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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Swati Tyagi, Sikandar I Mulla, Kui-Jae Lee, Jong-Chan Chae, Pratyoosh Shukla
In the natural environment, plants communicate with various microorganisms (pathogenic or beneficial) and exhibit differential responses. In recent years, research on microbial volatile compounds (MVCs) has revealed them to be simple, effective and efficient groups of compounds that modulate plant growth and developmental processes. They also interfere with the signaling process. Different MVCs have been shown to promote plant growth via improved photosynthesis rates, increased plant resistance to pathogens, activated phytohormone signaling pathways, or, in some cases, inhibit plant growth, leading to death...
June 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sicheng Shao, Yongyou Hu, Jianhua Cheng, Yuancai Chen
Antimicrobial and antibiotics resistance caused by misuse or overuse of antibiotics exposure is a growing and significant threat to global public health. The spread and horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by the selective pressure of antibiotics in an aquatic environment is a major public health issue. To develop a better understanding of potential ecological risks die to antibiotics and ARGs, this study mainly summarizes research progress about: (i) the occurrence, concentration, fate, and potential ecological effects of antibiotics and ARGs in various aquatic environments, (ii) the threat, spread, and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of ARGs, and (iii) the relationship between antibiotics, ARGs, and ARB...
May 28, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Thomas D C Tarento, Dale D McClure, Andrea M Talbot, Hubert L Regtop, John R Biffin, Peter Valtchev, Fariba Dehghani, John M Kavanagh
The primary objective of this review is to propose an approach for the biosynthesis of phylloquinone (vitamin K1 ) based upon its known sources, its role in photosynthesis and its biosynthetic pathway. The chemistry, health benefits, market, and industrial production of vitamin K are also summarized. Vitamin K compounds (K vitamers) are required for the normal function of at least 15 proteins involved in diverse physiological processes such as coagulation, tissue mineralization, inflammation, and neuroprotection...
May 24, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sudharsanam Abinandan, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Owing to certain drawbacks, such as energy-intensive operations in conventional modes of wastewater treatment (WWT), there has been an extensive search for alternative strategies in treatment technology. Biological modes for treating wastewaters are one of the finest technologies in terms of economy and efficiency. An integrated biological approach with chemical flocculation is being conventionally practiced in several-sewage and effluent treatment plants around the world. Overwhelming responsiveness to treat wastewaters especially by using microalgae is due to their simplest photosynthetic mechanism and ease of acclimation to various habitats...
May 17, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Benwei Zhu, Fang Ni, Yun Sun, Xianyu Zhu, Heng Yin, Zhong Yao, Yuguang Du
Carrageenan, a kind of linear sulfated polysaccharides consisting of D-galactose with alternating α-1,3 and β-1,4 linkages, has been widely applied in the food and cosmetic industries as thickening and gelling agents due to excellent properties, such as gel-forming ability and chemical stability. It can be degraded by carrageenases to produce a series of even-numbered carrageenan oligosaccharides, which exhibit various fascinating functions, such as anti-inflammation, anti-coagulation, anti-tumor, and anti-thrombosis effects...
May 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
E Carsanba, S Papanikolaou, H Erten
Recently, there has been a great upsurge of interest in studies related to several aspects of microbial lipid production, which is one of the top topics in relevant research fields due to the high demand of these fatty materials in food, medical, oleochemical and biofuel industries. Lipid accumulation by the so-called "oleaginous microorganisms" can generate more than 20% w/w of oil in dry biomass and is governed by a plethora of parameters, such as medium pH, incubation temperature, nutrient limitation and C/N (carbon/nitrogen) ratio, which drastically affect the lipid production bioprocess...
May 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Ravi Kant Bhatia, Yong-Keun Choi, Eunsung Kan, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Design of a microbial consortium is a newly emerging field that enables researchers to extend the frontiers of biotechnology from a pure culture to mixed cultures. A microbial consortium enables microbes to use a broad range of carbon sources. It provides microbes with robustness in response to environmental stress factors. Microbes in a consortium can perform complex functions that are impossible for a single organism. With advancement of technology, it is now possible to understand microbial interaction mechanism and construct consortia...
May 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Rune Nygaard Monrad, Jens Eklöf, Kristian B R M Krogh, Peter Biely
Glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) belonging to the carbohydrate esterase family 15 (CE15) are involved in microbial degradation of lignocellulosic plant materials. GEs are capable of degrading complex polymers of lignin and hemicellulose cleaving ester bonds between glucuronic acid residues in xylan and lignin alcohols. GEs promote separation of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose which is crucial for efficient utilization of biomass as an energy source and feedstock for further processing into products or chemicals...
