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Journal of Pineal Research

Paula Pierozan, Marie Andersson, Ingvar Brandt, Oskar Karlsson
The environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a glutamate receptor agonist that can induce oxidative stress and has been implicated as a possible risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. Detection of BMAA in mussels, crustaceans and fish, illustrates that the sources of human exposure to this toxin are more abundant than previously anticipated. The aim of this study was to determine uptake of BMAA in the pineal gland and subsequent effects on melatonin production in primary pinealocyte cultures and a rat model...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yunxie Wei, Guoyin Liu, Yanli Chang, Daozhe Lin, Russel J Reiter, Chaozu He, Haitao Shi
Melatonin is widely involved in growth, development and stress responses in plants. Although the melatonin synthesis enzymes have been identified in various plants, their interacting proteins remain unknown. Herein, overexpression of tryptophan decarboxylase 2 (MeTDC2)-interacting proteins, N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase 2 (MeASMT2) interacting proteins, and N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase 3 (MeASMT3) in cassava leaf protoplasts resulted in more melatonin than when other enzymes were overexpressed...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Zhuolun Song, Bostjan Humar, Anurag Gupta, Eleonora Maurizio, Nathalie Borgeaud, Rolf Graf, Pierre-Alain Clavien, Yinghua Tian
Defective regeneration of small-for-size (SFS) liver remnants and partial grafts remains a key limiting factor in the application of liver surgery and transplantation. Exogenous melatonin (MLT) has protective effects on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), but its influence on graft regeneration is unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of MLT in IRI and graft regeneration in settings of partial liver transplantation. We established three mouse models to study hepatic IRI and regeneration associated with partial liver transplantation: (I) IR+PH group: 60 min liver ischemia (IR) plus 2/3 hepatectomy (PH); (II) IR+exPH group: 60 min liver IR plus extended hepatectomy (exPH) associated with the SFS syndrome; (III) SFS-LT group: Arterialized 30% SFS liver transplant...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Zizhao Wu, Xianjian Qiu, Bo Gao, Chengjie Lian, Yan Peng, Anjing Liang, Caixia Xu, Wenjie Gao, Liangming Zhang, Peiqiang Su, Limin Rong, Dongsheng Huang
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), with inherent chondrogenic differentiation potential, appear to be ideally suited for therapeutic use in cartilage regeneration. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that melatonin can promote chondrogenic differentiation in human BMSCs. However, little is known about the mechanism. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate the differentiation of BMSCs, but their roles in melatonin-promoted chondrogenic differentiation have not been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that melatonin promoted chondrogenic differentiation of human BMSCs via upregulation of miR-526b-3p and miR-590-5p...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yen-Sung Huang, Kuo-Cheng Lu, Tai-Kuang Chao, Jin-Shuen Chen, Ann Chen, Cheng-Yi Guo, Hsin-Yi Hsieh, Hsiu-Ming Shih, Huey-Kang Sytwu, Chia-Chao Wu
Membranous nephropathy (MN), a type of glomerular nephritis, is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Although it is known that melatonin plays a protective role in MN, the role of melatonin receptors in the pathophysiology of MN is unclear. Using an experimental MN model and clinical MN specimens, we studied melatonin receptor expression and found that melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) expression was significantly downregulated in renal tubular epithelial cells. Molecular studies showed that the transcription factor pituitary homeobox-1 (PITX1) promoted MTNR1A expression via direct binding to its promoter...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Pedro Scarpelli, Giulliana Tessarin Almeida, Kênia Lopes Viçoso, Wania Rezende Lima, Lucas Borges Pereira, Kamila Anna Meissner, Carsten Wrenger, Anna Rafaello, Rosario Rizzuto, Tullio Pozzan, Celia R S Garcia
Malaria causes millions of deaths worldwide and is considered a huge burden to underdeveloped countries. The number of cases with resistance to all antimalarials is continuously increasing, making the identification of novel drugs a very urgent necessity. A potentially very interesting target for novel therapeutic intervention is the parasite mitochondrion. In this work we studied in P. falciparum three genes coding for proteins homologues of the mammalian FIS1 (Mitochondrial Fission Protein 1) and DRP1 (Dynamin Related Protein 1) involved in mitochondrial fission...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Jinglin Zhang, Jingtao Qiu, Yewen Zhou, Yue Wang, Hongjiao Li, Taojie Zhang, Ying Jiang, Kemian Gou, Sheng Cui
