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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100080/the-commercialization-of-genome-editing-technologies
#1
Katelyn Brinegar, Ali K Yetisen, Sun Choi, Emily Vallillo, Guillermo U Ruiz-Esparza, Anand M Prabhakar, Ali Khademhosseini, Seok-Hyun Yun
The emergence of new gene-editing technologies is profoundly transforming human therapeutics, agriculture, and industrial biotechnology. Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) have created a fertile environment for mass-scale manufacturing of cost-effective products ranging from basic research to translational medicine. In our analyses, we evaluated the patent landscape of gene-editing technologies and found that in comparison to earlier gene-editing techniques, CRISPR has gained significant traction and this has established dominance...
January 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095718/key-players-associated-with-tuberization-in-potato-potential-candidates-for-genetic-engineering
#2
Som Dutt, Anshul Sharma Manjul, Pinky Raigond, Brajesh Singh, Sundaresha Siddappa, Vinay Bhardwaj, Prashant G Kawar, Virupakshagouda U Patil, Hemant Balasaheb Kardile
Tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a complex biological phenomenon which is affected by several environmental cues, genetic factors and plant nutrition. Understanding the regulation of tuber induction is essential to devise strategies to improve tuber yield and quality. It is well established that short-day photoperiods promote tuberization, whereas long days and high-temperatures inhibit or delay tuberization. Worldwide research on this complex biological process has yielded information on the important bio-molecules (proteins, RNAs, plant growth regulators) associated with the tuberization process in potato...
January 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078904/malonyl-coa-pathway-a-promising-route-for-3-hydroxypropionate-biosynthesis
#3
Changshui Liu, Yamei Ding, Mo Xian, Min Liu, Huizhou Liu, Qingjun Ma, Guang Zhao
3-Hydroxypropionate (3HP) is an attractive platform chemical, serving as a precursor to a variety of commodity chemicals like acrylate and acrylamide, as well as a monomer of a biodegradable plastic. To establish a sustainable way to produce these commercially important chemicals and materials, fermentative production of 3HP is widely investigated in recent years. It is reported that 3HP can be produced from several intermediates, such as glycerol, malonyl-CoA, and β-alanine. Among all these biosynthetic routes, the malonyl-CoA pathway has some distinct advantages, including a broad feedstock spectrum, thermodynamic feasibility, and redox neutrality...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076998/phosphate-phytate-and-phytases-in-plants-from-fundamental-knowledge-gained-in-arabidopsis-to-potential-biotechnological-applications-in-wheat
#4
David Secco, Nadia Bouain, Aida Rouached, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai, Moez Hanin, Ajay K Pandey, Hatem Rouached
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. In plants, P is taken up from the rhizosphere by the roots mainly as inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is required in large and sufficient quantities to maximize crop yields. In today's agricultural society, crop yield is mostly ensured by the excessive use of Pi fertilizers, a costly practice neither eco-friendly or sustainable. Therefore, generating plants with improved P use efficiency (PUE) is of major interest. Among the various strategies employed to date, attempts to engineer genetically modified crops with improved capacity to utilize phytate (PA), the largest soil P form and unfortunately not taken up by plants, remains a key challenge...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076995/biosurfactants-in-cosmetic-formulations-trends-and-challenges
#5
X Vecino, J M Cruz, A B Moldes, L R Rodrigues
Cosmetic products play an essential role in everyone's life. People everyday use a large variety of cosmetic products such as soap, shampoo, toothpaste, deodorant, skin care, perfume, make-up, among others. The cosmetic industry encompasses several environmental, social and economic impacts that are being addressed through the search for more efficient manufacturing techniques, the reduction of waste and emissions and the promotion of personal hygiene, contributing to an improvement of public health and at the same time providing employment opportunities...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056558/mechanisms-and-strategies-of-plant-defense-against-botrytis-cinerea
#6
Synan AbuQamar, Khaled Moustafa, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Biotic factors affect plant immune responses and plant resistance to pathogen infections. Despite the considerable progress made over the past two decades in manipulating genes, proteins and their levels from diverse sources, no complete genetic tolerance to environmental stresses has been developed so far in any crops. Plant defense response to pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea, is a complex biological process involving various changes at the biochemical, molecular (i.e. transcriptional) and physiological levels...
