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Domestic Animal Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595108/insulin-signaling-in-various-equine-tissues-under-basal-conditions-and-acute-stimulation-by-intravenously-injected-insulin
#1
Tobias Warnken, Ralph Brehm, Karsten Feige, Korinna Huber
The aim of the study was to analyze key proteins of the equine insulin signaling cascade and their extent of phosphorylation in biopsies from muscle tissue (MT), liver tissue (LT), and nuchal AT, subcutaneous AT, and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. This was investigated under unstimulated (B1) and intravenously insulin stimulated (B2) conditions, which were achieved by injection of insulin (0.1 IU/kg bodyweight) and glucose (150 mg/kg bodyweight). Twelve warmblood horses aged 15 ± 6.8 yr (yr), weighing 559 ± 79 kg, and with a mean body condition score of 4...
May 12, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595109/effects-of-nonglycosylated-and-glycosylated-prolactin-on-basal-and-gonadotropin-stimulated-steroidogenesis-in-chicken-ovarian-follicles
#2
S Q Hu, D Zadworny
In galliformes, the circulating isoform of prolactin (PRL) significantly changes during different reproductive states. However, the role of the major isoform (glycosylated PRL [G-PRL]) in ovarian steroidogenesis is unknown. The present study aimed to compare the effects of nonglycosylated (NG-) and G-PRL on basal and gonadotropin-stimulated estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) production in granulosa cells or follicular walls of chicken of different size class follicles. In the initial experiment, granulosa cells of preovulatory F3-F1 and prehierarchical 6- to 8-mm follicles were incubated for 24 h with different concentrations of NG- or G-PRL (0, 1, 10, 100, or 1,000 ng/mL)...
May 10, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554109/glucocorticoid-receptor-number-and-affinity-differ-between-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-granulocytes-in-domestic-pigs
#3
L C Engert, U Weiler, V Stefanski, S S Schmucker
The aim of the present study was to characterize the number and affinity of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and granulocytes of domestic pigs because glucocorticoid signaling is considered important for animal health and welfare. To investigate GR binding characteristics in intact porcine immune cells, blood samples of 6 castrated male pigs were collected via indwelling vein catheters. Porcine PBMC and granulocytes were isolated using two-layer density gradients, followed by radioligand binding assays to determine the number of GR sites per cell and the dissociation constant Kd as a measure for GR binding affinity...
May 8, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551483/effect-of-growth-hormone-on-steroid-concentrations-and-mrna-expression-of-their-receptor-and-selected-egg-specific-protein-genes-in-the-chicken-oviduct-during-pause-in-laying-induced-by-fasting
#4
J K Socha, A Sechman, M Mika, A Hrabia
This study was undertaken to examine the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment during pause in laying on (1) the concentration of steroids in blood plasma and oviduct tissues, (2) the expression of mRNA of steroid receptors, and (3) the mRNA expression of selected egg-specific proteins in the chicken oviduct. A pause in egg laying was induced by food deprivation for 5 d, followed by feeding every other day, and then feeding daily from Day 10 onward. Birds were divided into three groups: control (n = 18) fed ad libitum, subjected to pause in laying (n = 18), and subjected to pause in laying and injected every day with 200 μg/kg BW of chicken GH (chGH; n = 18)...
May 8, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527530/intergenerational-impact-of-maternal-overnutrition-and-obesity-throughout-pregnancy-in-sheep-on-metabolic-syndrome-in-grandsons-and-granddaughters
#5
C L Pankey, M W Walton, J F Odhiambo, A M Smith, A B Ghnenis, P W Nathanielsz, S P Ford
We previously reported that maternal overnutrition and obesity (MO) throughout pregnancy and lactation in sheep (MOF0) decreases term fetal pancreatic β-cell numbers and increases perirenal adiposity producing hyperphagia, increased adiposity and insulin resistance in adult female offspring (MOF1) fed ad libitum. Pregnant female MOF1 exhibited increased blood glucose from mid to late gestation vs control F1 (CTRF1) though both groups ate only to NRC recommendations. MOF1 ewes delivered female offspring (F2) who like their MOF1 mothers exhibited increased abdominal adiposity and absent neonatal leptin surge...
April 22, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551395/a-sandwich-elisa-for-porcine-alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein-pagp-orm-1-and-further-demonstration-of-its-use-to-evaluate-growth-potential-in-newborn-pigs
#6
T J Caperna, A E Shannon, M Stoll, S Kahl, L A Blomberg, J L Vallet, T G Ramsay
A simple, reproducible sandwich, ELISA was developed to measure porcine alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (pAGP, ORM-1) in pig plasma. Porcine AGP isolated from serum was purchased and a polyclonal antisera was prepared in rabbits using the whole pAGP molecule as immunogen. The antiserum was affinity purified, and a portion of the purified antibody fraction was labeled with horseradish peroxidase. Porcine AGP protein was used as a standard, whereas commercially available buffers and reagents were utilized throughout the assay...
