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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Azureen Mohamad, Huisian Teo, Natasha Ann Keasberry, Minhaz Uddin Ahmed
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a popular detection technique for the screening and diagnosis of diseases. The sensitivity of ELISA can be increased by the incorporation of nanoparticles. Through this article, we discuss the utilization of nanoparticles in ELISA. Nanoparticles possess an intrinsic biological peroxidase-like activity which allows it to act as an enzyme mimic for the development of an improved analysis method. Different nanoparticles (gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, etc...
September 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ilekuttige Priyan Shanura Fernando, Kil-Nam Kim, Daekyung Kim, You-Jin Jeon
The cosmetics industry is one of the most profitable in the world today. This multi-billion-dollar industry has a profound sociological impact worldwide. Its influence is global, with most individuals being concerned with conserving their physical appearance, beauty, and youth. The consumers' desire for novel, better, and safer products has stimulated the utilization of natural-product-based cosmeceutical formulations over synthetic chemicals. With remarkable advancements in marine bioresource technology, algal polysaccharides have gained much attention as bioactive ingredients in cosmeceuticals...
September 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Arun Kumar Dangi, Babita Sharma, Russell T Hill, Pratyoosh Shukla
Today, environmental pollution is a serious problem, and bioremediation can play an important role in cleaning contaminated sites. Remediation strategies, such as chemical and physical approaches, are not enough to mitigate pollution problems because of the continuous generation of novel recalcitrant pollutants due to anthropogenic activities. Bioremediation using microbes is an eco-friendly and socially acceptable alternative to conventional remediation approaches. Many microbes with a bioremediation potential have been isolated and characterized but, in many cases, cannot completely degrade the targeted pollutant or are ineffective in situations with mixed wastes...
September 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Nurzatil Sharleeza Mat Jalaluddin, Rofina Yasmin Othman, Jennifer Ann Harikrishna
It has only been about 20 years since the first Nobel Prize-winning work on RNA interference (RNAi) in Caenorhabditis elegans was published in the journal Nature. Fast forward to today, and the use of RNA molecules as gene-silencing elements in crops has helped scientists to unveil possible solutions to the global problems of agricultural losses due to pests, viruses, pathogens, and to other abiotic and biotic stresses. The recent proliferation of publications suggests that the technology has gained significant attention and received ample funding support...
September 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Digar Singh, Sunmin Lee, Choong Hwan Lee
The stochasticity of Aspergillus oryzae (Trivially: the koji mold) pan-metabolomes commensurate with its ubiquitously distributed landscapes, i.e. growth matrices have been seemed uncharted since its food fermentative systems are mostly being investigated. In this review, we explicitly have discussed the likely tendencies of A. oryzae metabolomes pertaining to its growth milieu formulated with substrate matrices of varying nature, composition, texture, and associated physicochemical parameters. We envisaged typical food matrices, namely, meju, koji, and moromi as the semi-natural cultivation models toward delineating the metabolomic patterns of the koji mold, which synergistically influences the organoleptic and functional properties of the end products...
July 23, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Swati Tyagi, Sikandar I Mulla, Kui-Jae Lee, Jong-Chan Chae, Pratyoosh Shukla
In the natural environment, plants communicate with various microorganisms (pathogenic or beneficial) and exhibit differential responses. In recent years, research on microbial volatile compounds (MVCs) has revealed them to be simple, effective and efficient groups of compounds that modulate plant growth and developmental processes. They also interfere with the signaling process. Different MVCs have been shown to promote plant growth via improved photosynthesis rates, increased plant resistance to pathogens, activated phytohormone signaling pathways, or, in some cases, inhibit plant growth, leading to death...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sicheng Shao, Yongyou Hu, Jianhua Cheng, Yuancai Chen
Antimicrobial and antibiotics resistance caused by misuse or overuse of antibiotics exposure is a growing and significant threat to global public health. The spread and horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by the selective pressure of antibiotics in an aquatic environment is a major public health issue. To develop a better understanding of potential ecological risks die to antibiotics and ARGs, this study mainly summarizes research progress about: (i) the occurrence, concentration, fate, and potential ecological effects of antibiotics and ARGs in various aquatic environments, (ii) the threat, spread, and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of ARGs, and (iii) the relationship between antibiotics, ARGs, and ARB...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sudharsanam Abinandan, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Owing to certain drawbacks, such as energy-intensive operations in conventional modes of wastewater treatment (WWT), there has been an extensive search for alternative strategies in treatment technology. Biological modes for treating wastewaters are one of the finest technologies in terms of economy and efficiency. An integrated biological approach with chemical flocculation is being conventionally practiced in several-sewage and effluent treatment plants around the world. Overwhelming responsiveness to treat wastewaters especially by using microalgae is due to their simplest photosynthetic mechanism and ease of acclimation to various habitats...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Benwei Zhu, Fang Ni, Yun Sun, Xianyu Zhu, Heng Yin, Zhong Yao, Yuguang Du
Carrageenan, a kind of linear sulfated polysaccharides consisting of D-galactose with alternating α-1,3 and β-1,4 linkages, has been widely applied in the food and cosmetic industries as thickening and gelling agents due to excellent properties, such as gel-forming ability and chemical stability. It can be degraded by carrageenases to produce a series of even-numbered carrageenan oligosaccharides, which exhibit various fascinating functions, such as anti-inflammation, anti-coagulation, anti-tumor, and anti-thrombosis effects...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
E Carsanba, S Papanikolaou, H Erten
