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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Sudharsanam Abinandan, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Owing to certain drawbacks, such as energy-intensive operations in conventional modes of wastewater treatment (WWT), there has been an extensive search for alternative strategies in treatment technology. Biological modes for treating wastewaters are one of the finest technologies in terms of economy and efficiency. An integrated biological approach with chemical flocculation is being conventionally practiced in several-sewage and effluent treatment plants around the world. Overwhelming responsiveness to treat wastewaters especially by using microalgae is due to their simplest photosynthetic mechanism and ease of acclimation to various habitats...
May 17, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Benwei Zhu, Fang Ni, Yun Sun, Xianyu Zhu, Heng Yin, Zhong Yao, Yuguang Du
Carrageenan, a kind of linear sulfated polysaccharides consisting of D-galactose with alternating α-1,3 and β-1,4 linkages, has been widely applied in the food and cosmetic industries as thickening and gelling agents due to excellent properties, such as gel-forming ability and chemical stability. It can be degraded by carrageenases to produce a series of even-numbered carrageenan oligosaccharides, which exhibit various fascinating functions, such as anti-inflammation, anti-coagulation, anti-tumor, and anti-thrombosis effects...
May 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
E Carsanba, S Papanikolaou, H Erten
Recently, there has been a great upsurge of interest in studies related to several aspects of microbial lipid production, which is one of the top topics in relevant research fields due to the high demand of these fatty materials in food, medical, oleochemical and biofuel industries. Lipid accumulation by the so-called "oleaginous microorganisms" can generate more than 20% w/w of oil in dry biomass and is governed by a plethora of parameters, such as medium pH, incubation temperature, nutrient limitation and C/N (carbon/nitrogen) ratio, which drastically affect the lipid production bioprocess...
May 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Ravi Kant Bhatia, Yong-Keun Choi, Eunsung Kan, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Design of a microbial consortium is a newly emerging field that enables researchers to extend the frontiers of biotechnology from a pure culture to mixed cultures. A microbial consortium enables microbes to use a broad range of carbon sources. It provides microbes with robustness in response to environmental stress factors. Microbes in a consortium can perform complex functions that are impossible for a single organism. With advancement of technology, it is now possible to understand microbial interaction mechanism and construct consortia...
May 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Rune Nygaard Monrad, Jens Eklöf, Kristian B R M Krogh, Peter Biely
Glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) belonging to the carbohydrate esterase family 15 (CE15) are involved in microbial degradation of lignocellulosic plant materials. GEs are capable of degrading complex polymers of lignin and hemicellulose cleaving ester bonds between glucuronic acid residues in xylan and lignin alcohols. GEs promote separation of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose which is crucial for efficient utilization of biomass as an energy source and feedstock for further processing into products or chemicals...
May 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Junhua Wang, Cheng Wang, Huanhuan Liu, Haishan Qi, Hong Chen, Jianping Wen
Metabolomics is the science of qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing low molecular weight metabolites occur in a given biological system. It provides valuable information to elucidate the functional roles and relations of different metabolites in a metabolic pathway. In recent years, a large amount of research on microbial metabolomics has been conducted. It has become a useful tool for achieving highly efficient synthesis of target metabolites. At the same time, many studies have been conducted over the years in order to integrate metabolomics data into metabolic network modeling, which has yielded many exciting results...
April 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Saurabh Jyoti Sarma, Joo-Hwa Tay
Aerobic granules are the potential tools to develop modern wastewater treatment technologies with improved nutrient removal efficiency. These granules have several promising advantages over conventional activated sludge-based wastewater treatment processes. This technology has the potential of reducing the infrastructure and operation costs of wastewater treatment by 25%, energy requirement by 30%, and space requirement by 75%. The nutrient removal mechanisms of aerobic granules are slightly different from that of the activated sludge...
April 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Mrinmoy Ghosh, Neelesh Sharma, Amit Kumar Singh, Meeta Gera, Krishna Kanth Pulicherla, Dong Kee Jeong
For more than a quarter of a century, sequencing technologies from Sanger's method to next-generation high-throughput techniques have provided fascinating opportunities in the life sciences. The continuing upward trajectory of sequencing technologies will improve livestock research and expedite the development of various new genomic and technological studies with farm animals. The use of high-throughput technologies in livestock research has increased interest in metagenomics, epigenetics, genome-wide association studies, and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations...
April 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ankita Srivastava, Seong-Hyun Seo, So-Ra Ko, Chi-Yong Ahn, Hee-Mock Oh
Microorganisms have the tendency to accumulate at interfaces through the release of extracellular polymeric substances to form aggregates such as films or flocs. This physical association leads to different modes of interactions among cells and the subsequent development of functionally and metabolically diverse consortia. Aggregation of cells in aqueous suspensions often results in the formation of flocs, which are hotspots of enhanced microbial processes. This has important implications for the dynamics of organic and inorganic matter in varied ecosystems...
April 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Hao Liu, Jianliang Sun, Jo-Shu Chang, Pratyoosh Shukla
Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) by micro-organisms is desired for efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol fuels. Potential candidates have been discovered, including cellulolytic bacteria and filamentous fungi. Genetic and metabolic manipulation of these organisms further promotes their fermentation capacities and the ethanol tolerance. In addition, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other yeasts were genetically modified to express recombinant cellulases in media or display them on the cell surface for CBP of cellulose...
April 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Micael Karlberg, Moritz von Stosch, Jarka Glassey
In today's biopharmaceutical industries, the lead time to develop and produce a new monoclonal antibody takes years before it can be launched commercially. The reasons lie in the complexity of the monoclonal antibodies and the need for high product quality to ensure clinical safety which has a significant impact on the process development time. Frameworks such as quality by design are becoming widely used by the pharmaceutical industries as they introduce a systematic approach for building quality into the product...
