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Domestic Animal Endocrinology

Magdalena K Kowalik, Robert Rekawiecki, Jan Kotwica
Progesterone (P4) affects luteal cell function through nuclear P4 receptors and via nongenomic mechanisms, presumably involving membrane P4 receptors. There are 2 types of these receptors: progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) and membrane progestin receptor (mPR), including mPR alpha (mPRα), beta (mPRβ), and gamma (mPRγ), which belong to the progestin and adipoQ receptor family (PAQR 7, 8, and 5, respectively). The aim of this study was to evaluate mRNA expression, protein expression, and localization of mPRα, mPRβ, and mPRγ in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) on days 2-5, 6-10, 11-16, and 17-20 of the estrous cycle as well as on weeks 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 of pregnancy (n = 5/each period)...
January 11, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, P A Kolodziejski, P Kaczmarek, M Sassek, D Szczepankiewicz, R Mikula, K W Nowak
It is well known that orexins are involved in the metabolism and endocrine function of rodent adipocytes, but there are no data on other animal species, including pigs. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB) modulate the metabolism and endocrine functions of isolated porcine adipocytes and adipose tissue explants. Moreover, we characterized the possible mechanism of OxA action in porcine adipocytes. According to the results, both orexin receptor 1 and orexin receptor 2 were expressed in the porcine adipose tissue...
January 4, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
L F Schütz, R E Hurst, N B Schreiber, L J Spicer
We reported previously that fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) acts as an antidifferentiation factor, stimulating proliferation of granulosa cells (GCs) and theca cells (TCs) while suppressing hormone-induced steroidogenesis of these cells. How FGF9 acts to simultaneously suppress steroidogenesis and stimulate proliferation remains to be fully elucidated. Thus, this study was undertaken to clarify the effects of FGF9 on the TC transcriptome. Ovaries were obtained from beef heifers at a local abattoir, TCs were isolated from large antral follicles, and cultured with or without 30 ng/mL of FGF9 for 24 h in the presence of LH and IGF-1...
January 4, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
K Sanders, J A Mol, A Slob, H S Kooistra, S Galac
Hypercortisolism is one of the most commonly diagnosed endocrinopathies in dogs, and new targeted medical treatment options are desirable. Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), an orphan nuclear hormone receptor, is a key regulator of adrenal steroidogenesis, development, and growth. In pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH), high plasma ACTH concentrations increase the transcriptional activity of SF-1. In adrenal-dependent hypercortisolism, SF-1 expression is significantly greater in dogs with recurrence after adrenalectomy than in those without recurrence...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
S I Jacob, R J Geor, P S D Weber, P A Harris, M E McCue
Diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) remains a challenge as multiple factors (stress, exercise, and time of year) influence ACTH and cortisol concentrations. To assess endocrine status in a study designed to evaluate the effects of age and diet on glucose and insulin dynamics, we performed thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation tests and overnight dexamethasone suppression tests in March, May, August, and October on 16 healthy Thoroughbred and Standardbred mares and geldings...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
N S Sanchez, K E Quinn, A K Ashley, R L Ashley
The pituitary is the central endocrine regulator of reproduction and in addition to various hormones regulating its actions, other molecules, such as chemokines, influence pituitary physiology as well. Despite reports over 2 decades ago that chemokines regulate the pituitary, much of the basic biology discerning chemokine action in the pituitary is unclear. A small number of chemokines and their receptors have been localized to the pituitary, yet chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, CXCR4, have received the most attention as both are increased in human pituitary adenomas...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
G Benchekroun, P de Fornel-Thibaud, D Rosenberg
Preliminary data suggest that prohormone convertase 1 (PC1/3) protein expression and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) processing are altered in large corticotroph tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize the levels of ACTH precursors and PC1/3 protein in small and large corticotroph tumors of dogs with Cushing's disease. Pituitary tumors of dogs with Cushing's disease were collected postmortem 30 min to 12h after natural death or euthanasia, and classified as small or large. POMC, pro-ACTH, and PC1/3 were detected by Western blotting...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
F L V Pinaffi, E R Araujo, O J Ginther
Concentrations of a metabolite of PGF2α (PGFM) were compared between nonbred (n = 6) and pregnant (n = 8) heifers on days 16, 17, and 18 postovulation. On each day, an 8-h session of hourly blood sampling was done. Averaged over the 8-h sessions, mean concentration of PGFM was less (P < 0.0009) in the pregnant group (45.2 ± 3.2 pg/mL) than that in the nonbred group (65.6 ± 7.9 pg/mL), but the minimal concentration per session was not significantly different between groups. Pulses of PGFM (identified by coefficient of variance) were similar in frequency between groups but were less (P < 0...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
K E McCool, A J Rudinsky, V J Parker, C O Herbert, C Gilor
Degree of adiposity and dietary macronutrient composition affect incretin hormone secretion in humans and mice, but little is known about their effect in cats. In this study, 7 overweight cats were fed a maintenance diet (MD) for at least 2 wk followed by a reduced calorie diet (RCD), which was lower in fat and higher in carbohydrates and fiber. Cats were fed ad libitum initially, and then, food was restricted to achieve 1%-2% loss of body weight weekly (11 wk). When lean, cats were fed MD for 2 wk. A standardized meal test (SMT) using a third diet was performed after at least 7 d on each diet, before and after weight loss (four SMT's total)...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
H N Pipe-Martin, J M Fletcher, C Gilor, M A Mitchell
The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of insulin aspart in healthy cats following intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) injection. Eight healthy, purpose-bred cats were used in a randomized, crossover study design. Each cat had 2 isoglycemic clamps performed, one after receiving 0.25 IU/kg of insulin aspart by IM injection and one after receiving the same dose by SC injection. The two isoglycemic clamps were performed on different days, at least 48 h apart...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
