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Bone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108317/silencing-mir-106b-accelerates-osteogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-rescues-against-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-by-targeting-bmp2
#1
Ke Liu, Ying Jing, Wen Zhang, Xuejie Fu, Huan Zhao, Xichao Zhou, Yunxia Tao, Huilin Yang, Yan Zhang, Ke Zen, Chenyu Zhang, Donghai Li, Qin Shi
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem worldwide. MicroRNA is a post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression by either promoting mRNA degradation or interfering with mRNA translation of specific target genes. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Here, we first demonstrated that miR-106b (miR-106b-5p) negatively regulated osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Then, we found that miR-106b expression increased in C57BL/6 mice with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP), and that silencing of miR-106b signaling protected mice against GIOP through promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption...
January 17, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104509/morphometric-vertebral-fractures-in-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-adjuvant-aromatase-inhibitor-therapy-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Rebecca Pedersini, Sara Monteverdi, Gherardo Mazziotti, Vito Amoroso, Elisa Roca, Filippo Maffezzoni, Lucia Vassalli, Filippo Rodella, Anna Maria Formenti, Stefano Frara, Roberto Maroldi, Alfredo Berruti, Edda Simoncini, Andrea Giustina
BACKGROUND: The impact of long-term adjuvant therapy with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on vertebral fracture (VF) risk is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: In this cross-sectional study, we explored the prevalence and determinants of VFs in breast cancer (BC) patients before and during AI therapy. Each woman underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and identify VFs by a quantitative morphometric approach. Blood samples were collected to measure serum hormone and calcium levels...
January 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095295/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-corrects-osteopetrosis-in-a-child-carrying-a-novel-homozygous-mutation-in-the-fermt3-gene
#3
Eleonora Palagano, Mary A Slatter, Paolo Uva, Ciro Menale, Anna Villa, Mario Abinun, Cristina Sobacchi
Osteopetrosis (OPT) is a rare skeletal disorder with phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity: a variety of clinical features besides the bony defect may be present, and at least ten different genes are known to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. In the framework of this heterogeneity, we report the clinical description of a neonate, first child of consanguineous parents, who had osteoclast-rich osteopetrosis and bone marrow failure in early life, but no other usual classical features of infantile malignant OPT, such as visual or hearing impairments...
January 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095294/a-novel-slc12a1-gene-mutation-associated-with-hyperparathyroidism-hypercalcemia-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus-and-nephrocalcinosis-in-four-patients
#4
Sariya Wongsaengsak, Alaina P Vidmar, Ananta Addala, Elaine S Kamil, Paola Seqeira, Benjamin Fass, Pisit Pitukcheewanont
Solute Carrier Family 12 member 1 (SLC12A1) gene encodes the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (NKCC2) at the apical membrane of the thick ascending loop of Henle (TAL). Bartter's syndrome (BS) type I is a rare, autosomal recessive, renal tubular disorder associated with mutation of the SLC12A1 gene. Presenting features include: hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. The many allelic variants reported present with a spectrum of phenotypes, biochemical abnormalities and clinical severities...
January 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096061/connexin37-deficiency-alters-organic-bone-matrix-cortical-bone-geometry-and-increases-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#5
Rafael Pacheco-Costa, Jay R Kadakia, Emily G Atkinson, Joseph M Wallace, Lilian I Plotkin, Rejane D Reginato
Deletion of connexin (Cx) 37 in mice leads to increased cancellous bone mass due to defective osteoclast differentiation. Paradoxically; however, Cx37-deficient mice exhibit reduced cortical thickness accompanied by higher bone strength, suggesting a contribution of Cx37 to bone matrix composition. Thus, we investigated whether global deletion of Cx37 alters the composition of organic bone extracellular matrix. Five-month-old Cx37(-/-) mice exhibited increased marrow cavity area, and periosteal and endocortical bone surface resulting in higher total area in tibia compared to Cx37(+/+) control mice...
January 13, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088646/bone-microarchitecture-in-adolescent-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Ann M Neumeyer, Natalia Cano Sokoloff, Erin McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Christopher J McDougle, Madhusmita Misra
BACKGROUND: Boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD) than typically developing controls (TDC). Studies of volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture provide information about fracture risk beyond that provided by aBMD but are currently lacking in ASD. OBJECTIVES: To assess ultradistal radius and distal tibia vBMD, bone microarchitecture and strength estimates in adolescent boys with ASD compared to TDC. DESIGN/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 34 boys (16 ASD, 18 TDC) that assessed (i) aBMD at the whole body (WB), WB less head (WBLH), hip and spine using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), (ii) vBMD and bone microarchitecture at the ultradistal radius and distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT), and (iii) bone strength estimates (stiffness and failure load) using micro-finite element analysis (FEA)...
