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Matthew D Bucknor, Harsh Goel, Courtney Pasco, Andrew E Horvai, Galateia J Kazakia
Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a novel non-invasive ablation technique that uses focused sound energy to destroy focal tumors, primarily via heat deposition. It is widely used for palliation of pain from bone metastases and has also recently gained popularity as a technique for ablation of benign bone tumors and facet degenerative joint disease (rhizotomy). Clinically, in a subset of patients who have undergone MRgFUS of bone, a variety of treatment responses have been noted on follow-up imaging, including focal sclerosis within the target lesion or more exuberant proliferative changes associated with the periosteum...
November 16, 2018: Bone
Rodrigo J Valderrábano, Petra Buzkova, Po-Yin Chang, Neil A Zakai, Howard A Fink, John A Robbins, Jennifer S Lee, Joy Y Wu
PURPOSE: Osteoblasts and their precursors support hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. We hypothesized that declines in Hgb levels are associated with bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: The Cardiovascular Health Study is a prospective longitudinal study that enrolled 5888 community-dwelling adults aged >65 years and measured hemoglobin twice, in 1989-90 and 1992-93, as well as BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 1994-95. In a subset of 1513 men and women with a Hgb in 1992-93 and BMD, we used linear regression to estimate associations of Hgb (per standard deviation (SD)) with total hip (TH), lumbar spine (LS) and total body (TB) BMD, and used Poisson regression to estimate associations of anemia (in 1992-93; Hgb <13 g/dL in men; <12 g/dL in women) with "low BMD" defined as T-score less than -1 at the TH...
November 15, 2018: Bone
Eliza Thompson, Ebtesam Abdalla, Andrea Superti-Furga, William McAlister, Lisa Kratz, Sheila Unger, Beryl Royer-Bertrand, Belinda Campos-Xavier, Laureane Mittaz-Crettol, Asmaa K Amin, Cori DeSanto, David B Wilson, Ganka Douglas, Beth Kozel, Marwan Shinawi
LBR (Lamin B Receptor) encodes a bifunctional protein important for cholesterol biosynthesis and heterochromatin organization on the inner nuclear membrane. Pathogenic variants in LBR are associated with marked phenotypic variability, ranging from the benign Pelger-Huët anomaly to lethal Greenberg Dysplasia. We performed trio exome sequencing (ES) on two patients with atypical variants of skeletal dysplasia and their unaffected parents. Patient 1 exhibited frontal bossing, mid-face hypoplasia, short stature with rhizomelic limb shortening, and relative macrocephaly at birth...
November 15, 2018: Bone
Stephan Ellmann, Lisa Seyler, Jochen Evers, Henrik Heinen, Aline Bozec, Olaf Prante, Torsten Kuwert, Michael Uder, Tobias Bäuerle
Macrometastases in bone are preceded by bone marrow invasion of disseminated tumor cells. This study combined functional imaging parameters from FDG-PET/CT and MRI in a rat model of breast cancer bone metastases to a Model-averaged Neural Network (avNNet) for the detection of early metastatic disease and prediction of future macrometastases. Metastases were induced in 28 rats by injecting MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into the right superficial epigastric artery, resulting in the growth of osseous metastases in the right hind leg of the animals...
November 13, 2018: Bone
Koichi Matsuo, Ji Shuting, Ayako Miya, Masaki Yoda, Yuzuru Hamada, Tomoya Tanaka, Ryoko Takao-Kawabata, Katsuhiro Kawaai, Yukiko Kuroda, Shinsuke Shibata
The periosteum and mineralized bone are innervated by nerves that sense pain. These include both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons with either free nerve endings or bearing nociceptors. Parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nerves also innervate bone. However, little is known about the route sensory nerves take leaving the epiphyses of long bones at the adult knee joint. Here, we used transgenic mice that express fluorescent Venus protein in Schwann cells (Sox10-Venus mice) to visualize myelinated and unmyelinated nerves in the tibial epiphysis...
November 12, 2018: Bone
Ling Chen, Robin DiFeo Childs, William J Landis
Certain avian tendons have been studied previously as a model system for normal mineralization of vertebrates in general. In this regard, the gastrocnemius tendon in the legs of turkeys mineralizes in a well-defined temporal and spatial manner such that changes in the initial and subsequent events of mineral formation can be associated with time and specific locations in the tissue. In the present investigation, these parameters and mineral deposition have been correlated with the expression of several genes and the synthesis and secretion of their related extracellular matrix proteins by the composite tenocytes of the tendon...
