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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124970/a-review-on-the-nucleic-acid-constituents-in-mushrooms-nucleobases-nucleosides-and-nucleotides
#1
Chia-Wei Phan, Joon-Keong Wang, Shiau-Chuen Cheah, Murali Naidu, Pamela David, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Mushrooms have become increasingly important as a reliable food source. They have also been recognized as an important source of bioactive compounds of high nutritional and medicinal values. The nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides found in mushrooms play important roles in the regulation of various physiological processes in the human body via the purinergic and/or pyrimidine receptors. Cordycepin, a 3'-deoxyadenosine found in Cordyceps sinensis has received much attention as it possesses many medicinal values including anticancer properties...
November 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124966/marine-natural-pigments-as-potential-sources-for-therapeutic-applications
#2
Panchanathan Manivasagan, Subramaniyan Bharathiraja, Madhappan Santha Moorthy, Sudip Mondal, Hansu Seo, Kang Dae Lee, Junghwan Oh
In recent years, marine natural pigments have emerged as a powerful alternative in the various fields of food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries because of their excellent biocompatibility, bioavailability, safety, and stability. Marine organisms are recognized as a rich source of natural pigments such as chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobiliproteins. Numerous studies have shown that marine natural pigments have considerable medicinal potential and promising applications in human health. In this review, we summarize the marine natural pigments as potential sources for therapeutic applications, including: antioxidant, anticancer, antiangiogenic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory activities, drug delivery, photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and wound healing...
November 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124963/relevance-and-bio-catalytic-strategies-for-the-kinetic-resolution-of-ketoprofen-towards-dexketoprofen
#3
María Victoria Toledo, Laura Estefanía Briand
This review presents the most relevant investigations concerning the biocatalytic kinetic resolution of racemic ketoprofen to dexketoprofen for the last 22 years. The advantages related to the administration of the dex-enantiomer in terms of human health, the so called "chiral switch" in the pharmaceutical industry and the sustainability of biotransformations have been the driving forces to develop innovative technology to obtain dexketoprofen. In particular, the kinetic resolution of racemic ketoprofen through enantiomeric esterification and hydrolysis using lipases as biocatalysts are thoroughly revised and commented upon...
November 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124958/streptomyces-sp-is-a-powerful-biotechnological-tool-for-the-biodegradation-of-hch-isomers-biochemical-and-molecular-basis
#4
S A Cuozzo, P E Sineli, J Davila Costa, G Tortella
Actinobacteria are well-known degraders of toxic materials that have the ability to tolerate and remove organochloride pesticides; thus, they are used for bioremediation. The biodegradation of organochlorines by actinobacteria has been demonstrated in pure and mixed cultures with the concomitant production of metabolic intermediates including γ-pentachlorocyclohexene (γ-PCCH); 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-1,4-cyclohexadiene (1,4-TCDN); 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (1,3-DCB), or 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB); 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (1,2,3-TCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB), or 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB); 1,3-DCB; and 1,2-DCB...
November 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124949/reassessment-of-inclusion-body-based-production-as-a-versatile-opportunity-for-difficult-to-express-recombinant-proteins
#5
Daniel Hoffmann, Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Doreen Gerlach, Denise Salzig, Peter Czermak
The production of recombinant proteins in the microbial host Escherichia coli often results in the formation of cytoplasmic protein inclusion bodies (IBs). Proteins forming IBs are often branded as difficult-to-express, neglecting that IBs can be an opportunity for their production. IBs are resistant to proteolytic degradation and contain up to 90% pure recombinant protein, which does not interfere with the host metabolism. This is especially advantageous for host-toxic proteins like antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)...
November 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082760/white-rot-fungi-and-advanced-combined-biotechnology-with-nanomaterials-promising-tools-for-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-biotransformation
#6
Danlian Huang, Xueying Guo, Zhiwei Peng, Guangming Zeng, Piao Xu, Xiaomin Gong, Rui Deng, Wenjing Xue, Rongzhong Wang, Huan Yi, Caihong Liu
Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can interfere with endocrine systems and bio-accumulate through the food chain and even decrease biodiversity in contaminated areas. This review discusses a critical overview of recent research progress in the biotransformation of EDCs (including polychlorinated biphenyl and nonylphenol, and suspected EDCs such as heavy metals and sulfonamide antibiotics) by white rot fungi (WRF) based on techniques with an emphasis on summarizing and analyzing fungal molecular, metabolic and genetic mechanisms...
