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Journal of Pineal Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599069/plant-mitochondria-synthesize-melatonin-and-enhance-the-tolerance-of-plants-to-drought-stress
#1
Lin Wang, Chao Feng, Xiaodong Zheng, Yan Guo, Fangfang Zhou, Dongqian Shan, Xuan Liu, Jin Kong
Synthesis of melatonin in mitochondria was reported in animals. However, there is no report on whether plant mitochondria also produce melatonin. Herein, we show that plant mitochondria are a major site for melatonin synthesis. In an in vitro study, isolated apple mitochondria had the capacity to generate melatonin. Subcellular localization analysis documented that an apple SNAT isoform, MzSNAT5, was localized in the mitochondria of both Arabidopsis protoplasts and apple callus cells. The kinetic analysis revealed that the recombinant MzSNAT5 protein exhibited high enzymatic activity to catalyze serotonin to N-acetylserotonin with the Km and Vmax of 55 μM and 0...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580724/melatonin-delays-photoreceptor-degeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-autosomal-recessive-retinitis-pigmentosa
#2
Xiao-Jian Xu, Shu-Min Wang, Ying Jin, Yun-Tao Hu, Kang Feng, Zhi-Zhong Ma
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comprises a group of incurable inherited retinal degenerations. Targeting common processes, instead of mutation specific treatment, has proven to be an innovative strategy to combat debilitating retinal degeneration. Growing evidence indicates that melatonin possesses a potent activity against neurodegenerative disorders by mitigating cell damage associated with apoptosis and inflammation. Given the pleiotropic role of melatonin in central nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether melatonin would afford protection against retinal degeneration in autosomal recessive RP (arRP)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580641/melatonin-reduces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-corneal-dystrophy-associated-tgfbip-through-activation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-protein-degradation
#3
Seung-Il Choi, Eunhee Lee, Begum Akuzum, Jang Bin Jeong, Yong-Sun Maeng, Tae-Im Kim, Eung Kweon Kim
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is emerging as a factor for the pathogenesis of granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of melatonin on ER stress in GCD2. Our results showed that GCD2 corneal fibroblasts were more susceptible to ER stress-induced death than were wild-type cells. Melatonin significantly inhibited GCD2 corneal cell death, caspase-3 activation, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 cleavage caused by the ER stress inducer, tunicamycin...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580603/enhancement-of-high-glucose-induced-pink1-expression-by-melatonin-stimulates-neuronal-cell-survival-involvement-of-mt2-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#4
Xaykham Onphachanh, Hyun Jik Lee, Jae Ryong Lim, Young Hyun Jung, Jun Sung Kim, Chang Woo Chae, Sei-Jung Lee, Amr Ahmed Gabr, Ho Jae Han
Hyperglycemia is a representative hallmark and risk factor for diabetes mellitus (DM) and is closely linked to DM-associated neuronal cell death. Previous investigators reported on a genome-wide association study and showed relationships between DM and melatonin receptor (MT), highlighting the role of MT signaling by assessing melatonin in DM. However, the role of MT signaling in DM pathogenesis is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of mitophagy regulators in high glucose-induced neuronal cell death and the effect of melatonin against high glucose-induced mitophagy regulators in neuronal cells...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512916/regulation-of-bone-mass-through-pineal-derived-melatonin-mt2-pathway
#5
Kunal Sharan, Kirsty Lewis, Takahisa Furukawa, Vijay K Yadav
Tryptophan, an essential amino acid through a series of enzymatic reactions gives rise to various metabolites viz., serotonin and melatonin that regulate distinct biological functions. We show here that tryptophan metabolism in the pineal gland favors bone mass accrual through production of melatonin, a pineal-derived neurohormone. Pineal gland-specific deletion of Tph1, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the melatonin biosynthesis lead to a decrease in melatonin levels and a low bone mass due to an isolated decrease in bone formation while bone resorption parameters remained unaffected...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512846/melatonin-influences-the-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-in-porcine-cumulus-oocyte-complexes
