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Journal of Pineal Research

Adriana Pérez-González, Romina Castañeda-Arriaga, Juan Raúl Álvarez-Idaboy, Russel J Reiter, Annia Galano
Oxidative stress mediates chemical damage to DNA yielding a wide variety of products. In this work, the potential capability of melatonin and several of its metabolites to repair directly (chemically) oxidative lesions in DNA was explored. It was found that all the investigated molecules are capable of repairing guanine-centered radical cations by electron transfer at very high rates, i.e., diffusion-limited. They are also capable of repairing C-centered radicals in the sugar moiety of 2'-deoxyguanosine (2dG) by hydrogen atom transfer...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Mei-Jie Jou, Tsung-I Peng, Russel J Reiter
Cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin (C3-OHM) and N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) are two major cascade metabolites of melatonin. We previously showed melatonin provides multiple levels of mitochondria-targeted protection beyond as a mitochondrial antioxidant during ionomycin-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ (mCa2+ ) stress in RBA1 astrocytes. Using non-invasive laser scanning fluorescence coupled time-lapse digital imaging microscopy, this study investigated whether C3-OHM and AFMK also provide mitochondrial levels of protection during ionomycin-induced mCa2+ stress in RBA1 astrocytes...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Kyungjin Lee, Kyoungwhan Back
Melatonin-deficient rice with a semidwarf erect-leaf phenotype was created by suppressing serotonin N-acetyltransferase 2 (SNAT2). We generated an RNAi transgenic rice that suppressed tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), which encodes the first TDC enzyme committed step for melatonin biosynthesis in plants catalyzing the conversion of tryptophan into tryptamine, to determine whether other transgenic rice with downregulated melatonin biosynthetic genes exhibited the same erect-leaf phenotype as the snat2 RNAi rice...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yen-Ta Chen, Chih-Chao Yang, Pei-Lin Shao, Chi-Ruei Huang, Hon-Kan Yip
There still lacking effective treatment for bladder cancer. This study investigated whether melatonin (Mel) can suppress the growth and invasion of bladder cancer cells. Male C57B/L6 mice were categorized into control group (i.e., subcutaneous injection of HT1197 bladder cancer cell line at the back] and treatment group [subcutaneous HT1197 cells + intra-peritoneal Mel (100 mg/kg/day) from day 8 to day 21 after tumor cell injection]. In vitro, Mel suppressed cell growth of four bladder cancer cell lines (i...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yong-Seok Han, SangMin Kim, Jun Hee Lee, Seo Kyung Jung, Hyunjin Noh, Sang Hun Lee
Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a treatment strategy for ischemic diseases associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), MSCs of CKD patients undergo accelerated senescence, with decreased viability and proliferation upon uremic toxin exposure, inhibiting their utility as a potent stem cell source for transplantation therapy. We investigated the effects of melatonin administration in protecting against cell senescence and decreased viability induced by pathophysiological conditions near the engraftment site...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Jose A Boga, Beatriz Caballero, Yaiza Potes, Zulema Perez-Martinez, Russel J Reiter, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Ana Coto-Montes
There are several pathologies, syndromes and physiological processes in which autophagy is involved. This process of self-digestion that cells trigger as a survival mechanism is complex and tightly regulated, according to the homeostatic conditions of the organ. However, in all cases, its relationship with oxidative stress alterations is evident, following a pathway that suggests endoplasmic reticulum stress and/or mitochondrial changes. There is accumulating evidence of the beneficial role that melatonin has in the regulation and restoration of damaged autophagic processes...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yun-Wei Pang, Xiao-Long Jiang, Ya-Chun Wang, Yang-Yang Wang, Hai-Sheng Hao, Shan-Jiang Zhao, Wei-Hua Du, Xue-Ming Zhao, Lin Wang, Hua-Bin Zhu
Paraquat (PQ), a broad-spectrum agricultural pesticide, causes cellular toxicity by increasing oxidative stress levels in various biological systems, including the reproductive system. PQ exposure causes embryotoxicity and reduces the developmental abilities of embryos. However, there is little information regarding the toxic effects of PQ on oocyte maturation. In this study, we studied the toxic effects of PQ exposure and the effects of melatonin on PQ-induced damage in bovine oocytes. PQ exposure disrupted nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, which was manifested as decreased cumulus cell expansion, reduced first polar body extrusion, and abnormal distribution patterns of cortical granules and mitochondria...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Tiantian Ye, Xiaoming Yin, Lei Yu, Shu-Jian Zheng, Wen-Jing Cai, Yan Wu, Yu-Qi Feng
