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Journal of Pineal Research

Yun Qian, Qixin Han, Xiaotian Zhao, Jialin Song, Yuan Cheng, Zhiwei Fang, Yuanming Ouyang, Wei-En Yuan, Cunyi Fan
Peripheral nerve defect is a common and severe kind of injury in traumatic accidents. Melatonin can improve peripheral nerve recovery by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation after traumatic insults. In addition, it triggers autophagy pathways to increase regenerated nerve proliferation and to reduce apoptosis. In this study, we fabricated a melatonin-controlled-release scaffold to cure long-range nerve defects for the first time. 3D manufacture of melatonin/polycaprolactone nerve guide conduit increased Schwann cell proliferation and neural expression in vitro and promoted functional, electrophysiological and morphological nerve regeneration in vivo...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Rubén Corpas, Christian Griñán-Ferré, Verónica Palomera-Ávalos, David Porquet, Pablo García de Frutos, Silvia M Franciscato Cozzolino, Eduard Rodríguez-Farré, Mercè Pallàs, Coral Sanfeliu, Bárbara R Cardoso
Melatonin is an endogenous pleiotropic molecule which orchestrates regulatory functions and protective capacity against age-related ailments. The increase in circulating levels of melatonin through dietary supplements intensifies its health benefits. Investigations in animal models have shown that melatonin protects against Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology, although clinical studies have not been conclusive. We hypothesized that melatonin induces changes in the brain that prevent or attenuate AD by increasing resilience...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Kyungjin Lee, Ok Jin Hwang, Russel J Reiter, Kyoungwhan Back
The plant melatonin biosynthetic pathway has been well characterized, but inhibitors of melatonin synthesis have not been well studied. Here, we found that flavonoids potently inhibited plant melatonin synthesis. For example, flavonoids including morin and myricetin significantly inhibited purified, recombinant sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT). Flavonoids also dose-dependently and potently inhibited purified rice SNAT1 and SNAT2. Thus, myricetin (100 μmol/L) reduced rice SNAT1 and SNAT2 activity 7- and 10-fold, respectively, and also strongly inhibited the N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase activity of purified, recombinant rice caffeic acid O-methyltransferase...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Natalia Jorgelina Prado, Mariana Casarotto, Juan Pablo Calvo, Luciana Mazzei, Amira Zulma Ponce Zumino, Isabel Mercedes García, Fernando Darío Cuello-Carrión, Miguel Walter Fornés, León Ferder, Emiliano Raúl Diez, Walter Manucha
Lethal ventricular arrhythmias increase in patients with chronic kidney disease that suffer an acute coronary event. Chronic kidney disease induces myocardial remodeling, oxidative stress, and arrhythmogenesis. A manifestation of the relationship between kidney and heart is the concomitant reduction in vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the increase in angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 ). Melatonin has renal and cardiac protective actions. One potential mechanism is the increase of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) -an antioxidant factor-...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yasser Nehela, Nabil Killiny
Vector-borne phytopathogenic bacteria may alter the reproductive fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism of their vectors. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is associated with the Huanglongbing (also known as citrus greening disease), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide, and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Insecta, Hemiptera, Liviidae). The genome sequencing of CLas revealed that it does not have the ability to synthesize tryptophan, the precursor of melatonin, and it must acquire it from its host plant or insect vector to achieve its biologic processes, such as growth and multiplication...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Vânia Brazão, Rafaela Pravato Colato, Fabricia Helena Santello, Gabriel Tavares do Vale, Natália de Almeida Gonzaga, Carlos Renato Tirapelli, José Clóvis do Prado
Although the exact etiology of Chagas' disease is not completely elucidated, thymic atrophy and oxidative stress are believed to be important contributors to the pathogenesis during acute Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection. We hypothethized that exogenous melatonin, administered by gavage (5 mg/kg, p.o., gavage) to young (5 weeks old) and middle-aged (18 months old) male Wistar rats would modulate thymic oxidative damage and reverse the age-related thymus regression during T. cruzi acute infection. Increased levels of superoxide anion (O2 - ) were detected in the thymus of infected animals and treatment with melatonin reverted this response...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Hyoung Yool Lee, Kyoungwhan Back
In plants, melatonin is a potent bioactive molecule involved in the response against various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known of its defensive role against high light (HL) stress. In this study, we found that melatonin was transiently induced in response to HL stress in Arabidopsis thaliana with a simultaneous increase in the expression of melatonin biosynthetic genes, including serotonin N-acetyltransferase1 (SNAT1). Transient induction of melatonin was also observed in the flu mutant, a singlet oxygen (1 O2 )-producing mutant, upon light exposure, suggestive of melatonin induction by chloroplastidic 1 O2 against HL stress...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Hao Zhou, Dandan Li, Pingjun Zhu, Qiang Ma, Sam Toan, Jin Wang, Shunying Hu, Yundai Chen, Yingmei Zhang
