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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Micael Karlberg, Moritz von Stosch, Jarka Glassey
In today's biopharmaceutical industries, the lead time to develop and produce a new monoclonal antibody takes years before it can be launched commercially. The reasons lie in the complexity of the monoclonal antibodies and the need for high product quality to ensure clinical safety which has a significant impact on the process development time. Frameworks such as quality by design are becoming widely used by the pharmaceutical industries as they introduce a systematic approach for building quality into the product...
March 7, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jiaxin Chen, Ji Li, Xiaolei Zhang, Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi, Wenyi Dong
Utilization of microbial oil for biodiesel production has gained growing interest due to the increase in prices and the shortage of the oils and fats traditionally used in biodiesel production. However, it is still in the laboratory study stage due to the high cost of production. Employing organic wastes as raw materials to grow heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms for further lipid production to produce biodiesel has been predicted to be a promising method for reducing costs. However, there are many obstacles including the low biodegradability of organic wastes, low lipid accumulation capacity of heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms while using organic wastes, a great dependence on a high-energy consumption approach for biomass harvesting, utilization of toxic organic solvents for lipid extraction, and large amount of methanol required in trans-esterification and in-situ trans-esterifications...
March 6, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Elena Piacenza, Alessandro Presentato, Raymond J Turner
In the last 15 years, the exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, bacteria, mycelial fungi, yeasts, and algae) to produce metal(loid) (Me)-based nanomaterials has been evaluated as eco-friendly and a cost-effective alternative to the chemical synthesis processes. Although the biological mechanisms of biogenic Me-nanomaterial (Bio-Me-nanomaterials) production are not yet completely elucidated, a key advantage of such bio-nanostructures over those chemically synthesized is related to their natural thermodynamic stability, with several studies ascribed to the presence of an organic layer surrounding these Bio-Me-nanostructures...
February 25, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jian-Zhong Xu, Han-Kun Yang, Wei-Guo Zhang
Reduced nicotinamide adenine nucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is one of the key cofactors in the metabolic network, plays an important role in the biochemical reactions, and physiological function of amino acid-producing strains. The manipulation of NADPH availability and form is an efficient and easy method of redirecting the carbon flux to the amino acid biosynthesis in industrial strains. In this review, we survey the metabolic mode of NADPH. Furthermore, we summarize the research developments in the understanding of the relationship between NADPH metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis...
February 25, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Bing-Huei Chen, Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj
Amidst numerous emerging nanoparticles, cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) possess fascinating pharmacological potential as they can be used as a therapeutic for various oxidative stress-associated chronic diseases such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegeneration due to unique redox cycling between Ce3+ and Ce4+ oxidation states on their surface. Lattice defects generated by the formation of Ce3+ ions and compensation by oxygen vacancies on CNPs surface has led to switching between CeO2 and CeO2-x during redox reactions making CNPs a lucrative catalytic nanoparticle capable of mimicking key natural antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase...
February 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Raquel Liébana, Oskar Modin, Frank Persson, Britt-Marie Wilén
Environmental deterioration together with the need for water reuse and the increasingly restrictive legislation of water quality standards have led to a demand for compact, efficient and less energy consuming technologies for wastewater treatment. Aerobic granular sludge and membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are two technologies with several advantages, such as small footprint, high-microbial density and activity, ability to operate at high organic- and nitrogen-loading rates, and tolerance to toxicity. However, they also have some disadvantages...
February 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Si-Jia Xue, Zhe Chi, Yu Zhang, Yan-Feng Li, Guang-Lei Liu, Hong Jiang, Zhong Hu, Zhen-Ming Chi
PURPOSE: Oleaginous yeasts, fatty acids biosynthesis and regulation in the oleaginous yeasts and the fatty acids from the oleaginous yeasts and their applications are reviewed in this article. RESULTS: Oleaginous yeasts such as Rhodosporidium toruloides, Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Aureobasidium melanogenum, which can accumulate over 50% lipid of their cell dry weight, have many advantages over other oleaginous microorganisms. The fatty acids from the oleaginous yeasts have many potential applications...
February 1, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Bo Jiang, Naifu Jin, Yi Xing, Yuping Su, Dayi Zhang
Uncultivable microorganisms account for over 99% of all species on earth, playing essential roles in ecological processes such as carbon/nitrogen cycle and chemical mineralization. Their functions remain unclear in ecosystems and natural habitats, requiring cutting-edge biotechnologies for a deeper understanding. Stable isotope probing (SIP) incorporates isotope-labeled elements, e.g. 13 C, 18 O or 15 N, into the cellular components of active microorganisms, serving as a powerful tool to link phylogenetic identities to their ecological functions in situ...
February 1, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Aysha Hamad Alneyadi, Muhammad A Rauf, S Salman Ashraf
Water contamination by various recalcitrant organic aromatic compounds is an emerging environmental issue that is increasingly attracting the attention of environmental scientists. A great majority of these recalcitrant pollutants are industrial wastes, textile dyes, pharmaceuticals, hormones, and personal care products that are discharged into wastewater. Not surprisingly, various chemical, physical, and biological strategies have been proposed and developed to remove and/or degrade these pollutants from contaminated water bodies...
January 31, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Abdul Basit, Junquan Liu, Kashif Rahim, Wei Jiang, Huiqiang Lou
Lignocellulosic biomass is a valuable raw material. As technology has evolved, industrial interest in new ways to take advantage of this raw material has grown. Biomass is treated with different microbial cells or enzymes under ideal industrial conditions to produce the desired products. Xylanases are the key enzymes that degrade the xylosidic linkages in the xylan backbone of the biomass, and commercial enzymes are categorized into different glycoside hydrolase families. Thermophilic microorganisms are excellent sources of industrially relevant thermostable enzymes that can withstand the harsh conditions of industrial processing...
