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Marine Gaudé, Roland Chapurlat, Jean-Baptiste Pialat, Pawel Szulc
The aim was to assess the association of Scheuermann's disease (SCD) with fracture risk (vertebral, peripheral) and bone mineral density (BMD) in older men. SCD was assessed on the baseline lateral spine radiographs using the Berlin criteria in 766 men aged 50-85. We evaluated the association of SCD and its diagnostic criteria with incident fracture (vertebral over 7.5 years, peripheral over 10 years) and BMD (baseline). SCD prevalence was 25.2%. SCD and its criteria showed inconsistent associations with BMD at different skeletal sites...
September 20, 2018: Bone
Karen K Winer
Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder of calcium metabolism which is treated with calcium and vitamin D analogs. Although conventional therapy effectively raises serum calcium, it bypasses the potent calcium reabsorption effects of PTH on the kidney which leads to hypercalciuria and an increased risk of nephrocalcinosis and renal insufficiency. Twenty-five years ago, we launched the first systematic investigation into synthetic human PTH 1-34 replacement therapy in both adults and children. These studies led to our current understanding of the complex nature of PTH 1-34 therapy and to the challenges we still face in our pursuit of a safe and effective physiologic replacement therapy for hypoparathyroidism...
September 20, 2018: Bone
Shebli Atrash, Isha Dua, Amy F Buros, Fritz Van Rhee, Larry J Suva, Sharmilan Thanendrarajan, Carolina Schinke, Faith Davies, Gareth Morgan, Maurizio Zangari
FRAX is a commonly used tool to evaluate patient fracture risk based on individual patient models that integrate the risks associated with clinical risk factors with or without bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck. Retrospectively, factors identified by the FRAX scoring algorithm were used to predict the risk for vertebral compression fractures at baseline in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients. The data were derived from myeloma patients enrolled in Total Therapy Protocols (TT4 & TT5) between 8/2008 and 9/2017...
September 19, 2018: Bone
W S Enns-Bray, H Bahaloo, I Fleps, Y Pauchard, E Taghizadeh, S Sigurdsson, T Aspelund, P Büchler, T Harris, V Gudnason, S J Ferguson, H Palsson, B Helgason
Clinical retrospective studies have only reported limited improvements in hip fracture classification accuracy using finite element (FE) models compared to conventional areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements. A possible explanation is that state-of-the-art quasi-static models do not estimate patient-specific loads. A novel FE modeling technique was developed to improve the biofidelity of simulated impact loading from sideways falling. This included surrogate models of the pelvis, lower extremities, and soft tissue that were morphed based on subject anthropometrics...
September 18, 2018: Bone
Qiang Zhang, Jonathan Greenbaum, Wei-Dong Zhang, Qing-Chang Sun, Hong-Wen Deng
PURPOSE: Traditional epidemiological studies suggest that there is an association between age at menarche (years) (AAM) and bone mineral density (BMD) at the sites of the femoral neck and lumbar spine (FNK and LS BMD), indicating a potentially important relationship between AAM and the development of osteoporosis (OP). However, these findings may be influenced by unmeasured confounding factors that can obscure the true relationship between the phenotypic traits. Therefore, we performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether there is a causal relationship between AAM and BMD (FNK and LS BMD), where late AAM may increase the risk of developing OP...
September 18, 2018: Bone
Christina M Andreasen, Jean-Marie Delaisse, Bram C J van der Eerden, Johannes P T M van Leeuwen, Ming Ding, Thomas L Andersen
Cortical bone is remodeled by intracortical basic multicellular units (BMUs), whose end result can be observed as quiescent osteons in histological sections. These osteons offer a unique opportunity to investigate the BMU balance between the magnitude of bone resorption and subsequent bone formation at the BMU level. Our main objective was to investigate whether the latter parameters change between defined categories of osteons and with age, and to which extend these changes contribute to age-induced cortical porosity...
September 18, 2018: Bone
Di Du, Zhibin Zhou, Lei Zhu, Xianteng Hu, Jiajia Lu, Changgui Shi, Fangjing Chen, Aimin Chen
Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α)-inhibited osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contributes to impaired bone formation, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, the exact mechanisms of TNF-α-inhibited osteoblast differentiation have not been fully elucidated. Multiple P2 purinoceptor subtypes are expressed in several species of osteoblasts and are confirmed to regulate bone metabolism. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether P2 purinoceptors are involved in TNF-α-inhibited osteoblast differentiation...