May 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Micael Karlberg, Moritz von Stosch, Jarka Glassey
In today's biopharmaceutical industries, the lead time to develop and produce a new monoclonal antibody takes years before it can be launched commercially. The reasons lie in the complexity of the monoclonal antibodies and the need for high product quality to ensure clinical safety which has a significant impact on the process development time. Frameworks such as quality by design are becoming widely used by the pharmaceutical industries as they introduce a systematic approach for building quality into the product...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jiaxin Chen, Ji Li, Xiaolei Zhang, Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi, Wenyi Dong
Utilization of microbial oil for biodiesel production has gained growing interest due to the increase in prices and the shortage of the oils and fats traditionally used in biodiesel production. However, it is still in the laboratory study stage due to the high cost of production. Employing organic wastes as raw materials to grow heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms for further lipid production to produce biodiesel has been predicted to be a promising method for reducing costs. However, there are many obstacles including the low biodegradability of organic wastes, low lipid accumulation capacity of heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms while using organic wastes, a great dependence on a high-energy consumption approach for biomass harvesting, utilization of toxic organic solvents for lipid extraction, and large amount of methanol required in trans-esterification and in-situ trans-esterifications...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Raquel Liébana, Oskar Modin, Frank Persson, Britt-Marie Wilén
Environmental deterioration together with the need for water reuse and the increasingly restrictive legislation of water quality standards have led to a demand for compact, efficient and less energy consuming technologies for wastewater treatment. Aerobic granular sludge and membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are two technologies with several advantages, such as small footprint, high-microbial density and activity, ability to operate at high organic- and nitrogen-loading rates, and tolerance to toxicity. However, they also have some disadvantages...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Shrutika L Wadgaonkar, Yarlagadda V Nancharaiah, Giovanni Esposito, Piet N L Lens
Selenium concentrations in the soil environment are directly linked to its transfer in the food chain, eventually causing either deficiency or toxicity associated with several physiological dysfunctions in animals and humans. Selenium bioavailability depends on its speciation in the soil environment, which is mainly influenced by the prevailing pH, redox potential, and organic matter content of the soil. The selenium cycle in the environment is primarily mediated through chemical and biological selenium transformations...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sonia Gutiérrez-Granados, Laura Cervera, Amine A Kamen, Francesc Gòdia
Transient gene expression (TGE) in animal cell cultures has been used for almost 30 years to produce milligrams and grams of recombinant proteins, virus-like particles and viral vectors, mainly for research purposes. The need to increase the amount of product has led to a scale-up of TGE protocols. Moreover, product quality and process reproducibility are also of major importance, especially when TGE is employed for the preparation of clinical lots. This work gives an overview of the different technologies that are available for TGE and how they can be combined, depending on each application...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jagdeep Singh, Vicky Saharan, Sanjay Kumar, Pooja Gulati, Rajeev Kumar Kapoor
PURPOSE: Conventional wastewater treatment technologies are not good enough to completely remove all endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from the water. Membrane separation systems have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional clarification processes for waste and drinking water. Coupling of a membrane separation process with an enzymatic reaction has opened up new avenues to further enhance the quality of water. This review article deliberates the feasibility of implementing enzymatic membrane reactors has been deliberated...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Shasmita, Manoj K Rai, Soumendra K Naik
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Chandrasekhar Kuppam, Ackmez Mudhoo, Ganesh D Saratale, Abudukeremu Kadier, Guangyin Zhen, Lucile Chatellard, Eric Trably, Gopalakrishnan Kumar
This review provides the alternative routes towards the valorization of dark H2 fermentation effluents that are mainly rich in volatile fatty acids such as acetate and butyrate. Various enhancement and alternative routes such as photo fermentation, anaerobic digestion, utilization of microbial electrochemical systems, and algal system towards the generation of bioenergy and electricity and also for efficient organic matter utilization are highlighted. What is more, various integration schemes and two-stage fermentation for the possible scale up are reviewed...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Justin Bryan Goh, Say Kong Ng
Protein glycosylation is post-translational modification (PTM) which is important for pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of recombinant glycoprotein therapeutics. As a result of variations in monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages and glycan branching, glycosylation introduces considerable complexity and heterogeneity to therapeutics. The host cell line used to produce the glycoprotein has a strong influence on the glycosylation because different host systems may express varying repertoire of glycosylation enzymes and transporters that contributes to specificity and heterogeneity in glycosylation profiles...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xixi Zhao, Liangfu Zhou, Muhammad Shahid Riaz Rajoka, Lu Yan, Chunmei Jiang, Dongyan Shao, Jing Zhu, Junling Shi, Qingsheng Huang, Hui Yang, Mingliang Jin
PURPOSE: This paper aims to summarize recent developments regarding the synthesis, application and challenges of fungal AgNPs. Possible methods to overcome the challenge of synthesis and reduce the toxicity of AgNPs have been discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review consults and summary a large number of papers. RESULTS: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have great potential in many areas, as they possess multiple novel characteristics. Conventional methods for AgNPs biosynthesis involve chemical agents, causing environmental toxicity and high energy consumption...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Gloria Padmaperuma, Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Daniel James Gilmour, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan
Monocultures have been the preferred production route in the bio-industry, where contamination has been a major bottleneck. In nature, microorganisms usually exist as part of organized communities and consortia, gaining benefits from co-habitation, keeping invaders at bay. There is increasing interest in the use of co-cultures to tackle contamination issues, and simultaneously increase productivity and product diversity. The feasibility of extending the natural phenomenon of co-habitation to the biomanufacturing industry in the form of co-cultures requires careful and systematic consideration of several aspects...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Michael Podevin, Ioannis A Fotidis, Irini Angelidaki
Microalgae are well known for their ability to accumulate lipids intracellularly, which can be used for biofuels and mitigate CO2 emissions. However, due to economic challenges, microalgae bioprocesses have maneuvered towards the simultaneous production of food, feed, fuel, and various high-value chemicals in a biorefinery concept. On-line and in-line monitoring of macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and high-value pigments will be more critical to maintain product quality and consistency for downstream processing in a biorefinery to maintain and valorize these markets...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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