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Bente L Langdahl, Stuart Silverman, Saeko Fujiwara, Ken Saag, Nicola Napoli, Satoshi Soen, Hiroyuki Enomoto, Thomas E Melby, Damon P Disch, Fernando Marin, John H Krege
INTRODUCTION: Teriparatide significantly reduces fracture rates in clinical trials; however, those study populations were relatively restricted and included too few patients to analyze fracture outcomes within clinically important patient subgroups. We assessed fracture outcomes in subgroups of osteoporosis patients from 4 real-world teriparatide observational studies. METHODS: Patients received teriparatide 20 μg/day for up to 24 months. Fracture rates were compared between 0 and 6 months versus >6 months using a piecewise exponential model for first fracture...
July 15, 2018: Bone
Zhao-Min Liu, Shelly Lap Ah Tse, Bailing Chen, Dicken Chan, Carmen Wong, Jean Woo, Samuel Yeung-Shan Wong
BACKGROUND: The association of dietary sugar intake and skeletal health remains uncertain in the elderly. We aimed to investigate the association of sugar intake with the bone health and mortality of Chinese elderly. METHODS: An analysis was conducted through an 11-year longitudinal study (Mr. and Ms. OS Hong Kong). Four thousand Chinese elderly aged 65 and older were recruited from the local community between 2001 and 2003. Sugar intake was assessed at baseline by a validated 329-item Food Frequency Questionnaire and a local sugar database...
July 13, 2018: Bone
Corey M Hoffman, Jimin Han, Laura M Calvi
Hematopoiesis in land dwelling vertebrates and marine mammals occurs within the bone marrow, continually providing mature progeny over the course of an organism's lifetime. This conserved dependency highlights the critical relationship between these two organs, yet the skeletal and hematopoietic systems are often thought of as separate. In fact, data are beginning to show that skeletal disease pathogenesis influences hematopoiesis and viceversa, offering novel opportunities to approach disease affecting bone and blood...
July 13, 2018: Bone
Antonino Catalano, Saverio Loddo, Federica Bellone, Carmelo Pecora, Antonino Lasco, Nunziata Morabito
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been proven to enhance in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis with unknown mechanism. Aim of our study was to explore whether RANKL/OPG and Wnt/β-Catenin pathways could be involved in bone response to PEMFs in a setting of postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Forty-three women (mean age 62.8 ± 4.5 yr.) were randomized into two groups. The PEMFs group received PEMFs treatment (50 min treatment session/day, 6 treatment sessions/week, for a total of 25 times), by wearing a specific gilet applied to the trunk and connected to the electromagnetic device (Biosalus, by HSD Srl, Serravalle RSM), while women assigned to control group received sham PEMFs with the same device...
July 13, 2018: Bone
Luyun Wei, Dehao Cao, Xiujuan Zhu, Yu Long, Chaoqun Liu, Shengzhu Huang, Jiarong Tian, Qingzhi Hou, Yaling Huang, Juan Ye, Bangzhu Luo, Ying Luo, Chunmei Liang, Mujun Li, Xiaobo Yang, Zengnan Mo, Jianfeng Xu
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight infants (LBW) are at risk of chronic diseases in later life due to the disorder of energy metabolism during pregnancy. Osteocalcin (OC) has been identified as a hormone that regulate energy metabolism. However, few studies have researched on the associations between maternal serum OC levels and low birth weight infants. OBJECTIONS: To examine the associations between maternal serum OC concentrations and LBW. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study involving a total of 230 pregnant women delivering LBW and 382 control pregnant women (matched for infant gender, gestational age at blood draw, region of Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital and maternal age in 1: (1-2) ratio)...
July 13, 2018: Bone
Yufa Wang, Jieun Kim, Andrea Chan, Cari Whyne, Diane Nam
T lymphocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically interleukin-17F (IL-17F) have been identified as important regulators in bone regeneration during fracture repair. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of IL-17F-mediated osteoblastogenesis, a mouse pre-osteoblast cell line (MC3T3-E1) was utilized to characterize the intracellular signal transduction of IL-17F. Comparisons to the established canonical Wnt signaling pathway were made using Wnt3a ligand. Our results demonstrated greater bone marker gene expression in IL-17F-treated cells, compared to cells treated with Wnt3a...
