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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

J Parada, O Rubilar, M A Fernández-Baldo, F A Bertolino, N Durán, A B Seabra, G R Tortella
Metal nanoparticles and metal oxides nanoparticles (MNPs/MONPs) have been widely included in a great diversity of products and industrial applications and they are already a part of our everyday life. According to estimation studies, their production is expected to increase exponentially in the next few years. Consequently, soil has been suggested as the main sink of MNPs/MONPs once they are deliberately or accidentally released into the environment. The potential negative perturbations that may result on soil microbial communities and ecological processes are resulting in concerns...
November 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiao Li, Qing Liu, Wenjia Li, Quanping Li, Zhengming Qian, Xingzhong Liu, Caihong Dong
Chinese cordyceps, an entity of the Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis, syn. Cordyceps sinensis) that parasitizes ghost moth larvae, is one of the best known traditional Chinese medicines and is found exclusively on the Tibetan Plateau with limited natural resources. Although the fungus O. sinensis can grow on artificial substrates and the ghost moth has been successfully reared, the large-scale artificial cultivation of Chinese cordyceps has only recently been accomplished after several decades of efforts and attempts...
November 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Asgher, Hairong Cheng, Yunjun Yan, Hafiz M N Iqbal
Engineering enzymes with improved catalytic properties in non-natural environments have been concerned with their diverse industrial and biotechnological applications. Immobilization represents a promising but straightforward route, and immobilized biocatalysts often display higher activities and stabilities compared to free enzymes. Owing to their unique physicochemical characteristics, including the high-specific surface area, exceptional chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties, efficient enzyme loading, and multivalent functionalization, nano-based materials are postulated as suitable carriers for biomolecules or enzyme immobilization...
November 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ercan Karahalil, Hasan Bugra Coban, Irfan Turhan
Various strategies have been carried out to date in order to overcome the problem of the adverse effects of bulk fungal growth in bioreactors. Nevertheless, previous conventional methods such as modifying the cultivation temperature or pH resulted in limited biomass production and consequently lower yields. In recent years microparticle enhanced cultivation (MPEC) techniques are one of the most remarkable and novel methods employed for submerged fungal production to overcome bulk microbial growth. In addition to low cost advantages, MPEC also provides benefits such as not interfering with fungal metabolism, enhancing final product concentration and improving homogeneity in the fermentation broth...
November 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Beibei Liu, Genlou Sun
Polyploid organisms have more than two sets of chromosomes, including autopolyploid via intraspecific genome doubling, and allopolyploid via merging genomes of distinct species by hybridization. Polyploid organisms are widespread in plants, indicating that polyploidy has some evolutionary advantages over its diploid ancestor. Actually, polyploidy is always tightly associated with hybrid vigor and adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. However, why polyploidy can develop such advantages is poorly known...
October 29, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Markus Dettenhofer, Miroslav Ondrejovič, Anita Slavica, Želimir Kurtanjek, Dana Tapaloaga, Paul Rodian Tapaloaga, Lejla Kapur Pojskić, Adaleta Durmić-Pašić, Jelena Begović, Viktor Nedović, Munis Dundar, Kevan M A Gartland, Stanislav Miertuš
Innovation holds the potential for economic prosperity. Biotechnology (BT) has proved to be a viable vehicle for the development and utilization of technologies, which has brought not only advances to society, but also career opportunities to nation-states that have enabling conditions. In this review, we assess the current state of BT-related activities within selected new and preaccession EU countries (NPA) of CEE region namely Croatia, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, examining educational programs, research activity, enterprises, and the financing systems...
October 29, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Markus Dettenhofer, Miroslav Ondrejovič, Viktória Vásáry, Pawel Kaszycki, Tomasz Twardowski, Stanislav Stuchlík, Ján Turňa, Munis Dundar, Kevan M A Gartland, Stanislav Miertuš
Innovation is a key determinant of sustainable growth. Biotechnology (BT) is one such industry that has witnessed a revolution in innovative ideas leading to the founding of many new companies based on providing products, solutions and services, stretching from the food industry to environmental remediation, and new medicines. BT holds much promise for the development of national and local economies, however, this requires a strategic approach involving actors within government, industry, and academia working in concert to maximize this potential...
