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Journal of Basic Microbiology

Francois N Niyonzima
Cellulases, lipases, proteases, and amylases are employed in the detergent preparation to speed up the detergency process. Microbial cellulases are now commercially manufactured and are being used by various industries like detergent industry. Currently, the supplementation of detergent-compatible enzymes is a new trend followed by most of the detergent industries. The cellulases are supplemented to the detergents to improve the fabric smoothness and soil removal without damaging them. They act by passing through the textile interfibril spaces and thus the fabric quality is preserved...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Lei Zhang, Tingting Zhao, Tingting Shen, Guang Gao
To explore the influence of seasonal and regional environmental factors on the bacterial community composition (BCC) and diversity in the sediments of Lake Bosten, the 16S rRNA gene of sediment bacteria in four samples from the lake center area and the macrophyte-dominated area were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. According to the operational taxonomic units (OTUs), diversity index, relative abundance, and redundancy analysis (RDA) of the bacteria, the results showed that (i) the bacterial diversity of the lake center area was lower than that of the macrophyte-dominated area, and it was higher in winter than that in summer as a whole; (ii) seasonal factors and geographical changes had obvious effects on the abundance of dominant bacteria, including Proteobacteria and Firmicutes; (iii) a large number of unclassified bacteria were detected in this study, and the dominant unclassified genera in both lake areas included unclassified Sva0485, unclassified Anaerolineaceae, and unclassified Nitrospiraceae; and (iv) TN and TOC were the main environmental factors influencing the sediment bacterial community in Lake Bosten, as determined by RDA analysis...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ruiling Zhang, Zhendong Huang, Guangfu Yu, Zhong Zhang
Haemaphysalis longicornis is a prominent tick species in China, and the major vector of an emerging tick-borne disease: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). Microbiome diversity of ticks is influenced by several factors. In this study, we investigated microbiome diversity in field-collected female and male H. longicornis ticks and compared the microbial composition of fed and unfed ticks and of those feeding on different hosts using barcode sequencing of V3-V4 region of 16S RNA gene. Regardless of sex, host, and feeding status; the highest abundance among all samples was found for the genus Coxiella...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Mohammed R Hossain, Miao Jiang, QiHuo Wei, Laura G Leff
Microplastics are a global concern in aquatic ecology and are readily colonized by bacteria in the environment. There is a lack of information on bacterial colonization of eroded and un-eroded microplastics in freshwater. In this study, six types of microplastics were incubated for 8 weeks in microcosms with water from Lake Erie. Microcosms were inoculated with one of three species: Acinetobacter (A.) calcoaceticus, Burkholderia (B.) cepacia, and Escherichia (E.) coli. These bacterial species are ubiquitous in water bodies associated with human populations...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Juan A Cervantes-Montelongo, José Ruiz-Herrera
The most important signal transduction mechanism related to environmental pH responses in fungi is the Pal/Rim pathway. Our knowledge of this pathway came initially from studies on Ascomycota species where it is made by seven members divided into two complexes, one located at the plasma membrane, and other at the endosomal membrane. In Basidiomycota sepecies only the homologs of the endosomal membrane complex (genes PalA/Rim20, PalB/ Rim13, and PalC/ Rim23), plus the transcription factor PacC/Rim101 have been identified...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
K Tamreihao, Saikat Mukherjee, Rakhi Khunjamayum, Laishram Jaya Devi, Roshan Singh Asem, Debananda S Ningthoujam
Feathers account for 5-7% of the total weight of chicken have become one of the major pollutants due to their recalcitrant nature. Feather which is constituted of 90% keratin can be a good source of peptides, amino acids, and minerals for use as organic fertilizer. Traditional feather degradation methods consume large amount of energy and reduces the overall quality of the proteins. However, degradation of keratin by keratinolytic bacteria may represent as an alternative for the development of cheap, cost effective, eco-friendly, and easily available nitrogen (N) and minerals rich source as potential organic fertilizers...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Dáfila Dos Santos Lima Fagotti, Julia Laura Fernandes Abrantes, Paula Cerezini, Josiane Fukami, Marco A Nogueira, Pablo Del Cerro, Rocio Valderrama-Fernández, Francisco J Ollero, Manuel Megías, Mariangela Hungria