September 17, 2018: Bone
Marta Pineda-Moncusí, Sonia Servitja, Guillem Casamayor, Maria Lourdes Cos, Abora Rial, Jaime Rodriguez-Morera, Ignasi Tusquets, Adolfo Diez-Perez, Natalia Garcia-Giralt, Xavier Nogués
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) experience increased bone loss during their treatment. However, there is little information about bone mineral density (BMD) after completing AI-treatment. The present study aimed to assess BMD changes one year after AI-therapy completion. METHODS: Data were collected from 864 postmenopausal women treated with AI during 5 years (5y-AI group), or during 2-3 years after taking tamoxifen therapy (pTAM-AI group)...
September 14, 2018: Bone
Jose M Cancio, Emili Vela, Sebastià Santaeugènia, Montse Clèries, Marco Inzitari, Domingo Ruiz
IMPORTANCE: The increased mortality after hip fracture (HF) is caused by multiple factors, and large samples are needed to assess the weight of each factor. To date, few studies have investigated these factors through a total cohort approach, and the complexity of underlying medical conditions has not been considered. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of demographic and clinical characteristics on increased mortality risk in elderly patients with hip fracture (HF)...
September 14, 2018: Bone
Niall J Logan, Marie Camman, Greg Williams, Claire A Higgins
Trauma-induced heterotopic ossification is an intriguing phenomenon involving the inappropriate ossification of soft tissues within the body such as the muscle and ligaments. This inappropriate formation of bone is highly prevalent in those affected by blast injuries. Here, we developed a simplified model to evaluate the molecular events involved in heterotopic ossification onset that arise from the shock wave component of the disease. We exposed three subtypes of human mesenchymal cells in vitro to a single, high-energy shock wave and observed increased transcription in the osteogenic master regulators, Runx2 and Dlx5, and significantly accelerated cell mineralisation...
September 13, 2018: Bone
Jackeline C Alvarenga, Steven K Boyd, Rosa M R Pereira
Bone strength, estimated by finite element (FE) analysis based on high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) images is an important contributor to understanding risk of fracture. However, it is a peripheral device and cannot be evaluated in vivo at lumbar spine L1-L4. The aim of this study was to investigate if the axial bone quality can be predicted by strength measurements of peripheral bone. Peripheral bone microarchitecture, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and trabecular bone score (TBS) were measured in adults individuals (n = 262, 60 years and older; 63% women)...
September 13, 2018: Bone
Danielle E Robinson, Tjeerd P van Staa, Elaine M Dennison, Cyrus Cooper, William G Dixon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of different definitions of glucocorticoid (GC) exposure on the magnitude and pattern of fracture risk using the same dataset. METHODS: Data from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a primary care database with electronic health records in the United Kingdom. Patients exposed to oral GCs were matched to up to two unexposed patients by age, gender and location. The first osteoporotic fracture was identified and adjusted and unadjusted cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) produced for fracture risk following GC therapy using different models of risk attribution...
September 13, 2018: Bone
Anirudha Karvande, Priyanka Kushwaha, Naseer Ahmad, Sulekha Adhikary, Priyanka Kothari, Ashish Kumar Tripathi, Vikram Khedgikar, Ritu Trivedi
Parathyroid hormone (PTH; amino acid 1-34, known as teriparatide) has reported promoting differentiation and glucose uptake in osteoblasts. However, how PTH regulates glucose metabolism to facilitate osteoblast differentiation is not understood. Here, we report that PTH promotes glucose dependent miR-451a expression which stimulates osteoblast differentiation. In addition to glucose uptake, PTH suppresses AMPK phosphorylation via PI3K-mTOR-AKT axis thereby preventing phosphorylation and inactivation of octamer-binding transcription factor 1 (OCT-1) which has been reported to act on the promoter region of miR-451a...