October 29, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Azureen Mohamad, Huisian Teo, Natasha Ann Keasberry, Minhaz Uddin Ahmed
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a popular detection technique for the screening and diagnosis of diseases. The sensitivity of ELISA can be increased by the incorporation of nanoparticles. Through this article, we discuss the utilization of nanoparticles in ELISA. Nanoparticles possess an intrinsic biological peroxidase-like activity which allows it to act as an enzyme mimic for the development of an improved analysis method. Different nanoparticles (gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, etc...
September 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ilekuttige Priyan Shanura Fernando, Kil-Nam Kim, Daekyung Kim, You-Jin Jeon
The cosmetics industry is one of the most profitable in the world today. This multi-billion-dollar industry has a profound sociological impact worldwide. Its influence is global, with most individuals being concerned with conserving their physical appearance, beauty, and youth. The consumers' desire for novel, better, and safer products has stimulated the utilization of natural-product-based cosmeceutical formulations over synthetic chemicals. With remarkable advancements in marine bioresource technology, algal polysaccharides have gained much attention as bioactive ingredients in cosmeceuticals...
September 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Arun Kumar Dangi, Babita Sharma, Russell T Hill, Pratyoosh Shukla
Today, environmental pollution is a serious problem, and bioremediation can play an important role in cleaning contaminated sites. Remediation strategies, such as chemical and physical approaches, are not enough to mitigate pollution problems because of the continuous generation of novel recalcitrant pollutants due to anthropogenic activities. Bioremediation using microbes is an eco-friendly and socially acceptable alternative to conventional remediation approaches. Many microbes with a bioremediation potential have been isolated and characterized but, in many cases, cannot completely degrade the targeted pollutant or are ineffective in situations with mixed wastes...
September 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Nurzatil Sharleeza Mat Jalaluddin, Rofina Yasmin Othman, Jennifer Ann Harikrishna
It has only been about 20 years since the first Nobel Prize-winning work on RNA interference (RNAi) in Caenorhabditis elegans was published in the journal Nature. Fast forward to today, and the use of RNA molecules as gene-silencing elements in crops has helped scientists to unveil possible solutions to the global problems of agricultural losses due to pests, viruses, pathogens, and to other abiotic and biotic stresses. The recent proliferation of publications suggests that the technology has gained significant attention and received ample funding support...
September 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Swati Tyagi, Sikandar I Mulla, Kui-Jae Lee, Jong-Chan Chae, Pratyoosh Shukla
In the natural environment, plants communicate with various microorganisms (pathogenic or beneficial) and exhibit differential responses. In recent years, research on microbial volatile compounds (MVCs) has revealed them to be simple, effective and efficient groups of compounds that modulate plant growth and developmental processes. They also interfere with the signaling process. Different MVCs have been shown to promote plant growth via improved photosynthesis rates, increased plant resistance to pathogens, activated phytohormone signaling pathways, or, in some cases, inhibit plant growth, leading to death...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sicheng Shao, Yongyou Hu, Jianhua Cheng, Yuancai Chen
Antimicrobial and antibiotics resistance caused by misuse or overuse of antibiotics exposure is a growing and significant threat to global public health. The spread and horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by the selective pressure of antibiotics in an aquatic environment is a major public health issue. To develop a better understanding of potential ecological risks die to antibiotics and ARGs, this study mainly summarizes research progress about: (i) the occurrence, concentration, fate, and potential ecological effects of antibiotics and ARGs in various aquatic environments, (ii) the threat, spread, and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of ARGs, and (iii) the relationship between antibiotics, ARGs, and ARB...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sudharsanam Abinandan, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Owing to certain drawbacks, such as energy-intensive operations in conventional modes of wastewater treatment (WWT), there has been an extensive search for alternative strategies in treatment technology. Biological modes for treating wastewaters are one of the finest technologies in terms of economy and efficiency. An integrated biological approach with chemical flocculation is being conventionally practiced in several-sewage and effluent treatment plants around the world. Overwhelming responsiveness to treat wastewaters especially by using microalgae is due to their simplest photosynthetic mechanism and ease of acclimation to various habitats...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Benwei Zhu, Fang Ni, Yun Sun, Xianyu Zhu, Heng Yin, Zhong Yao, Yuguang Du
