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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Shrutika L Wadgaonkar, Yarlagadda V Nancharaiah, Giovanni Esposito, Piet N L Lens
Selenium concentrations in the soil environment are directly linked to its transfer in the food chain, eventually causing either deficiency or toxicity associated with several physiological dysfunctions in animals and humans. Selenium bioavailability depends on its speciation in the soil environment, which is mainly influenced by the prevailing pH, redox potential, and organic matter content of the soil. The selenium cycle in the environment is primarily mediated through chemical and biological selenium transformations...
January 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sonia Gutiérrez-Granados, Laura Cervera, Amine A Kamen, Francesc Gòdia
Transient gene expression (TGE) in animal cell cultures has been used for almost 30 years to produce milligrams and grams of recombinant proteins, virus-like particles and viral vectors, mainly for research purposes. The need to increase the amount of product has led to a scale-up of TGE protocols. Moreover, product quality and process reproducibility are also of major importance, especially when TGE is employed for the preparation of clinical lots. This work gives an overview of the different technologies that are available for TGE and how they can be combined, depending on each application...
January 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jagdeep Singh, Vicky Saharan, Sanjay Kumar, Pooja Gulati, Rajeev Kumar Kapoor
PURPOSE: Conventional wastewater treatment technologies are not good enough to completely remove all endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from the water. Membrane separation systems have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional clarification processes for waste and drinking water. Coupling of a membrane separation process with an enzymatic reaction has opened up new avenues to further enhance the quality of water. This review article deliberates the feasibility of implementing enzymatic membrane reactors has been deliberated...
December 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Shasmita, Manoj K Rai, Soumendra K Naik
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves...
December 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Chandrasekhar Kuppam, Ackmez Mudhoo, Ganesh D Saratale, Abudukeremu Kadier, Guangyin Zhen, Lucile Chatellard, Eric Trably, Gopalakrishnan Kumar
This review provides the alternative routes towards the valorization of dark H2 fermentation effluents that are mainly rich in volatile fatty acids such as acetate and butyrate. Various enhancement and alternative routes such as photo fermentation, anaerobic digestion, utilization of microbial electrochemical systems, and algal system towards the generation of bioenergy and electricity and also for efficient organic matter utilization are highlighted. What is more, various integration schemes and two-stage fermentation for the possible scale up are reviewed...
December 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Justin Bryan Goh, Say Kong Ng
Protein glycosylation is post-translational modification (PTM) which is important for pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of recombinant glycoprotein therapeutics. As a result of variations in monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages and glycan branching, glycosylation introduces considerable complexity and heterogeneity to therapeutics. The host cell line used to produce the glycoprotein has a strong influence on the glycosylation because different host systems may express varying repertoire of glycosylation enzymes and transporters that contributes to specificity and heterogeneity in glycosylation profiles...
December 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xixi Zhao, Liangfu Zhou, Muhammad Shahid Riaz Rajoka, Lu Yan, Chunmei Jiang, Dongyan Shao, Jing Zhu, Junling Shi, Qingsheng Huang, Hui Yang, Mingliang Jin
PURPOSE: This paper aims to summarize recent developments regarding the synthesis, application and challenges of fungal AgNPs. Possible methods to overcome the challenge of synthesis and reduce the toxicity of AgNPs have been discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review consults and summary a large number of papers. RESULTS: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have great potential in many areas, as they possess multiple novel characteristics. Conventional methods for AgNPs biosynthesis involve chemical agents, causing environmental toxicity and high energy consumption...
December 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ruly Terán Hilares, Lucas Ramos, Silvio Silvério da Silva, Giuliano Dragone, Solange I Mussatto, Júlio César Dos Santos
Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is a process technology with potential for application in different areas including environmental, food processing, and biofuels production. Although HC is an undesirable phenomenon for hydraulic equipment, the net energy released during this process is enough to accelerate certain chemical reactions. The application of cavitation energy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment is an interesting strategy proposed for integration in biorefineries for the production of bio-based products...
December 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Matthias Raberg, Elena Volodina, Kaichien Lin, Alexander Steinbüchel
Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 is a Gram-negative non-pathogenic betaproteobacterium ubiquitously found in soils and has been the subject of intensive research for more than 50 years. Due to its remarkable metabolically versatility, it utilizes a broad range of renewable heterotrophic resources. The substrate utilization range can be further extended by metabolic engineering as genetic tools are available. It has become the best studied "Knallgas" bacterium capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth with hydrogen as the electron donor and carbon dioxide as the carbon source...
December 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Navnita Srivastva, Abhishek Singh, Yashpal Bhardwaj, Suresh Kumar Dubey
Isoprene, the ubiquitous, highly emitted non-methane volatile hydrocarbon, affects atmospheric chemistry and human health, and this makes its removal from the contaminated environment imperative. Physicochemical degradation of isoprene is inefficient and generates secondary pollutants. Therefore, biodegradation can be considered as the safer approach for its efficient abatement. This review summarizes efforts in this regard that led to tracking the diverse groups of isoprene degrading bacteria such as Methanotrophs, Xanthobacter, Nocardia, Alcaligenes, Rhodococcus, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Pseudomonas, and Alcanivorax...
December 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Gerard Neeraj, Shobana Ravi, Ravindran Somdutt, ShriAishvarya Kaliyur Ravi, Vaidyanathan Vinoth Kumar
In recent times, inulinase has emerged as one the most prominent and industrially upcoming enzymes applied to meet the ever increasing demand of d-fructose and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as sweetener and prebiotics in the food and pharmaceutical industry, respectively. This review deals with types of inulinase and the attempts made to modify it for better thermal stability and shelf life. The ease of immobilization of inulinase has led us to the path of experimenting with different methods of enzyme immobilization since 1979...
