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Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986175/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-focal-liver-lesions-where-do-we-stand
#1
Tommaso Vincenzo Bartolotta, Federica Vernuccio, Adele Taibbi, Roberto Lagalla
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) represents a significant breakthrough in sonography, and it is being increasingly used for the evaluation of focal liver lesions (FLLs). Currently, CEUS is included as a part of the suggested diagnostic workup of FLLs, resulting in a better patient management and delivering cost-effective therapy. After a brief technical note, contrast-enhancement patterns of different types of benign and malignant FLLs, along with hepatic pseudolesions, are described and discussed based on our experience and literature data...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986174/avoiding-pitfalls-in-the-interpretation-of-gadoxetic-acid-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
Marco Dioguardi Burgio, Maxime Ronot, Luisa Paulatto, Sylvain Terraz, Valérie Vilgrain, Giuseppe Brancatelli
Gadoxetic acid is extensively used in the following 3 main clinical situations: characterization of small nodules in patients with cirrhosis, preoperative staging of liver metastases, and characterization of incidentally discovered focal liver lesions. Owing to the rapid entry of gadoxetic acid into hepatocytes, the traditional features of liver tumors are modified on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, especially during delayed phase sequences. Thus, although the added value of gadoxetic acid for the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions is now clear, its unique pharmacokinetics as well as the presence of mimicking and atypical lesions may lead to misdiagnoses...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986173/liver-function-assessment-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Emre Ünal, Deniz Akata, Musturay Karcaaltincaba
Liver function assessment by hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is becoming a new biomarker. Liver function can be assessed by T1 mapping (reduction rate) and signal intensity measurement (relative enhancement ratio) before and after GD-EOB-DTPA (gadoxetic acid) administration, as alternative to Tc-99m galactosyl serum albumin scintigraphy, 99m Tc-labeled mebrofenin scintigraphy, and indocyanine green clearance test. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of liver function can enable diagnosis of cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated fibrosis and steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, toxic hepatitis, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy-related changes, which may be only visible on hepatobiliary phase images...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986172/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-liver-metastasis
#4
Ali Devrim Karaosmanoglu, Mehmet Ruhi Onur, Mustafa Nasuh Ozmen, Deniz Akata, Musturay Karcaaltincaba
Liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the gold standard in liver metastasis detection and treatment response assessment. The most sensitive magnetic resonance sequences are diffusion-weighted images and hepatobiliary phase images after Gd-EOB-DTPA. Peripheral ring enhancement, diffusion restriction, and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images are hallmarks of liver metastases. In patients with normal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT findings and high clinical suspicion of metastasis, MRI should be performed for diagnosis of unseen metastasis...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986171/hepatic-sinusoidal-dilatation-a-review-of-causes-with-imaging-pathologic-correlation
#5
Alessandro Furlan, Marta I Minervini, Amir A Borhani, Marco Dioguardi Burgio, Mitchell E Tublin, Giuseppe Brancatelli
Hepatic sinusoids are vascular conduits connecting the portal triad with the central vein. Multiple conditions can lead to sinusoidal dilatation and congestion with resultant stasis of blood within the lumen. The altered hemodynamics associated with hepatic sinusoidal dilatation generally result in heterogeneous enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, a pattern often described as "mosaic" enhancement. In this article, we review the causes of hepatic sinusoidal dilatation and the imaging manifestations on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986170/imaging-of-hepatic-focal-nodular-hyperplasia-pictorial-review-and-diagnostic-strategy
#6
Marco Dioguardi Burgio, Maxime Ronot, Giuseppe Salvaggio, Valérie Vilgrain, Giuseppe Brancatelli
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign solid liver lesion after hemangioma, occurring more frequently in young women. The prime differential diagnoses include hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hypervascular metastasis. As the management of FNH is typically conservative, imaging plays a key role in diagnostic pathway, and misdiagnosis may have a major clinical effect. In this article, we describe the ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging features of FNH, underlining the importance of typical radiological features that allow a specific noninvasive diagnosis...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986169/hepatic-steatosis-etiology-patterns-and-quantification
#7
Ilkay S Idilman, Ilknur Ozdeniz, Musturay Karcaaltincaba
Hepatic steatosis can occur because of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholism, chemotherapy, and metabolic, toxic, and infectious causes. Pediatric hepatic steatosis is also becoming more frequent and can have distinctive features. The most common pattern is diffuse form; however, it can present in heterogenous, focal, multinodular, perilesional, perivascular, subcapsular, and lobar forms. Focal steatosis and fat sparing can occur because of the presence of veins of Sappey, pancreaticoduodenal vein, and aberrant right and left gastric veins, which drain into the liver as third inflow...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986168/letter-from-the-editor
#8
EDITORIAL
Gabriela Gayer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616318/neoplastic-and-paraneoplastic-involvement-of-the-spinal-cord
#9
John Michael Hazenfield, Mary F Gaskill-Shipley
Neoplasia of the spinal cord, including both primary and metastatic tumors, is relatively rare, representing 4%-10% of all central nervous system tumors, and can present a diagnostic challenge to the radiologist. More than 90% of primary spinal cord neoplasms are derived from the glial cell lineage, including the 2 most common tumors ependymoma and astrocytoma. However, less common spinal cord tumors, including metastatic disease, as well as nonneoplastic and paraneoplastic processes should be considered in the diagnosis of intramedullary spinal cord lesions...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616317/vascular-diseases-of-the-spinal-cord-infarction-hemorrhage-and-venous-congestive-myelopathy
#10
Shawn M Vuong, William J Jeong, Humberto Morales, Todd A Abruzzo
