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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462673/heterotopic-ossification-and-lessons-learned-from-fifteen-years-at-war-a-review-of-therapy-novel-research-and-future-directions-for-military-and-civilian-orthopaedic-trauma
#1
REVIEW
Benjamin W Hoyt, Gabriel J Pavey, Benjamin K Potter, Jonathan A Forsberg
Heterotopic ossification, the formation of bone in soft tissues, is a common complication of the high-energy extremity trauma sustained in modern armed conflict. In the past 15 years, military treatment facilities and aligned laboratories have been in a unique position to study and treat this process due to the high volume of patients with these injuries secondary to blast trauma. The devastating nature of these wounds has limited traditional therapeutic options, necessitating alternative solutions to prophylaxis and initial treatment producing substantial advances in modeling, prophylaxis, detection, and therapy...
February 17, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462672/use-of-high-dose-intermittent-systemic-glucocorticoids-and-the-risk-of-fracture-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Olorunfemi A Oshagbemi, Andrea M Burden, Kimberly N Shudofsky, Johanna H M Driessen, Peter Vestergaard, Andreas Krings, Frits Franssen, Joop van den Bergh, Frank de Vries
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by persistent airflow obstruction and respiratory symptoms. While short course systemic GCs are prescribed in patients with acute COPD exacerbations, little is known of the risk of fractures with intermittent exposure to high-dose GC and the effect of proxies of disease severity. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted using the Danish National Hospital Discharge Registry (NHDR) between January 1996 to December 2011...
February 17, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458123/osteocyte-regulation-of-bone-and-blood
#3
REVIEW
Paola Divieti Pajevic, Daniela S Krause
This past decade has witnessed a renewed interest in the function and biology of matrix-embedded osteocytes and these cells have emerged as master regulators of bone homeostasis. They secrete two very powerful proteins, sclerostin, a Wnt-inhibitor, that suppresses bone formation, and receptor-activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL), a cytokine required for osteoclastogenesis. Neutralizing antibodies against these proteins are currently used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recent studies however, ascribed yet another function to osteocytes: the control of hematopoiesis and the HSPC niche, directly and through secreted factors...
February 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458122/regional-variations-of-cortical-bone-in-the-humeral-head-region-a-preliminary-study
#4
Yeming Wang, Jian Li, Jianhua Yang, Jingming Dong
BACKGROUND: Incidence of proximal humeral fractures dramatically increased over the last decade due to demographic changes. The goal of this study was to analyze regional characteristics of cortical bone in the humeral head region using cortical bone mapping (CBM) technique. METHODS: The proximal humerus of 103 healthy volunteers was imaged by clinical computed tomography (CT) scans. Three groups of volunteers were identified according to age: group A (20-39 years), group B (40-59 years), and group C (>60 years)...
February 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458121/the-paradox-of-marrow-adipose-tissue-in-anorexia-nervosa
#5
Pouneh K Fazeli, Anne Klibanski
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by inappropriate nutrient intake resulting in low body weight. Multiple hormonal adaptations facilitate decreased energy expenditure in this state of caloric deprivation including non-thyroidal illness syndrome, growth hormone resistance, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Although these hormonal adaptations confer a survival advantage during periods of negative energy balance, they contribute to the long-term medical complications associated with AN, the most common of which is significant bone loss and an increased risk of fracture...
February 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452264/antagonists-to-trpv1-asics-and-p2x-have-a-potential-role-to-prevent-the-triggering-of-regional-bone-metabolic-disorder-and-pain-like-behavior-in-tail-suspended-mice
#6
Megumi Hanaka, Kousuke Iba, Takayuki Dohke, Kumiko Kanaya, Shunichiro Okazaki, Toshihiko Yamashita
Our recent studies demonstrated that regional bone loss in the unloaded hind limbs of tail-suspended mice triggered pain-like behaviors due to the acidic environment in the bone induced by osteoclast activation. The aims of the present study were to examine whether TRPV1, ASIC and P2X (known as nociceptors) are expressed in bone, and whether the antagonists to those receptors affect the expression of osteoblast and osteoclast regulators, and prevent the triggering of not only pain-like behaviors but also high bone turnover conditions in tail-suspension model mice...
February 14, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438824/low-bone-toughness-in-the-tallyho-model-of-juvenile-type-2-diabetes-does-not-worsen-with-age
#7
Amy Creecy, Sasidhar Uppuganti, Mustafa Unal, R Clay Bunn, Paul Voziyan, Jeffry S Nyman
Fracture risk increases as type 2 diabetes (T2D) progresses. With the rising incidence of T2D, in particular early-onset T2D, a representative pre-clinical model is needed to study mechanisms for treating or preventing diabetic bone disease. Towards that goal, we hypothesized that fracture resistance of bone from diabetic TallyHO mice decreases as the duration of diabetes increases. Femurs and lumbar vertebrae were harvested from male, TallyHO mice and male, non-diabetic SWR/J mice at 16 weeks (n ≥ 12 per strain) and 34 weeks (n ≥ 13 per strain) of age...