Melatonin is a key hormone that regulates circadian rhythms, metabolism and reproduction. However, the mechanisms of melatonin synthesis and secretion have not been fully defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions of the LIM homeobox transcription factor Isl1 in regulating melatonin synthesis and secretion in porcine pineal gland. We found that Isl1 is highly expressed in the melatonin producing cells in the porcine pineal gland. Further functional studies demonstrate that Isl1 knockdown in cultured primary porcine pinealocytes results in the decline of melatonin and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) mRNA levels by 29...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Juliane Zibolka, Ivonne Bazwinsky-Wutschke, Eckhard Mühlbauer, Elmar Peschke
Recent investigations of our group established that melatonin modulates hormone secretion of pancreatic islets via melatonin receptor types MT1 and MT2. Expression of MT1 and MT2 has been shown in mouse, rat and human pancreatic islets as well as in the β-, α- and δ-cell lines INS-1, αTC1.9 and QGP-1. In view of these earlier investigations, the present study was performed to analyze in detail the distribution and density of melatonin receptors on the main islet cell types in human pancreatic tissue obtained from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
James D S Aridas, Tamara Yawno, Amy E Sutherland, Ilias Nitsos, Michael Ditchfield, Flora Y Wong, Rod W Hunt, Michael C Fahey, Atul Malhotra, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Perinatal asphyxia remains a principal cause of infant mortality and long term neurological morbidity, particularly in low resource countries. No neuroprotective interventions are currently available. Melatonin (MLT), a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic agent offers promise as an intravenous (IV) or transdermal therapy to protect the brain. We aimed to determine the effect of melatonin (IV or transdermal patch) on neuropathology in a lamb model of perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was induced in newborn lambs via umbilical cord occlusion at birth...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Mei Lan, Jun Han, Meng-Hao Pan, Xiang Wan, Zhen-Nan Pan, Shao-Chen Sun
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most prevalent Fusarium mycotoxins in feedstuff and food. DON causes detrimental effects on human and animal reproductive systems by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis. While melatonin is a multifunctional endogenous hormone which plays crucial roles in the development of animal germ cells and embryos as a robust deoxidizer. In present study, we explored the effects of melatonin on the DON-exposure mouse oocytes. Our in vitro and in vivo results showed that DON adversely affected mouse oocyte maturation and early embryo cleavage, while melatonin administration ameliorated the toxic effects of DON...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Zhenlong Yu, Xiangge Tian, Yuling Peng, Zheng Sun, Chao Wang, Ning Tang, Bin Li, Yuqing Jian, Wei Wang, Xiaokui Huo, Xiaochi Ma
Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine with a wide range of biological functions in the various organisms from bacteria to mammals. Evidence indicates that melatonin facilitates apoptosis in cancer cells and enhances the anti-tumor activity of chemotherapy in animals and clinical studies. However, the melatonin metabolism and the key metabolic targets in cancer cells still remain unknown. In this study, U118 and SH-SY5Y tumor cell lines were used to investigate the metabolic pathways of melatonin in cancer cells...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yuan Zhang, Heyi Ji, Jiangong Wang, Yufang Sun, Zhiyuan Qian, Xinghong Jiang, Terrance P Snutch, Yangang Sun, Jin Tao
Recent studies implicate melatonin in the anti-nociceptive activity of sensory neurons. However, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we identify a critical role of melatonin in functionally regulating Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+channels (T-type channel) in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Melatonin inhibited T-type channels in small TG neurons via the melatonin receptor 2 (MT2receptor) and a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein pathway. Immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that the intracellular subunit of the MT2receptor coprecipitated with Gαo...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Tianjia Li, Leng Ni, Zhewei Zhao, Xinnong Liu, Zhichao Lai, Xiao Di, Zhibo Xie, Xitao Song, Xuebin Wang, Rui Zhang, Changwei Liu
Epidemiology survey indicated that cigarette smoking is a risk factor of diabetes. However, the precise mechanisms remain to be clarified. In the current study, we found that smoking caused metabolic malfunctions on pancreas and liver in experimental animal model. These were indicated by hyperglycemia, increased serum hemoglobin A1c level and decreased insulin secretion, inhibition of liver glycogen synthase (LGS) and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Mechanistic studies revealed that all these alterations were caused by the inflammatory reaction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by the smoking...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Romesh G Abeysuriya, Steven W Lockley, Peter A Robinson, Svetlana Postnova