#6
Sanghoon Lee, Jun-Xue Jin, Anukul Taweechaipaisankul, Geon A Kim, Curie Ahn, Byeong Chun Lee
Melatonin, which is synthesized in the pineal gland and peripheral reproductive organs, has antioxidant properties and regulates physiological processes. It is well known that melatonin affects in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes and embryonic development in many species. However, beneficial effects of melatonin on IVM have been explained mainly by indirect antioxidant effects and little information is available on the underlying mechanism by which melatonin directly acts on porcine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500782/melatonin-protects-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-iron-overload-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-dysfunction-and-senescence
#7
Fan Yang, Lei Yang, Yuan Li, Gege Yan, Chao Feng, Tianyi Liu, Rui Gong, Ye Yuan, Ning Wang, Elina Idiiatullina, Timur Bikkuzin, Valentin Pavlov, Yang Li, Chaorun Dong, Dawei Wang, Yang Cao, Zhenbo Han, Lai Zhang, Qi Huang, Fengzhi Ding, Zhengang Bi, Benzhi Cai
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are an expandable population of stem cells which can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dysfunction of BMSCs in response to pathological stimuli contributes to bone diseases. Melatonin, a hormone secreted from pineal gland, has been proved to be an important mediator in bone formation and mineralization. The aim of this study was to investigate whether melatonin protected against iron overload-induced dysfunction of BMSCs and its underlying mechanisms...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500770/the-role-of-melatonin-in-the-neurodevelopmental-etiology-of-schizophrenia-a-study-in-human-olfactory-neuronal-precursors
#8
Tania Galván-Arrieta, Citlali Trueta, Montserrat G Cercós, Marcela Valdés-Tovar, Salvador Alarcón, Julian Oikawa, Horacio Zamudio-Meza, Gloria Benítez-King
Dim light exposure of the mother during pregnancy has been proposed as one of the environmental factors that affect the fetal brain development in schizophrenia. Melatonin circulating levels are regulated by the environmental light/dark cycle. This hormone stimulates neuronal differentiation in the adult brain. However, little is known about its role in the fetal human brain development. Olfactory neuronal precursors (ONPs) are useful for studying the physiopathology of neuropsychiatric diseases because they mimic all the stages of neurodevelopment in culture...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500766/melatonin-inhibits-neuronal-dysfunction-associated-with-neuroinflammation-by-atopic-psychological-stress-in-nc-nga-atopic-like-mouse-models
#9
Gunhyuk Park, Seung Hoon Lee, Dal-Seok Oh, Yong-Ung Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is chronic pruritic skin disease. AD can increase psychological stress as well, increasing glucocorticoid release and exacerbating the associated symptoms. Chronic glucocorticoid elevation disturbs neuroendocrine signaling, and can induce neuroinflammation, neurotoxicity, and cognitive impairment; however, it is unclear if AD-related psychological stress elevates glucocorticoids enough to cause neuronal damage. Therefore, we assessed the effects of AD-induced stress in a mouse AD model...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500761/melatonin-ameliorates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-sirt3-dependent-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#10
Mengen Zhai, Buying Li, Weixun Duan, Lin Jing, Bin Zhang, Meng Zhang, Liming Yu, Zhenhua Liu, Bo Yu, Kai Ren, Erhe Gao, Yang Yang, Hongliang Liang, Zhenxiao Jin, Shiqiang Yu
Sirtuins are a family of highly evolutionarily conserved nicotinamide adenine nucleotide-dependent histone deacetylases. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) is a member of the sirtuin family that is localized primarily to the mitochondria and protects against oxidative stress-related diseases, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Melatonin has a favorable effect in ameliorating MI/R injury. We hypothesized that melatonin protects against MI/R injury by activating the SIRT3 signaling pathway. In this study, mice were pre-treated with or without a selective SIRT3 inhibitor and then subjected to MI/R operation...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480597/melatonin-protects-against-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-through-mst1-sirt3-signaling
#11
Mingming Zhang, Jie Lin, Shanjie Wang, Zheng Cheng, Jianqiang Hu, Tingting Wang, Wanrong Man, Tao Yin, Wenyi Guo, Erhe Gao, Russel J Reiter, Haichang Wang, Dongdong Sun