September 12, 2018: Bone
Smita Jha, Nicholas Laucis, Lauren Kim, Ashkan Malayeri, Abhijit Dasgupta, Georgios Z Papadakis, Apostolos Karantanas, Miguel Torres, Timothy Bhattacharyya
Melorheostosis (MEL) is a rare disease of high bone mass with patchy skeletal distribution affecting the long bones. We recently reported somatic mosaic mutations in MAP2K1 in 8 of 15 patients with the disease. The unique anatomic distribution of melorheostosis is of great interest. The disease remains limited to medial or lateral side of the extremity with proximo-distal progression. This pattern of distribution has historically been attributed to sclerotomes (area of bone which is innervated by a single spinal nerve level)...
September 12, 2018: Bone
Iris Boraschi-Diaz, John S Mort, Dieter Brömme, Yotis A Senis, Alexandra Mazharian, Svetlana V Komarova
The major organic component of bone is collagen type I. Osteoclasts are terminally differentiated multinucleated cells of hematopoietic origin that are essential for physiological development of bone and teeth. We examined if osteoclast differentiation from murine bone marrow precursors is affected by collagen type I, or by its degradation products produced by human recombinant cathepsin K. Osteoclasts formation was dose-dependently inhibited in the presence of full length collagen type I or its 30-75 kDa degradation products added to the osteoclast differentiation media for the duration of an experiment...
September 12, 2018: Bone
Shereen N Raafat, Reham M Amin, M M Elmazar, Mahmoud M Khattab, Aiman S El-Khatib
Statins like simvastatin (SIM) have demonstrated to have pleiotropic actions other than their conventional use as antilipidemic drugs. Also, nowadays natural scaffolds like platelets rich fibrin (PRF) showed promising results on bone regeneration. Aim This study compare the regenerative power of SIM and PRF added locally each as a sole filling material on induced bone defect and evaluate the combined effect using PRF loaded with SIM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A critical size bone defect was induced in 48 male albino rats of average weight 150-200 g and were divided into 4 groups according to the filling material...
September 9, 2018: Bone
Timo Damm, Jaime Andrés Peña, Graeme Michael Campbell, Jan Bastgen, Reinhard Barkmann, Claus-Christian Glüer
Vertebral whole bone strength is substantially affected by cortical bone properties. Disease and therapy may affect cancellous and cortical bone differently. Unlike Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) permits selective assessment of cortical and cancellous bone, but image quality limits the accuracy. We present an image processing method specifically adopted to thin cortices that substantially improves accuracy. Ten human vertebrae embedded in epoxy resin were imaged using clinical QCT and High-Resolution QCT (HR-QCT) protocols, both acquired on a clinical whole body CT scanner, whereas high resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) was used as gold standard...
September 7, 2018: Bone
A Trinh, P Wong, M C Fahey, P R Ebeling, P J Fuller, F Milat
CONTEXT: Bone fragility in cerebral palsy (CP) is secondary to a complex interplay of functional, hormonal, and nutritional factors that affect bone remodelling. A greater understanding of bone microarchitectural changes seen in CP should assist therapeutic decision making. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between trabecular bone score (TBS), BMD and fractures in adults with CP; the influence of clinical factors and body composition on bone microarchitecture were explored...
September 5, 2018: Bone
Satya K Kota, Coco Roening, Nehal Patel, Savithri B Kota, Roland Baron
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyze symmetric and asymmetric methylation on arginine residues of multiple protein targets including histones and have essential roles in organismal development and disease. PRMT5 mediates symmetric di-methylation (sDMA) of arginine 2 (H3R2me2s) and arginine 8 on histone 3 (H3R8me2s), arginine 3 on histones 2A and 4 (H2A/H4R3me2s) as well as several non-histone substrates like Sm proteins. Here, we found that selective inhibition of PRMT5 in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) led to a reduction in colony forming units (CFUs) and increased osteoblast differentiation...
September 3, 2018: Bone
M J Ornstrup, T N Kjær, T Harsløf, N R Jørgensen, S B Pedersen, B L Langdahl
BACKGROUND: Bone remodeling takes place in the bone marrow environment. We investigated if levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs) differ between bone marrow and peripheral blood, if the bone marrow is an independent compartment, and how well the measurements in bone marrow correlate with bone mineral density. METHODS: Sixty-six men participated in a placebo controlled study designed to evaluate the effect of 16 weeks supplementation with resveratrol on bone mineral density and BTM...
August 31, 2018: Bone
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