October 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041813/regulatory-science-requirements-of-labeling-of-genetically-modified-food
#7
A Alan Moghissi, Lisa M Jaeger, Dania Shafei, Lindsey L Bloom
This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and genetically engineered, edited or modified crops, otherwise known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). It uses the Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC) to evaluate the scientific validity of claims applicable to GMO and the Best Available Public Information (BAPI) to evaluate the pronouncements by public media and others...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027469/bucking-the-current-trend-in-bioelectrochemical-systems-a-case-for-bioelectroanalytics
#8
Thomas William Seviour, Jamie Hinks
Turning wastewater directly into electricity is alluring, widespread use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to achieve this at industrial scale appears increasingly unlikely despite intense research efforts lasting over a decade. Such endeavors have not been futile, however, and game-changing discoveries have resulted from these well-intentioned, scientifically rigorous but ultimately frustrated attempts to resolve the Waste-Energy dichotomy. The appeal of MFCs is largely of conceptual elegance rather than financial competitiveness, based on the green ideal that bacteria can be turned into cost effective bio-batteries...
October 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954542/standardization-in-synthetic-biology-an-engineering-discipline-coming-of-age
#9
Thomas Decoene, Brecht De Paepe, Jo Maertens, Pieter Coussement, Gert Peters, Sofie L De Maeseneire, Marjan De Mey
BACKGROUND: Leaping DNA read-and-write technologies, and extensive automation and miniaturization are radically transforming the field of biological experimentation by providing the tools that enable the cost-effective high-throughput required to address the enormous complexity of biological systems. However, standardization of the synthetic biology workflow has not kept abreast with dwindling technical and resource constraints, leading, for example, to the collection of multi-level and multi-omics large data sets that end up disconnected or remain under- or even unexploited...
September 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954541/standardized-reactors-for-the-study-of-medical-biofilms-a-review-of-the-principles-and-latest-modifications
#10
Inês B Gomes, Ana Meireles, Ana L Gonçalves, Darla M Goeres, Jelmer Sjollema, Lúcia C Simões, Manuel Simões
Biofilms can cause severe problems to human health due to the high tolerance to antimicrobials; consequently, biofilm science and technology constitutes an important research field. Growing a relevant biofilm in the laboratory provides insights into the basic understanding of the biofilm life cycle including responses to antibiotic therapies. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate biofilm reactor is a critical decision, necessary to obtain reproducible and reliable in vitro results. A reactor should be chosen based upon the study goals and a balance between the pros and cons associated with its use and operational conditions that are as similar as possible to the clinical setting...
September 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954540/recent-advances-in-biological-production-of-erythritol
#11
Dorota A Rzechonek, Adam Dobrowolski, Waldemar Rymowicz, Aleksandra M Mirończuk
Erythritol is a natural sweetener commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Produced by microorganisms as an osmoprotectant, it is an ideal sucrose substitute for diabetics or overweight persons due to its almost zero calorie content. Currently, erythritol is produced on an industrial scale through the fermentation of sugars by some yeasts, such as Moniliella sp. However, the popularity of erythritol as a sweetener is still small because of its high retail price. This creates an opportunity for further process improvement...
September 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937283/engineering-rubisco-activase-from-thermophilic-cyanobacteria-into-high-temperature-sensitive-plants
#12
Chukwuma C Ogbaga, Piotr Stepien, Habib-Ur-Rehman Athar, Muhammad Ashraf
In the past decade, various strategies to improve photosynthesis and crop yield, such as leaf morphology, light interception and use efficiency, biochemistry of light reactions, stomatal conductance, carboxylation efficiency, and source to sink regulation, have been discussed at length. Leaf morphology and physiology are tightly coupled to light capturing efficiency, gas exchange capacity, and temperature regulation. However, apart from the photoprotective mechanism of photosystem-II (PSII), i.e. non-photochemical quenching, very low genetic variation in the components of light reactions has been observed in plants...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936894/recent-advances-in-protein-engineering-and-biotechnological-applications-of-glutathione-transferases
#13
Fereniki Perperopoulou, Fotini Pouliou, Nikolaos E Labrou
Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are a widespread family of enzymes that play a central role in the detoxification, metabolism, and transport or sequestration of endogenous or xenobiotic compounds. During the last two decades, delineation of the important structural and catalytic features of GSTs has laid the groundwork for engineering GSTs, involving both rational and random approaches, aiming to create new variants with new or altered properties. These approaches have expanded the usefulness of native GSTs, not only for understanding the fundamentals of molecular detoxification mechanisms, but also for the development medical, analytical, environmental, and agricultural applications...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936886/inducible-crispr-genome-editing-tool-classifications-and-future-trends
#14
Xiaofeng Dai, Xiao Chen, Qiuwu Fang, Jia Li, Zhonghu Bai