November 9, 2018: Bone
Lisa Baumann, Vivien Kauschke, Anna Vikman, Lutz Dürselen, Gabriela Krasteva-Christ, Marian Kampschulte, Christian Heiss, Kathleen T Yee, Douglas E Vetter, Katrin Susanne Lips
Alterations in bone strength and structure were found in knockout (KO) mouse strains with deletion of several acetylcholine receptors. Interestingly, the expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subunit α10 was down-regulated in osteogenic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells of patients with osteoporosis whereas the expression of subunit α9 was not altered. Since nAChR subunits α9 and α10 are often combined in a functional receptor, we analyzed here the bone of adult female KO mice with single deletion of either nAChR alpha9 (α9KO) or alpha10 (α10KO)...
November 7, 2018: Bone
E P Paschalis, S Gamsjaeger, K Condon, K Klaushofer, D Burr
Ovariectomized animal models have been extensively used in osteoporosis research due to the resulting loss of bone mass. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that estrogen depletion alters mineralization regulation mechanisms in an ovariectomized monkey animal model. To achieve this we used Raman microspectroscopy to analyze humeri from monkeys that were either SHAM-operated or ovariectomized (N = 10 for each group). Measurements were made as a function of tissue age and cortical surface (periosteal, osteonal, endosteal) based on the presence of calcein fluorescent double labels...
November 7, 2018: Bone
Anusha Uttarilli, Hitesh Shah, Gandham SriLakshmi Bhavani, Priyanka Upadhyai, Anju Shukla, Katta M Girisha
Genetic heterogeneity, high burden and the paucity of genetic testing for rare diseases challenge genomic healthcare for these disorders in India. Here we report our experience over the past decade, of establishing the genomic evaluation of skeletal dysplasia at a tertiary university hospital in India. Research or clinical genomic testing was carried out by Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing. Close national and international collaborations aided phenotyping and genotyping. We report 508 families (557 affected individuals) with the definitive molecular diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia...
November 6, 2018: Bone
Zhaojing Chen, Michael G Bemben, Debra A Bemben
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA molecules that fine tune posttranscriptional protein expression. Aging is accompanied by progressive declines in muscle mass and strength, and in bone mineral density (BMD). Although miRNAs in pathology have been extensively studied, the role of circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs) in osteoporosis and sarcopenia has to date not been well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in bone and muscle specific c-miRNAs in postmenopausal women based on their bone and muscle status, and to determine the associations between these specific c-miRNAs and muscle and bone variables...
November 5, 2018: Bone
Lynda Bonewald
Until recently, it was assumed that the only interaction between muscle and bone is mechanical, that the muscle acts as a pulley and the bone as a lever to move the organism. A relatively new concept is that muscle, especially contracted muscle, acts as a secretory organ, regulating metabolism. An even newer concept is that bone, especially the osteocytes in bone, act as endocrine cells targeting other organs such as kidney and more recently, muscle. These two new concepts logically led to the third concept: that muscle and bone communicate via soluble factors...
November 5, 2018: Bone
Keisuke Mitomo, Satoru Matsunaga, Kei Kitamura, Takashi Nakamura, Akiko Saito, Toshihisa Komori, Takashi Muramatsu, Akira Yamaguchi
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in RUNX2. Affected individuals exhibit delayed maturation or hypoplasia in various bones, mainly including those formed by intramembranous ossification. Although several reports described deformation of the sphenoid bone in CCD patients, details of the associated changes have not been well documented. Most parts of the sphenoid bone are formed by endochondral ossification; however, the medial pterygoid process is formed by intramembranous ossification associated with secondary cartilage...
November 2, 2018: Bone
Yuko Katoh-Fukui, Takashi Baba, Tetsuya Sato, Hiroyuki Otake, Yuko Nagakui-Noguchi, Miyuki Shindo, Mikita Suyama, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hideki Tsumura, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi, Maki Fukami
A set of key developmental genes is essential for skeletal growth from multipotent progenitor cells at weaning. Polycomb group proteins, which regulate such genes contributes to the cell lineage commitment and subsequent differentiation via epigenetic chromatin modification and remodeling. However, it is unclear which cell lineage and gene sets are targeted by polycomb proteins during skeletal growth. We now report that mice deficient in a polycomb group gene Cbx2cterm/cterm exhibited skeletal hypoplasia in the tibia, femur, and cranium...