The present study investigated the effects of melatonin on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and determined the underlying mechanisms. Echocardiography indicated that melatonin notably mitigated the adverse left ventricle remodeling and alleviated cardiac dysfunction in DCM. The mechanisms were attributed to increased autophagy, reduced apoptosis and alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, melatonin inhibited Mst1 phosphorylation and promoted Sirt3 expression in DCM. These results indicated that melatonin may exert its effects through Mst1/ Sirt3 signaling...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480587/melatonin-successfully-rescues-hippocampal-bioenergetics-and-improves-cognitive-function-following-drug-intoxication-by-promoting-nrf2-are-signaling-activity
#12
Li-You Chen, Ting-Yi Renn, Wen-Chieh Liao, Fu-Der Mai, Ying-Jui Ho, George Hsiao, Ai-Wei Lee, Hung-Ming Chang
Prolonged exposure to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) would cause drug intoxication in which impaired cognitive function results from enhanced hippocampal oxidative stress may serve as a major symptom in this deficiency. Considering melatonin possesses significant anti-oxidative efficacy, this study aimed to determine whether melatonin would successfully promote the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2-ARE) signaling, depress oxidative stress, and rescue hippocampal bioenergetics and cognitive function following drug intoxication injury...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439991/melatonin-a-pleiotropic-molecule-that-modulates-dna-damage-response-and-repair-pathways
#13
REVIEW
Maryam Majidinia, Alireza Sadeghpour, Saeed Mehrzadi, Russel J Reiter, Nasrin Khatami, Bahman Yousefi
DNA repair is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the genome. Perturbations in the DNA repair pathways have been identified in several human cancers. Thus, compounds targeting DNA damage response (DDR) hold great promise in cancer therapy. A great deal of effort, in pursuit of new anticancer drugs, has been devoted to understanding the basic mechanisms and functions of the cellular DNA repair machinery. Melatonin, a widely-produced indoleamine in all organisms is associated with a reduced risk of cancer and has multiple regulatory roles on the different aspects of the DDR and DNA repair...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423196/melatonin-enhances-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-and-engraftment-by-increasing-mitochondrial-function
#14
Miguel Mendivil-Perez, Viviana Soto-Mercado, Ana Guerra-Librero, Beatriz I Fernandez-Gil, Javier Florido, Ying-Qiang Shen, Miguel A Tejada, Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez, Iryna Rusanova, José M Garcia-Verdugo, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, Luis Carlos López, Carlos Velez-Pardo, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, José M Ferrer, Germaine Escames
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are regarded as a promising therapeutic approach to protecting and restoring damaged neurons in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (PD and AD, respectively). However, new research suggests that NSC differentiation is required to make this strategy effective. Several studies have demonstrated that melatonin increases mature neuronal markers, which reflects NSC differentiation into neurons. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of mitochondria in the effects of melatonin during NSC differentiation has not yet been fully established...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398674/melatonin-protects-cardiac-microvasculature-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-suppression-of-mitochondrial-fission-vdac1-hk2-mptp-mitophagy-axis
#15
Hao Zhou, Ying Zhang, Shunying Hu, Chen Shi, Pingjun Zhu, Qiang Ma, Qinhua Jin, Feng Cao, Feng Tian, Yundai Chen
The cardiac microvascular system, which is primarily composed of monolayer endothelial cells, is the site of blood supply and nutrient exchange to cardiomyocytes. However, microvascular ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) following percutaneous coronary intervention is a woefully neglected topic and few strategies are available to reverse such pathologies. Here, we studied the effects of melatonin on microcirculation IRI and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Melatonin markedly reduced infarcted area, improved cardiac function, restored blood flow and lower microcirculation perfusion defects...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398673/melatonin-alleviates-inflammasome-induced-pyroptosis-through-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-gsdmd-signal-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#16