R Ciccimarra, S Bussolati, F Grasselli, S Grolli, L Ragionieri, F Ravanetti, M Botti, F Gazza, A Cacchioli, R Di Lecce, A M Cantoni, G Basini
Successful reproduction is strictly linked to metabolic cues. The orexins are a family of hypothalamic neurohormones, well known for their key role in the control of food intake and the involvement in several aspects of the reproductive process. The biological actions of both orexins are carried out through binding to the related Orexin 1 (OX1R) and Orexin 2 (OX2R) G-protein-coupled receptors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of orexin system components in the porcine ovaries, to contribute to expand the knowledge about their pleiotropic role...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
D Yamaji, M M Soliman, A Kamikawa, T Ito, M M Ahmed, Y Okamatsu-Ogura, M Saito, K Kimura
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mesenchymal cell-derived factor that regulates cell growth, cell motility, and morphogenesis. Since there are conflicting reports on HGF-producing cells, we herein examined HGF activity in conditioned medium (CM) of bovine and mouse preadipocytes before and after adipogenic differentiation. CM of bovine adipocytes and mouse preadipocytes induced the morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells that was inhibited by an NK4 HGF antagonist, whereas CM of bovine preadipocytes and mouse adipocytes did not...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
A M Brandt, J M Kania, B M Reinholt, S E Johnson
Bovine satellite cell (bSC) myogenesis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur through the orchestrated actions of multiple autocrine and paracrine growth factors. Intimate to the bSC niche is IL6, a dual-purpose cytokine with proinflammatory and mitogenic properties. The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of IL6 on proliferation and differentiation of bSC in vitro. Treatment of primary bSC cultures with recombinant bovine IL6 (bIL6) failed to alter myogenesis owing to the absence of intracellular signal transduction...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
R Núñez-Olivera, T de Castro, G A Bó, J Piaggio, A Menchaca
Two experiments were conducted with the aim of determining the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration on day 14 after insemination on ovarian response and pregnancy establishment in postpartum anestrous beef cows. In both experiments, cows were subjected to a progesterone- and estradiol-based treatment for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) and were randomly allocated into 4 groups to receive or not receive eCG (400 IU) at the time of device removal and/or at 14 d after FTAI. In experiment 1, from day 14 to 22, daily ultrasonographic determinations were performed to monitor ovarian dynamics, and blood was collected to determine hormone concentrations in 60 cows...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
A Kraisoon, D A Redmer, C S Bass, C Navanukraw, S T Dorsam, V Valkov, A Reyaz, A T Grazul-Bilska
The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian structure which is critical for the maintenance of reproductive cyclicity and pregnancy support. Diet and/or diet components may affect some luteal functions. FSH is widely used to induce multiple follicle development and superovulation. We hypothesized that FSH would affect luteal function in ewes fed different nutritional planes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if FSH-treatment affects (1) ovulation rate; (2) CL weight; (3) cell proliferation; (4) vascularity; (5) expression of endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) proteins; and (6) luteal and serum progesterone (P4) concentration in control (C), overfed (O), and underfed (U) ewes at the early- and mid-luteal phases...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
L Starvaggi Cucuzza, B Biolatti, F E Scaglione, F T Cannizzo
The aim of this work was to study the transcriptional effects of glucocorticoids on corticosteroid hormone receptors, prereceptors (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2, 11β-HSD1 and 2), and chaperones molecules regulating intracellular trafficking of the receptors (FKBP51 and FKBP52) in thymus of veal calves. Moreover, the expression of FKBP51 and FKBP52 gene were investigated in beef cattle thymus. In the cervical thymus of veal calves, dexamethasone administration in combination with estradiol decreased FKBP51 expression (P < 0...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
C M Scully, C T Estill, R Amodei, A McKune, K P Gribbin, M Meaker, F Stormshak, C E Roselli
Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0...
January 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
M R Plewes, P D Burns
Many receptors span the plasma membrane allowing for signal transduction, converting extracellular signals into intracellular signals. Following ligand-induced activation, membrane-bound receptors are taken into endocytic vesicles, where they are targeted for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. The objectives of the present study were to determine the influence of fish oil on (1) PGF2α-induced receptor internalization and trafficking of the PGF2α (FP) receptor, (2) cytoskeletal structural integrity, and (3) PGF2α-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in bovine luteal cells...
December 12, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
A D Meier, M A de Laat, D B Reiche, C C Pollitt, D M Walsh, J M McGree, M N Sillence
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between laminitis development in ponies and insulin/glucose concentrations in response to the oral glucose test (OGT) and a dietary challenge high in nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs). After undergoing an OGT (1 g dextrose/kg BW in feed), 37 ponies with 2-h serum insulin concentrations ranging from 22 to 1,133 μIU/mL were subjected to a diet challenge period (DCP), consuming 12 g NSC/kg BW/d for up to 18 d. Insulin and glucose responses were measured on day 2 of the DCP...
November 16, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
F L V Pinaffi, E R Araujo, O J Ginther
The role of endogenous prostaglandin F2α (PGF) in the induction of luteolysis by exogenous PGF was studied by simultaneous inhibition of endogenous PGF with flunixin meglumine (FM). Groups were controls (n = 8), PGF treated (n = 8), and FM + PGF treated (n = 9). Treatments were given 10 d postovulation at hours 0, 8, and 16. The protocol was based on (1) the assumption that luteolytic characteristics of exogenous PGF would be altered if the synthesis of endogenous PGF is simultaneously inhibited and (2) the reports that luteolysis involves a direct effect of uterine PGF on large luteal cells followed by an effect of the large cells on the small cells...
November 1, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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