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Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR

Blaise V Jones
Syringomyelia is the term given to cystic cavities in the spinal cord, most of which are associated with congenital malformations of the craniocervical junction and represent dilation of the central canal of the cord. As such, syrinxes can be considered analogous to hydrocephalus. The exact etiology of syrinx formation remains a subject of debate, but there is ample evidence that they are the result of obstruction of the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid between the intracranial and spinal compartments. The chances that a syrinx will progress over time are much greater when they are associated with a causative lesion (Chiari malformation, tumor, infection, and trauma), but asymptomatic central canal dilation may be a stable incidental finding...
April 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Humberto Morales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Julien Cohen-Adad
Although functional magnetic resonance imaging has become popular for brain imaging, it is still difficult to apply this technique to the spinal cord because of complex issues related to the physiology of the spinal cord and technical challenges related to magnetic resonance imaging hardware, pulse sequences, and image processing techniques. In this article, we examine these key aspects and discuss their present status, unresolved issues, and future directions.
April 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Xiang Liu, Wei Tian, Hongyan Chen, Thomas A LoStracco, Jing Zhang, Michael Yan Li, Barbara Germin, Henry Z Wang
Spinal cord tumors are an important component of pathologic diseases involving the spinal cord. Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging only provides anatomical information. MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and MR perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) may detect microstructure diffusion and hemodynamic changes in these tumors. We review recent application studies of MR DTI and PWI in spinal cord tumors. Overall, MR DTI and MR PWI are promising imaging tools that are especially useful in improving differential diagnosis between spinal cord tumors and tumor mimics, preoperative evaluation of resectability, and providing assistance in surgical navigation...
April 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Patrik Oliver Wyss, Andreas Hock, Spyros Kollias
This article reviews the current state of magnetic resonance spectroscopy applied in the human spinal cord with respect to its clinical applications and challenges in comparison to investigations in the human brain. Results from several disease processes affecting the spinal cord are presented, and potential advantages of applying clinical MRS in their investigation are emphasized.
April 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Maria Isabel Vargas, Isabelle Barnaure, Joanna Gariani, José Boto, Alain Pellaton, Jean-Louis Dietemann, Zsolt Kulcsar
The various imaging techniques used to depict vascular lesions of the spinal cord are described in this article with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), vascular sequences, and advantages of high-field MRI. Technical vascular protocols are discussed in computed tomography, MRI, and conventional angiography. The diverse magnetic resonance angiography protocols are presented as well as their findings, specificities, and pitfalls. A review of the vascular anatomy and the most common pathologies analyzed by magnetic resonance angiography and conventional angiography is described...
April 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Enrique Alvarado, James Leach, Marguerite Caré, Francesco Mangano, Sara O Hara
The purpose of this article is to review the use of ultrasound as a screening tool for spinal diseases in neonates and infants and its intraoperative value in selected pediatric neurosurgical disorders. A review of spinal embryology followed by a description of common spinal diseases in neonates assessed with ultrasound is presented. Indications for spinal ultrasound in neonates, commonly identified conditions, and the importance of magnetic resonance imaging in selected cases are emphasized. Additionally, the use of ultrasound in selected neurosurgical spinal diseases in pediatric patients is presented with magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative correlation...
April 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Lily L Wang, Karin S Bierbrauer
Congenital anomalies of the spinal cord can pose a diagnostic dilemma to the radiologist. Several classification systems of these anomalies exist. Antenatal ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonance imaging is playing an increasingly important role in the early diagnosis and management of patients. Understanding the underlying anatomy as well as embryology of these disorders can be valuable in correctly identifying the type of spinal cord dysraphic defect. Hereditary spinal cord diseases are rare but can be devastating...
April 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Jean-Michel Correas, Christophe Delavaud, Jules Gregory, Thomas Le Guilchet, Lionel Lamhaut, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Arnaud Méjean, Olivier Hélénon
The increased use of abdominal imaging has led to a major increase in small renal tumors incidence particularly in the elderly population. Their management is evolving with the development of percutaneous ablation, particularly radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and microwave ablation. The typical indications that must be validated by a multidisciplinary committee include solid tumors less than 3cm in patients with multiple comorbidity factors (including age), contraindications to surgery, hereditary renal cancer, bilateral renal tumors, solitary kidney, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, or at high risk of predialysis renal function after partial nephrectomy...
February 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Nicole Curci, Elaine M Caoili
The role of percutaneous renal mass biopsy has continued to grow in the last decade. The incidence of small (≤4cm) renal masses has increased dramatically over the past 15 years, attributed to increased use of cross-sectional imaging and subsequent discovery of small renal masses that would otherwise go undetected. Despite increased early detection, there has been no change in the mortality rate from renal cell carcinoma over the past 15 years. Many small renal masses are not life-limiting, and imaging lacks specificity in distinguishing malignant from nonmalignant small renal masses...