January 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049355/natural-production-of-fluorinated-compounds-and-biotechnological-prospects-of-the-fluorinase-enzyme
#7
Maria F Carvalho, Rui S Oliveira
Fluorinated compounds are finding increasing uses in several applications. They are employed in almost all areas of modern society. These compounds are all produced by chemical synthesis and their abundance highly contrasts with fluorinated molecules of natural origin. To date, only some plants and a handful of actinomycetes species are known to produce a small number of fluorinated compounds that include fluoroacetate (FA), some ω-fluorinated fatty acids, nucleocidin, 4-fluorothreonine (4-FT), and the more recently identified (2R3S4S)-5-fluoro-2,3,4-trihydroxypentanoic acid...
January 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049350/bacteriocins-from-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-their-potential-in-the-preservation-of-fruit-products
#8
Ana Andréa Teixeira Barbosa, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Sona Jain
Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well-recognized for their potential as natural food preservatives. These antimicrobial peptides usually do not change the sensorial properties of food products and can be used in combination with traditional preservation methods to ensure microbial stability. In recent years, fruit products are increasingly being associated with food-borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, and bacteriocins are important candidates to preserve these products. Bacteriocins have been extensively studied to preserve foods of animal origin...
January 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049347/strategies-to-enhance-biologically-active-secondary-metabolites-in-cell-cultures-of-artemisia-current-trends
#9
Mohammad Ali, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Nisar Ahmad, Haji Khan, Gul Shad Ali
The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin...
January 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049346/genoproteomics-assisted-improvement-of-andrographis-paniculata-toward-a-promising-molecular-and-conventional-breeding-platform-for-autogamous-plants-affecting-the-pharmaceutical-industry
#10
Alireza Valdiani, Daryush Talei, Surrinder K Lattoo, Rodomiro Ortiz, Søren Kjærsgaard Rasmussen, Jacqueline Batley, Mohd Yusop Rafii, Mahmood Maziah, Kallevettankuzhy K Sabu, Rambod Abiri, Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul, Soon Guan Tan
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees. (AP) is a hermaphroditic, self-compatible, and habitual inbreeding plant. Its main bioactive component is andrographolide, which is capable of inducing autophagic cell death in some human cancer cells and helps fight HIV/AIDS. Increasing the andrographolide content by investigating the genetic mechanisms controlling its biosynthesis in order to improve and develop high-yielding cultivars are the main breeding targets for AP. However, there might exist some limitations or barriers for crossability within AP accessions...
January 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043169/compatible-solute-addition-to-biological-systems-treating-waste-wastewater-to-counteract-osmotic-and-other-environmental-stresses-a-review
#11
Ioannis Vyrides, David C Stuckey
This study reviews the addition of compatible solutes to biological systems as a strategy to counteract osmolarity and other environmental stresses. At high osmolarity many microorganisms accumulate organic solutes called "compatible solutes" in order to balance osmotic pressure between the cytoplasm and the environment. These organic compounds are called compatible solutes because they can function inside the cell without the need for special adaptation of the intracellular enzymes, and also serve as protein stabilizers in the presence of high ionic strength...
January 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26953525/identification-and-detoxification-of-glycolaldehyde-an-unattended-bioethanol-fermentation-inhibitor
#12
Lahiru N Jayakody, Jannatul Ferdouse, Nobuyuki Hayashi, Hiroshi Kitagaki
Although there have been approximately 60 chemical compounds identified as potent fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysate, our research group recently discovered glycolaldehyde as a key fermentation inhibitor during second generation biofuel production. Accordingly, we have developed a yeast S. cerevisiae strain exhibiting tolerance to glycolaldehyde. During this glycolaldehyde study, we established novel approaches for rational engineering of inhibitor-tolerant S. cerevisiae strains, including engineering redox cofactors and engineering the SUMOylation pathway...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26863480/current-trends-in-endotoxin-detection-and-analysis-of-endotoxin-protein-interactions
#13
Elvina Clarie Dullah, Clarence M Ongkudon
Endotoxin is a type of pyrogen that can be found in Gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin can form a stable interaction with other biomolecules thus making its removal difficult especially during the production of biopharmaceutical drugs. The prevention of endotoxins from contaminating biopharmaceutical products is paramount as endotoxin contamination, even in small quantities, can result in fever, inflammation, sepsis, tissue damage and even lead to death. Highly sensitive and accurate detection of endotoxins are keys in the development of biopharmaceutical products derived from Gram-negative bacteria...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26863269/gold-nanoparticles-and-bioconjugation-a-pathway-for-proteomic-applications
#14
Cláudia Couto, Rui Vitorino, Ana L Daniel-da-Silva