The molecular features of necroptosis in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury have been extensively explored. However, there have been no studies investigating the physiological regulatory mechanisms of melatonin acting on necroptosis in cardiac IR injury. This study was designed to determine the role of necroptosis in microvascular IR injury, and investigate the contribution of melatonin in repressing necroptosis and preventing IR-mediated endothelial system collapse. Our results demonstrated that Ripk3 was primarily activated by IR injury and consequently aggravated endothelial necroptosis, microvessel barrier dysfunction, capillary hyperpermeability, the inflammation response, microcirculatory vasospasms, and microvascular perfusion defects...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Diana I Sánchez, Bárbara González-Fernández, Irene Crespo, Beatriz San-Miguel, Marcelino Álvarez, Javier González-Gallego, María Jesús Tuñón
Disruption of circadian rhythms, which are regulated by the circadian clock machinery, plays an important role in different long-term diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Melatonin has been reported to alleviate promotion and progression of HCC, but the potential contribution of circadian clock modulation is unknown. We investigated the effects of melatonin in mice which received diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (35 mg/kg body weight ip) once a week for 8 weeks. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg kg-1 d-1 ip beginning 4 weeks after the onset of DEN administration and ending at the sacrifice time (10, 20, 30, or 40 weeks)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Zhijing Zhang, Eduardo Silveyra, Nange Jin, Christophe P Ribelayga
The C57BL/6J (B6) is the most common inbred mouse strain used in biomedical research in the United States. Yet, this strain is notoriously known for being deficient in the biosynthesis of melatonin, an important effector of circadian clocks in the brain and in the retina. Melatonin deficiency in this strain results from nonfunctional alleles of the genes coding 2 key enzymes of the melatonin synthesis pathway: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) and N-acetylserotonin-O-methyltransferase (Asmt). By introducing functional alleles of the Aanat and Asmt genes from the melatonin-proficient CBA/CaJ (CBA) mouse strain to B6, we have generated a B6 congenic line that has acquired the capacity of rhythmic melatonin synthesis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Sebastian R Hobson, Seshi Gurusinghe, Rebecca Lim, Nicole O Alers, Suzanne L Miller, John C Kingdom, Euan M Wallace
Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. There have been no material advances in the treatment of preeclampsia for nearly 50 years. Combining in vitro studies and a clinical trial, we aimed to determine if melatonin could be a useful adjuvant therapy. In a xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) placental explant model, melatonin reduced oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) and enhanced antioxidant markers (Nrf2 translocation, HO-1), but did not affect explant production of anti-angiogenic factors (sFlt, sEng, activin A)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Ko-Hsiu Lu, Shih-Chi Su, Chiao-Wen Lin, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Ya-Chiu Lin, Ming-Hsien Chien, Russel J Reiter, Shun-Fa Yang
Osteosarcoma, with its high metastatic potential, is the most prevalent malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Melatonin possesses multiple tumor-suppressing properties for a myriad of tumors, but little is known about the effects of melatonin on osteosarcoma metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin elicited very low cytotoxicity and significantly inhibited cellular motility, migration, and invasion in human osteosarcoma U2OS and HOS cells. Moreover, using RNA sequencing technology, we revealed that melatonin repressed C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 (CCL24) gene expression in U2OS cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Mihir Kumar Mandal, Haktan Suren, Brian Ward, Arezue Boroujerdi, Chandrasekar Kousik
Since the 1950s, research on the animal neurohormone, melatonin, has focused on its multiregulatory effect on patients suffering from insomnia, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. In plants, melatonin plays major role in plant growth and development, and is inducible in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, studies on the direct role of melatonin in disease suppression and as a signaling molecule in host-pathogen defense mechanism are lacking. This study provides insight on the predicted biosynthetic pathway of melatonin in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and how application of melatonin, an environmental-friendly immune inducer, can boost plant immunity and suppress pathogen growth where fungicide resistance and lack of genetic resistance are major problems...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Zhuo Wang, Ya-Hong Zhang, Wei Zhang, Hui-Ling Gao, Man-Li Zhong, Ting-Ting Huang, Rui-Fang Guo, Na-Na Liu, Dan-Dan Li, Yin Li, Zhan-You Wang, Pu Zhao