February 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432919/yap1-is-essential-for-osteoclastogenesis-through-a-teads-dependent-mechanism
#8
Liming Zhao, Hanfeng Guan, Chao Song, Yuting Wang, Changyu Liu, Cong Cai, Hao Zhu, Hui Liu, Libo Zhao, Jun Xiao
Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), the core effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, has been identified as a key regulator of tissue homeostasis and organ development by controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous studies have shown that YAP1 regulates multiple steps during skeletal development and bone remodeling, including the self-renewal and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, its role in osteoclastogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we report that YAP1 is an essential regulator for osteoclast differentiation and activity...
February 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428552/high-bone-mineral-density-in-sickle-cell-disease-prevalence-and-characteristics
#9
Gonzalo De Luna, Brigitte Ranque, Marie Courbebaisse, Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Djamal Khimoud, Sidonie Dupeux, Jonathan Silvera, Lucile Offredo, Jacques Pouchot, Jean-Benoît Arlet
BACKGROUND: Osteosclerosis (OSC) is a rarely studied complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of high bone mineral density (BMD) and its radiological features in adult SCD patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted from May 2007 to May 2016 in consecutive patients with steady-state SCD at two university hospitals. The BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and right femoral neck was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
February 8, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408511/removal-of-matrix-bound-zoledronate-prevents-post-extraction-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-by-rescuing-osteoclast-function
#10
Ranya Elsayed, Pheba Abraham, Mohamed E Awad, Zoya Kurago, Balasudha Baladhandayutham, Gary M Whitford, David H Pashley, Charles E McKenna, Mohammed E Elsalanty
Unlike other antiresorptive medications, bisphosphonate molecules accumulate in the bone matrix. Previous studies of side-effects of anti-resorptive treatment focused mainly on systemic effects. We hypothesize that matrix-bound bisphosphonate molecules contribute to the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). In this study, we examined the effect of matrix-bound bisphosphonates on osteoclast differentiation in vitro using TRAP staining and resorption assay, with and without pretreatment with EDTA...
February 8, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427789/bone-tissue-aging-affects-mineralization-of-cement-lines
#11
Petar Milovanovic, Annika Vom Scheidt, Kathrin Mletzko, George Sarau, Klaus Püschel, Marija Djuric, Michael Amling, Silke Christiansen, Björn Busse
Cement lines are known as thin peripheral boundaries of the osteons. With a thickness below 5 μm their composition of inorganic and organic compounds has been a matter of debate. Here, we hypothesized that cement lines become hypermineralized and their degree of mineralization is not constant but related to the tissue age of the osteon. Therefore, we analyzed the calcium content of osteons and their corresponding cement lines in a range of different tissue ages reflected by osteonal mineralization levels in cadaveric femoral cortical bone of both postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and bisphosphonate-treated cases...
February 7, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412179/high-frequency-spectral-ultrasound-imaging-susi-visualizes-early-post-traumatic-heterotopic-ossification-ho-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Kavitha Ranganathan, Xiaowei Hong, David Cholok, Joe Habbouche, Caitlin Priest, Christopher Breuler, Michael Chung, John Li, Arminder Kaura, Hsiao Hsin Sung Hsieh, Jonathan Butts, Serra Ucer, Ean Schwartz, Steven R Buchman, Jan P Stegemann, Cheri X Deng, Benjamin Levi
PURPOSE: Early treatment of heterotopic ossification (HO) is currently limited by delayed diagnosis due to limited visualization at early time points. In this study, we validate the use of spectral ultrasound imaging (SUSI) in an animal model to detect HO as early as one week after burn tenotomy. METHODS: Concurrent SUSI, micro CT, and histology at 1, 2, 4, and 9weeks post-injury were used to follow the progression of HO after an Achilles tenotomy and 30% total body surface area burn (n=3-5 limbs per time point)...
February 6, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421456/development-of-a-risk-assessment-tool-for-osteoporotic-fracture-prevention-a-claims-data-approach
#13
Katrin C Reber, Hans-Helmut König, Clemens Becker, Kilian Rapp, Gisela Büchele, Sarah Mächler, Ivonne Lindlbauer
BACKGROUND: In aging societies osteoporotic fractures are a major health problem with high economic costs. Targeting prevention at individuals at high risk is important to reduce the future burden of fractures. Available risk assessment tools (e.g., FRAX®, QFracture, the algorithm provided by the German Osteology Society (DVO-Tool)) rely on self-reported patient information to predict fracture risk. Time and resource constraints, limited access to clinical data, and (un)willingness to participate may hamper the use of these tools...
February 5, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414599/low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-promotes-spinal-fusion-and-enhances-migration-and-proliferation-of-mg63s-through-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-pathway
#14
Xiao-Yi Zhou, Xi-Ming Xu, Sui-Yi Wu, Zi-Cheng Zhang, Fei Wang, Yi-Lin Yang, Ming Li, Xian-Zhao Wei
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been found to accelerate the healing process of spinal fusion via a process closely related to osteoblast differentiation and migration. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays an important role in development and homeostasis, including a critical function in bone formation. However, its role in spinal fusion during LIPUS treatment is still unknown. This study showed that LIPUS treatment after spinal fusion surgery increased bone formation. The increased bone mass under LIPUS treatment appeared to result from the increased migration and proliferation of osteoblasts, resulting from upregulation of the Shh signaling pathway...