Recently, there has been a great upsurge of interest in studies related to several aspects of microbial lipid production, which is one of the top topics in relevant research fields due to the high demand of these fatty materials in food, medical, oleochemical and biofuel industries. Lipid accumulation by the so-called "oleaginous microorganisms" can generate more than 20% w/w of oil in dry biomass and is governed by a plethora of parameters, such as medium pH, incubation temperature, nutrient limitation and C/N (carbon/nitrogen) ratio, which drastically affect the lipid production bioprocess...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Ravi Kant Bhatia, Yong-Keun Choi, Eunsung Kan, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Design of a microbial consortium is a newly emerging field that enables researchers to extend the frontiers of biotechnology from a pure culture to mixed cultures. A microbial consortium enables microbes to use a broad range of carbon sources. It provides microbes with robustness in response to environmental stress factors. Microbes in a consortium can perform complex functions that are impossible for a single organism. With advancement of technology, it is now possible to understand microbial interaction mechanism and construct consortia...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Mrinmoy Ghosh, Neelesh Sharma, Amit Kumar Singh, Meeta Gera, Krishna Kanth Pulicherla, Dong Kee Jeong
For more than a quarter of a century, sequencing technologies from Sanger's method to next-generation high-throughput techniques have provided fascinating opportunities in the life sciences. The continuing upward trajectory of sequencing technologies will improve livestock research and expedite the development of various new genomic and technological studies with farm animals. The use of high-throughput technologies in livestock research has increased interest in metagenomics, epigenetics, genome-wide association studies, and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ankita Srivastava, Seong-Hyun Seo, So-Ra Ko, Chi-Yong Ahn, Hee-Mock Oh
Microorganisms have the tendency to accumulate at interfaces through the release of extracellular polymeric substances to form aggregates such as films or flocs. This physical association leads to different modes of interactions among cells and the subsequent development of functionally and metabolically diverse consortia. Aggregation of cells in aqueous suspensions often results in the formation of flocs, which are hotspots of enhanced microbial processes. This has important implications for the dynamics of organic and inorganic matter in varied ecosystems...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Elena Piacenza, Alessandro Presentato, Raymond J Turner
In the last 15 years, the exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, bacteria, mycelial fungi, yeasts, and algae) to produce metal(loid) (Me)-based nanomaterials has been evaluated as eco-friendly and a cost-effective alternative to the chemical synthesis processes. Although the biological mechanisms of biogenic Me-nanomaterial (Bio-Me-nanomaterials) production are not yet completely elucidated, a key advantage of such bio-nanostructures over those chemically synthesized is related to their natural thermodynamic stability, with several studies ascribed to the presence of an organic layer surrounding these Bio-Me-nanostructures...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Rune Nygaard Monrad, Jens Eklöf, Kristian B R M Krogh, Peter Biely
Glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) belonging to the carbohydrate esterase family 15 (CE15) are involved in microbial degradation of lignocellulosic plant materials. GEs are capable of degrading complex polymers of lignin and hemicellulose cleaving ester bonds between glucuronic acid residues in xylan and lignin alcohols. GEs promote separation of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose which is crucial for efficient utilization of biomass as an energy source and feedstock for further processing into products or chemicals...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Junhua Wang, Cheng Wang, Huanhuan Liu, Haishan Qi, Hong Chen, Jianping Wen
Metabolomics is the science of qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing low molecular weight metabolites occur in a given biological system. It provides valuable information to elucidate the functional roles and relations of different metabolites in a metabolic pathway. In recent years, a large amount of research on microbial metabolomics has been conducted. It has become a useful tool for achieving highly efficient synthesis of target metabolites. At the same time, many studies have been conducted over the years in order to integrate metabolomics data into metabolic network modeling, which has yielded many exciting results...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Saurabh Jyoti Sarma, Joo-Hwa Tay
Aerobic granules are the potential tools to develop modern wastewater treatment technologies with improved nutrient removal efficiency. These granules have several promising advantages over conventional activated sludge-based wastewater treatment processes. This technology has the potential of reducing the infrastructure and operation costs of wastewater treatment by 25%, energy requirement by 30%, and space requirement by 75%. The nutrient removal mechanisms of aerobic granules are slightly different from that of the activated sludge...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Hao Liu, Jianliang Sun, Jo-Shu Chang, Pratyoosh Shukla
Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) by micro-organisms is desired for efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol fuels. Potential candidates have been discovered, including cellulolytic bacteria and filamentous fungi. Genetic and metabolic manipulation of these organisms further promotes their fermentation capacities and the ethanol tolerance. In addition, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other yeasts were genetically modified to express recombinant cellulases in media or display them on the cell surface for CBP of cellulose...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jian-Zhong Xu, Han-Kun Yang, Wei-Guo Zhang
Reduced nicotinamide adenine nucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is one of the key cofactors in the metabolic network, plays an important role in the biochemical reactions, and physiological function of amino acid-producing strains. The manipulation of NADPH availability and form is an efficient and easy method of redirecting the carbon flux to the amino acid biosynthesis in industrial strains. In this review, we survey the metabolic mode of NADPH. Furthermore, we summarize the research developments in the understanding of the relationship between NADPH metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Bing-Huei Chen, Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj
Amidst numerous emerging nanoparticles, cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) possess fascinating pharmacological potential as they can be used as a therapeutic for various oxidative stress-associated chronic diseases such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegeneration due to unique redox cycling between Ce3+ and Ce4+ oxidation states on their surface. Lattice defects generated by the formation of Ce3+ ions and compensation by oxygen vacancies on CNPs surface has led to switching between CeO2 and CeO2-x during redox reactions making CNPs a lucrative catalytic nanoparticle capable of mimicking key natural antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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