October 30, 2018: Bone
Changjun Guo, Kai Yang, Yufei Yan, Dongming Yan, Yifan Cheng, Xueming Yan, Niandong Qian, Qi Zhou, Bo Chen, Min Jiang, Hanbing Zhou, Changwei Li, Fei Wang, Jin Qi, Xiangyang Xu, Lianfu Deng
Deferoxamine (DFO) possesses a good chelating capability and is therefore used for the clinical treatment of ion deposition diseases. Increasing evidence shows that DFO can inhibit the activity of proline hydroxylase (PHD) by chelating iron, resulting in hypoxia-induced factor (HIF) signaling activation and angiogenesis promotion. However, clinical evidence indicates that a high concentration of DFO could be biotoxic due to its enrichment in related organs. Thus, we established a new compound by conjugating DFO with the bone-seeking agent iminodiacetic acid (IDA); the new agent is called SF-DFO, and we verified its promotion of HIF activation and tube formation in vivo...
October 30, 2018: Bone
Thomas L Willett, Daniel Y Dapaah, Sasidhar Uppuganti, Mathilde Granke, Jeffry S Nyman
Greater understanding of the determinants of skeletal fragility is highly sought due to the great burden that bone affecting diseases and fractures have on economies, societies and health care systems. Being a complex, hierarchical composite of collagen type-I and non-stoichiometric substituted hydroxyapatite, bone derives toughness from its organic phase. In this study, we tested whether early observations that a strong correlation between bone collagen integrity measured by thermomechanical methods and work to fracture exist in a more general and heterogeneous sampling of the population...
October 28, 2018: Bone
Kyung Shin Kang, Jung Min Hong, Daniel J Horan, Kyung-Eun Lim, Whitney A Bullock, Angela Bruzzaniti, Steven Hann, Matthew L Warman, Alexander G Robling
High-bone-mass (HBM)-causing missense mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 (Lrp5) are associated with increased osteoanabolic action and protection from disuse- and ovariectomy-induced osteopenia. These mutations (e.g., A214V and G171V) confer resistance to endogenous secreted Lrp5/6 inhibitors, such as sclerostin (SOST) and Dickkopf homolog-1 (DKK1). Cells in the osteoblast lineage are responsive to canonical Wnt stimulation, but recent work has indicated that osteoclasts exhibit both indirect and direct responsiveness to canonical Wnt...
October 25, 2018: Bone
Yan Wu, Xue Yuan, Kristy C Perez, Sydnee Hyman, Liao Wang, Gretel Pellegrini, Benjamin Salmon, Teresita Bellido, Jill A Helms
Vertebrate teeth are attached to the jawbones using a variety of methods but in mammals, a fibrous connection is the norm. This fibrous periodontal ligament (PDL) allows teeth to move in the jawbones in response to natural eruptive forces, mastication, and orthodontic tooth movement. In some disease states the PDL either calcifies or is replaced by a mineralized tissue and the result is ankylosis, where the tooth is fused to the alveolar bone. To understand how the PDL maintains this fibrous state we examined a strain of mice in which tooth movement is arrested...
October 25, 2018: Bone
Panxi Yu, Xiaonan Yang, Zuoliang Qi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2018: Bone
P D Miller, G Hattersley, E Lau, L A Fitzpatrick, A G Harris, G C Williams, M-Y Hu, B J Riis, L Russo, C Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Abaloparatide is a 34-amino acid peptide that selectively binds to the RG conformation of the parathyroid hormone receptor type 1. It was developed for the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis at high risk of fracture. In ACTIVE, an 18-month phase 3 study (NCT01343004), abaloparatide increased bone mineral density (BMD), decreased the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures compared with placebo, and decreased the risk of major osteoporotic fractures compared with placebo and teriparatide...
October 22, 2018: Bone
Jorge Marin-Puyalto, Jarek Mäestu, Alba Gómez-Cabello, Evelin Lätt, Liina Remmel, Priit Purge, German Vicente-Rodríguez, Jaak Jürimäe
PURPOSE: Vigorous physical activity (VPA) has been proven to promote osteogenesis in adolescents; however the specifics of the optimal pattern of frequency and duration of VPA are unknown. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the associations of different length of VPA bouts with bone health. METHODS: 180 healthy male adolescents (11-13 years) had their bone mineral content and density assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans at the whole body, femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine and their physical activity measured by an accelerometer during one week...
October 22, 2018: Bone
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