April 8, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454055/evaluation-of-a-commercially-available-radioimmunoassay-and-enzyme-immunoassay-for-the-analysis-of-progesterone-and-estradiol-and-the-comparison-of-two-extraction-efficiency-methods
#7
C S Skenandore, A Pineda, J M Bahr, A E Newell-Fugate, F C Cardoso
The measurement of progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) is essential for monitoring reproductive cycles and can aid in diagnosing the cause of poor reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Readily available, reproducible, accurate, non-radioactive assays are needed for the assessment of P4 and E2 in bovine serum. The gold standard for hormone assessment, radioimmunoassay (RIA), was compared with enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). Serum collected from various points in the estrous cycle was extracted with radiolabeled P4 (ie, (3)H-P4; HE) and without (3)H-P4 (CE) before being used in the assay...
April 5, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437622/sexually-active-bucks-counterbalance-the-seasonal-negative-feedback-of-estradiol-on-lh-in-ovariectomized-goats
#8
A L Muñoz, D Chesneau, H Hernández, M Bedos, G Duarte, J Vielma, L A Zarazaga, P Chemineau, M Keller, J A Delgadillo
We showed previously that the permanent presence of bucks rendered sexually active by photoperiodic treatments, thereafter called photostimulated bucks, prevents the occurrence of seasonal anovulation; also, the introduction of these sexually active bucks induces ovulations during seasonal anestrus. Here, we studied the response of ovariectomized goats bearing 12-mm subcutaneous implants filled or not with estradiol to sexually active males to determine (1) whether the permanent presence of such bucks prevents the decrease of LH despite the presence of a negative feedback by estradiol mimicking that of seasonal anestrus (experiment 1) and (2) whether the introduction of photostimulated bucks increases the plasma LH concentrations in spite of this negative feedback (experiment 2)...
March 31, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040605/g-protein-coupled-receptor-34-in-ovarian-granulosa-cells-of-cattle-changes-during-follicular-development-and-potential-functional-implications
#9
L J Spicer, L F Schütz, J A Williams, N B Schreiber, J R Evans, M L Totty, J N Gilliam
Abundance of G protein-coupled receptor 34 (GPR34) mRNA is greater in granulosa cells (GCs) of cystic vs normal follicles of cattle. The present experiments were designed to determine if GPR34 mRNA in granulosa cell [GC] changes during selection and growth of dominant follicles in cattle as well as to investigate the hormonal regulation of GPR34 mRNA in bovine GC in vitro. In Exp. 1, estrous cycles of nonlactating cows were synchronized and then ovariectomized on either day 3-4 or 5-6 after ovulation. GPR34 mRNA abundance in GC was 2...
April 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445838/addition-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-to-the-maturation-medium-of-bovine-oocytes-subjected-to-heat-shock-effects-on-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-mitochondrial-activity-and-oocyte-competence
#10
I J Ascari, N G Alves, J Jasmin, R R Lima, C C R Quintão, G Oberlender, E A Moraes, L S A Camargo
This study was performed to investigate the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) addition to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium on apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, and developmental competence of bovine oocytes subjected to heat shock. Two temperatures (conventional: 24 h at 38.5°C, or heat shock: 12 h at 41°C followed by 12 h at 38.5°C) and 3 IGF-I concentrations (0, 25, and 100 ng/mL) were tested during IVM. The oocytes were then fertilized in vitro, and the presumptive zygotes were cultured until reaching the blastocyst stage...
March 25, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431319/response-of-plasma-glucagon-like-peptide-2-to-feeding-pattern-and-intraruminal-administration-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-sheep
#11
M Elsabagh, Y Inabu, T Obitsu, T Sugino
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a gut peptide secreted by enteroendocrine L cells, has recently been identified as a key regulator of intestinal growth and absorptive function in ruminants. However, reports on GLP-2 secretion are few, and more information regarding its secretion dynamics is needed. In this study, two experiments were conducted to elucidate the daily rhythm of GLP-2 secretion in response to feeding regimen and to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on GLP-2 release in sheep...
March 11, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371654/extended-low-dose-dexamethasone-suppression-test-for-diagnosis-of-atypical-cushing-s-syndrome-in-dogs
#12
K M Fowler, L A Frank, F Morandi, J C Whittemore
The purpose of this study was to evaluate extension of the low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) test from 8 h to 12 h to detect possible hypercortisolemia associated with atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC). Twelve client-owned dogs were enrolled in the study: 6 healthy dogs (group 1) and 6 dogs with suspected AHAC (group 2). Baseline EDTA plasma samples were collected for endogenous ACTH determination using an immunoradiometric assay. Serum samples were collected before and at 4, 8, 10, and 12 h post-administration of 0...
March 11, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273497/effect-of-fish-meal-supplementation-on-spatial-distribution-of-lipid-microdomains-and-on-the-lateral-mobility-of-membrane-bound-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-receptors-in-bovine-corpora-lutea
#13
M R Plewes, P D Burns, P E Graham, J E Bruemmer, T E Engle, B G Barisas
This study examined the effects of fish meal supplementation on spatial distribution of lipid microdomains and lateral mobility of prostaglandin F2α (FP) receptors on cell plasma membranes of the bovine corpus luteum (CL). Beef cows were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to receive a corn gluten meal supplement (n = 4) or fish meal supplement (n = 4) for 60 d to allow incorporation of fish meal-derived omega-3 fatty acids into luteal tissue. Ovaries bearing the CL were surgically removed between days 10 to 12 after estrus corresponding to approximately day 60 of supplementation...