The discovery of CRISPR-Cas9/dCas9 system has reinforced our ability and revolutionized our history in genome engineering. While Cas9 and dCas9 are programed to modulate gene expression by introducing DNA breaks, blocking transcription factor recruitment or dragging functional groups towards the targeted sites, sgRNAs determine the genomic loci where the modulation occurs. The off-target problem, due to limited sgRNA specificity and genome complexity of many species, has posed concerns for the wide application of this revolutionary technique...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936877/botryococcus-as-an-alternative-source-of-carotenoids-and-its-possible-applications-an-overview
#15
Ranga Rao Ambati, Deepika Gogisetty, Ravishankar Aswathnarayana Gokare, Sarada Ravi, Panduranga Narasimharao Bikkina, Yuepeng Su, Bo Lei
The enhanced interest in carotenoid research arises partly because of their application in the food and health industries and partly because of the necessity to find a commercially viable natural source for their mass production. The bottlenecks in finding a natural source of carotenoids which can compete with the synthetic products is the mass production of the organism that produces carotenoids, cell harvesting and extraction methods of carotenoids. The microalga Botryococcus braunii is an interesting organism for its commercial value as a rich source of carotenoids...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920460/in-situ-biobutanol-recovery-from-clostridial-fermentations-a-critical-review
#16
Pablo Jiménez-Bonilla, Yi Wang
Butanol is a precursor of many industrial chemicals, and a fuel that is more energetic, safer and easier to handle than ethanol. Fermentative biobutanol can be produced using renewable carbon sources such as agro-industrial residues and lignocellulosic biomass. Solventogenic clostridia are known as the most preeminent biobutanol producers. However, until now, solvent production through the fermentative routes is still not economically competitive compared to the petrochemical approaches, because the butanol is toxic to their own producer bacteria, and thus, the production capability is limited by the butanol tolerance of producing cells...
September 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911245/recent-advances-on-conversion-and-co-production-of-acetone-butanol-ethanol-into-high-value-added-bioproducts
#17
Fengxue Xin, Weiliang Dong, Yujia Jiang, Jiangfeng Ma, Wenming Zhang, Hao Wu, Min Zhang, Min Jiang
Butanol is an important bulk chemical and has been regarded as an advanced biofuel. Large-scale production of butanol has been applied for more than 100 years, but its production through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process by solventogenic Clostridium species is still not economically viable due to the low butanol titer and yield caused by the toxicity of butanol and a by-product, such as acetone. Renewed interest in biobutanol as a biofuel has spurred technological advances to strain modification and fermentation process design...
September 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903604/remediation-of-contaminated-soils-by-biotechnology-with-nanomaterials-bio-behavior-applications-and-perspectives
#18
Xiaomin Gong, Danlian Huang, Yunguo Liu, Zhiwei Peng, Guangming Zeng, Piao Xu, Min Cheng, Rongzhong Wang, Jia Wan
Soil contamination caused by heavy metals and organic pollutants has drawn world-wide concern. Biotechnology has been applied for many years to the decontamination of soils polluted with organic and inorganic contaminants, and novel nanomaterials (NMs) has attracted much concern due to their high capacity for the removal/stabilization/degradation of pollutants. Recently, developing advanced biotechnology with NMs for the remediation of contaminated soils has become a hot research topic. Some researchers found that bioremediation efficiency of contaminated soils was enhanced by the addition of NMs, while others demonstrated that the toxicity of NMs to the organism negatively influenced the repair capacity of polluted soils...
September 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882077/review-the-potential-impact-of-surface-crystalline-states-of-titanium-for-biomedical-applications
#19
Julien Barthes, Sait Ciftci, Florian Ponzio, Helena Knopf-Marques, Liza Pelyhe, Alexandru Gudima, Imre Kientzl, Eszter Bognár, Miklós Weszl, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Nihal Engin Vrana
In many biomedical applications, titanium forms an interface with tissues, which is crucial to ensure its long-term stability and safety. In order to exert control over this process, titanium implants have been treated with various methods that induce physicochemical changes at nano and microscales. In the past 20 years, most of the studies have been conducted to see the effect of topographical and physicochemical changes of titanium surface after surface treatments on cells behavior and bacteria adhesion...
September 7, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877637/ghost-probiotics-with-a-combined-regimen-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-against-the-zika-virus-an-emerging-world-threat
#20
Vivek K Bajpai, Vishal Chandra, Na-Hyung Kim, Rajni Rai, Pradeep Kumar, Kangmin Kim, Abhinav Aeron, Sun Chul Kang, D K Maheshwari, MinKyun Na, Irfan A Rather, Yong-Ha Park
The Zika virus (ZIKV) used to be an obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue virus (DENV). Transmission of this epidemic pathogen occurs mainly via mosquitoes, but it is also capable of placental and sexual transmission. Although the characteristics of these viruses are well defined, infections are unpredictable in terms of disease severity, unusual clinical manifestations, unexpected methods of transmission, long-term persistence, and the development of new strains. Recently, ZIKV has gained huge medical attention following the large-scale epidemics around the world, and reported cases of congenital abnormalities associated with Zika virus infections which have created a public health emergency of international concern...
September 7, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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