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Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317043/the-role-of-sonoelastography-in-breast-lesions
#1
Richard G Barr
There is a large body of published material that supports the use of elastography, both strain and shear wave, for characterization of breast lesions. To a lesser extent, elastography can be used in the detection of breast abnormalities. This article reviews the principles of elastography regarding breast imaging, reviews the techniques to perform both strain and shear wave elastography, and reviews the literature and discusses how elastography can be used to improve the characterization of breast lesions to allow for decrease in the number of short-term follow-up examinations and benign biopsies...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317042/optimizing-success-and-avoiding-mishaps-in-the-most-difficult-image-guided-breast-biopsies
#2
Sughra Raza, Sona A Chikarmane, Eva C Gombos, Dianne Georgian-Smith, Elisabeth P Frost
Breast cancer is an increasing challenge in developed and limited resource areas of the world. Early detection of breast cancer offers the best chance for optimal care and best outcomes. A critical step in early detection is to obtain efficient and accurate tissue diagnoses. Although image-guided core needle breast biopsies are usually straightforward for experienced breast imagers, there are some not uncommon scenarios that present particular challenges. In this review article we will discuss these difficult situations and offer our tried and true methods to ensure safe and successful biopsies, while using stereotactic, ultrasound, and MRI guidance...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317041/contrast-enhanced-spectral-mammography-a-review
#3
Bhavika K Patel, M B I Lobbes, John Lewin
Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) provides low-energy 2D mammographic images comparable to standard digital mammography and a post-contrast recombined image to assess tumor neovascularity similar to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The utilization of CESM in the United States is currently low but could increase rapidly given many potential indications for clinical use. This article discusses historical background and literature review of indications and diagnostic accuracy of CESM to date. CESM is a growing technique for breast cancer detection and diagnosis that has levels of sensitivity and specificity on par with contrast-enhanced breast MRI...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317040/molecular-breast-imaging-a-comprehensive-review
#4
Ashley I Huppe, Anita K Mehta, Rachel F Brem
Molecular breast imaging (MBI), also called breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), has been an integral component of our breast imaging practice for over a decade. Unlike mammography and ultrasound that are based on anatomy, MBI is a physiologic approach to breast cancer detection. MBI detects additional foci of occult breast cancer in 9.0% of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, has a high sensitivity for detecting high-risk lesions, and detects 98% of invasive breast cancer and 91.0% of ductal carcinoma in situ...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317039/clinical-breast-magnetic-resonance-imaging-technique-indications-and-future-applications
#5
Heather I Greenwood, Rita I Freimanis, Bianca M Carpentier, Bonnie N Joe
Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality for the detection of breast cancer, and it is indicated for breast cancer screening in patients at high-risk of developing breast cancer. It is limited to this group given the high cost. In addition, breast MRI is also indicated for evaluating the extent of disease in patients with new breast cancer diagnoses, monitoring the response to neoadjuvant treatment, and evaluating implant integrity. New promising innovations in breast MRI include fast abbreviated MRI, and functional techniques including diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are promising particularly as regards to treatment response...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317038/role-of-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-in-screening-and-diagnostic-breast-imaging
#6
Stamatia Destounis
Digital breast tomosynthesis is quickly becoming the standard of care in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. Since its introduction to the clinical landscape in 2011, radiologists specializing in breast disease diagnosis around the country have made the decision to adopt the technology for both screening and diagnostic applications; with adoption growing substantially in present day. Users of the technology have attested to the benefits the technology affords, both in screening and the diagnostic evaluation of patients, through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations in recent years...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317037/the-role-of-ultrasound-in-breast-cancer-screening-the-case-for-and-against-ultrasound
#7
Jaime Geisel, Madhavi Raghu, Regina Hooley
Mammography is the gold standard for breast cancer screening. However, with increasing awareness among patients and health care providers of mammography limitations especially in dense breasts, supplemental screening for breast cancer with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging has been expanding. The roles of both in screening need to be re-examined. This article reviews the efficacy, utility, and feasibility of ultrasound as a screening tool for the early detection of occult breast cancer.
