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Journal of Basic Microbiology

Sajida Munir, Nazia Jamil
Mixed bacterial cultures are increasingly being used in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as they have the potential to be more cost effective than axenic pure cultures. The purpose of this study was to use pure cultures in combination to identify their potential of PHA production. In this work we used volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and glucose as carbon source to check the ability of selected strains ST2 (Pseudomonas sp.) and CS8 (Bacillus sp.) as co-culture. The production of PHA in pure co-cultures of bacteria was therefore investigated in order to understand the effect of combining cultures on PHA production parameters and material properties...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Yuanyuan Lu, Shuqin Xiao, Mingyue Yuan, Yibo Gao, Jiaying Sun, Chunsheng Xue
Overlap-extension PCR is a method for splice of gene segments to produce focused fragments for constructing recombinant plasmid, but its complexity limits its application. To simplify the protocol and to improve the effectiveness, we employed gradient temperatures to replace the single annealing temperature in the thermo-cycling program, and optimize the templates ratio. The concentration of each fragment was adjusted to 10 ng µl-1 . Fragment concentration ratio was the inverse of the fragment size ratio...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Melinda Szilágyi, Fruzsina Anton, István Pócsi, Tamás Emri
Melanization of carbon stressed Aspergillus nidulans cultures were studied. Melanin production showed strong positive correlation with the activity of the secreted chitinase and ß-1,3-glucanase. Deletion of either chiB encoding an autolytic endochitinase or engA encoding an autolytic ß-1,3-endoglucanase, or both, almost completely prevented melanization of carbon stressed cultures. In contrast, addition of Trichoderma lyticase to cultures induced melanin production. Synthetic melanin could efficiently inhibit the purified ChiB chitinase activity...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Pengxia Wang, Yiguang Zhu, Hui Shang, Yun Deng, Ming Sun
A new minireplicon (rep26 minireplicon) from pBMB26, the 188 kb indigenous plasmid related to spore-crystal association (SCA) phenotype in Bacillus thuringiensis strain YBT-020, was characterized. A 12 kb EcoRI fragment, which encoded 10 putative open reading frames (ORFs), was capable of supporting replication when cloned in a replication probe vector. Deletion and frame shift mutation analysis showed that a 4.1 kb region encompassing two putative ORFs (orf21 and orf22) was essential for the plasmid replication in B...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Govindasamy Senthilraja, Theerthagiri Anand, Subbarayalu Mohankumar, Thiruvengadam Raguchander, Ramasamy Samiyappan
Beauveria bassiana is a broad spectrum microbial bioagent used for the control of agriculturally important insect pests. However, in our experiments, two virulent isolates of B. bassiana (B2 and B10) showed specific preference toward Maruca vitrata and Helicoverpa armigera of pigeonpea. To better understand this feature, we developed a qPCR assay to quantify the chitinase (virulence factor) of B. bassiana during the infection process. Isolates of B. bassiana were grown on insect cuticle amended medium and minimal medium (without insect cuticle) to assess the induction of chitinase...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Brian P Huta, Nigel H Miller, Eleanor L Robertson, Robert P Doyle
The growth of an organism is highly dependent on the acquisition of carbon and metals, and availability of these nutrients in the environment affects its survival. Organisms can obtain both nutrients simultaneously through proteins of the CitMHS superfamily. Bioinformatic studies suggested a CitMHS gene (Accession number ABS03965.1) in Kineococcus radiotolerans. Radio flux assays following 14-C radiolabelled citrate, either free or complexed to a variety of metal ions, in K. radiotolerans demonstrated internalization of the citrate when bound to select metal ions only, primarily in the form of calcium-citrate...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ying Lan, Yanwu Li, Zhiguo E, Feng Sun, Linlin Du, Qiufang Xu, Tong Zhou, Yijun Zhou, Yongjian Fan
RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved mechanism against viruses in plants and animals. It is thought to inactivate the viral genome by producing virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs). Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is transmitted to plants by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus), and seriously threatens production of rice in East Asia, particularly Oryza sativa japonica subspecies. Through deep sequencing, genome-wide comparisons of RBSDV-derived vsiRNAs were made between the japonica variety Nipponbare, and the indica variety 9311...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ekta Verma, Sindhunath Chakraborty, Balkrishna Tiwari, Arun K Mishra
