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Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Nor Hasmaliana Abdul Manas, Rosli Md Illias, Nor Muhammad Mahadi
BACKGROUND: The increasing market demand for oligosaccharides has intensified the need for efficient biocatalysts. Glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) are still gaining popularity as biocatalyst for oligosaccharides synthesis owing to its simple reaction and high selectivity. PURPOSE: Over the years, research has advanced mainly directing to one goal; to reduce hydrolysis activity of GHs for increased transglycosylation activity in achieving high production of oligosaccharides...
July 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jean-Baptiste Ledoux, Agostinho Antunes
Marine natural products (NPs) represent an impressive source of novel bioactive molecules with major biotechnological applications. Nevertheless, the usual chemical and applied perspective leading most of bioprospecting projects come along with various limitations blurring our understanding of the extensive marine chemical diversity. Here, we propose several guidelines: (i) to optimize bioprospecting and (ii) to refine our knowledge on marine chemical ecology focusing on octocorals, one of the most promising sources of marine NPs...
June 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Pranav D Pathak, Sachin A Mandavgane, Nikhil Manoj Puranik, Swapnil Jaygopal Jambhulkar, Bhaskar D Kulkarni
Potato is the fourth main crop consumed worldwide and is an important constituent in the human diet. Consequently, potato is widely used in food-processing industries. However, these industries generate massive amounts of potato peel (PP) as a by-product, which is usually considered a waste, and is discarded. Interestingly, recent research suggests that PP is a valuable source of bioactive compounds, which can be converted into value-added products. In this study, we review the physicochemical composition and valorization of PP...
June 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Daniel J Krasznai, Rachel Champagne Hartley, Hannah M Roy, Pascale Champagne, Michael F Cunningham
The composition and structural properties of lignocellulosic biomass have significant effects on its downstream conversion to fuels, biomaterials, and building-block chemicals. Specifically, the recalcitrance to modification and compositional variability of lignocellulose make it challenging to optimize and control the conditions under which the conversion takes place. Various characterization protocols have been developed over the past 150 years to elucidate the structural properties and compositional patterns that affect the processing of lignocellulose...
June 8, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Jakub Staroń, Janusz M Dąbrowski, Ewelina Cichoń, Maciej Guzik
Biodegradable nonionic sugar esters-based surfactants have been gaining more and more attention in recent years due to their chemical plasticity that enables the various applications of these molecules. In this review, various synthesis methods and biotechnological implications of lactose esters (LEs) uses are considered. Several chemical and enzymatic approaches are described for the synthesis of LEs, together with their applications, i.e. function in detergents formulation and as additives that not only stabilize food products but also protect food from undesired microbial contamination...
June 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Qizheng Liu, Husheng Ma, Ya Zhang, Caihong Dong
Morels (Morchella, Ascomycota), which are some of the most highly prized edible and medicinal mushrooms, are of great economic and scientific value. Morel cultivation has been a research focus worldwide for more than 100 years, and the outdoor cultivation of morels has succeeded and expanded to a large scale in China in recent years. In this study, we review the progress in recent research regarding the life cycle and reproductive systems in the genus Morchella and the current state of outdoor cultivation...
June 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ramon Peres Brexó, Anderson de Souza Sant'Ana
Microbial interactions represent important modulatory role in the dynamics of biological processes. During bioethanol production from sugar cane must, the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and wild yeasts is inevitable as they originate from the raw material and industrial environment. Increasing the concentration of ethanol, organic acids, and other extracellular metabolites in the fermentation must are revealed as wise strategies for survival by certain microorganisms. Despite this, the co-existence of LAB and yeasts in the fermentation vat and production of compounds such as organic acids and other extracellular metabolites result in reduction in the final yield of the bioethanol production process...
June 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Sandeep K Panda, Ramesh C Ray, Swati S Mishra, Eugenie Kayitesi
The review focuses on some of the high value-end biocommodities, such as fermented beverages, single-cell proteins, single-cell oils, biocolors, flavors, fragrances, polysaccharides, biopesticides, plant growth regulators, bioethanol, biogas and biohydrogen, developed from the microbial processing of fruit and vegetable wastes. Microbial detoxification of fruit and vegetable processing effluents is briefly described. The advances in genetic engineering of microorganisms for enhanced yield of the above-mentioned biocommodities are elucidated with selected examples...
May 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Hedieh Malekzad, Hamed Mirshekari, Parham Sahandi Zangabad, S M Moosavi Basri, Fazel Baniasadi, Maryam Sharifi Aghdam, Mahdi Karimi, Michael R Hamblin
For thousands of years, plants and their products have been used as the mainstay of medicinal therapy. In recent years, besides attempts to isolate the active ingredients of medicinal plants, other new applications of plant products, such as their use to prepare drug delivery vehicles, have been discovered. Nanobiotechnology is a branch of pharmacology that can provide new approaches for drug delivery by the preparation of biocompatible carrier nanoparticles (NPs). In this article, we review recent studies with four important plant proteins that have been used as carriers for targeted delivery of drugs and genes...
April 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Kashyap Kumar Dubey, Punit Kumar, Nikolaos E Labrou, Pratyoosh Shukla
Cancer is a clinical situation caused by uncontrolled cell division and is responsible for a large number of deaths worldwide. Colchicine is a classical antimitotic, tubulin-binding agent (TBA) which is being explored for its antitumor activities, although its tubulin-binding ability leads to some toxicity toward normal cells proliferation. Colchicine derivatives are considered as potent antitumor compounds with less toxicity compared to colchicine. Derivatives with substituted functional groups at A-ring (methoxy), B-ring (acetamide) or C-ring (methoxy) have been synthesized via chemical and microbial routes and show modified bioactivities and altered tropolonic functionality...