Carrageenan, a kind of linear sulfated polysaccharides consisting of D-galactose with alternating α-1,3 and β-1,4 linkages, has been widely applied in the food and cosmetic industries as thickening and gelling agents due to excellent properties, such as gel-forming ability and chemical stability. It can be degraded by carrageenases to produce a series of even-numbered carrageenan oligosaccharides, which exhibit various fascinating functions, such as anti-inflammation, anti-coagulation, anti-tumor, and anti-thrombosis effects...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
E Carsanba, S Papanikolaou, H Erten
Recently, there has been a great upsurge of interest in studies related to several aspects of microbial lipid production, which is one of the top topics in relevant research fields due to the high demand of these fatty materials in food, medical, oleochemical and biofuel industries. Lipid accumulation by the so-called "oleaginous microorganisms" can generate more than 20% w/w of oil in dry biomass and is governed by a plethora of parameters, such as medium pH, incubation temperature, nutrient limitation and C/N (carbon/nitrogen) ratio, which drastically affect the lipid production bioprocess...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Ravi Kant Bhatia, Yong-Keun Choi, Eunsung Kan, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Design of a microbial consortium is a newly emerging field that enables researchers to extend the frontiers of biotechnology from a pure culture to mixed cultures. A microbial consortium enables microbes to use a broad range of carbon sources. It provides microbes with robustness in response to environmental stress factors. Microbes in a consortium can perform complex functions that are impossible for a single organism. With advancement of technology, it is now possible to understand microbial interaction mechanism and construct consortia...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Mrinmoy Ghosh, Neelesh Sharma, Amit Kumar Singh, Meeta Gera, Krishna Kanth Pulicherla, Dong Kee Jeong
For more than a quarter of a century, sequencing technologies from Sanger's method to next-generation high-throughput techniques have provided fascinating opportunities in the life sciences. The continuing upward trajectory of sequencing technologies will improve livestock research and expedite the development of various new genomic and technological studies with farm animals. The use of high-throughput technologies in livestock research has increased interest in metagenomics, epigenetics, genome-wide association studies, and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ankita Srivastava, Seong-Hyun Seo, So-Ra Ko, Chi-Yong Ahn, Hee-Mock Oh
Microorganisms have the tendency to accumulate at interfaces through the release of extracellular polymeric substances to form aggregates such as films or flocs. This physical association leads to different modes of interactions among cells and the subsequent development of functionally and metabolically diverse consortia. Aggregation of cells in aqueous suspensions often results in the formation of flocs, which are hotspots of enhanced microbial processes. This has important implications for the dynamics of organic and inorganic matter in varied ecosystems...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Elena Piacenza, Alessandro Presentato, Raymond J Turner
In the last 15 years, the exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, bacteria, mycelial fungi, yeasts, and algae) to produce metal(loid) (Me)-based nanomaterials has been evaluated as eco-friendly and a cost-effective alternative to the chemical synthesis processes. Although the biological mechanisms of biogenic Me-nanomaterial (Bio-Me-nanomaterials) production are not yet completely elucidated, a key advantage of such bio-nanostructures over those chemically synthesized is related to their natural thermodynamic stability, with several studies ascribed to the presence of an organic layer surrounding these Bio-Me-nanostructures...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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