A biophysical model of the key aspects of melatonin synthesis and excretion has been developed, which is able to predict experimental dynamics of melatonin in plasma and saliva, and of its urinary metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s). This new model is coupled to an established model of arousal dynamics, which predicts sleep and circadian dynamics based on light exposure and times of wakefulness. The combined model thus predicts melatonin levels over the sleep-wake/dark-light cycle and enables prediction of melatonin-based circadian phase markers, such as dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) and aMT6s acrophase under conditions of normal sleep and circadian misalignment...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yue Xu, Xi Lu, Yaguang Hu, Boyu Yang, Ching-Kit Tsui, Shanshan Yu, Lin Lu, Xiaoling Liang
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinopathy characterized by retinal neovascularization (RNV) occurring in preterm infants treated with high concentrations of oxygen and may lead to blindness in severe cases. Currently, anti-VEGF therapy is a major treatment for ROP, but it is costly and may cause serious complications. The previous study has demonstrated that melatonin exerted neuroprotective effect against retinal ganglion cell death induced by hypoxia in neonatal rats. However, whether melatonin is anti-angiogenic and neuroglial protective in the progression of ROP remains unknown...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Gumersindo Fernández Vázquez, Russel J Reiter, Ahmad Agil
Melatonin limits obesity in rodents without affecting food intake and activity, suggesting a thermogenic effect. Previously we demonstrated that melatonin browns subcutaneous fat in Zücker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Other works pointed to melatonin as a signal that increases brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass and function in rodents. However, direct proof of thermogenic properties (uncoupled mitochondria) of the newly recruited BAT in response to melatonin is still lacking. Therefore, in the present work we investigated if melatonin recruits thermogenic BAT in ZDF rats...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Hao Zhou, Qiang Ma, Pingjun Zhu, Jun Ren, Russel J Reiter, Yundai Chen
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. In patients with MI, the treatment option for reducing acute myocardial ischemic injury and limiting MI size is timely and effective myocardial reperfusion using either thombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the procedure of reperfusion itself induces cardiomyocyte death, known as myocardial reperfusion injury, for which there is still no effective therapy. Recent evidence has depicted a promising role of melatonin, which possesses powerful anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, in the prevention of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and the protection against cardiomyocyte death...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Vorapin Chinchalongporn, Mayuri Shukla, Piyarat Govitrapong
Melatonin is involved in the physiological regulation of the β- amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) cleaving secretases which are responsible for generation of the neurotoxic amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms of this regulation under pathological conditions. We establish that melatonin prevents Aβ42 -induced down-regulation of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) as well as up-regulation of β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and presenilin 1 (PS1) in SH-SY5Y cell cultures...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Sara Proietti, Angela Catizone, Maria Grazia Masiello, Simona Dinicola, Gianmarco Fabrizi, Mirko Minini, Giulia Ricci, Roberto Verna, Russel J Reiter, Alessandra Cucina, Mariano Bizzarri
Through activation of the ERK pathway nicotine, in both normal MCF-10A and low malignant breast cancer cells (MCF7), promotes increased motility and invasiveness. Melatonin antagonizes both these effects by inhibiting almost completely ERK phosphorylation. As melatonin has no effect on not-stimulated cells, it is likely that melatonin can counteract ERK-activation only downstream of nicotine-induced activation. This finding suggests that melatonin hampers ERK phosphorylation presumably by targeting a still unknown intermediate factor that connects nicotine stimulation to ERK phosphorylation...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Agnieszka Kobylińska, Sławomir Borek, Małgorzata M Posmyk
Recent studies have shown that melatonin is an important molecule in plant physiology. It seems that the most important is that melatonin efficacy eliminates oxidative stress (direct and indirect antioxidant) and moreover induce plant stress reaction and switch on different defence strategies (preventively and interventively actions). In this report the impact of exogenous melatonin on carbohydrate metabolism in Nicotiana tabacum L. line Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) suspension cells during sugar starvation was examined...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
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