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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Patrycja Golinska, Dnyaneshwar Rathod, Magdalena Wypij, Indarchand Gupta, Marek Składanowski, Priti Paralikar, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai
Mycoendophytes are the fungi that occur inside the plant tissues without exerting any negative impact on the host plant. They are most frequently isolated endophytes from the leaf, stem, and root tissues of various plants. Among all fungi, the mycoendophytes as biosynthesizer of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are less known. However, some reports showing efficient synthesis of metal nanoparticles, mainly silver nanoparticles and its remarkable antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens of humans and plants...
October 17, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Haipeng Wu, Cui Lai, Guangming Zeng, Jie Liang, Jin Chen, Jijun Xu, Juan Dai, Xiaodong Li, Junfeng Liu, Ming Chen, Lunhui Lu, Liang Hu, Jia Wan
Compost and biochar, used for the remediation of soil, are seen as attractive waste management options for the increasing volume of organic wastes being produced. This paper reviews the interaction of biochar and composting and its implication for soil amendment and pollution remediation. The interaction of biochar and composting affect each other's properties. Biochar could change the physico-chemical properties, microorganisms, degradation, humification and gas emission of composting, such as the increase of nutrients, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter and microbial activities...
October 17, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiuxia Liu, Wei Zhang, Zihao Zhao, Xiaofeng Dai, Yankun Yang, Zhonghu Bai
Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive bacterium, has been widely used for the industrial production of amino acids, such as glutamate and lysine, for decades. Due to several characteristics - its ability to secrete properly folded and functional target proteins into culture broth, its low levels of endogenous extracellular proteins and its lack of detectable extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity - C. glutamicum is also a very favorable host cell for the secretory production of heterologous proteins, important enzymes, and pharmaceutical proteins...
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ellis C O'Neill, Steven Kelly
The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules...
October 4, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Anita Kumari, Dharam Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Podophyllotoxin is an aryltetralin lignan synthesized in several plant species, which is used in chemotherapies for cancers and tumor treatment. More potent semisynthetic derivatives of podophyllotoxin such as etoposide and teniposide are being developed and evaluated for their efficacy. To meet the ever increasing pharmaceutical needs, species having podophyllotoxin are uprooted extensively leading to the endangered status of selective species mainly Sinopodophyllum hexandrum. This has necessitated bioprospection of podophyllotoxin from different plant species to escalate the strain on this endangered species...
September 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xianshao Zou, Tingting Pan, Lei Chen, Yanqing Tian, Weiwen Zhang
Luminescence including fluorescence and phosphorescence sensors have been demonstrated to be important for studying cell metabolism, and diagnosing diseases and cancer. Various design principles have been employed for the development of sensors in different formats, such as organic molecules, polymers, polymeric hydrogels, and nanoparticles. The integration of the sensing with fluorescence imaging provides valuable tools for biomedical research and applications at not only bulk-cell level but also at single-cell level...
September 15, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Kajan Srirangan, Mark Bruder, Lamees Akawi, Dragan Miscevic, Shane Kilpatrick, Murray Moo-Young, C Perry Chou
Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and mounting environmental concerns associated with petrochemical manufacturing practices have generated significant interests in developing whole-cell biocatalytic systems for the production of value-added chemicals and biofuels. Although acetyl-CoA is a common natural biogenic precursor for the biosynthesis of numerous metabolites, propionyl-CoA is unpopular and non-native to most organisms. Nevertheless, with its C3-acyl moiety as a discrete building block, propionyl-CoA can serve as another key biogenic precursor to several biological products of industrial importance...
August 25, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sehrish Manan, Beibei Chen, Guangbiao She, Xiaochun Wan, Jian Zhao
Triacylglycerol (TAG) serves as an energy reservoir and phospholipids as build blocks of biomembrane to support plant life. They also provide human with foods and nutrients. Multi-compartmentalized biosynthesis, trafficking or cross-membrane transport of lipid intermediates or precursors and their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent progress has aided our understanding of how fatty acids (FAs) and phospholipids are transported between the chloroplast, the cytoplasm, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and how the ins and outs of lipids take place in the peroxisome and other organelles for lipid metabolism and function...
August 23, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Isak S Pretorius
Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes...
August 18, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sanjeev K Gupta, Pratyoosh Shukla
Gene editing with all its own advantages in molecular biology applications has made easy manipulation of various production hosts with the discovery and implementation of modern gene editing tools such as Crispr (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), TALENs (Transcription activator-like effector nucleases) and ZFNs (Zinc finger nucleases). With the advent of these modern tools, it is now possible to manipulate the genome of industrial production hosts such as yeast and mammalian cells which allows developing a potential and cost effective recombinant therapeutic protein...