April 23, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ellis C O'Neill, Steven Kelly
The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Anita Kumari, Dharam Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Podophyllotoxin is an aryltetralin lignan synthesized in several plant species, which is used in chemotherapies for cancers and tumor treatment. More potent semisynthetic derivatives of podophyllotoxin such as etoposide and teniposide are being developed and evaluated for their efficacy. To meet the ever increasing pharmaceutical needs, species having podophyllotoxin are uprooted extensively leading to the endangered status of selective species mainly Sinopodophyllum hexandrum. This has necessitated bioprospection of podophyllotoxin from different plant species to escalate the strain on this endangered species...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xianshao Zou, Tingting Pan, Lei Chen, Yanqing Tian, Weiwen Zhang
Luminescence including fluorescence and phosphorescence sensors have been demonstrated to be important for studying cell metabolism, and diagnosing diseases and cancer. Various design principles have been employed for the development of sensors in different formats, such as organic molecules, polymers, polymeric hydrogels, and nanoparticles. The integration of the sensing with fluorescence imaging provides valuable tools for biomedical research and applications at not only bulk-cell level but also at single-cell level...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Kajan Srirangan, Mark Bruder, Lamees Akawi, Dragan Miscevic, Shane Kilpatrick, Murray Moo-Young, C Perry Chou
Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and mounting environmental concerns associated with petrochemical manufacturing practices have generated significant interests in developing whole-cell biocatalytic systems for the production of value-added chemicals and biofuels. Although acetyl-CoA is a common natural biogenic precursor for the biosynthesis of numerous metabolites, propionyl-CoA is unpopular and non-native to most organisms. Nevertheless, with its C3-acyl moiety as a discrete building block, propionyl-CoA can serve as another key biogenic precursor to several biological products of industrial importance...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Victor P Bulgakov, Tatiana V Avramenko, Gurami Sh Tsitsiashvili
Anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis is a convenient and relatively simple model for investigating the basic principles of secondary metabolism regulation. In recent years, many publications have described links between anthocyanin biosynthesis and general defense reactions in plants as well as photomorphogenesis and hormonal signaling. These relationships are complex, and they cannot be understood intuitively. Upon observing the lacuna in the Arabidopsis interactome (an interaction map of the factors involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis secondary metabolism is not available), we attempted to connect various cellular processes that affect anthocyanin biosynthesis...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiuxia Liu, Wei Zhang, Zihao Zhao, Xiaofeng Dai, Yankun Yang, Zhonghu Bai
Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive bacterium, has been widely used for the industrial production of amino acids, such as glutamate and lysine, for decades. Due to several characteristics - its ability to secrete properly folded and functional target proteins into culture broth, its low levels of endogenous extracellular proteins and its lack of detectable extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity - C. glutamicum is also a very favorable host cell for the secretory production of heterologous proteins, important enzymes, and pharmaceutical proteins...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Brahma N Singh, Prateeksha, Dalip K Upreti, Braj Raj Singh, Tom Defoirdt, Vijai K Gupta, Ana Olivia De Souza, Harikesh Bahadur Singh, João C M Barreira, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Khabat Vahabi
Despite several conventional potent antibacterial therapies, bacterial infections pose a significant threat to human health because they are emerging as the leading cause of death worldwide. Due to the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, there is a pressing demand to discover novel approaches for developing more effective therapies to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm-associated infections. Therefore, attention has been especially devoted to a new and emerging branch of science "nanotechnology" to design non-conventional antimicrobial chemotherapies...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Amit Verma, Hukum Singh, Shahbaz Anwar, Anirudha Chattopadhyay, Kapil K Tiwari, Surinder Kaur, Gurpreet Singh Dhilon
Proteases are ubiquitous enzymes that occur in various biological systems ranging from microorganisms to higher organisms. Microbial proteases are largely utilized in various established industrial processes. Despite their numerous industrial applications, they are not efficient in hydrolysis of recalcitrant, protein-rich keratinous wastes which result in environmental pollution and health hazards. This paved the way for the search of keratinolytic microorganisms having the ability to hydrolyze "hard to degrade" keratinous wastes...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Farnaz Assa, Hoda Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hossein Ajamein, Hamideh Vaghari, Navideh Anarjan, Omid Ahmadi, Aydin Berenjian
The potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in drug delivery systems (DDSs) is mainly related to its magnetic core and surface coating. These coatings can eliminate or minimize their aggregation under physiological conditions. Also, they can provide functional groups for bioconjugation to anticancer drugs and/or targeted ligands. Chitosan, as a derivative of chitin, is an attractive natural biopolymer from renewable resources with the presence of reactive amino and hydroxyl functional groups in its structure...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Isabela Reiniati, Andrew N Hrymak, Argyrios Margaritis
Cellulosic nanomaterials provide a novel and sustainable platform for the production of high performance materials enabled by nanotechnology. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly crystalline material and contains pure cellulose without lignin and hemicellulose. BC offers an opportunity to provide control of the products' properties in-situ, via specific BC production methods and culture conditions. The BC potential in advanced material applications are hindered by a limited knowledge of optimal BC production conditions, efficient process scale-up, separation methods, and purification methods...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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