January 17, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Shrutika L Wadgaonkar, Yarlagadda V Nancharaiah, Giovanni Esposito, Piet N L Lens
Selenium concentrations in the soil environment are directly linked to its transfer in the food chain, eventually causing either deficiency or toxicity associated with several physiological dysfunctions in animals and humans. Selenium bioavailability depends on its speciation in the soil environment, which is mainly influenced by the prevailing pH, redox potential, and organic matter content of the soil. The selenium cycle in the environment is primarily mediated through chemical and biological selenium transformations...
January 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sonia Gutiérrez-Granados, Laura Cervera, Amine A Kamen, Francesc Gòdia
Transient gene expression (TGE) in animal cell cultures has been used for almost 30 years to produce milligrams and grams of recombinant proteins, virus-like particles and viral vectors, mainly for research purposes. The need to increase the amount of product has led to a scale-up of TGE protocols. Moreover, product quality and process reproducibility are also of major importance, especially when TGE is employed for the preparation of clinical lots. This work gives an overview of the different technologies that are available for TGE and how they can be combined, depending on each application...
January 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jagdeep Singh, Vicky Saharan, Sanjay Kumar, Pooja Gulati, Rajeev Kumar Kapoor
PURPOSE: Conventional wastewater treatment technologies are not good enough to completely remove all endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from the water. Membrane separation systems have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional clarification processes for waste and drinking water. Coupling of a membrane separation process with an enzymatic reaction has opened up new avenues to further enhance the quality of water. This review article deliberates the feasibility of implementing enzymatic membrane reactors has been deliberated...
December 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Shasmita, Manoj K Rai, Soumendra K Naik
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves...
December 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Chandrasekhar Kuppam, Ackmez Mudhoo, Ganesh D Saratale, Abudukeremu Kadier, Guangyin Zhen, Lucile Chatellard, Eric Trably, Gopalakrishnan Kumar
This review provides the alternative routes towards the valorization of dark H2 fermentation effluents that are mainly rich in volatile fatty acids such as acetate and butyrate. Various enhancement and alternative routes such as photo fermentation, anaerobic digestion, utilization of microbial electrochemical systems, and algal system towards the generation of bioenergy and electricity and also for efficient organic matter utilization are highlighted. What is more, various integration schemes and two-stage fermentation for the possible scale up are reviewed...
December 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Justin Bryan Goh, Say Kong Ng
Protein glycosylation is post-translational modification (PTM) which is important for pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of recombinant glycoprotein therapeutics. As a result of variations in monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages and glycan branching, glycosylation introduces considerable complexity and heterogeneity to therapeutics. The host cell line used to produce the glycoprotein has a strong influence on the glycosylation because different host systems may express varying repertoire of glycosylation enzymes and transporters that contributes to specificity and heterogeneity in glycosylation profiles...
December 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xixi Zhao, Liangfu Zhou, Muhammad Shahid Riaz Rajoka, Lu Yan, Chunmei Jiang, Dongyan Shao, Jing Zhu, Junling Shi, Qingsheng Huang, Hui Yang, Mingliang Jin
PURPOSE: This paper aims to summarize recent developments regarding the synthesis, application and challenges of fungal AgNPs. Possible methods to overcome the challenge of synthesis and reduce the toxicity of AgNPs have been discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review consults and summary a large number of papers. RESULTS: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have great potential in many areas, as they possess multiple novel characteristics. Conventional methods for AgNPs biosynthesis involve chemical agents, causing environmental toxicity and high energy consumption...
December 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ruly Terán Hilares, Lucas Ramos, Silvio Silvério da Silva, Giuliano Dragone, Solange I Mussatto, Júlio César Dos Santos
Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is a process technology with potential for application in different areas including environmental, food processing, and biofuels production. Although HC is an undesirable phenomenon for hydraulic equipment, the net energy released during this process is enough to accelerate certain chemical reactions. The application of cavitation energy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment is an interesting strategy proposed for integration in biorefineries for the production of bio-based products...
December 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Matthias Raberg, Elena Volodina, Kaichien Lin, Alexander Steinbüchel
Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 is a Gram-negative non-pathogenic betaproteobacterium ubiquitously found in soils and has been the subject of intensive research for more than 50 years. Due to its remarkable metabolically versatility, it utilizes a broad range of renewable heterotrophic resources. The substrate utilization range can be further extended by metabolic engineering as genetic tools are available. It has become the best studied "Knallgas" bacterium capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth with hydrogen as the electron donor and carbon dioxide as the carbon source...
December 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Navnita Srivastva, Abhishek Singh, Yashpal Bhardwaj, Suresh Kumar Dubey
Isoprene, the ubiquitous, highly emitted non-methane volatile hydrocarbon, affects atmospheric chemistry and human health, and this makes its removal from the contaminated environment imperative. Physicochemical degradation of isoprene is inefficient and generates secondary pollutants. Therefore, biodegradation can be considered as the safer approach for its efficient abatement. This review summarizes efforts in this regard that led to tracking the diverse groups of isoprene degrading bacteria such as Methanotrophs, Xanthobacter, Nocardia, Alcaligenes, Rhodococcus, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Pseudomonas, and Alcanivorax...
December 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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