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Journal of Pineal Research

Rüdiger Hardeland
Melatonin is an immune modulator that displays both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. Proinflammatory actions, which are well documented by many studies in isolated cells or leukocyte-derived cell lines, can be assumed to enhance the resistance against pathogens. However, they can be detrimental in autoimmune diseases. Anti-inflammatory actions are of particular medicinal interest, because they are observed in high-grade inflammation such as sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion and brain injury, and also in low-grade inflammation during aging and in neurodegenerative diseases...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Jie Yin, Yuying Li, Hui Han, Shuai Chen, Jing Gao, Gang Liu, Xin Wu, Jinping Deng, Qifang Yu, Xingguo Huang, Rejun Fang, Tiejun Li, Russel J Reiter, Dong Zhang, Congrui Zhu, Guoqiang Zhu, Wenkai Ren, Yulong Yin
Melatonin has been shown to improve lipid metabolism and gut microbiota communities in animals and humans; however, it remains to know whether melatonin prevents obesity through gut microbiota. Here, we found that high fat diet promoted the lipid accumulation and intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in mice, while oral melatonin supplementation alleviated the lipid accumulation, and reversed gut microbiota dysbiosis, including the diversity of intestinal microbiota, relative abundances of Bacteroides and Alistipes, and functional profiling of microbial communities, such as energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Chao Li, Qi Zhao, Tengteng Gao, Hongying Wang, Zhijun Zhang, Bowen Liang, Zhiwei Wei, Changhai Liu, Fengwang Ma
Melatonin mediates many physiological processes in plants. The problem of apple replant disease is unsolved. Our study objectives were to evaluate the regulatory effect of melatonin on plant resistance to this challenge, and investigate the preliminary mechanism by which melatonin helps alleviate the effects of this disease. Two-year-old trees of 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica), grafted onto rootstock M.26, were grown in "replant" soil for six months in the absence or presence of a 200 μM melatonin supplement...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Zhewei Zhao, Chengran Lu, Tianjia Li, Wenda Wang, Wei Ye, Rong Zeng, Leng Ni, Zhichao Lai, Xuebin Wang, Changwei Liu
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the treatment of choice for carotid stenosis. Some patients develop ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury after CEA. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of melatonin on I/R injury in both rats and humans. To this end, 36 male rats were evaluated, and a double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) including 60 patients was performed. A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to mimic cerebral I/R. After 2 hr of occlusion and 24 hr of reperfusion, blood samples and brain tissues were harvested for further assessments...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Lucas Sagrillo-Fagundes, Eugênia M Assunção Salustiano, Rodrigo Ruano, Regina P Markus, Cathy Vaillancourt
Melatonin has been proposed as a possible treatment for the deleterious effects of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), such as autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis. Pathological pregnancies, such as preeclampsia, are associated with placental H/R, and decreased placental melatonin synthesis as well as lower melatonin levels in the placenta and maternal plasma. However, the effects of exogenous melatonin on inflammation and autophagy induced by pregnancy complications associated with H/R await investigation. This study aimed to determine as to whether melatonin protects human primary villous trophoblasts against H/R-induced autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Jun Hee Lee, Chul Won Yun, Yong-Seok Han, SangMin Kim, Dongjun Jeong, Hyog Young Kwon, Hyeongjoo Kim, Moo-Jun Baek, Sang Hun Lee
Melatonin suppresses tumor development. However, the exact relationship between melatonin and cancer stem cells (CSCs) is poorly understood. This study found that melatonin inhibits colon CSCs by regulating the PrPC -Oct4 axis. In specimens from patients with colorectal cancer, the expressions of cellular prion protein (PrPC ) and Oct4 were significantly correlated with metastasis and tumor stages. Co-treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and melatonin inhibited the stem cell markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and ALDH1A1 by downregulating PrPC ...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yasser Nehela, Nabil Killiny
Vector-borne phytopathogenic bacteria may alter the reproductive fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism of their vectors. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is associated with the Huanglongbing (also known as citrus greening disease), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide, and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Insecta, Hemiptera, Liviidae). The genome sequencing of CLas revealed that it does not have the ability to synthesize tryptophan, the precursor of melatonin, and it must acquire it from its host plant or insect vector to achieve its biologic processes, such as growth and multiplication...