January 11, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082078/high-bone-mass-is-associated-with-bone-forming-features-of-osteoarthritis-in-non-weight-bearing-joints-independent-of-body-mass-index
#7
C L Gregson, S A Hardcastle, A Murphy, B Faber, W D Fraser, M Williams, G Davey Smith, J H Tobias
OBJECTIVES: High Bone Mass (HBM) is associated with (a) radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), partly mediated by increased BMI, and (b) pelvic enthesophytes and hip osteophytes, suggestive of a bone-forming phenotype. We aimed to establish whether HBM is associated with radiographic features of OA in non-weight-bearing (hand) joints, and whether such OA demonstrates a bone-forming phenotype. METHODS: HBM cases (BMD Z-scores≥+3.2) were compared with family controls...
January 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082077/effects-of-suppressed-bone-remodeling-by-minodronic-acid-and-alendronate-on-bone-mass-microdamage-accumulation-collagen-crosslinks-and-bone-mechanical-properties-in-the-lumbar-vertebra-of-ovariectomized-cynomolgus-monkeys
#8
Tasuku Mashiba, Mitsuru Saito, Yoshiki Yamagami, Makoto Tanaka, Ken Iwata, Tetsuji Yamamoto
Collagen crosslinking is an important determinant of the quality of bone material. We have previously shown that suppressed bone turnover by high doses of minodronic acid and alendronate increases compressive strength of vertebra, but also increases microdamage accumulation, in monkey bone. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of these bisphosphonates on collagen crosslinks and intrinsic material properties, in addition to microdamage accumulation, in vertebral cancellous bone in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys...
January 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082076/topical-bisphosphonate-augments-fixation-of-bone-grafted-hydroxyapatite-coated-implants-bmp-2-causes-resorption-based-decrease-in-bone
#9
Jorgen Baas, Marianne Vestermark, Thomas Jensen, Joan Bechtold, Kjeld Soballe, Thomas Jakobsen
Bone allograft is used in total joint arthroplasties in order to enhance implant fixation. BMPs are known to stimulate new bone formation within allograft, but also known to accelerate graft resorption. Bisphosphonates are strong inhibitor of bone resorption. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the bisphosphonate zoledronate was able to counteract the accelerated graft resorption without interfering with the BMP induced bone formation. In the present study the two drugs alone and in combination were studied in our canine model of impaction bone grafting...
January 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082075/vertebral-fractures-assessment-in-children-evaluation-of-dxa-imaging-versus-conventional-spine-radiography
#10
N J Crabtree, S Chapman, W Högler, K Hodgson, D Chapman, N Bebbington, N J Shaw
Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by DXA is an accepted tool in adults. However, its use in children has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate DXA VFA and morphometric analysis (MXA) using a GE Lunar iDXA bone densitometer against spinal radiographic assessment (RA) for the identification of vertebral fractures in children. Spine RA and VFA (T3-L5) were acquired on the same day in 80 children. Forty children considered high risk for fracture by their metabolic bone specialist were referred for spinal RA...
January 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069517/fast-estimation-of-colles-fracture-load-of-the-distal-section-of-the-radius-by-homogenized-finite-element-analysis-based-on-hr-pqct
#11
Hadi S Hosseini, Andreas Dünki, Jonas Fabech, Martin Stauber, Nicolas Vilayphiou, Dieter Pahr, Michael Pretterklieber, Jasmin Wandel, Bert van Rietbergen, Philippe K Zysset
Fractures of the distal section of the radius (Colles' fractures) occur earlier in life than other osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, they can be interpreted as a warning signal for later, more deleterious fractures of vertebral bodies or the femoral neck. In the past decade, the advent of HR-pQCT allowed a detailed architectural analysis of the distal radius and an automated but time-consuming estimation of its strength with linear micro-finite element (μFE) analysis. Recently, a second generation of HR-pQCT scanner (XtremeCT II, SCANCO Medical, Switzerland) with a resolution beyond 61 μm became available for even more refined biomechanical investigations in vivo...
January 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069516/disruption-of-collagen-apatite-alignment-impairs-bone-mechanical-function-in-osteoblastic-metastasis-induced-by-prostate-cancer
#12
Aiko Sekita, Aira Matsugaki, Takayoshi Nakano
Prostate cancer (PCa) frequently metastasizes to the bone, generally inducing osteoblastic alterations that increase bone brittleness. Although there is growing interest in the management of the physical capability of patients with bone metastasis, the mechanism underlying the impairment of bone mechanical function remains unclear. The alignment of both collagen fibrils and biological apatite (BAp) c-axis, together with bone mineral density, is one of the strongest contributors to bone mechanical function. In this study, we analyzed the bone microstructure of the mouse femurs with and without PCa cell inoculation...