July 12, 2018: Bone
Laurie M G de Kroon, Guus G H van den Akker, Bent Brachvogel, Roberto Narcisi, Daniele Belluoccio, Florien Jenner, John F Bateman, Christopher B Little, Pieter Brama, Esmeralda N Blaney Davidson, Peter M van der Kraan, Gerjo J V M van Osch
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of articular cartilage. Some features of OA, including chondrocyte hypertrophy and focal calcification of articular cartilage, resemble the endochondral ossification processes. Alterations in transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling have been associated with OA as well as with chondrocyte hypertrophy. Our aim was to identify novel candidate genes implicated in chondrocyte hypertrophy during OA pathogenesis by determining which TGFβ-related genes are regulated during murine OA and endochondral ossification...
July 12, 2018: Bone
Jing Li, Wenqing Ding, Juan Cao, Lijiao Sun, Shanghong Liu, Jianjun Zhang, Haiping Zhao
Although vitamin D is essential for bone health, little is known about prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) among children, especially those in developing countries. It also remains unclear whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with BMD among children. We investigated these questions among children and adolescents in Yinchuan (latitude: 38° N), Ningxia, an economically underdeveloped province in Northwest China. A total of 1582 children (756 boys and 826 girls), aged 6-18 years, were recruited from schools using the stratified random sampling method in fall 2015...
July 10, 2018: Bone
Hannah M Davis, Rafael Pacheco-Costa, Lilian I Plotkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Bone
Sok Kuan Wong, Kok-Yong Chin, Farihah Hj Suhaimi, Fairus Ahmad, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with osteoporosis due to the underlying inflammatory and hormonal changes. Annatto tocotrienol has been shown to improve medical complications associated with MetS or bone loss in animal studies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of annatto tocotrienol as a single treatment for MetS and osteoporosis in high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet-induced MetS animals. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. The baseline group was euthanized at the onset of the study...
July 7, 2018: Bone
William D Leslie, Ego Seeman, Suzanne N Morin, Lisa M Lix, Sumit R Majumdar
The diagnostic threshold for osteoporosis, a bone mineral density (BMD) T-score ≤ -2.5, signals an increased risk for fracture. However, most fragility fractures arise among the majority of women with 'osteopenia' or 'normal' BMD. We hypothesized that a BMD T-score of -2.5, even if not intended as a treatment threshold, paradoxically may create disincentive to initiating treatment of women with osteopenia or normal BMD at high risk for fracture. From a population-based BMD registry covering the Province of Manitoba, Canada, we identified 3735 untreated women aged ≥ 50 years undergoing BMD screening in 2006-2015 found to qualify for Osteoporosis Canada guidelines-based treatment...
July 6, 2018: Bone
David Henault, Tracy Westley, Sinziana Dumitra, Sue-Ling Chang, Richard Kremer, Robyn Tamblyn, Nancy Mayo, Ari N Meguerditchian
PURPOSE: Older Breast Cancer (BC) survivors are an increased risk of osteoporosis due to natural aging and long-term cancer treatment-related toxicity. It is well known that anti-estrogen therapy (AET), especially aromatase inhibitors (AI), is associated with rapid bone loss and thus increases the risk of osteoporosis. This study characterizes patterns and predictors of receiving guideline-recommended bone densitometry (BD) screening at AET initiation. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study (1998-2012) of all women ≥65 years of age initiating AET was designed using claims data from Quebec's universal health care...
July 5, 2018: Bone
Kyle P Chadwick, Nicole M Mueske, Rachel E Horenstein, Sandra J Shefelbine, Tishya A L Wren
Skeletal loading through daily movement is an important factor in the normal development of bones. This loading is affected by the neurological and muscle deficits that result from myelominingocele (MM). While children with MM have been shown to have atypical gait, decreased bone accrual, and increased fracture risk, it is still unclear what morphological bone differences exist and to what extent they relate to physical developmental and ambulation level. This study analyzed computed tomography images of the tibia from 77 children with MM and 124 typically developing (TD) children between the ages of 6 and 16 years...
July 4, 2018: Bone
Daniel G Whitney, Edward A Hurvitz, Maureen J Devlin, Michelle S Caird, Zachary P French, Elie C Ellenberg, Mark D Peterson
BACKGROUND: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) are at an increased risk for age-related morbidities due to functional impairments, maladapted growth, and altered body composition. While musculoskeletal (MSK) deficits are present in children, little is understood about MSK morbidity throughout the lifespan in those with CP. The purpose of this study was to examine the age-related trajectories of MSK morbidity and multimorbidity throughout adulthood in those with CP. METHODS: A clinic-based sample of adults with CP (n = 1395; ≥18 years) was examined to determine prevalence of MSK morbidities at the University of Michigan Medical Center...
