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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Aili Bao, David J Burritt, Haifeng Chen, Xinan Zhou, Dong Cao, Lam-Son Phan Tran
The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein9) system is an RNA-guided genome editing tool that consists of a Cas9 nuclease and a single-guide RNA (sgRNA). By base-pairing with a DNA target sequence, the sgRNA enables Cas9 to recognize and cut a specific target DNA sequence, generating double strand breaks (DSBs) that trigger cell repair mechanisms and mutations at or near the DSBs sites. Since its discovery, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized genome editing and is now becoming widely utilized to edit the genomes of a diverse range of crop plants...
January 15, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Thomas Mabey, Domenico Andrea Cristaldi, Petra Oyston, Karl P Lymer, Eugen Stulz, Sandra Wilks, Charles William Keevil, Xunli Zhang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have potential uses in many applications, but current chemical production methods are challenged by scalability, limited particle stability, and the use of hazardous chemicals. The biological processes present in bacteria to mitigate metallic contaminants in their environment present a potential solution to these challenges. Before commercial exploitation of this technology can be achieved, the quality of bacteriogenic AgNPs needs to be improved for certain applications. While the colloidal and morphological stabilities of biogenic AgNPs are widely regarded as superior to chemogenic particles, little control over the synthesis of particle morphologies has been achieved in biological systems...
January 2, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Wan-Cang Liu, Sarah Inwood, Ting Gong, Ashish Sharma, Li-Yan Yu, Ping Zhu
Pichia pastoris is extensively used to produce various heterologous proteins. Amounts of biopharmaceutical drugs and industrial enzymes have been successfully produced by fed-batch high-cell-density fermentation (HCDF) of this cell factory. High levels of cell mass in defined media can be easily achieved and therefore large quantities of recombinant proteins with enhanced activities and lower costs can be obtained through HCDF technology. A robust HCDF process makes a successful transition to commercial production...
January 2, 2019: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiujuan Qian, Wei Yan, Wenming Zhang, Weiliang Dong, Jiangfeng Ma, Katrin Ochsenreither, Min Jiang, Fengxue Xin
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE), an important flavor and fragrance compound with a rose-like smell has been widely used in the cosmetics, perfume, and food industries. Traditional production of 2-PE was mainly through the extraction from plant materials or by chemical synthesis. However, the increasing demand of consumers for natural flavors cannot be met by these methods. Biological production of 2-PE has emerged to be an appealing solution due to an environmental friendly process and the definition of a "natural" product...
December 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiumei Tao, Lingqia Su, Jing Wu
2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) is one of the most important l-ascorbic acid derivatives because of its resistance to reduction and oxidation and its easy degradation by α-glucosidase to release l-ascorbic acid and glucose. Thus, AA-2G has commercial uses in food, medicines and cosmetics. This article presents a review of recent studies on the enzymatic production of AA-2G using cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase. Reaction mechanisms with different donor substrates are discussed. Protein engineering, physical and biological studies of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase are introduced from the viewpoint of effective AA-2G production...
December 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Alireza Valdiani, Ole Kim Hansen, Ulrik Braüner Nielsen, Vivian Kvist Johannsen, Maryam Shariat, Milen I Georgiev, Vahid Omidvar, Mortaza Ebrahimi, Elham Tavakoli Dinanai, Rambod Abiri
Bioreactors are engineered systems capable of supporting a biologically active situation for conducting aerobic or anaerobic biochemical processes. Stability, operational ease, improved nutrient uptake capacity, time- and cost-effectiveness, and large quantities of biomass production, make bioreactors suitable alternatives to conventional plant tissue and cell culture (PTCC) methods. Bioreactors are employed in a wide range of plant research, and have evolved over time. Such technological progress, has led to remarkable achievements in the field of PTCC...