March 7, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jiaxin Chen, Ji Li, Xiaolei Zhang, Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi, Wenyi Dong
Utilization of microbial oil for biodiesel production has gained growing interest due to the increase in prices and the shortage of the oils and fats traditionally used in biodiesel production. However, it is still in the laboratory study stage due to the high cost of production. Employing organic wastes as raw materials to grow heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms for further lipid production to produce biodiesel has been predicted to be a promising method for reducing costs. However, there are many obstacles including the low biodegradability of organic wastes, low lipid accumulation capacity of heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms while using organic wastes, a great dependence on a high-energy consumption approach for biomass harvesting, utilization of toxic organic solvents for lipid extraction, and large amount of methanol required in trans-esterification and in-situ trans-esterifications...
March 6, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Elena Piacenza, Alessandro Presentato, Raymond J Turner
In the last 15 years, the exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, bacteria, mycelial fungi, yeasts, and algae) to produce metal(loid) (Me)-based nanomaterials has been evaluated as eco-friendly and a cost-effective alternative to the chemical synthesis processes. Although the biological mechanisms of biogenic Me-nanomaterial (Bio-Me-nanomaterials) production are not yet completely elucidated, a key advantage of such bio-nanostructures over those chemically synthesized is related to their natural thermodynamic stability, with several studies ascribed to the presence of an organic layer surrounding these Bio-Me-nanostructures...
February 25, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jian-Zhong Xu, Han-Kun Yang, Wei-Guo Zhang
Reduced nicotinamide adenine nucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is one of the key cofactors in the metabolic network, plays an important role in the biochemical reactions, and physiological function of amino acid-producing strains. The manipulation of NADPH availability and form is an efficient and easy method of redirecting the carbon flux to the amino acid biosynthesis in industrial strains. In this review, we survey the metabolic mode of NADPH. Furthermore, we summarize the research developments in the understanding of the relationship between NADPH metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis...
February 25, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Gerard Neeraj, Shobana Ravi, Ravindran Somdutt, ShriAishvarya Kaliyur Ravi, Vaidyanathan Vinoth Kumar
In recent times, inulinase has emerged as one the most prominent and industrially upcoming enzymes applied to meet the ever increasing demand of d-fructose and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as sweetener and prebiotics in the food and pharmaceutical industry, respectively. This review deals with types of inulinase and the attempts made to modify it for better thermal stability and shelf life. The ease of immobilization of inulinase has led us to the path of experimenting with different methods of enzyme immobilization since 1979...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
A Alan Moghissi, Lisa M Jaeger, Dania Shafei, Lindsey L Bloom
This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and genetically engineered, edited or modified crops, otherwise known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). It uses the Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC) to evaluate the scientific validity of claims applicable to GMO and the Best Available Public Information (BAPI) to evaluate the pronouncements by public media and others...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Pablo Jiménez-Bonilla, Yi Wang
Butanol is a precursor of many industrial chemicals, and a fuel that is more energetic, safer and easier to handle than ethanol. Fermentative biobutanol can be produced using renewable carbon sources such as agro-industrial residues and lignocellulosic biomass. Solventogenic clostridia are known as the most preeminent biobutanol producers. However, until now, solvent production through the fermentative routes is still not economically competitive compared to the petrochemical approaches, because the butanol is toxic to their own producer bacteria, and thus, the production capability is limited by the butanol tolerance of producing cells...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiaomin Gong, Danlian Huang, Yunguo Liu, Zhiwei Peng, Guangming Zeng, Piao Xu, Min Cheng, Rongzhong Wang, Jia Wan
Soil contamination caused by heavy metals and organic pollutants has drawn world-wide concern. Biotechnology has been applied for many years to the decontamination of soils polluted with organic and inorganic contaminants, and novel nanomaterials (NMs) has attracted much concern due to their high capacity for the removal/stabilization/degradation of pollutants. Recently, developing advanced biotechnology with NMs for the remediation of contaminated soils has become a hot research topic. Some researchers found that bioremediation efficiency of contaminated soils was enhanced by the addition of NMs, while others demonstrated that the toxicity of NMs to the organism negatively influenced the repair capacity of polluted soils...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Julien Barthes, Sait Ciftci, Florian Ponzio, Helena Knopf-Marques, Liza Pelyhe, Alexandru Gudima, Imre Kientzl, Eszter Bognár, Miklós Weszl, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Nihal Engin Vrana
In many biomedical applications, titanium forms an interface with tissues, which is crucial to ensure its long-term stability and safety. In order to exert control over this process, titanium implants have been treated with various methods that induce physicochemical changes at nano and microscales. In the past 20 years, most of the studies have been conducted to see the effect of topographical and physicochemical changes of titanium surface after surface treatments on cells behavior and bacteria adhesion...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Vivek K Bajpai, Vishal Chandra, Na-Hyung Kim, Rajni Rai, Pradeep Kumar, Kangmin Kim, Abhinav Aeron, Sun Chul Kang, D K Maheshwari, MinKyun Na, Irfan A Rather, Yong-Ha Park
The Zika virus (ZIKV) used to be an obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue virus (DENV). Transmission of this epidemic pathogen occurs mainly via mosquitoes, but it is also capable of placental and sexual transmission. Although the characteristics of these viruses are well defined, infections are unpredictable in terms of disease severity, unusual clinical manifestations, unexpected methods of transmission, long-term persistence, and the development of new strains. Recently, ZIKV has gained huge medical attention following the large-scale epidemics around the world, and reported cases of congenital abnormalities associated with Zika virus infections which have created a public health emergency of international concern...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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