July 4, 2018: Bone
Rupal Mehta, Xuan Cai, Alexander Hodakowski, Bharat Thyagarajan, Donglin Zeng, Phyllis C Zee, William K Wohlgemuth, Susan Redline, James P Lash, Myles Wolf, Tamara Isakova
Preclinical data suggest that hypoxia stimulates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) transcription and cleavage in osteocytes, resulting in elevated circulating c-terminal (cFGF23) levels but normal intact FGF23 (iFGF23) levels. We conducted a case-control study within the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos to investigate whether sleep disordered breathing, as a model of hypoxemia, is independently associated with elevated cFGF23 levels in the general population and with elevated cFGF23 and iFGF23 levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), in whom FGF23 cleavage may be impaired...
July 3, 2018: Bone
Beom-Jun Kim, Mi Kyung Kwak, Jae Seung Kim, Seung Hun Lee, Jung-Min Koh
Despite the potential biological importance of sympathetic activity in human bone metabolism, its effects on bone microarchitecture, a key determinant of bone quality, has not been thoroughly studied. In the present study, we investigated the lumbar spine trabecular bone score (TBS) as an indicator of skeletal deterioration in pheochromocytoma. Among 620 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed adrenal incidentaloma, 29 with histologically confirmed pheochromocytoma (a catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumor) and 266 with nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma were defined as cases and controls, respectively...
June 30, 2018: Bone
Amy Thorby-Lister, Wolfgang Högler, Kirsten Hodgson, Nicola Crabtree, Peter Nightingale, Nick Shaw, Vrinda Saraff
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cumulative effective dose of radiation (E) and additional lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer from ionizing radiation in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), who require frequent imaging for fractures and bone densitometry (DXA) surveillance. Also, to evaluate the pattern of long bone fractures. METHODS: We reviewed all imaging (x-rays, DXA and computed tomography [CT]) conducted in a cohort of children with OI with a minimum observation period of 5 years...
June 27, 2018: Bone
Sebastian Butscheidt, Tim Rolvien, Eik Vettorazzi, Isolde Frieling
BACKGROUND: High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) represents a three-dimensional tool for the screening of osteoporosis patients i.e., regarding fracture risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the baseline and follow-up bone microarchitecture in relation to incident fracture risk in postmenopausal women on denosumab treatment. METHODS: We have retrospectively evaluated data from 182 postmenopausal women treated with denosumab that underwent an initial HR-pQCT scan before the initiation of the treatment; and at least one second HR-pQCT after 12 months...
June 27, 2018: Bone
S Zanotti, J Yu, D Bridgewater, J M Wolf, E Canalis
Osteoarthritis is a joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation, altered gene expression and inflammation. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 receptors and the JAGGED1 ligand regulate chondrocyte biology; however, the contribution of Notch signaling to osteoarthritis is controversial. Hajdu Cheney Syndrome (HCS) is a rare genetic disorder affecting the skeleton and associated with NOTCH2 mutations that lead to NOTCH2 gain-of-function. A murine model of the disease (Notch2tm1.1Ecan ) was used to test whether the HCS mutation increases the susceptibility to osteoarthritis...
June 22, 2018: Bone
Dongdong Zhang, ChuHyun Bae, Junghak Lee, Jiho Lee, Zeyu Jin, Myeongmo Kang, Young Suk Cho, Jeong-Han Kim, Weontae Lee, Sung-Kil Lim
Irisin, a recently identified hormone secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, exhibits anabolic effects on the skeleton primarily through the stimulation of bone formation. However, the mechanism underlying the irisin-stimulated anabolic response remains largely unknown. To uncover the underlying mechanism, we biosynthesized recombinant irisin (r-irisin) using an Escherichia coli expression system and used it to treat several osteoblast cell types. Our synthesized r-irisin could promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts as evidenced by enhanced expression of osteoblast-specific transcriptional factors, including Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), Oster (Osx), as well as early osteoblastic differentiation markers such as alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1)...
June 22, 2018: Bone
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