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317036/the-breast-cancer-screening-arcade-and-the-whack-a-mole-efforts-to-reduce-access-to-screening
#8
Daniel B Kopans
The effort to reduce access to breast cancer screening has been going on for decades. As each piece of misinformation has been published, scientific responses have exposed the fallacies, but then new "alternative facts" are generated. The effort has been compared to the arcade game "Whack-a-Mole" in which one false argument is addressed only to have a new one "pop up" to replace it. This has ranged from the false claim that early detection would have no effect on breast cancer, to the fallacious idea that early detection was leading to early deaths among young women, to the more recent false suggestion that tens of thousands of breast cancers found by mammography would disappear if left undetected...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317035/deciphering-the-breast-density-inform-law-movement-implications-for-practice
#9
Sean D Raj, Valerie Fein-Zachary, Priscilla J Slanetz
Although dense breast tissue is a normal and routine finding on screening mammography, dense breast tissue is associated with an independent increased risk for breast cancer. It is well known that screening mammography has a decreased sensitivity for cancer detection in women with dense breasts. Over the past decade, there has been increased interest generated among patients, physicians, and legislators regarding how best to screen dense-breasted women culminating in 2009 with the passage of a breast density notification law in Connecticut...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317034/case-report-metastatic-phyllodes-tumor
#10
Lorell Ruiz-Flores, Lilian O Ebuoma, Marcelo F Benveniste, Chandandeep Nagi, Tamara OrtizPerez, Ana Paula Benveniste
This report describes the clinical presentation, imaging findings, and treatment options of a case of metastatic malignant phyllodes.
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317033/emerging-breast-imaging-technologies-on-the-horizon
#11
Srinivasan Vedantham, Andrew Karellas
Early detection of breast cancers by mammography in conjunction with adjuvant therapy has contributed to reduction in breast cancer mortality. Mammography remains the "gold-standard" for breast cancer screening but is limited by tissue superposition. Digital breast tomosynthesis and more recently, dedicated breast computed tomography have been developed to alleviate the tissue superposition problem. However, all of these modalities rely upon x-ray attenuation contrast to provide anatomical images, and there are ongoing efforts to develop and clinically translate alternative modalities...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317032/newer-technologies-in-breast-cancer-imaging-dedicated-cone-beam-breast-computed-tomography
#12
Avice M O'Connell, Andrew Karellas, Srinivasan Vedantham, Daniel T Kawakyu-O'Connor
Dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) is the latest in a long history of breast imaging techniques dating back to the 1960s. Breast imaging is performed both for cancer screening as well as for diagnostic evaluation of symptomatic patients. Dedicated breast CT received US Food and Drug Administration approval for diagnostic use in 2015 and is slowly gaining recognition for its value in diagnostic 3-dimensional imaging of the breast, and also for injected contrast-enhanced imaging applications. Conventional mammography has known limitations in sensitivity and specificity, especially in dense breasts...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317031/letter-from-the-guest-editor
#13
EDITORIAL
Gopal R Vijayaraghavan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179903/thoracolithiasis-computed-tomography-findings-of-intrapleural-loose-bodies
#14
Gabriela Gayer
Thoracoliths are rare benign intrapleural loose bodies, often containing calcification, that are mobile in the pleural cavity. The presence of these intrapleural nodules is referred to as thoracolithiasis. The exact etiology of thoracoliths is unknown, but they presumably result from a prior episode of mediastinal (epipericardial) fat necrosis. Thoracoliths are usually asymptomatic and incidentally encountered on computed tomography. However, they sometimes pose diagnostic challenges, as a thoracolith may be located within a pleural fissure, and is then indistinguishable from a pulmonary nodule...
December 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179902/mediastinal-epipericardial-fat-necrosis-an-overlooked-and-little-known-cause-of-acute-chest-pain-mimicking-acute-coronary-syndrome
#15
Gabriela Gayer
Necrosis of the fat adjacent to the heart, referred to as pericardial fat necrosis, epipericardial fat necrosis, and mediastinal fat necrosis, is a rare, self-limited condition. It presents as a sudden onset of severe chest pain that mimics symptoms of pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome. Computed tomography (CT) findings are quite typical and consist of a round- or oval-shaped mass-like lesion containing soft tissue and fat density components in the cardiophrenic space. Lack of familiarity with this condition has led in the past to surgical interventions to remove the mass-like mediastinal fat necrosis...