October 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Vânia Brazão, Rafaela Pravato Colato, Fabricia Helena Santello, Gabriel Tavares do Vale, Natália de Almeida Gonzaga, Carlos Renato Tirapelli, José Clóvis do Prado
Although the exact etiology of Chagas disease is not completely elucidated, thymic atrophy and oxidative stress are believed to be important contributors to the pathogenesis during acute Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection. We hypothesized that exogenous melatonin, administered by gavage (5 mg/kg, p.o., gavage) to young (5 weeks old) and middle-aged (18 months old) male Wistar rats, would modulate thymic oxidative damage and reverse the age-related thymus regression during T. cruzi acute infection. Increased levels of superoxide anion (O2 - ) were detected in the thymus of infected animals, and treatment with melatonin reverted this response...
October 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Hyoung Yool Lee, Kyoungwhan Back
In plants, melatonin is a potent bioactive molecule involved in the response against various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known of its defensive role against high light (HL) stress. In this study, we found that melatonin was transiently induced in response to HL stress in Arabidopsis thaliana with a simultaneous increase in the expression of melatonin biosynthetic genes, including serotonin N-acetyltransferase1 (SNAT1). Transient induction of melatonin was also observed in the flu mutant, a singlet oxygen (1 O2 )-producing mutant, upon light exposure, suggestive of melatonin induction by chloroplastidic 1 O2 against HL stress...
October 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Diana I Sánchez, Bárbara González-Fernández, Irene Crespo, Beatriz San-Miguel, Marcelino Álvarez, Javier González-Gallego, María Jesús Tuñón
Disruption of circadian rhythms, which are regulated by the circadian clock machinery, plays an important role in different long-term diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Melatonin has been reported to alleviate promotion and progression of HCC, but the potential contribution of circadian clock modulation is unknown. We investigated the effects of melatonin in mice which received diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (35 mg/kg body weight ip) once a week for 8 weeks. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg kg-1 d-1 ip beginning 4 weeks after the onset of DEN administration and ending at the sacrifice time (10, 20, 30, or 40 weeks)...
October 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Sebastian R Hobson, Seshi Gurusinghe, Rebecca Lim, Nicole O Alers, Suzanne L Miller, John C Kingdom, Euan M Wallace
Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. There have been no material advances in the treatment of preeclampsia for nearly 50 years. Combining in vitro studies and a clinical trial, we aimed to determine whether melatonin could be a useful adjuvant therapy. In a xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) placental explant model, melatonin reduced oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) and enhanced antioxidant markers (Nrf2 translocation, HO-1), but did not affect explant production of anti-angiogenic factors (sFlt, sEng, activin A)...
October 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Mihir Kumar Mandal, Haktan Suren, Brian Ward, Arezue Boroujerdi, Chandrasekar Kousik
Since the 1950s, research on the animal neurohormone, melatonin, has focused on its multiregulatory effect on patients suffering from insomnia, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. In plants, melatonin plays major role in plant growth and development, and is inducible in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, studies on the direct role of melatonin in disease suppression and as a signaling molecule in host-pathogen defense mechanism are lacking. This study provides insight on the predicted biosynthetic pathway of melatonin in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and how application of melatonin, an environmental-friendly immune inducer, can boost plant immunity and suppress pathogen growth where fungicide resistance and lack of genetic resistance are major problems...
October 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Ko-Hsiu Lu, Shih-Chi Su, Chiao-Wen Lin, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Ya-Chiu Lin, Ming-Hsien Chien, Russel J Reiter, Shun-Fa Yang
Osteosarcoma, with its high metastatic potential, is the most prevalent malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Melatonin possesses multiple tumor-suppressing properties for a myriad of tumors, but little is known about the effects of melatonin on osteosarcoma metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin elicited very low cytotoxicity and significantly inhibited cellular motility, migration, and invasion in human osteosarcoma U2OS and HOS cells. Moreover, using RNA sequencing technology, we revealed that melatonin repressed C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 (CCL24) gene expression in U2OS cells...