February 2, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414598/combination-of-hindlimb-suspension-and-immobilization-by-casting-exaggerates-sarcopenia-by-stimulating-autophagy-but-does-not-worsen-osteopenia
#15
Toni L Speacht, Andrew R Krause, Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang, Henry J Donahue
Astronauts in space experience a unique environment that causes the concomitant loss of bone and muscle. However, the interaction between these tissues and how osteopenia and sarcopenia affect each other is unclear. We explored this relationship by exaggerating unloading-induced muscle loss using a unilateral casting model in conjunction with hindlimb suspension (HLS). Five-month-old, male C57Bl/6J mice subjected to HLS for 2 weeks displayed a significant decrease in gastrocnemius and quadriceps weight (-9-10%), with a two-fold greater decrease in muscle mass observed in the HLS + casted limb...
February 2, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408411/teriparatide-human-pth1-34-compensates-for-impaired-fracture-healing-in-cox-2-deficient-mice
#16
Kiminori Yukata, Chao Xie, Tian-Fang Li, Matthew L Brown, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Xinping Zhang, Hani A Awad, Edward M Schwarz, Christopher A Beck, Jennifer H Jonason, Regis J O'Keefe
Genetic ablation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in mice is known to impair fracture healing. To determine if teriparatide (human PTH1-34) can promote healing of Cox-2-deficient fractures, we performed detailed in vivo analyses using a murine stabilized tibia fracture model. Periosteal progenitor cell proliferation as well as bony callus formation was markedly reduced in Cox-2-/- mice at day 10 post-fracture. Remarkably, intermittent PTH1-34 administration increased proliferation of periosteal progenitor cells, restored callus formation on day 7, and enhanced bone formation on days 10, 14 and 21 in Cox-2-deficient mice...
February 2, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414596/the-different-distribution-of-enzymatic-collagen-cross-links-found-in-adult-and-children-bone-result-in-different-mechanical-behavior-of-collagen
#17
Baptiste Depalle, Andre G Duarte, Imke A K Fiedler, Laurent Pujo-Menjouet, Markus J Buehler, Jean-Philippe Berteau
Enzymatic collagen cross-linking has been shown to play an important role in the macroscopic elastic and plastic deformation of bone across ages. However, its direct contribution to collagen fibril deformation is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine how covalent intermolecular connections from enzymatic collagen cross-links contribute to collagen fibril elastic and plastic deformation of adults and children's bone matrix. We used ex vivo data previously obtained from biochemical analysis of children and adults bone samples (n = 14; n = 8, respectively) to create 22 sample-specific computational models of cross-linked collagen fibrils...
February 1, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408699/accumulation-of-carboxymethyl-lysine-cml-in-human-cortical-bone
#18
Corinne J Thomas, Timothy P Cleland, Grazyna E Sroga, Deepak Vashishth
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are a category of post translational modification associated with the degradation of the structural properties of multiple different types of tissues. Typically, AGEs are the result of a series of post-translational modification reactions between sugars and proteins through a process known as non-enzymatic glycation (NEG). Increases in the rate of NEG of bone tissue are associated with type 2 diabetes and skeletal fragility. Current methods of assessing NEG and its impact on bone fracture risk involve measurement of pentosidine or total fluorescent AGEs (fAGEs)...
February 1, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414600/efficacy-of-anti-il-23-monotherapy-versus-combination-therapy-with-anti-il-17-in-estrogen-deficiency-induced-bone-loss-conditions
#19
Priyanka Shukla, Mohd Nizam Mansoori, Divya Singh
Recent studies have identified that Interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in pathogenesis of inflammation and bone destruction. IL-23 is thought to promote joint destruction in arthritis by stimulating Th17 cells. IL-23 directly mediates bone loss by inducing osteoclastogenesis and receptor activator of kappa B ligand (RANKL) expression in T cells. IL-23 also promotes tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of osteoclast in osteoblast-osteoclast co-culture. The role of IL-23 has not been studied in estrogen deficiency induced bone loss...
January 31, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409971/stem-cells-and-heterotopic-ossification-lessons-from-animal-models
#20
REVIEW
John B Lees-Shepard, David J Goldhamer
Put most simply, heterotopic ossification (HO) is the abnormal formation of bone at extraskeletal sites. HO can be classified into two main subtypes, genetic and acquired. Acquired HO is a common complication of major connective tissue injury, traumatic central nervous system injury, and surgical interventions, where it can cause significant pain and postoperative disability. A particularly devastating form of HO is manifested in the rare genetic disorder, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), in which progressive heterotopic bone formation occurs throughout life, resulting in painful and disabling cumulative immobility...
January 30, 2018: Bone
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