PII protein family is widespread in prokaryotes and plants. In this study, impacts of PII deficiency on the synthesis of acetyl CoA and acetyl CoA carboxylase enzyme (ACCase) was analyzed in the Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 by evaluating the mRNA levels of pyruvate kinase (PK), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), citrate synthase (CS), biotin synthase (BS), biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), carboxyl transferase (CT) α and β subunits. The PII deficient Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 showed upregulation of all the above-mentioned genes, except CS...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Shobit Thapa, Kunal Ranjan, Balasubramanian Ramakrishnan, Kulandaivelu Velmourougane, Radha Prasanna
Rice paddies are man-made, cross-over ecologies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, which favor the proliferation of characteristic microbial communities. Moisture regimes under flooded and different levels of irrigation such as in direct seeded rice (DSR) and system of rice intensification (SRI) lead to modulation in crop physiology, soil nutrient availability, and the soil microbiome. However, the diversity of the rice phyllosphere microbiome is less investigated in terms of the influence of fertilizer application and the method of rice cultivation (conventional-flooded, DSR and SRI)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
João Heitor C Manfrão-Netto, Thiago M Mello-de-Sousa, Astrid R Mach-Aigner, Robert L Mach, Marcio J Poças-Fonseca
Humicola grisea var. thermoidea (Hgvt) is a thermophilic ascomycete that produces lignocellulolytic enzymes and it is proposed for the conversion of agricultural residues into useful byproducts. Drugs that inhibit the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) activity are employed in epigenetic studies but nothing is known about a possible effect on the production of fungal enzymes. We evaluated the effect of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza; a chemical inhibitor of DNMTs activity) on the secreted enzyme activity and on the transcription of cellulase and xylanase genes from Hgvt grown in agricultural residues and in glucose...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Fausto F Castro, Ana B P Pinheiro, Edileusa C M Gerhardt, Marco A S Oliveira, Ione P Barbosa-Tessmann
Esterases hydrolyze water soluble short chain fatty acids esters and are biotechnologically important. A strain of Aspergillus westerdijkiae isolated from cooking oil for recycling was found to secrete an esterase. The best enzyme production (19-24 U/ml of filtrate) culture conditions were stablished. The protein was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and a chromatographic step in Sephacryl S-200 HR. The 32 kDa purified protein presented an optimal temperature of 40°C, with a T50 of 48...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Li Zhu, Xiuping Qian, Daijie Chen, Mei Ge
Analysis of the Amycolatopsis orientalis genome revealed that two genes, hemA1 and hemA2, belonging to divergent pathways, were involved in the biosynthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid. The roles of hemA1 and hemA2 were elucidated via genetic manipulation and metabolite analysis. The disruption of hemA1, encoding the glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) reductase of the C5 pathway, was essential for cell growth and is used for heme synthesis. Overexpression of hemA1 resulted in elevated vancomycin and ECO-0501 production in Amycolatopsis orientalis, and it was also effective in increasing the production of daptomycin and natamycin in other Streptomycetes...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Xiu-Xiu Ren, Yuchen Wang, YongXiang Liu, Yumei Tan, Chunguang Ren, Yongyi Ge, Zuoyi Liu
Aspergillus cristatus develops into various stages under different Na concentrations: the sexual stage in 0.5 M NaCl and asexual development stage in 3 M NaCl. In order to explore whether the Ca(2+) signaling pathway in A. cristatus responded to the changes in the salt stress, we analyzed the gene expression levels in A. cristatus respectively cultured in 0.5 M NaCl and 3 M NaCl. According to the BLAST analysis results, we identified 25 Ca(2+) -signaling proteins in A. cristatus. The expression levels of most genes involved in the Ca(2+) -signaling pathway in A...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Geeta G Shirnalli, Manish S Kaushik, Ajay Kumar, Gerard Abraham, Pawan K Singh
