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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Patrycja Golinska, Dnyaneshwar Rathod, Magdalena Wypij, Indarchand Gupta, Marek Składanowski, Priti Paralikar, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai
Mycoendophytes are the fungi that occur inside the plant tissues without exerting any negative impact on the host plant. They are most frequently isolated endophytes from the leaf, stem, and root tissues of various plants. Among all fungi, the mycoendophytes as biosynthesizer of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are less known. However, some reports showing efficient synthesis of metal nanoparticles, mainly silver nanoparticles and its remarkable antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens of humans and plants...
October 17, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Haipeng Wu, Cui Lai, Guangming Zeng, Jie Liang, Jin Chen, Jijun Xu, Juan Dai, Xiaodong Li, Junfeng Liu, Ming Chen, Lunhui Lu, Liang Hu, Jia Wan
Compost and biochar, used for the remediation of soil, are seen as attractive waste management options for the increasing volume of organic wastes being produced. This paper reviews the interaction of biochar and composting and its implication for soil amendment and pollution remediation. The interaction of biochar and composting affect each other's properties. Biochar could change the physico-chemical properties, microorganisms, degradation, humification and gas emission of composting, such as the increase of nutrients, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter and microbial activities...
October 17, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiuxia Liu, Wei Zhang, Zihao Zhao, Xiaofeng Dai, Yankun Yang, Zhonghu Bai
Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive bacterium, has been widely used for the industrial production of amino acids, such as glutamate and lysine, for decades. Due to several characteristics - its ability to secrete properly folded and functional target proteins into culture broth, its low levels of endogenous extracellular proteins and its lack of detectable extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity - C. glutamicum is also a very favorable host cell for the secretory production of heterologous proteins, important enzymes, and pharmaceutical proteins...
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ellis C O'Neill, Steven Kelly
The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules...
October 4, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Anita Kumari, Dharam Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Podophyllotoxin is an aryltetralin lignan synthesized in several plant species, which is used in chemotherapies for cancers and tumor treatment. More potent semisynthetic derivatives of podophyllotoxin such as etoposide and teniposide are being developed and evaluated for their efficacy. To meet the ever increasing pharmaceutical needs, species having podophyllotoxin are uprooted extensively leading to the endangered status of selective species mainly Sinopodophyllum hexandrum. This has necessitated bioprospection of podophyllotoxin from different plant species to escalate the strain on this endangered species...
September 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xianshao Zou, Tingting Pan, Lei Chen, Yanqing Tian, Weiwen Zhang
Luminescence including fluorescence and phosphorescence sensors have been demonstrated to be important for studying cell metabolism, and diagnosing diseases and cancer. Various design principles have been employed for the development of sensors in different formats, such as organic molecules, polymers, polymeric hydrogels, and nanoparticles. The integration of the sensing with fluorescence imaging provides valuable tools for biomedical research and applications at not only bulk-cell level but also at single-cell level...
September 15, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Mohammad Azizur Rahman, Noorlidah Abdullah, Norhaniza Aminudin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) share common etiology and preventive strategies. As the population of old-aged people is increasing worldwide, AD complications tend to afflict global healthcare budget and economy heavily. CVD is the prime cause of global mortality and remains a grave threat to both the developed and the developing nations. Mushroom bio-components may be promising in controlling both diseases. Based mainly on in vitro, ex vivo, cell line and animal studies, this review interprets the polypharmaceutic role of mushrooms treating AD and CVD...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Möritz Velásquez-Riaño, Holman D Benavides-Otaya
In recent years, the environmental and human health impacts of mercury contamination have driven the search for alternative, eco-efficient techniques different from the traditional physicochemical methods for treating this metal. One of these alternative processes is bioremediation. A comprehensive analysis of the different variables that can affect this process is presented. It focuses on determining the effectiveness of different techniques of bioremediation, with a specific consideration of three variables: the removal percentage, time needed for bioremediation and initial concentration of mercury to be treated in an aqueous medium...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Marco Schiavon, Marco Ragazzi, Elena Cristina Rada, Vincenzo Torretta
The biological removal of pollutants, especially through biotrickling filters (BTFs), has recently become attractive for the low investment and operational costs and the low secondary pollution. This paper is intended to investigate the state of the art on BTF applications. After an overview on the biodegradation process and the typical parameters involved, this paper presents the analysis of a group of 16 literature studies chosen as the references for this sector. The reference studies differ from one another by the pollutants treated (volatile organic compounds [VOC], hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides and trimethylamine), the geometry and size of the BTFs, and the procedures of the tests...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sanjeev K Gupta, Pratyoosh Shukla