Characterization of the melatonin (MLT) biosynthesis pathway in plants is still limited. Additionally, a metabolomic analysis of MLT biosynthesis in plants is still a challenge due to analyte structural and chemical diversity, low analyte abundances, and plant matrix complexities. Herein, a sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method enabling the simultaneous determination of seven plant MLT biosynthetic metabolites was developed. In the proposed strategy, the targeted metabolites, which included tryptophan (Trp), tryptamine (TAM), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP), serotonin (5HT), N-acetylserotonin (NAS), 5-methoxytryptamine (5MT), and MLT, were purified from plant extracts using a one-step dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Mi Ping, Zhang Qiu-Ping, Li Shi-Bao, Liu Xing-Yu, Zhang Shu-Hui, Li Meng, Chen Dong-Yan, Zhao Xin, Feng Dao-Fu, Xi-Zeng Feng
Environmental endocrine chemicals have various adverse effects on the development of vertebrates. Fluorene-9-bisphenol (BHPF), a substitute of bisphenol A (BPA), is widely used in commercial production. The effects of BHPF on development and behavior are unclear. Melatonin plays a protective role under many unfavorable conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of BHPF on the development and behaviors of zebrafish and whether melatonin reverses effects induced by BHPF. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Naveen Kumar Singhal, Garima Srivastava, Devendra Kumar Patel, Swatantra Kumar Jain, Mahendra Pratap Singh
Upon publication of the paper "Melatonin or silymarin reduces maneb- and paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype in the mouse," by Naveen Kumar Singhal et al in February 2011, it was noticed that the article contains errors in Fig. 4(A) and three visibly similar bands at low resolution in Fig. 6(A). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 29, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Lauren A E Erland, Adam Yasunaga, Isaac T S Li, Susan J Murch, Praveen K Saxena
Melatonin and serotonin are important phytochemicals enabling plants to redirect growth in response to environmental stresses. Despite much research on their biosynthetic routes, localization of their biosynthetic enzymes and recent identification of a phytomelatonin receptor, localization of the molecules themselves has to date not been possible. Elucidation of their locations in living tissues can provide an effective tool to facilitate indoleamine research across systems including both plants and animals...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Telma Quintela, Isabel Gonçalves, Marco Silva, Ana C Duarte, Paula Guedes, Késsia Andrade, Flávia Freitas, Daniela Talhada, Tânia Albuquerque, Sara Tavares, Luis A Passarinha, José Cipolla-Neto, Cecília R A Santos
The cerebrospinal fluid melatonin is released from the pineal gland, directly into the third ventricle, or produced de novo in the brain from extrapineal melatonin sources leading to a melatonin concentration gradient in the cerebrospinal fluid. Despite the interest on this topic, the brain areas capable of producing melatonin are not yet clear. Bearing this in mind, we hypothesized that the choroid plexus (CP) could be one of these melatonin sources. We analyzed and confirmed the presence of the four enzymes required for melatonin synthesis in rat CP and demonstrated that arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase shows a circadian expression in female and male rat CP...
November 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Mukesh Kumar Kanwar, Jingquan Yu, Jie Zhou
Melatonin (MEL) has been revealed as a phylogenetically conserved molecule with a ubiquitous distribution from primitive photosynthetic bacteria to higher plants, including algae and fungi. Since MEL is implicated in numerous plant developmental processes and stress responses, the exploration of its functions in plant has become a rapidly progressing field with the new paradigm of involvement in plants growth and development. The pleiotropic involvement of MEL in regulating the transcripts of numerous genes confirms its vital involvement as a multi-regulatory molecule that architects many aspects of plant development...
November 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Rüdiger Hardeland
Melatonin is an immune modulator that displays both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. Proinflammatory actions, which are well documented by many studies in isolated cells or leukocyte-derived cell lines, can be assumed to enhance the resistance against pathogens. However, they can be detrimental in autoimmune diseases. Anti-inflammatory actions are of particular medicinal interest, because they are observed in high-grade inflammation such as sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion, and brain injury, and also in low-grade inflammation during aging and in neurodegenerative diseases...