February 14, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327456/relationship-between-plasma-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-concentrations-during-the-rearing-period-and-subsequent-embryo-productivity-in-japanese-black-cattle
#14
H Nabenishi, G Kitahara, S Takagi, A Yamazaki, T Osawa
To use plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations as early-stage markers for donor cow selection, we investigated the relationship between plasma AMH concentrations in Japanese black heifers and subsequent embryo productivity following superovulation treatment. Plasma AMH and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in 6 heifers were evaluated once per month from 3 mo before successful AI for primiparity to 3 mo postpartum. Following calving, embryo collection by superovulation treatment was performed at 3- to 4-mo intervals...
February 4, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254632/metabolic-and-inflammatory-responses-to-the-common-sweetener-stevioside-and-a-glycemic-challenge-in-horses-with-equine-metabolic-syndrome
#15
S E Elzinga, B Rohleder, B Schanbacher, K McQuerry, V D Barker, A A Adams
Extracts derived from the leaves of the stevia plant (stevioside) are commonly used as sweeteners for humans and horses. Stevioside appears to be safe for human consumption, including for individuals with insulin dysregulation. In the horse, the safety or metabolic effects of stevioside on normal animals or on those with metabolic dysfunction are unknown. Furthermore, the inflammatory response to a glycemic challenge or to stevioside in horses is not well defined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the effects of stevioside and a glycemic challenge on insulin, glucose, and inflammatory responses in horses with a common metabolic dysfunction (equine metabolic syndrome or EMS) compared with non-EMS controls...
February 4, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835804/gap-junctional-connexin-messenger-rna-expression-in-the-ovine-uterus-and-placenta-effects-of-estradiol-17%C3%AE-treatment-early-pregnancy-stages-and-embryo-origin
#16
M L Johnson, D A Redmer, L P Reynolds, A T Grazul-Bilska
Gap junctions play a major role in direct, contact-dependent cell-cell communication, and they have been implicated in the regulation of cellular metabolism and the coordination of cellular functions during growth and differentiation of organs and tissues. Gap junctional channels, composed of connexin (Cx) proteins, have been detected and shown to be influenced by hormones (eg, estrogen and progesterone) in uterine and placental tissues in several species. We hypothesized that (1) the messenger RNA (mRNA) for Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, and Cx43 is expressed in the uterus of ovariectomized sheep treated with estradiol-17β (E2) and in ovine placenta during early pregnancy, (2) E2-treatment of ovariectomized ewes would cause time-specific changes in Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, and Cx43 mRNA expression (experiment 1), and (3) expression of these 4 Cx would vary across the days of early pregnancy (experiment 2) and will be affected by embryo origin (ie, after application of assisted reproductive technologies [ARTs]; experiment 3)...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792889/salsolinol-a-potential-inhibitor-of-the-gonadotropic-axis-in-sheep-during-lactation
#17
E Marciniak, M Hasiec, F Fülöp, T Misztal
This study tested the hypothesis that salsolinol, a derivative of dopamine, affects GnRH and LH secretion in lactating sheep. In the in vivo experiment, the structural analogue of salsolinol, 1-methyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline (1-MeDIQ), was infused into the infundibular nucleus-median eminence of sheep at the fifth wk of lactation to antagonize salsolinol's action. Simultaneously, cerebrospinal fluid from the third brain ventricle, to determine GnRH concentration, and plasma samples, to measure LH concentration, were collected...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769009/role-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-1-in-estradiol-17%C3%AE-induced-alterations-in-protein-synthesis-and-protein-degradation-rates-in-fused-bovine-satellite-cell-cultures
#18
E Kamanga-Sollo, K J Thornton, M E White, W R Dayton
In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters in several countries. Treatment with E2 stimulates protein synthesis rate and suppresses protein degradation rate in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not known with certainty. Although the genomic effects of E2 mediated through the classical estrogen receptors have been characterized, recent studies indicate that binding of E2 to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 mediates nongenomic effects of E2 on cellular function...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743526/activities-for-leptin-in-bovine-trophoblast-cells
#19
C K Hughes, M M Xie, S R McCoski, A D Ealy
Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664382/a-mirna-target-network-putatively-involved-in-follicular-atresia
#20
F X Donadeu, B T Mohammed, J Ioannidis
In a previous microarray study, we identified a subset of micro RNAS (miRNAs), which expression was distinctly higher in atretic than healthy follicles of cattle. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of those miRNAs in granulosa and theca cells during atresia. Reverse Transcription-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) confirmed that miR-21-5p/-3p, miR-150, miR-409a, miR-142-5p, miR-378, miR-222, miR-155, and miR-199a-5p were expressed at higher levels in atretic than healthy follicles (9-17 mm, classified based on steroidogenic capacity)...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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