December 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179901/ct-imaging-of-complications-associated-with-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices-lvads
#16
Girish S Shroff, Daniel Ocazionez, Bindu Akkanti, Daniel Vargas, Alheli Garza, Pushpender Gupta, Jayeshkumar A Patel, Manish K Patel, Igor D Gregoric
Heart failure is becoming increasingly prevalent, and more patients are being treated with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), either as a bridge to transplant or as destination therapy. The use of continuous-flow LVADs is on the rise. LVAD therapy is associated with several classes of complications, including bleeding, thrombosis, and infection. CT imaging can be used effectively to diagnose LVAD complications, including mediastinal hematomas and pericardial, abdominal wall, and retroperitoneal hemorrhage, inflow and outflow graft and aortic thrombi, and driveline and pump pocket infections...
December 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179900/intra-and-extra-thoracic-muscle-flaps-and-chest-wall-reconstruction-following-resection-of-thoracic-tumors
#17
Sonia L Betancourt Cuellar, Lior Heller, Diana P Palacio, Wayne L Hofstetter, Edith M Marom
Improvements in surgical technique over the last decade enable surgeons to perform extensive resection and reconstruction in patients presenting with tumors involving the soft tissue or bony structures of the chest wall. The type of surgical resection and its size, depend on the type of tumor resected and its location. In addition to providing a better esthetic result, the reconstruction restores support and functionality of the thoracic cage. The approach to chest wall repair includes primary closure or reconstruction by using transposition flaps, free flaps, prosthetic material, or a mixture of a flap and prosthetic material...
December 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179899/imaging-of-metastases-in-the-chest-mechanisms-of-spread-and-potential-pitfalls
#18
Girish S Shroff, Marcelo F Benveniste, Brett W Carter, Patricia M de Groot, Carol C Wu, Chitra Viswanathan, Bradley S Sabloff, Mylene T Truong
Pulmonary and pleural metastases are routinely identified on thoracic computed tomography. Pulmonary metastases are the most common pulmonary neoplasms and commonly originate from primary malignancies of the lung, breast, colon, pancreas, stomach, skin (ie, melanoma), head and neck, and kidney. Metastatic disease to the lungs may occur via 3 routes of spread: hematogenous, lymphatic, and endobronchial. Pleural metastases most commonly originate from primary malignancies of the lung and breast. Mechanisms of pleural metastatic involvement include hematogenous spread, direct invasion from a neighboring tumor, and retrograde lymphatic spread from the mediastinum...
December 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179898/imaging-of-intrathoracic-paragangliomas
#19
Daniel Ocazionez, Girish S Shroff, Daniel Vargas, Demetrius Dicks, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Arun C Nachiappan, Horacio Murillo, Ameya Baxi, Carlos S Restrepo
Intrathoracic paragangliomas are uncommon and only represent 1%-2% of paragangliomas. They are most commonly found in mediastinal compartments (aortopulmonary window or posterior mediastinum). Computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and specific nuclear medicine radiotracers are routinely used to characterize these lesions and help exclude other more common conditions. Selective angiography is currently used for preoperative embolization and mapping of the vascular supply before surgical resection, rather than for diagnostic purposes alone...
December 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179897/positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-esophageal-carcinoma-applications-and-limitations
#20
Sonia L Betancourt Cuellar, Diana P Palacio, Marcelo F Benveniste, Brett W Carter, Wayne L Hofstetter, Edith M Marom
Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma represent approximately 98% of esophageal malignant tumors. During the last 30 years, the incidence of adenocarcinoma has increased in Western countries (including the USA) where adenocarcinoma currently represents more than 60% of esophageal malignancies, although, worldwide, squamous cell carcinoma continues to be the predominant histologic type. Integrated positron emission tomography or computed tomography with 2-[fluorine18] fluro-2-deoxy-d-glucose is used in many institutions routinely as a tool in the initial staging and then repeated after therapy for the assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy and detection of recurrent disease in patients with esophageal carcinoma...
December 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
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