Copper is essential for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are induced by amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation; thus, the homeostasis of copper is believed to be a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although clinical trials of copper chelators show promise when applied in AD, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we reported that copper chelators promoted nonamyloidogenic processing of AβPP through MT1/2 /CREB-dependent signaling pathways. First, we found that the formation of Aβ plaques in the cortex was significantly reduced, and learning deficits were significantly improved in AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice by copper chelator tetrathiomolybdate (TM) administration...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Jian Wei, Dong-Xu Li, Jia-Rong Zhang, Chi Shan, Zed Rengel, Zhong-Bang Song, Qi Chen
Melatonin has been detected in plants in 1995; however, the function and signaling pathway of this putative phytohormone are largely undetermined due to a lack of knowledge about its receptor. Here, we discovered the first phytomelatonin receptor (CAND2/PMTR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that melatonin governs the receptor-dependent stomatal closure. The application of melatonin induced stomatal closure through the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit-regulated H2 O2 and Ca2+ signals. The Arabidopsis mutant lines lacking AtCand2 that encodes a candidate G protein-coupled receptor were insensitive to melatonin-induced stomatal closure...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Cezary Skobowiat, Anna A Brożyna, Zorica Janjetovic, Saowanee Jeayeng, Allen S W Oak, Tae-Kang Kim, Uraiwan Panich, Russel J Reiter, Andrzej T Slominski
Melatonin and its derivatives (N1 -acetyl-N2 -formyl-5-methoxykynurenine [AFMK] and N-acetyl serotonin [NAS]) have broad-spectrum protective effects against photocarcinogenesis, including both direct and indirect antioxidative actions, regulation of apoptosis and DNA damage repair; these data were primarily derived from in vitro models. This study evaluates possible beneficial effects of melatonin and its active derivatives against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced harm to human and porcine skin ex vivo and to cultured HaCaT cells...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Annia Galano, Russel J Reiter
Oxidative stress (OS) represents a threat to the chemical integrity of biomolecules including lipids, proteins, and DNA. The associated molecular damage frequently results in serious health issues, which justifies our concern about this phenomenon. In addition to enzymatic defense mechanisms, there are compounds (usually referred to as antioxidants) that offer chemical protection against oxidative events. Among them, melatonin and its metabolites constitute a particularly efficient chemical family. They offer protection against OS as individual chemical entities through a wide variety of mechanisms including electron transfer, hydrogen transfer, radical adduct formation, and metal chelation, and by repairing biological targets...
August 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
James D S Aridas, Tamara Yawno, Amy E Sutherland, Ilias Nitsos, Michael Ditchfield, Flora Y Wong, Rod W Hunt, Michael C Fahey, Atul Malhotra, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Perinatal asphyxia remains a principal cause of infant mortality and long-term neurological morbidity, particularly in low-resource countries. No neuroprotective interventions are currently available. Melatonin (MLT), a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic agent, offers promise as an intravenous (IV) or transdermal therapy to protect the brain. We aimed to determine the effect of melatonin (IV or transdermal patch) on neuropathology in a lamb model of perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was induced in newborn lambs via umbilical cord occlusion at birth...
May 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yuan Zhang, Heyi Ji, Jiangong Wang, Yufang Sun, Zhiyuan Qian, Xinghong Jiang, Terrance P Snutch, Yangang Sun, Jin Tao
Recent studies implicate melatonin in the antinociceptive activity of sensory neurons. However, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we identify a critical role of melatonin in functionally regulating Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels (T-type channel) in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Melatonin inhibited T-type channels in small TG neurons via the melatonin receptor 2 (MT2 receptor) and a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein pathway. Immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that the intracellular subunit of the MT2 receptor coprecipitated with Gαo ...
May 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Tianjia Li, Leng Ni, Zhewei Zhao, Xinnong Liu, Zhichao Lai, Xiao Di, Zhibo Xie, Xitao Song, Xuebin Wang, Rui Zhang, Changwei Liu
Epidemiology survey indicated that cigarette smoking is a risk factor of diabetes. However, the precise mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, we found that smoking caused metabolic malfunctions on pancreas and liver in experimental animal model. These were indicated by hyperglycemia, increased serum hemoglobin A1c level and decreased insulin secretion, inhibition of liver glycogen synthase (LGS), and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Mechanistic studies revealed that all these alterations were caused by the inflammatory reaction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by the smoking...
May 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
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