November 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Jie Yin, Yuying Li, Hui Han, Shuai Chen, Jing Gao, Gang Liu, Xin Wu, Jinping Deng, Qifang Yu, Xingguo Huang, Rejun Fang, Tiejun Li, Russel J Reiter, Dong Zhang, Congrui Zhu, Guoqiang Zhu, Wenkai Ren, Yulong Yin
Melatonin has been shown to improve lipid metabolism and gut microbiota communities in animals and humans; however, it remains to know whether melatonin prevents obesity through gut microbiota. Here, we found that high-fat diet promoted the lipid accumulation and intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in mice, while oral melatonin supplementation alleviated the lipid accumulation and reversed gut microbiota dysbiosis, including the diversity of intestinal microbiota, relative abundances of Bacteroides and Alistipes, and functional profiling of microbial communities, such as energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism...
November 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Chao Li, Qi Zhao, Tengteng Gao, Hongying Wang, Zhijun Zhang, Bowen Liang, Zhiwei Wei, Changhai Liu, Fengwang Ma
Melatonin mediates many physiological processes in plants. The problem of apple replant disease is unsolved. Our study objectives were to evaluate the regulatory effect of melatonin on plant resistance to this challenge and investigate the preliminary mechanism by which melatonin helps alleviate the effects of this disease. Two-year-old trees of "Fuji" apple (Malus domestica), grafted onto rootstock M.26, were grown in "replant" soil for 6 months in the absence or presence of a 200 μmol/L melatonin supplement...
November 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Zhewei Zhao, Chengran Lu, Tianjia Li, Wenda Wang, Wei Ye, Rong Zeng, Leng Ni, Zhichao Lai, Xuebin Wang, Changwei Liu
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the treatment of choice for carotid stenosis. Some patients develop ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury after CEA. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of melatonin on I/R injury in both rats and humans. To this end, 36 male rats were evaluated, and a double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) including 60 patients was performed. A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to mimic cerebral I/R. After 2 hour of occlusion and 24 hour of reperfusion, blood samples and brain tissues were harvested for further assessments...
November 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Lucas Sagrillo-Fagundes, Eugênia M Assunção Salustiano, Rodrigo Ruano, Regina P Markus, Cathy Vaillancourt
Melatonin has been proposed as a possible treatment for the deleterious effects of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), such as autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis. Pathological pregnancies, such as preeclampsia, are associated with placental H/R, and decreased placental melatonin synthesis as well as lower melatonin levels in the placenta and maternal plasma. However, the effects of exogenous melatonin on inflammation and autophagy induced by pregnancy complications associated with H/R await investigation. This study aimed to determine as to whether melatonin protects human primary villous trophoblasts against H/R-induced autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis...
November 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Jun Hee Lee, Chul Won Yun, Yong-Seok Han, SangMin Kim, Dongjun Jeong, Hyog Young Kwon, Hyeongjoo Kim, Moo-Jun Baek, Sang Hun Lee
Melatonin suppresses tumor development. However, the exact relationship between melatonin and cancer stem cells (CSCs) is poorly understood. This study found that melatonin inhibits colon CSCs by regulating the PrPC -Oct4 axis. In specimens from patients with colorectal cancer, the expressions of cellular prion protein (PrPC ) and Oct4 were significantly correlated with metastasis and tumor stages. Co-treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and melatonin inhibited the stem cell markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and ALDH1A1 by downregulating PrPC ...
November 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yun Qian, Qixin Han, Xiaotian Zhao, Jialin Song, Yuan Cheng, Zhiwei Fang, Yuanming Ouyang, Wei-En Yuan, Cunyi Fan
Peripheral nerve defect is a common and severe kind of injury in traumatic accidents. Melatonin can improve peripheral nerve recovery by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation after traumatic insults. In addition, it triggers autophagy pathways to increase regenerated nerve proliferation and to reduce apoptosis. In this study, we fabricated a melatonin-controlled-release scaffold to cure long-range nerve defects for the first time. 3D manufacture of melatonin/polycaprolactone nerve guide conduit increased Schwann cell proliferation and neural expression in vitro and promoted functional, electrophysiological and morphological nerve regeneration in vivo...
November 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
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