November 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
María E Elguero, Clara B Nudel, Alejandro D Nusblat
Since their description and classification in the 19th century, ciliates have played an important role in science, leading to several fundamental discoveries in the areas of cellular and molecular biology. During the last decades, with the emergence of biotechnology, many new developments are also coming to light. In this review, we describe a range of applications in which ciliates have found a niche, ranging from the production of a vast array of proteins, lipids, metabolites, and antigens to their use in toxicity screening, biocontrol, bioremediation, and biotransformation of substrates into more valuable products...
November 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
J Parada, O Rubilar, M A Fernández-Baldo, F A Bertolino, N Durán, A B Seabra, G R Tortella
Metal nanoparticles and metal oxides nanoparticles (MNPs/MONPs) have been widely included in a great diversity of products and industrial applications and they are already a part of our everyday life. According to estimation studies, their production is expected to increase exponentially in the next few years. Consequently, soil has been suggested as the main sink of MNPs/MONPs once they are deliberately or accidentally released into the environment. The potential negative perturbations that may result on soil microbial communities and ecological processes are resulting in concerns...
November 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiao Li, Qing Liu, Wenjia Li, Quanping Li, Zhengming Qian, Xingzhong Liu, Caihong Dong
Chinese cordyceps, an entity of the Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis, syn. Cordyceps sinensis) that parasitizes ghost moth larvae, is one of the best known traditional Chinese medicines and is found exclusively on the Tibetan Plateau with limited natural resources. Although the fungus O. sinensis can grow on artificial substrates and the ghost moth has been successfully reared, the large-scale artificial cultivation of Chinese cordyceps has only recently been accomplished after several decades of efforts and attempts...
November 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Asgher, Hairong Cheng, Yunjun Yan, Hafiz M N Iqbal
Engineering enzymes with improved catalytic properties in non-natural environments have been concerned with their diverse industrial and biotechnological applications. Immobilization represents a promising but straightforward route, and immobilized biocatalysts often display higher activities and stabilities compared to free enzymes. Owing to their unique physicochemical characteristics, including the high-specific surface area, exceptional chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties, efficient enzyme loading, and multivalent functionalization, nano-based materials are postulated as suitable carriers for biomolecules or enzyme immobilization...
November 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ercan Karahalil, Hasan Bugra Coban, Irfan Turhan
Various strategies have been carried out to date in order to overcome the problem of the adverse effects of bulk fungal growth in bioreactors. Nevertheless, previous conventional methods such as modifying the cultivation temperature or pH resulted in limited biomass production and consequently lower yields. In recent years microparticle enhanced cultivation (MPEC) techniques are one of the most remarkable and novel methods employed for submerged fungal production to overcome bulk microbial growth. In addition to low cost advantages, MPEC also provides benefits such as not interfering with fungal metabolism, enhancing final product concentration and improving homogeneity in the fermentation broth...
November 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Beibei Liu, Genlou Sun
Polyploid organisms have more than two sets of chromosomes, including autopolyploid via intraspecific genome doubling, and allopolyploid via merging genomes of distinct species by hybridization. Polyploid organisms are widespread in plants, indicating that polyploidy has some evolutionary advantages over its diploid ancestor. Actually, polyploidy is always tightly associated with hybrid vigor and adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. However, why polyploidy can develop such advantages is poorly known...
October 29, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Markus Dettenhofer, Miroslav Ondrejovič, Anita Slavica, Želimir Kurtanjek, Dana Tapaloaga, Paul Rodian Tapaloaga, Lejla Kapur Pojskić, Adaleta Durmić-Pašić, Jelena Begović, Viktor Nedović, Munis Dundar, Kevan M A Gartland, Stanislav Miertuš
Innovation holds the potential for economic prosperity. Biotechnology (BT) has proved to be a viable vehicle for the development and utilization of technologies, which has brought not only advances to society, but also career opportunities to nation-states that have enabling conditions. In this review, we assess the current state of BT-related activities within selected new and preaccession EU countries (NPA) of CEE region namely Croatia, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, examining educational programs, research activity, enterprises, and the financing systems...