January 6, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062298/ccl3-and-mmp-9-are-induced-by-tl1a-during-death-receptor-3-tnfrsf25-dependent-osteoclast-function-and-systemic-bone-loss
#13
Fraser L Collins, Jessica O Williams, Anja C Bloom, Ravinder K Singh, Lauren Jordan, Michael D Stone, Laura R McCabe, Eddie C Y Wang, Anwen S Williams
Reduced bone density and secondary osteoporosis, resulting in increased risk of fracture, is a significant complicating factor in the inflammatory arthritides. While the exact etiology of systemic bone loss is not fully elucidated, recent insights into the tumor necrosis factor super family (TNFSF) revealed a potential role for death receptor 3 (DR3/TNFRSF25) and one of its ligands, TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A/TNFSF15). The mechanisms by which DR3/TL1A signalling modulates bone loss are unclear. We investigated the effect of DR3/TL1A signalling upon osteoclast-dependent chemokine and MMP production to unravel novel mechanisms whereby this pathway regulates OC formation and OC-dependent bone resorption...
January 4, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057526/even-with-rehydration-preservation-in-ethanol-influences-the-mechanical-properties-of-bone-and-how-bone-responds-to-experimental-manipulation
#14
Evan O Vesper, Max A Hammond, Matthew R Allen, Joseph M Wallace
Typically, bones are harvested at the time of animal euthanasia and stored until mechanical testing. However, storage methods are not standardized, and differential effects on mechanical properties are possible between methods. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects that two common preservation methods (freezing wrapped in saline-soaked gauze and refrigerating ethanol fixed samples) have on bone mechanical properties in the context of an in vitro ribosylation treatment designed to modify mechanical integrity...
January 3, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043896/marrow-adipose-tissue-composition-in-adults-with-morbid-obesity
#15
Elaine W Yu, Logan Greenblatt, Alireza Eajazi, Martin Torriani, Miriam A Bredella
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have increased fracture risk despite normal or increased bone mineral density (BMD). Elevations in marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and declines in MAT unsaturation are both associated with increased skeletal fragility. The objective of our study was to characterize the quantity and composition of MAT in adults with morbid obesity and T2DM, and to evaluate determinants of MAT. We studied 21 adults with morbid obesity prior to bariatric surgery, 8 of whom had T2DM. All subjects underwent 1H-MR spectroscopy of the lumbar spine and femur for assessment of MAT and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the lumbar spine and hip for assessment of areal BMD (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD)...
December 30, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043895/tgfbr2-is-required-in-osterix-expressing-cells-for-postnatal-skeletal-development
#16
Sarah B Peters, Ying Wang, Rosa Serra
Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is known to play an important role in early skeletal development. We previously demonstrated that loss of TGFβ receptor II (Tgfbr2) in Prx1-Cre-expressing mesenchyme results in defects in long bones, joints, and the skull vault in mice resulting from reduced naïve mesenchymal proliferation and condensation that interrupted osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, others have shown that the loss of Tgfbr2 in fully differentiated mature osteoblasts results in increased bone volume...
December 30, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041872/use-of-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-dxa-for-diagnosis-and-fracture-risk-assessment-who-criteria-t-and-z-score-and-reference-databases
#17
Hans P Dimai
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a two-dimensional imaging technology developed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) of the entire human skeleton and also specifically of skeletal sites known to be most vulnerable to fracture. In order to simplify interpretation of BMD measurement results and allow comparability among different DXA-devices, the T-score concept was introduced. This concept involves an individual's BMD which is then compared with the mean value of a young healthy reference population, with the difference expressed as a standard deviation (SD)...
December 29, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039095/quantitative-in-vivo-assessment-of-bone-microarchitecture-in-the-human-knee-using-hr-pqct
#18
Andres Kroker, Ying Zhu, Sarah L Manske, Rhamona Barber, Nicholas Mohtadi, Steven K Boyd
OBJECTIVE: High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is a novel imaging modality capable of visualizing bone microarchitecture in vivo at human peripheral sites such as the distal radius and distal tibia. This research has extended the technology to provide a non-invasive assessment of bone microarchitecture at the human knee by establishing new hardware, imaging protocols and data analysis. DESIGN: A custom leg holder was developed to stabilize a human knee centrally within a second generation HR-pQCT field of view...
December 27, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034635/patient-specific-bone-mineral-density-distribution-in-the-tibia-of-individuals-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-derived-from-multi-slice-peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography-pqct-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Sylvie Coupaud, Magnus K Gislason, Mariel Purcell, Keisuke Sasagawa, K Elizabeth Tanner
BACKGROUND: The high risk of fracture associated with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) is attributed to extensive disuse-related bone loss in previously weight-bearing long bones. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) after SCI have been documented extensively for the epiphyses of the tibia and femur, fracture-prone sites in this patient group. Less attention has been given to patterns of cortical bone loss in the diaphyses, but variability in BMD distributions throughout the long bones may contribute to some patients' increased susceptibility to shaft fractures in chronic SCI...
December 26, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017816/letter-to-the-editor-in-response-to-drs-safiri-and-ayubi
#20
LETTER
Robert Zura, Mary Jo Braid-Forbes, Kyle Jeray, Samir Mehta, Thomas A Einhorn, J Tracy Watson, Gregory J Della Rocca, Kevin Forbes, R Grant Steen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Bone
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