Quorum-sensing (QS) mechanisms are important in intra- and inter-specific communication among bacteria. We investigated QS mechanisms in Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain CPAC 15 and Azospirillum brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6, used in commercial co-inoculants for the soybean crop in Brazil. A transconjugant of CPAC 15-QS with partial inactivation of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) was obtained and several parameters were evaluated; in vitro, CPAC 15 and the transconjugant differed in growth, but not in biofilm formation, and no differences were observed in the symbiotic performance in vivo...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Pasupuleti Reddypriya, Abdoulaye Soumare, Dananjeyan Balachandar
Biofertilizers are the eco-friendly bio-input being used to sustain the agriculture by reducing the chemical inputs and improving the soil health. Quality is the major concern of biofertilizer technology which often leads to poor performance in the field and thereby loses the farmers' faith. To authenticate the strain as well as its presumed cell load of a commercial product, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were developed for three biofertilizer strains viz., Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7), Bacillus megaterium (Pb1) and Azotobacter chroococcum (Ac1)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Alaa E Rabee, Robert J Forster, Chijioke O Elekwachi, Kkaled Z Kewan, Ebrahim A Sabra, Safinaze M Shawket, Hoda A Mahrous, Omaima A Khamiss
Anaerobic fungi colonize the rumen and degrade cellulose and hemicellulose, which enable them to be key players in the lignocellulose fermentation. Consequently, an expansion of knowledge about rumen fungi could increase animal productivity, utilization of lignified forages like alfalfa hay, and enhance fibrolytic enzymes production. Here, we used an Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) clone library to investigate the anaerobic rumen fungi in camel and to investigate their ability to produce cellulase and xylanase in vitro...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Agnieszka Domka, Piotr Rozpądek, Rafał Ważny, Katarzyna Turnau
The aim of this study was to assess the biodiversity of endophytic fungi from Arabidopsis arenosa growing on a post mining waste dump and to evaluate their role in plant adaptation to metal toxicity. Severeal of the fungi were beneficial for the plant. Among them, a fungus belonging to the Mucor genus, was found to interact with a broad range of plants, including Brassicaceae metallophytes. Mucor sp. was shown to be highly tolerant to elevated levels of Zn, Cd, and Pb and to accelerate plant-host growth under either toxic-metal stress or control conditions...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Huan Li, Jingqing Wang, Qing Liu, Zhengfeng Zhou, Falin Chen, Dan Xiang
Soil bacteria play key roles in determining soil health and plant growth. In this study, four sweet potato fields that had been consecutively monocultured for 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were used to investigate the effect of monoculture on soil physicochemical properties and soil bacterial communities. The results revealed that continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, soil organic carbon, and soil bacterial abundance. Miseq pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the main phyla in the sweet potato monoculture soils, comprising up to 66...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Nicholas O Igiehon, Olubukola O Babalola
In this study, the myco-reduction potential of fungi isolated from soil was ascertained by Norkrans shake flask experiment contaminated with chromium(VI). Fungal tolerance assay and induced tolerance training of the fungi were also carried out. Aspergillus niger, Penicillium, and Saccharomyces strains were isolated from the soil samples using culture based technique. Norkrans samples were collected and analyzed for Cr(VI) concentration using diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method. Penicillium strain was observed to be most effect at Cr(VI) concentrations of 16...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Shweta Meshram, Jai Singh Patel, Sudheer K Yadav, Gagan Kumar, Dhananjaya P Singh, Harikesh B Singh, Birinchi K Sarma
Lignifications in secondary cell walls play a significant role in defense mechanisms of plants against the invading pathogens. In the present study, we investigated Trichoderma strain specific lignifications in chickpea plants pre-treated with 10 potential Trichoderma strains and subsequently challenged with the wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc). Trichoderma-induced lignifications in chickpea were observed through histochemical staining and expression of some genes of the lignin biosynthetic pathway...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Shiying Zhang, Cong Fan, Yunsheng Xia, Mengke Li, Yongxia Wang, Xiaolong Cui, Wei Xiao