In the last few years gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) became extremely interesting materials due to their enhanced optical, chemical and electrical properties. With the intention of taking advantage of those properties, the use of AuNPs has spread into a wide variety of areas such as physics, chemistry, biology, industry and medicine. More interestingly, their ability to form robust conjugates with biomolecules has given proteomics a new tool to improve aspects where the current methods to study proteins and their interactions in living cells cannot achieve the success required...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26810214/advances-in-management-and-utilization-of-invasive-water-hyacinth-eichhornia-crassipes-in-aquatic-ecosystems-a-review
#15
Shao-Hua Yan, Wei Song, Jun-Yao Guo
The objective of this review is to provide a concise summary of literature in the Chinese language since late 1970s and focuses on recent development in global scenarios. This work will replenish the FAO summary of water hyacinth utilization from 1917 to 1979 and review ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the water hyacinth from 1980 to 2010. This review also discusses the debate on whether the growth of the water hyacinth is a problem, a challenge or an opportunity. Literature suggested that integrated technologies and good management may be an effective solution and the perception of water hyacinth could change from that of a notorious aquatic weed to a valuable resource, including its utilization as a biological agent for the application in bioremediation for removing excess nutrients from eutrophic water bodies at low cost...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26810104/success-evaluation-of-the-biological-control-of-fusarium-wilts-of-cucumber-banana-and-tomato-since-2000-and-future-research-strategies
#16
Waseem Raza, Ning Ling, Ruifu Zhang, Qiwei Huang, Yangchun Xu, Qirong Shen
The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum strains is the most devastating disease of cucumber, banana, and tomato. The biological control of this disease has become an attractive alternative to the chemical fungicides and other conventional control methods. In this review, the research trends and biological control efficiencies (BCE) of different microbial strains since 2000 are reviewed in detail, considering types of microbial genera, inoculum application methods, plant growth medium and conditions, inoculum application with amendments, and co-inoculation of different microbial strains and how those affect the BCE of Fusarium wilt...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26796880/plant-pathogen-interactions-toward-development-of-next-generation-disease-resistant-plants
#17
Naghmeh Nejat, James Rookes, Nitin L Mantri, David M Cahill
Briskly evolving phytopathogens are dire threats to our food supplies and threaten global food security. From the recent advances made toward high-throughput sequencing technologies, understanding of pathogenesis and effector biology, and plant innate immunity, translation of these means into new control tools is being introduced to develop durable disease resistance. Effectoromics as a powerful genetic tool for uncovering effector-target genes, both susceptibility genes and executor resistance genes in effector-assisted breeding, open up new avenues to improve resistance...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26767547/flow-cytometry-basic-principles-and-applications
#18
Aysun Adan, Günel Alizada, Yağmur Kiraz, Yusuf Baran, Ayten Nalbant
Flow cytometry is a sophisticated instrument measuring multiple physical characteristics of a single cell such as size and granularity simultaneously as the cell flows in suspension through a measuring device. Its working depends on the light scattering features of the cells under investigation, which may be derived from dyes or monoclonal antibodies targeting either extracellular molecules located on the surface or intracellular molecules inside the cell. This approach makes flow cytometry a powerful tool for detailed analysis of complex populations in a short period of time...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26767435/published-gmo-studies-find-no-evidence-of-harm-when-corrected-for-multiple-comparisons
#19
Alexander Y Panchin, Alexander I Tuzhikov
A number of widely debated research articles claiming possible technology-related health concerns have influenced the public opinion on genetically modified food safety. We performed a statistical reanalysis and review of experimental data presented in some of these studies and found that quite often in contradiction with the authors' conclusions the data actually provides weak evidence of harm that cannot be differentiated from chance. In our opinion the problem of statistically unaccounted multiple comparisons has led to some of the most cited anti-genetically modified organism health claims in history...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26745578/insight-into-microbial-mannosidases-a-review
#20
Prakram Singh Chauhan, Naveen Gupta
Mannan is the major constituent of hemicelluloses in softwoods. Mannan hydrolyzing enzymes cleave the 1,4-β-mannopyranosyl linkages of the hetero-1,4-β-d-mannans to yield mannose. β-Mannosidases are mandatory for the complete depolymerization of mannan, these are exo-acting enzymes, which acts on non-reducing end of mannooligomers and on mannobiose removing mannose residues. Some plants and actinomycetes produce mannosidases but mainly these enzymes are produced by bacteria and fungi. The majority of microorganisms produce these enzymes extracellularly and their activity is in a wide range of pH and temperature...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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