October 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Jian Wei, Dong-Xu Li, Jia-Rong Zhang, Chi Shan, Zed Rengel, Zhong-Bang Song, Qi Chen
Melatonin has been detected in plants in 1995; however, the function and signaling pathway of this putative phytohormone are largely undetermined due to a lack of knowledge about its receptor. Here, we discovered the first phytomelatonin receptor (CAND2/PMTR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that melatonin governs the receptor-dependent stomatal closure. The application of melatonin induced stomatal closure through the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit-regulated H2 O2 and Ca2+ signals. The Arabidopsis mutant lines lacking AtCand2 that encodes a candidate G protein-coupled receptor were insensitive to melatonin-induced stomatal closure...
September 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Cezary Skobowiat, Anna A Brożyna, Zorica Janjetovic, Saowanee Jeayeng, Allen S W Oak, Tae-Kang Kim, Uraiwan Panich, Russel J Reiter, Andrzej T Slominski
Melatonin and its derivatives (N1 -acetyl-N2 -formyl-5-methoxykynurenine [AFMK] and N-acetyl serotonin [NAS]) have broad-spectrum protective effects against photocarcinogenesis, including both direct and indirect antioxidative actions, regulation of apoptosis and DNA damage repair; these data were primarily derived from in vitro models. This study evaluates possible beneficial effects of melatonin and its active derivatives against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced harm to human and porcine skin ex vivo and to cultured HaCaT cells...
September 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Teng Zhang, Yang Zhou, Lan Li, Yong Zhao, Massimo De Felici, Russel J Reiter, Wei Shen
A growing number of couples experience fertility issues with almost half being due to malefactors. The exposure to toxic environmental contaminants, such as endocrine disruptors (EDs), has been shown to negatively affect male fertility. EDs are present in the environment, and exposure to these toxins results in the failure of spermatogenesis. The deleterious effects of EDs on spermatogenesis have been well documented, whereas improvement of infertility associated with spermatogenesis defects remains a great challenge...
September 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
Melatonin promotes sleep. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Orexin neurons in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PFH) are pivotal for wake promotion. Does melatonin promote sleep by inhibiting orexin neurons? We used C57BL/6J mice and designed 4 experiments to address this question. Experiment 1 used double-labeled immunofluorescence and examined the presence of melatonin receptors on orexin neurons. Second, mice, implanted with bilateral guides targeted toward PFH and sleep-recording electrodes, were infused with melatonin (500 pmole/50 nL/side) at dark onset (onset of active period), and spontaneous bouts of sleep-wakefulness were examined...
September 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Hyemin Lee, Hyo-Jung Lee, Ji Hoon Jung, Eun Ah Shin, Sung-Hoon Kim
Here the underlying antitumor mechanism of melatonin and its potency as a sensitizer of paclitaxel was investigated in X02 cancer stem cells. Melatonin suppressed sphere formation and induced G2/M arrest in X02 cells expressing nestin, CD133, CXCR4, and SOX-2 as biomarkers of stemness. Furthermore, melatonin reduced the expression of CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and c-Myc and upregulated cyclin B1 in X02 cells. Notably, genes of c-Myc related mRNAs were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated X02 cells by microarray analysis...
September 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Ok Jin Hwang, Kyoungwhan Back
Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis catalyzing the conversion of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin. In plants, SNAT is encoded by 2 isogenes of which SNAT1 is constitutively expressed and its overexpression confers increased yield in rice. However, the role of SNAT2 remains to be clarified. In contrast to SNAT1, the diurnal rhythm of SNAT2 mRNA expression peaks at night. In this study, transgenic rice plants in which SNAT2 expression were suppressed by RNAi technology showed a decrease in melatonin and a dwarf phenotype with erect leaves, reminiscent of brassinosteroids (BR)-deficient mutants...
September 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Haitao Shi, Shengmin Zhang, Daozhe Lin, Yunxie Wei, Yu Yan, Guoyin Liu, Russel J Reiter, Zhulong Chan
Although accumulating evidence demonstrates the cross talk between melatonin and auxin as derivatives of tryptophan, the underlying signaling events remain unclear. In this study, we found that melatonin and auxin mediated the transcriptional levels of zinc finger of Arabidopsis thaliana (ZAT6) in a mutually antagonistic manner. ZAT6 negatively modulated the endogenous auxin level, and ZAT6 knockdown plants were less sensitive to melatonin-regulated auxin biosynthesis, indicating its involvement in melatonin-mediated auxin accumulation...
September 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
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