October 29, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Markus Dettenhofer, Miroslav Ondrejovič, Viktória Vásáry, Pawel Kaszycki, Tomasz Twardowski, Stanislav Stuchlík, Ján Turňa, Munis Dundar, Kevan M A Gartland, Stanislav Miertuš
Innovation is a key determinant of sustainable growth. Biotechnology (BT) is one such industry that has witnessed a revolution in innovative ideas leading to the founding of many new companies based on providing products, solutions and services, stretching from the food industry to environmental remediation, and new medicines. BT holds much promise for the development of national and local economies, however, this requires a strategic approach involving actors within government, industry, and academia working in concert to maximize this potential...
October 29, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Swati Tyagi, Sikandar I Mulla, Kui-Jae Lee, Jong-Chan Chae, Pratyoosh Shukla
In the natural environment, plants communicate with various microorganisms (pathogenic or beneficial) and exhibit differential responses. In recent years, research on microbial volatile compounds (MVCs) has revealed them to be simple, effective and efficient groups of compounds that modulate plant growth and developmental processes. They also interfere with the signaling process. Different MVCs have been shown to promote plant growth via improved photosynthesis rates, increased plant resistance to pathogens, activated phytohormone signaling pathways, or, in some cases, inhibit plant growth, leading to death...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sicheng Shao, Yongyou Hu, Jianhua Cheng, Yuancai Chen
Antimicrobial and antibiotics resistance caused by misuse or overuse of antibiotics exposure is a growing and significant threat to global public health. The spread and horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by the selective pressure of antibiotics in an aquatic environment is a major public health issue. To develop a better understanding of potential ecological risks die to antibiotics and ARGs, this study mainly summarizes research progress about: (i) the occurrence, concentration, fate, and potential ecological effects of antibiotics and ARGs in various aquatic environments, (ii) the threat, spread, and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of ARGs, and (iii) the relationship between antibiotics, ARGs, and ARB...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sudharsanam Abinandan, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Owing to certain drawbacks, such as energy-intensive operations in conventional modes of wastewater treatment (WWT), there has been an extensive search for alternative strategies in treatment technology. Biological modes for treating wastewaters are one of the finest technologies in terms of economy and efficiency. An integrated biological approach with chemical flocculation is being conventionally practiced in several-sewage and effluent treatment plants around the world. Overwhelming responsiveness to treat wastewaters especially by using microalgae is due to their simplest photosynthetic mechanism and ease of acclimation to various habitats...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Benwei Zhu, Fang Ni, Yun Sun, Xianyu Zhu, Heng Yin, Zhong Yao, Yuguang Du
Carrageenan, a kind of linear sulfated polysaccharides consisting of D-galactose with alternating α-1,3 and β-1,4 linkages, has been widely applied in the food and cosmetic industries as thickening and gelling agents due to excellent properties, such as gel-forming ability and chemical stability. It can be degraded by carrageenases to produce a series of even-numbered carrageenan oligosaccharides, which exhibit various fascinating functions, such as anti-inflammation, anti-coagulation, anti-tumor, and anti-thrombosis effects...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
E Carsanba, S Papanikolaou, H Erten
Recently, there has been a great upsurge of interest in studies related to several aspects of microbial lipid production, which is one of the top topics in relevant research fields due to the high demand of these fatty materials in food, medical, oleochemical and biofuel industries. Lipid accumulation by the so-called "oleaginous microorganisms" can generate more than 20% w/w of oil in dry biomass and is governed by a plethora of parameters, such as medium pH, incubation temperature, nutrient limitation and C/N (carbon/nitrogen) ratio, which drastically affect the lipid production bioprocess...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Ravi Kant Bhatia, Yong-Keun Choi, Eunsung Kan, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Design of a microbial consortium is a newly emerging field that enables researchers to extend the frontiers of biotechnology from a pure culture to mixed cultures. A microbial consortium enables microbes to use a broad range of carbon sources. It provides microbes with robustness in response to environmental stress factors. Microbes in a consortium can perform complex functions that are impossible for a single organism. With advancement of technology, it is now possible to understand microbial interaction mechanism and construct consortia...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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