February 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Sonia Gaur, Baris Turkbey, Peter Choyke
Hereditary renal cancers account for approximately 5%-8% of all renal tumors. Over the past 2 decades, a number of syndromes have been identified that predispose patients to early renal cancer development, representing all the major histologic types of tumor pathology. In this article, we describe the current knowledge concerning the cell type, known mechanism of tumor development, other manifestations of the syndrome, imaging findings, genetic screening, and imaging surveillance recommendations for each of the major syndromes associated with hereditary renal cancers...
February 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Francois Cornelis, Nicolas Grenier
Although preoperative classification of solid renal tumors was performed by percutaneous biopsy until now, research teams have demonstrated the potential interest of imaging to characterize noninvasively different renal tumor subtypes, in particular, with multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. By combining all the imaging MR features successively reported in the literature and following a practical algorithm based on a step-by-step reading of the MR images, readers are now able to identify several imaging profiles, which appeared specific of each renal tumor subtypes...
February 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Masahiro Jinzaki, Stuart G Silverman, Hirotaka Akita, Shuji Mikami, Mototsugu Oya
With the increasing discovery of small renal masses with cross-sectional imaging, there has been the concomitant rise in their treatment. With the intent of early curative surgery for a presumed renal cell carcinoma, many renal masses are being resected at surgery without a confirmed diagnosis. Many of them are benign, and some are angiomyolipomas. The diagnosis of renal angiomyolipoma using imaging is, therefore, is as important as ever. Although most, if not all angiomyolipomas with abundant fat are diagnosed readily, some have too little fat to be detected with imaging...
February 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Sungmin Woo, Seung Hyup Kim
The incidence of small renal masses (SRMs) has shown significant increase owing to more widespread use of cross-sectional imaging. These SRMs include various subtypes of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) and several types of benign tumors including angiomyolipomas. Differentiation between RCC and benign SRMs is crucial for a patient to receive optimal management. Therefore, it is important for the radiologist to recognize imaging patterns that are characteristic of or diffferentiate between RCCs and benign SRMs, when confronting a SRM...
February 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Eva Compérat, Justine Varinot
The fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) report was published in January 2016 and focused especially on the kidney tumors and several new concepts. Many steps forward in the subclassification have been taken. Several new entities have been added, as major progress on a genetic level has been made. Some already well-known entities have new prognosis in accordance with longer follow up and research, and some concepts of well-known groups have been refined.
February 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Olivier Hélénon, Christophe Delavaud, Jonathan Dbjay, Jules Gregory, Najibullah Rasouli, Jean-Michel Correas
Cystic renal masses are a common entity with a wide differential diagnosis encountered by the radiologist in daily practice. Their characterization relies on the Bosniak classification system that has been widely accepted by radiologists and urologists as a pertinent diagnostic and communication tool. It has been designed to separate cystic lesions requiring surgery (categories III and IV) from those that can be ignored and left alone (categories I and II) or followed (category IIF). Utilization of the Bosniak classification requires, first, previous identification of the cystic nature of a renal mass with the exception of very small lesions...
February 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Olivier Helenon, Nicolas Grenier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Tommaso Vincenzo Bartolotta, Federica Vernuccio, Adele Taibbi, Roberto Lagalla
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) represents a significant breakthrough in sonography, and it is being increasingly used for the evaluation of focal liver lesions (FLLs). Currently, CEUS is included as a part of the suggested diagnostic workup of FLLs, resulting in a better patient management and delivering cost-effective therapy. After a brief technical note, contrast-enhancement patterns of different types of benign and malignant FLLs, along with hepatic pseudolesions, are described and discussed based on our experience and literature data...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Marco Dioguardi Burgio, Maxime Ronot, Luisa Paulatto, Sylvain Terraz, Valérie Vilgrain, Giuseppe Brancatelli
Gadoxetic acid is extensively used in the following 3 main clinical situations: characterization of small nodules in patients with cirrhosis, preoperative staging of liver metastases, and characterization of incidentally discovered focal liver lesions. Owing to the rapid entry of gadoxetic acid into hepatocytes, the traditional features of liver tumors are modified on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, especially during delayed phase sequences. Thus, although the added value of gadoxetic acid for the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions is now clear, its unique pharmacokinetics as well as the presence of mimicking and atypical lesions may lead to misdiagnoses...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Emre Ünal, Deniz Akata, Musturay Karcaaltincaba
Liver function assessment by hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is becoming a new biomarker. Liver function can be assessed by T1 mapping (reduction rate) and signal intensity measurement (relative enhancement ratio) before and after GD-EOB-DTPA (gadoxetic acid) administration, as alternative to Tc-99m galactosyl serum albumin scintigraphy, 99m Tc-labeled mebrofenin scintigraphy, and indocyanine green clearance test. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of liver function can enable diagnosis of cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated fibrosis and steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, toxic hepatitis, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy-related changes, which may be only visible on hepatobiliary phase images...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
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