August 18, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Brahma N Singh, Prateeksha, Dalip K Upreti, Braj Raj Singh, Tom Defoirdt, Vijai K Gupta, Ana Olivia De Souza, Harikesh Bahadur Singh, João C M Barreira, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Khabat Vahabi
Despite several conventional potent antibacterial therapies, bacterial infections pose a significant threat to human health because they are emerging as the leading cause of death worldwide. Due to the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, there is a pressing demand to discover novel approaches for developing more effective therapies to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm-associated infections. Therefore, attention has been especially devoted to a new and emerging branch of science "nanotechnology" to design non-conventional antimicrobial chemotherapies...
August 10, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ana Maria de Oliveira Finco, Luis Daniel Goyzueta Mamani, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol, Carlos Ricardo Soccol
In recent years, foods that contain omega-3 lipids have emerged as important promoters of human health. These lipids are essential for the functional development of the brain and retina, and reduction of the risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. The global market for omega-3 production, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), saw a large expansion in the last decade due to the increasing use of this lipid as an important component of infant food formulae and supplements. The production of omega-3 lipids from fish and vegetable oil sources has some drawbacks, such as complex purification procedures, unwanted contamination by marine pollutants, reduction or even extinction of several species of fish, and aspects related to sustainability...
August 10, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Mohammad Azizur Rahman, Noorlidah Abdullah, Norhaniza Aminudin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) share common etiology and preventive strategies. As the population of old-aged people is increasing worldwide, AD complications tend to afflict global healthcare budget and economy heavily. CVD is the prime cause of global mortality and remains a grave threat to both the developed and the developing nations. Mushroom bio-components may be promising in controlling both diseases. Based mainly on in vitro, ex vivo, cell line and animal studies, this review interprets the polypharmaceutic role of mushrooms treating AD and CVD...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Möritz Velásquez-Riaño, Holman D Benavides-Otaya
In recent years, the environmental and human health impacts of mercury contamination have driven the search for alternative, eco-efficient techniques different from the traditional physicochemical methods for treating this metal. One of these alternative processes is bioremediation. A comprehensive analysis of the different variables that can affect this process is presented. It focuses on determining the effectiveness of different techniques of bioremediation, with a specific consideration of three variables: the removal percentage, time needed for bioremediation and initial concentration of mercury to be treated in an aqueous medium...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Marco Schiavon, Marco Ragazzi, Elena Cristina Rada, Vincenzo Torretta
The biological removal of pollutants, especially through biotrickling filters (BTFs), has recently become attractive for the low investment and operational costs and the low secondary pollution. This paper is intended to investigate the state of the art on BTF applications. After an overview on the biodegradation process and the typical parameters involved, this paper presents the analysis of a group of 16 literature studies chosen as the references for this sector. The reference studies differ from one another by the pollutants treated (volatile organic compounds [VOC], hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides and trimethylamine), the geometry and size of the BTFs, and the procedures of the tests...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sanjeev K Gupta, Pratyoosh Shukla
Prokaryotic expression systems are superior in producing valuable recombinant proteins, enzymes and therapeutic products. Conventional microbial technology is evolving gradually and amalgamated with advanced technologies in order to give rise to improved processes for the production of metabolites, recombinant biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Recently, several novel approaches have been employed in a bacterial expression platform to improve recombinant protein expression. These approaches involve metabolic engineering, use of strong promoters, novel vector elements such as inducers and enhancers, protein tags, secretion signals, high-throughput devices for cloning and process screening as well as fermentation technologies...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Kyung-Chul Shin, Deok-Kun Oh
Ginsenosides are the main compounds with pharmacological activities in ginseng. Deglycosylated ginsenosides, which are more pharmacologically active than glycosylated ginsenosides, can be produced by the specific or nonspecific hydrolysis of the sugar moieties in glycosylated ginsenosides using glycosidases. The enzymes that hydrolyze specifically ginsenosides with different types can be classified according to the enzymatic activity on the positions, inner and outer residues and types of sugar moieties in ginsenosides...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Duygu Ercan, Ali Demirci
Lysozyme is an antimicrobial peptide with a high enzymatic activity and positive charges. Therefore, it has applications in food and pharmaceutical industries as an antimicrobial agent. Lysozyme is ubiquitous in both animal and plant kingdoms. Currently, egg-white lysozyme is the most commercially available form of lysozyme. The main concerns of egg-white lysozyme are high recovery cost, low activity and most importantly the immunological problems to some people. Therefore, human lysozyme production has gained importance in recent years...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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