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Yatao Xu, Dan Luo, Qian Ren, Song Wu, Chao Sun
Pyroptosis is a proinflammatory form of cell death that is associated with pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Melatonin is substantially reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting inflammasome activation. However, the effects of melatonin on inflammasome-induced pyroptosis in adipocytes remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that melatonin alleviated lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome formation in mice adipose tissue. The NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis was also inhibited by melatonin in adipocytes...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378373/chloroplast-overexpression-of-rice-caffeic-acid-o-methyltransferase-increases-melatonin-production-in-chloroplasts-via-the-5-methoxytryptamine-pathway-in-transgenic-rice-plants
#17
Geun-Hee Choi, Hyoung Yool Lee, Kyoungwhan Back
Recent analyses of the enzymatic features of various melatonin biosynthetic genes from bacteria, animals, and plants have led to the hypothesis that melatonin could be synthesized via the 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) pathway. 5-MT is known to be synthesized in vitro from serotonin by the enzymatic action of O-methyltransferases, including N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT), leading to melatonin synthesis by the subsequent enzymatic reaction with serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370493/melatonin-administration-to-wild-type-mice-and-non-treated-nlrp3-mutant-mice-share-similar-inhibition-of-the-inflammatory-response-during-sepsis
#18
Ibtissem Rahim, Bahia Djerdjouri, Ramy K Sayed, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, Beatriz Fernández-Gil, Agustín Hidalgo-Gutiérrez, Luis C López, Germaine Escames, Russel J Reiter, Dario Acuna-Castroviejo
The NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in the innate immune response during inflammation. Moreover, melatonin blunts the NF-κB/NLRP3 connection during sepsis. Thus, we compared the roles of the NLRP3 inflammasome and/or melatonin treatment in the septic response of wild-type and NLRP3(-/-) mice. Mouse myocardial tissue was used for this purpose. The nuclear turnover of NF-κB was enhanced during sepsis, with an increase in TNFα, iNOS, and pro-IL-1β. The lack of inflammasome in NLRP3(-/-) mice significantly reduced that response and blunted IL-1β maturation due to the lack of caspase-1...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370218/melatonin-antioxidant-and-modulatory-properties-in-age-related-changes-during-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#19
Vânia Brazão, Fabricia Helena Santello, Rafaela Pravato Colato, Tamires Tesch Mazotti, Lucas Favaretto Tazinafo, Míriam Paula Alonso Toldo, Gabriel Tavares do Vale, Carlos Renato Tirapelli, José Clóvis do Prado
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on selected biomarkers of innate and humoral immune response as well as the antioxidant/oxidant status (superoxide dismutase- SOD and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) to understand whether age-related changes would influence the development of acute Trypanossoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection. Young (5 weeks) and middle-aged (18 months) Wistar rats were orally treated with melatonin (gavage) (05 mg/kg/day). 9 days after infection. A significant increase on both SOD activity and GSH levels were found in plasma from all middle-aged melatonin-treated animals...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226188/effects-of-melatonin-on-seedling-growth-mineral-nutrition-and-nitrogen-metabolism-in-cucumber-under-nitrate-stress
#20
Ruimin Zhang, Yunkuo Sun, Zeyu Liu, Wen Jin, Yan Sun
In China, excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers in glasshouses leads to nitrate accumulations in soil and plants, which then limits productivity. Melatonin, an evolutionarily highly conserved molecule, has a wide range of functions in plants. We analyzed the effects of melatonin pretreatment on the growth, mineral nutrition, and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. "Jin You No. 1") when seedlings were exposed to nitrate stress. An application of 0.1 mmol/L melatonin significantly improved the growth of plants and reduced their susceptibility to damage due to high nitrate levels (0...
May 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
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