Exiguobacterium is a versatile genus with potential in industry and agriculture. No bacteriophage that infects Exiguobacterium has been reported, despite its potential impacts on the utilization of Exiguobacterium. E. indicum EI9 was isolated from Dianchi Lake, a plateau eutrophic lake in China, which can significantly inhibit the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. To isolate and characterize Exiguobacterium-infecting bacteriophage, a virulent bacteriophage, DCEIV-9 that specifically infects E. indicum EI9 was isolated from Dianchi lake water sample...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Haliru Musa, Farizul Hafiz Kasim, Ahmad A Nagoor Gunny, Subash C B Gopinath, Mohd Azmier Ahmad
An approach was made to enhance the halophilic lipase secretion by a newly isolated moderate halophilic Marinobacter litoralis SW-45, through the statistical optimization of Plackett-Burman (PB) experimental design and the Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD). Initially, PB statistical design was used to screen the medium components and process parameters, while the One-factor-at-a-time technique was availed to find the optimum level of significant parameters. It was found that MgSO4  · 7H2 O, NaCl, agitation speed, FeSO4  · 7H2 O, yeast extract and KCl positively influence the halophilic lipase production, whereas temperature, carbon source (maltose), inducer (olive oil), inoculum size, and casein-peptone had a negative effect on enzyme production...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Noël Durand, Angélique Fontana, Jean-Christophe Meile, Mirna-Leonor Suàrez-Quiroz, Sabine Schorr-Galindo, Didier Montet
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, and carcinogenic mycotoxin which is produced in tropical zones mainly by Aspergillus carbonarius, A. niger, A. ochraceus, and A. westerdijkiae. A. ochraceus and A. westerdijkiae species are phenotypically and genomically very close but A. westerdijkiae produce OTA at a very higher level than A. ochraceus. These species have been differentiated recently. The DNA primer pairs which were drawn so far are not specific and a genomic region of the same size is amplified for both species or they are too specific, and in this case, the DNA of a single species is amplified...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Yuridia Ortiz-Rivera, Rogelio Sánchez-Vega, Carlos Horacio Acosta-Muñiz, Néstor Gutiérrez-Méndez, Josefina León-Félix, David R Sepulveda
The influence of environmental factors such as glycerol concentration, time of production, presence of Escherichia coli, and two different strains of Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 55730 and ATCC 53608) on 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) production was analyzed. Additionally, the influence of those factors on gene expression in the 3-HPA production pathway was evaluated. The genes studied were GldC, cbiP, and Lreu_1734. The results of this study showed that the principal environmental factors that influence 3-HPA production are glycerol concentration and Lactobacillus reuteri strain...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Peipei Wang, Zhongqi Liu, Yongchun Huang
A new actinobacteria Streptomyces cavourensis TJ430 was isolated from the mountain soil collected from the southwest of China. In previous study, TJ430 showed striking bactericidal activities and strong ability of antibiotic production. Here, we report complete genome of this bacterium, consisting of 7.6 Mb linear chromosome and 0.2 Mb plasmids. It was predicted 6450 genes in chromosome and 225 genes in plasmids, as well as 12 gene islands in chromosome. Abundant genes have predicted functions in antibiotic metabolism and stress resistance...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ivana Crnovčić, Manuel Lang, Ingo Ortel, Roderich D Süssmuth, Ullrich Keller
Actinomycin peptide synthetase genes constitute two oppositely oriented transcriptional units, acmADR, and acmBC, separated by a non-coding intergenic region. Gene constructs of the intergenic region together with its adjoining gene acmA or acmB from the actinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces chrysomallus were transferred into Streptomyces lividans TK64. Each construct expressed the respective synthetase indicating divergent promoters. Primer extension revealed for both directions -10 and -35 boxes similar to σ70 -dependent promoters from Streptomyces and E...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Darina Blagovest Dimitrova-Stefanova, Blagovesta Todorova Gocheva
Three out of 17 Streptomycetes strains - Streptomyces sp. 35 LBG09, Streptomyces sp. 36 LBG09, and Streptomyces sp. 39 LBG09, were selected based on the high production of proteinase inhibitors with trypsin serine proteinase activity. The strains were isolated from soil samples taken from the area around the Bulgarian station on Livingston Island, Antarctica. Biosynthesis of proteinase inhibitors by the promising strains started at different stages of their development but was generally not associated with the growth of the producers...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
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