Vascular pathologies of the spinal cord are rare and often overlooked. This article presents clinical and imaging approaches to the diagnosis and management of spinal vascular conditions most commonly encountered in clinical practice. Ischemia, infarction, hemorrhage, aneurysms, and vascular malformations of the spine and spinal cord are discussed. Pathophysiologic mechanisms, clinical classification schemes, clinical presentations, imaging findings, and treatment modalities are considered. Recent advances in genetic and syndromic vascular pathologies of the spinal cord are also discussed...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616316/toxic-and-metabolic-myelopathies
#11
Joana Ramalho, Renato Hoffmann Nunes, Antonio José da Rocha, Mauricio Castillo
Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. It is most commonly caused by its compression by neoplasms, degenerative disc disease, trauma, or infection. Less common causes of myelopathy include spinal cord tumors, infection, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, vascular, toxic, and metabolic disorders. Conditions affecting the spinal cord must be recognized as early as possible to prevent progression that may lead to permanent disability. Biopsy is rarely performed, thus the diagnosis and management rely on patient׳s history, physical examination, laboratory results, and imaging findings...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616315/imaging-of-spinal-cord-injury-acute-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-and-cord-herniation
#12
Kiran Talekar, Michael Poplawski, Rahul Hegde, Mougnyan Cox, Adam Flanders
We review the pathophysiology and imaging findings of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and briefly review the much less common cord herniation as a unique cause of myelopathy. Acute traumatic SCI is devastating to the patient and the costs to society are staggering. There are currently no "cures" for SCI and the only accepted pharmacologic treatment regimen for traumatic SCI is currently being questioned. Evaluation and prognostication of SCI is a demanding area with significant deficiencies, including lack of biomarkers...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616314/an-imaging-based-approach-to-spinal-cord-infection
#13
Jason F Talbott, Jared Narvid, J Levi Chazen, Cynthia T Chin, Vinil Shah
Infections of the spinal cord, nerve roots, and surrounding meninges are uncommon, but highly significant given their potential for severe morbidity and even mortality. Prompt diagnosis can be lifesaving, as many spinal infections are treatable. Advances in imaging technology have now firmly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the gold standard for spinal cord imaging evaluation, enabling the depiction of infectious myelopathies with exquisite detail and contrast. In this article, we aim to provide an overview of MRI findings for spinal cord infections with special focus on imaging patterns of infection that are primarily confined to the spinal cord, spinal meninges, and spinal nerve roots...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616313/spinal-cord-in-multiple-sclerosis-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-and-differential-diagnosis
#14
Alex Rovira, Cristina Auger
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that affects not only the brain but also the spinal cord. In the diagnostic and monitoring process of MS, spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not performed as commonly as brain MRI, mainly because of certain technical difficulties and the increase in total acquisition time. Nonetheless, spinal cord MRI findings are important to establish a prompt accurate diagnosis of MS, impart prognostic information, and provide valuable data for monitoring the disease course in certain cases...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616312/transverse-myelitis-and-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#15
Victoria Young, Gerardine Quaghebeur
Transverse myelitis is defined as inflammation of the spinal cord, named because of its typical clinical presentation with bandlike symptoms of altered sensation or pain in a horizontal fashion-at a specific dermatome level. Radiographic patterns might vary but the idiopathic form is more frequent to present as involvement of 3-4 vertebral segments and both sides of the cord. It is now recognized that there are numerous other causes as well as the idiopathic type, with often atypical features and geographic variation...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616311/abnormal-spinal-cord-magnetic-resonance-signal-approach-to-the-differential-diagnosis
#16
Humberto Morales, Aaron Betts
T2-hyperintense signal abnormalities within the spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging can evoke a broad differential diagnosis and can present a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and provide a succinct and relevant differential diagnosis based on imaging patterns and anatomical or physiopathologic correlation. Clues and imaging pearls are provided focusing on inflammatory, infectious, demyelinating, vascular, and metabolic involvement of the spinal cord.
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616310/spinal-cord-anatomy-and-clinical-syndromes
#17
Eric Diaz, Humberto Morales
We review the anatomy of the spinal cord, providing correlation with key functional and clinically relevant neural pathways, as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Peripherally, the main descending (corticospinal tract) and ascending (gracilis or cuneatus fasciculi and spinothalamic tracts) pathways compose the white matter. Centrally, the gray matter can be divided into multiple laminae. Laminae 1-5 carry sensitive neuron information in the posterior horn, and lamina 9 carries most lower motor neuron information in the anterior horn...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616309/letter-from-the-guest-editor-spinal-cord-imaging-i-anatomical-pathophysiologic-and-clinical-correlate
#18
EDITORIAL
Humberto Morales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342899/positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-gastrointestinal-cancers
#19
Vicky Goh, Davide Prezzi, Andrew Mallia, Usman Bashir, J James Stirling, Joemon John, Geoff Charles-Edwards, Jane MacKewn, Gary Cook
As an integrated system, hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) is able to provide simultaneously complementary high-resolution anatomic, molecular, and functional information, allowing comprehensive cancer phenotyping in a single imaging examination. In addition to an improved patient experience by combining 2 separate imaging examinations and streamlining the patient pathway, the superior soft tissue contrast resolution of MRI and the ability to acquire multiparametric MRI data is advantageous over computed tomography...
August 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342898/esophageal-cancer-role-of-imaging-in-primary-staging-and-response-assessment-post-neoadjuvant-therapy
#20
Yvette Griffin
Advances in the early detection and treatment of esophageal cancer have meant improved survival rates for patients with esophageal cancer. Accurate pretreatment and post-neoadjuvant treatment staging of esophageal cancer is essential for assessing operability and determining the optimum treatment plan. This article reviews the multimodality imaging approach in the diagnosis, staging, and assessment of treatment response in esophageal cancer.
August 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
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