Prokaryotic expression systems are superior in producing valuable recombinant proteins, enzymes and therapeutic products. Conventional microbial technology is evolving gradually and amalgamated with advanced technologies in order to give rise to improved processes for the production of metabolites, recombinant biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Recently, several novel approaches have been employed in a bacterial expression platform to improve recombinant protein expression. These approaches involve metabolic engineering, use of strong promoters, novel vector elements such as inducers and enhancers, protein tags, secretion signals, high-throughput devices for cloning and process screening as well as fermentation technologies...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Kyung-Chul Shin, Deok-Kun Oh
Ginsenosides are the main compounds with pharmacological activities in ginseng. Deglycosylated ginsenosides, which are more pharmacologically active than glycosylated ginsenosides, can be produced by the specific or nonspecific hydrolysis of the sugar moieties in glycosylated ginsenosides using glycosidases. The enzymes that hydrolyze specifically ginsenosides with different types can be classified according to the enzymatic activity on the positions, inner and outer residues and types of sugar moieties in ginsenosides...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Duygu Ercan, Ali Demirci
Lysozyme is an antimicrobial peptide with a high enzymatic activity and positive charges. Therefore, it has applications in food and pharmaceutical industries as an antimicrobial agent. Lysozyme is ubiquitous in both animal and plant kingdoms. Currently, egg-white lysozyme is the most commercially available form of lysozyme. The main concerns of egg-white lysozyme are high recovery cost, low activity and most importantly the immunological problems to some people. Therefore, human lysozyme production has gained importance in recent years...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Carrie Perkins, Sana Siddiqui, Munish Puri, Arnold L Demain
Modern research has focused on the microbial transformation of a huge variety of organic compounds to obtain compounds of therapeutic and/or industrial interest. Microbial transformation is a useful tool for producing new compounds, as a consequence of the variety of reactions for natural products. This article describes the production of many important compounds by biotransformation. Emphasis is placed on reporting the metabolites that may be of special interest to the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries, as well as the practical aspects of this work in the field of microbial transformations...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jennifer Dumont, Don Euwart, Baisong Mei, Scott Estes, Rashmi Kshirsagar
Biotherapeutic proteins represent a mainstay of treatment for a multitude of conditions, for example, autoimmune disorders, hematologic disorders, hormonal dysregulation, cancers, infectious diseases and genetic disorders. The technologies behind their production have changed substantially since biotherapeutic proteins were first approved in the 1980s. Although most biotherapeutic proteins developed to date have been produced using the mammalian Chinese hamster ovary and murine myeloma (NS0, Sp2/0) cell lines, there has been a recent shift toward the use of human cell lines...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Yoon-Ha Kim, Abdul Latif Khan, In-Jung Lee
Abiotic stresses, such as salinity, heavy metals and drought, are some of the most devastating factors hindering sustainable crop production today. Plants use their own defensive strategies to cope with the adverse effects of these stresses, via the regulation of the expression of essential phytohormones, such as gibberellins (GA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonates (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene (ET). However, the efficacy of the endogenous defensive arsenals of plants often falls short if the stress persists over an extended period...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Caleb Acquah, Michael K Danquah, Dominic Agyei, Charles K S Moy, Amandeep Sidhu, Clarence M Ongkudon
The genome of virulent strains may possess the ability to mutate by means of antigenic shift and/or antigenic drift as well as being resistant to antibiotics with time. The outbreak and spread of these virulent diseases including avian influenza (H1N1), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Corona virus), cholera (Vibrio cholera), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola Virus) and AIDS (HIV-1) necessitate urgent attention to develop diagnostic protocols and assays for rapid detection and screening...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jianguo Zhang, Jining Zhang
Filamentous fungi play an important role not only in the bio-manufacturing of value-added products, but also in bioenergy and environmental research. The bioprocess manipulation of filamentous fungi is more difficult than that of other microbial species because of their different pellet morphologies and the presence of tangled mycelia under different cultivation conditions. Fungal pellets, which have the advantages of harvest ease, low fermentation broth viscosity and high yield of some proteins, have been used for a long time...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Salvatore Montella, Antonella Amore, Vincenza Faraco
The world economy is moving toward the use of renewable and nonedible lignocellulosic biomasses as substitutes for fossil sources in order to decrease the environmental impact of manufacturing processes and overcome the conflict with food production. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the feedstock is a key technology for bio-based chemical production, and the identification of novel, less expensive and more efficient biocatalysts is one of the main challenges. As the genomic era has shown that only a few microorganisms can be cultured under standard laboratory conditions, the extraction and analysis of genetic material directly from environmental samples, termed metagenomics, is a promising way to overcome this bottleneck...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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