hypothesized that exposure to an unpleasant auditory stimulus before sample collection would improve the specificity of baseline cortisol measurements in dogs with nonadrenal disease by triggering cortisol production...
March 19, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753195/effect-of-l-tryptophan-and-its-metabolites-on-food-passage-from-the-crop-in-chicks
#12
T Tachibana, Y Kadomoto, M S I Khan, R Makino, M A Cline
l-tryptophan (l-Trp), an essential amino acid, is well known as a precursor of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and melatonin. In mammals, l-Trp itself has been reported to suppress gastric emptying in mammals. In addition, 5-HT and melatonin are found in the gastrointestinal tract and affect food passage from the digestive tract in mammals. While the function of these factors in mammals is documented, there is little knowledge on their function in the digestive tract of birds. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine if l-Trp and its metabolites affect the crop emptying rate in chicks (Gallus gallus)...
March 16, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413904/expression-of-membrane-progestin-receptors-mprs-in-the-bovine-corpus-luteum-during-the-estrous-cycle-and-first-trimester-of-pregnancy
#13
M K Kowalik, R Rekawiecki, J Kotwica
Progesterone (P4) affects luteal cell function through nuclear P4 receptors and via nongenomic mechanisms, presumably involving membrane P4 receptors. There are 2 types of these receptors: progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) and membrane progestin receptor (mPR), including mPR alpha (mPRα), beta (mPRβ), and gamma (mPRγ), which belong to the progestin and adipoQ receptor family (PAQR 7, 8, and 5, respectively). The aim of this study was to evaluate mRNA expression, protein expression, and localization of mPRα, mPRβ, and mPRγ in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) on days 2-5, 6-10, 11-16, and 17-20 of the estrous cycle as well as on weeks 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 of pregnancy (n = 5/each period)...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413903/orexin-a-but-not-orexin-b-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-leptin-secretion-in-isolated-porcine-adipocytes
#14
E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, P A Kolodziejski, P Kaczmarek, M Sassek, D Szczepankiewicz, R Mikula, K W Nowak
It is well known that orexins are involved in the metabolism and endocrine function of rodent adipocytes, but there are no data on other animal species, including pigs. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB) modulate the metabolism and endocrine functions of isolated porcine adipocytes and adipose tissue explants. Moreover, we characterized the possible mechanism of OxA action in porcine adipocytes. According to the results, both orexin receptor 1 and orexin receptor 2 were expressed in the porcine adipose tissue...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413902/transcriptome-profiling-of-bovine-ovarian-theca-cells-treated-with-fibroblast-growth-factor-9
#15
L F Schütz, R E Hurst, N B Schreiber, L J Spicer
We reported previously that fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) acts as an antidifferentiation factor, stimulating proliferation of granulosa cells (GCs) and theca cells (TCs) while suppressing hormone-induced steroidogenesis of these cells. How FGF9 acts to simultaneously suppress steroidogenesis and stimulate proliferation remains to be fully elucidated. Thus, this study was undertaken to clarify the effects of FGF9 on the TC transcriptome. Ovaries were obtained from beef heifers at a local abattoir, TCs were isolated from large antral follicles, and cultured with or without 30 ng/mL of FGF9 for 24 h in the presence of LH and IGF-1...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306078/effect-of-fish-oil-on-agonist-induced-receptor-internalization-of-the-pg-f-2%C3%AE-receptor-and-cell-signaling-in-bovine-luteal-cells-in-vitro
#16
M R Plewes, P D Burns
Many receptors span the plasma membrane allowing for signal transduction, converting extracellular signals into intracellular signals. Following ligand-induced activation, membrane-bound receptors are taken into endocytic vesicles, where they are targeted for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. The objectives of the present study were to determine the influence of fish oil on (1) PGF2α -induced receptor internalization and trafficking of the PGF2α (FP) receptor, (2) cytoskeletal structural integrity, and (3) PGF2α -induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in bovine luteal cells...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287187/evaluation-of-oral-sugar-test-response-for-detection-of-equine-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-crioulo-horses
#17
C Cantarelli, S L Dau, S Stefanello, M S Azevedo, G R De Bastiani, H E Palma, K E Brass, F D De La Côrte
Owing to the high prevalence of obesity in Crioulo horses, information allowing early diagnosis of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) and prevention of the associated laminitis is of great value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of EMS and the response to an oral sugar test (OST) in obese Crioulo horses. Twenty-two Crioulo horses were allocated into 3 groups according to their body condition score (BCS out of 9) and presence or absence of laminitis as follows: CON (6/22), BCS < 7; OB (8/22), BCS ≥ 7; and LAM (8/22), BCS ≥7 with clinical and/or radiographic signs of laminitis...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223003/steroidogenic-factor-1-inverse-agonists-as-a-treatment-option-for-canine-hypercortisolism-in-vitro-study
#18
K Sanders, J A Mol, A Slob, H S Kooistra, S Galac
Hypercortisolism is one of the most commonly diagnosed endocrinopathies in dogs, and new targeted medical treatment options are desirable. Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), an orphan nuclear hormone receptor, is a key regulator of adrenal steroidogenesis, development, and growth. In pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH), high plasma ACTH concentrations increase the transcriptional activity of SF-1. In adrenal-dependent hypercortisolism, SF-1 expression is significantly greater in dogs with recurrence after adrenalectomy than in those without recurrence...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195115/effect-of-dietary-carbohydrates-and-time-of-year-on-acth-and-cortisol-concentrations-in-adult-and-aged-horses
#19
S I Jacob, R J Geor, P S D Weber, P A Harris, M E McCue
Diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) remains a challenge as multiple factors (stress, exercise, and time of year) influence ACTH and cortisol concentrations. To assess endocrine status in a study designed to evaluate the effects of age and diet on glucose and insulin dynamics, we performed thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation tests and overnight dexamethasone suppression tests in March, May, August, and October on 16 healthy Thoroughbred and Standardbred mares and geldings...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172110/role-of-luteal-biosynthesis-of-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-on-function-and-structure-of-the-corpus-luteum-during-luteolysis-in-heifers
#20
F L V Pinaffi, E R Araujo, O J Ginther
The role of endogenous prostaglandin F2α (PGF) in the induction of luteolysis by exogenous PGF was studied by simultaneous inhibition of endogenous PGF with flunixin meglumine (FM). Groups were controls (n = 8), PGF treated (n = 8), and FM + PGF treated (n = 9). Treatments were given 10 d postovulation at hours 0, 8, and 16. The protocol was based on (1) the assumption that luteolytic characteristics of exogenous PGF would be altered if the synthesis of endogenous PGF is simultaneously inhibited and (2) the reports that luteolysis involves a direct effect of uterine PGF on large luteal cells followed by an effect of the large cells on the small cells...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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