Cyanobacteria are known to exhibit their efficiency in producing high concentrations of compounds of commercial value. Arthrospira is one such cyanobacterium which is considered as important source of protein (65%) and other nutrients. In present study, chemical mutagenesis using N-methyl-Ń-Nitro-nitrosoguanidine (NTG), a proven potent mutagen for cyanobacteria was used to bring stable and desirable alteration in Arthrospira platensis ARM 730. Three morphological mutants (G-1, G-2, and SF) were selected and characterized...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Indrani Sarkar, Louis S Tisa, Maher Gtari, Arnab Sen
Amino acid and protein biosynthesis requires a number of high energy phosphate bonds and includes a dual energy cost for the synthesis of chemical intermediates during the fueling reactions and the conversion of precursor molecules to final products. One popular hypothesis is that the proteins encoded by putative highly expressed genes (hence called PHXPs) generally utilize low energy consuming amino acids to reduce the biosynthetic cost of the essential proteins. In our study, we found that this idea was not supported in the case of actinobacteria...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Isabella Grishkan
Composition of thermotolerant mycobiota in the soil of Israeli deserts and northern territories was examined in spatiotemporal dynamics. A total of 165 species from 82 genera were isolated at 37 °C using the soil dilution plate method. Aspergilli (Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger) and teleomorphic ascomycetes (Canariomyces notabilis, Chaetomium nigricolor, and Ch. strumarium) comprised the basic part of the thermotolerant communities. The desert communities remarkably differed from the northern communities by a much higher abundance of A...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ashraf M M Essa, Mohamed A Al Abboud, Sayeed I Khatib
Microorganisms can modify the chemical and physical characters of metals leading to an alteration in their speciation, mobility, and toxicity. Aqueous heavy metals solutions (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, and Zn) were treated with the volatile metabolic products (VMPs) of Escherichia coli Z3 for 24 h using aerobic bioreactor. The effect of the metals treated with VMPs in comparison to the untreated metals on the growth of E. coli S1 and Staphylococcus aureus S2 (local isolates) was examined. Moreover, the toxic properties of the treated and untreated metals were monitored using minimum inhibitory concentration assay...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ahmed Anan, Khaled M Ghanem, Amira M Embaby, Ahmed Hussein, Moustafa Y El-Naggar
The present study underlines a unique promising approach toward efficient biotransformation of ceftriaxone sodium (Ceftx), a highly frequent prescribed cephalosporin antibiotic, by a newly bacterium namely Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain Cef6 isolated from Ceftx contaminated raw materials in pharmaceutical industries. A three step sequential statistical-mathematical approach (Plackett-Burman design [PBD], Central Composite Design [CCD], and ridge-canonical analyses) was anticipated to optimize the biotransformation process...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Farakh Javed, Khanzadi N Manzoor, Mubashar Ali, Irshad U Haq, Abid A Khan, Assad Zaib, Sobia Manzoor
Zika virus is one of the emerging viruses and is of significant threat to human health globally. It is a mosquito borne flavivirus similar to dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. It was reported about 5 decades ago and then it spreads to different parts of the world. Large outbreaks were reported on Yap Islands in 2007. Now it has gained wide attention globally by health communities. Major vector for virus transmission is Aedes aegypti mosquito. ZIKV infection is mostly asymptomatic but it is also responsible to cause mild influenza like illness to serious manifestations...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Tariqul Islam, Changsheng Peng, Imran Ali
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are getting much attention in the recent years due to the biomineralization in their magnetosomes (MS). MS are unique organelles that are bio-mineralized due to MTB. MS contains nanosized crystal minerals of magnetite or greigite covered by bilayer lipid membrane, which are originated from cytoplasmic membrane (CM). MS are organized as an ordered chain into the cell which acts as a miniature compass needle. Furthermore, the biodiversity of MTB and their distribution is principally linked with the characteristics and growths of the MS...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
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