December 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Gloria Padmaperuma, Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Daniel James Gilmour, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan
Monocultures have been the preferred production route in the bio-industry, where contamination has been a major bottleneck. In nature, microorganisms usually exist as part of organized communities and consortia, gaining benefits from co-habitation, keeping invaders at bay. There is increasing interest in the use of co-cultures to tackle contamination issues, and simultaneously increase productivity and product diversity. The feasibility of extending the natural phenomenon of co-habitation to the biomanufacturing industry in the form of co-cultures requires careful and systematic consideration of several aspects...
December 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Marina Vitti Vianna, Juliana Maíra Freitas Vieira, Vitor Hugo Mallagutti, Fabio José Inforsato, Lia Costa Pinto Wentzel, Luciana Daniela Lario, Andre Rodrigues, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca, Adalberto Pessoa Junior, Lara Durães Sette
Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth. In this sense, microorganisms that inhabit Antarctica environments have to be adapted to harsh conditions. Fungal strains affiliated with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla have been recovered from terrestrial and marine Antarctic samples. They have been used for the bioprospecting of molecules, such as enzymes. Many reports have shown that these microorganisms produce cold-adapted enzymes at low or mild temperatures, including hydrolases (e...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Michael Podevin, Ioannis A Fotidis, Irini Angelidaki
Microalgae are well known for their ability to accumulate lipids intracellularly, which can be used for biofuels and mitigate CO2 emissions. However, due to economic challenges, microalgae bioprocesses have maneuvered towards the simultaneous production of food, feed, fuel, and various high-value chemicals in a biorefinery concept. On-line and in-line monitoring of macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and high-value pigments will be more critical to maintain product quality and consistency for downstream processing in a biorefinery to maintain and valorize these markets...
November 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Chia-Wei Phan, Joon-Keong Wang, Shiau-Chuen Cheah, Murali Naidu, Pamela David, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Mushrooms have become increasingly important as a reliable food source. They have also been recognized as an important source of bioactive compounds of high nutritional and medicinal values. The nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides found in mushrooms play important roles in the regulation of various physiological processes in the human body via the purinergic and/or pyrimidine receptors. Cordycepin, a 3'-deoxyadenosine found in Cordyceps sinensis has received much attention as it possesses many medicinal values including anticancer properties...
November 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Panchanathan Manivasagan, Subramaniyan Bharathiraja, Madhappan Santha Moorthy, Sudip Mondal, Hansu Seo, Kang Dae Lee, Junghwan Oh
In recent years, marine natural pigments have emerged as a powerful alternative in the various fields of food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries because of their excellent biocompatibility, bioavailability, safety, and stability. Marine organisms are recognized as a rich source of natural pigments such as chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobiliproteins. Numerous studies have shown that marine natural pigments have considerable medicinal potential and promising applications in human health. In this review, we summarize the marine natural pigments as potential sources for therapeutic applications, including: antioxidant, anticancer, antiangiogenic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory activities, drug delivery, photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and wound healing...
November 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
María Victoria Toledo, Laura Estefanía Briand
This review presents the most relevant investigations concerning the biocatalytic kinetic resolution of racemic ketoprofen to dexketoprofen for the last 22 years. The advantages related to the administration of the dex-enantiomer in terms of human health, the so called "chiral switch" in the pharmaceutical industry and the sustainability of biotransformations have been the driving forces to develop innovative technology to obtain dexketoprofen. In particular, the kinetic resolution of racemic ketoprofen through enantiomeric esterification and hydrolysis using lipases as biocatalysts are thoroughly revised and commented upon...
November 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
S A Cuozzo, P E Sineli, J Davila Costa, G Tortella
Actinobacteria are well-known degraders of toxic materials that have the ability to tolerate and remove organochloride pesticides; thus, they are used for bioremediation. The biodegradation of organochlorines by actinobacteria has been demonstrated in pure and mixed cultures with the concomitant production of metabolic intermediates including γ-pentachlorocyclohexene (γ-PCCH); 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-1,4-cyclohexadiene (1,4-TCDN); 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (1,3-DCB), or 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB); 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (1,2,3-TCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB), or 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB); 1,3-DCB; and 1,2-DCB...
November 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Daniel Hoffmann, Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Doreen Gerlach, Denise Salzig, Peter Czermak
The production of recombinant proteins in the microbial host Escherichia coli often results in the formation of cytoplasmic protein inclusion bodies (IBs). Proteins forming IBs are often branded as difficult-to-express, neglecting that IBs can be an opportunity for their production. IBs are resistant to proteolytic degradation and contain up to 90% pure recombinant protein, which does not interfere with the host metabolism. This is especially advantageous for host-toxic proteins like antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)...
November 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Danlian Huang, Xueying Guo, Zhiwei Peng, Guangming Zeng, Piao Xu, Xiaomin Gong, Rui Deng, Wenjing Xue, Rongzhong Wang, Huan Yi, Caihong Liu
Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can interfere with endocrine systems and bio-accumulate through the food chain and even decrease biodiversity in contaminated areas. This review discusses a critical overview of recent research progress in the biotransformation of EDCs (including polychlorinated biphenyl and nonylphenol, and suspected EDCs such as heavy metals and sulfonamide antibiotics) by white rot fungi (WRF) based on techniques with an emphasis on summarizing and analyzing fungal molecular, metabolic and genetic mechanisms...
October 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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