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Journal of Applied Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909233/cores-of-reproducibility-in-physiology-corp-advancing-the-corpus-of-physiological-knowledge
#1
Peter D Wagner
N/A.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909232/corp-minimizing-the-chances-of-false-positives-and-false-negatives
#2
Douglas Curran-Everett
Statistics is essential to the process of scientific discovery. An inescapable tenet of statistics, however, is the notion of uncertainty which has reared its head within the arena of reproducibility of research. The Journal's recent initiative, Cores of Reproducibility in Physiology, is designed to improve the reproducibility of research: each article is designed to elucidate the principles and nuances of using some piece of scientific equipment or some experimental technique so that other researchers can obtain reproducible results...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909231/influence-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-physiological-and-muscle-metabolic-adaptations-to-sprint-interval-training
#3
Christopher Thompson, Lee J Wylie, Jamie R Blackwell, Jonathan Fulford, Matthew I Black, James Kelly, Sinead T J McDonagh, James Carter, Stephen J Bailey, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
We hypothesized that 4 weeks of dietary nitrate supplementation would enhance exercise performance and muscle metabolic adaptations to sprint interval training (SIT). Thirty six recreationally-active subjects, matched on key variables at baseline, completed a series of exercise tests before and following a 4 week period in which they were allocated to one of the following groups: 1) SIT and NO3(-)-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (SIT+PL); 2) SIT and NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice (~13mmol NO3(-)/day; SIT+BR); or 3) no training and NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice (NT+BR)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909230/the-protective-role-of-sex-hormones-in-females-and-exercise-prehabilitation-in-males-on-sternotomy-induced-cranial-hypoperfusion-in-aortic-banded-mini-swine
#4
T Dylan Olver, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Brian S Ferguson, Harold Laughlin, Craig A Emter
During cardiac surgery, specifically sternotomy, cranial hypoperfusion is linked to cerebral ischemia, increased risk of perioperative watershed stroke and other neurocognitive complications. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the effect of sex hormones in females and exercise prehabilitation in males on median sternotomy-induced changes in cranial perfusion in a large animal model of heart failure. Cranial blood flow (CBF) before, 10- and 60 min post-sternotomy was analyzed in eight groups of Yucatan mini-swine: female-control, aortic-banded, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized+aortic-banded; male-control, aortic-banded, aortic-banded+continuous exercise trained, and aortic-banded+interval exercise trained...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909229/vascular-function-and-endothelin-1-tipping-the-balance-between-vasodilation-and-vasoconstriction
#5
Steven K Nishiyama, Jia Zhao, D Walter Wray, Russell S Richardson
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor secreted by vascular endothelial cells, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous cardiovascular diseases, yet the direct impact of ET-1 on vascular function remains unclear. Therefore, in seven young (23 ± 1 years) healthy subjects, we investigated the effect of an intra-arterial infusion of ET-1 on reactive hyperemia (RH) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the popliteal artery following 5-min of suprasystolic cuff occlusion. ET-1 infusion significantly attenuated basal leg blood flow (Control: 62 ± 4 ml/min, ET-1: 47 ± 9 ml/min), RH (area-under-curve, AUC) (Control: 162 ± 15 ml, ET-1: 104 ± 16 ml), and peak RH (Control: 572 ± 51 ml/min, ET-1: 412 ± 32 ml/min) (P < 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909228/divergent-outcomes-of-fructose-consumption-on-exercise-capacity-of-rats-friend-or-foe
#6
Angela Sun, An Huang, Elizabeth Kertowidjojo, Su Song, Thomas H Hintze, Dong Sun
To test the hypothesis that high fructose (HF) consumption divergently affects exercise capability, as a function of feeding duration, rats were fed a normal (as control) or a normal caloric diet with HF for 3, 6, 10 and 30 days respectively, and run on a treadmill. Results show that running distance and work were significantly increased, associated with greater exercise oxygen consumption in rats fed HF for 3 (HF-3D) and 6 days, but were decreased in rats fed HF for 30 days (HF-30D) compared to their respective control rats...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909227/castration-alters-protein-balance-following-high-frequency-muscle-contraction
#7
Jennifer L Steiner, David H Fukuda, Michael L Rossetti, Jay R Hoffman, Bradley S Gordon
Resistance exercise increases muscle mass by shifting protein balance in favor of protein accretion. Androgens independently alter protein balance, but it is unknown whether androgens alter this measure following resistance exercise. To answer this, male mice were subjected to sham or castration surgery 7-8 weeks prior to undergoing a bout of unilateral, high frequency, electrically induced muscle contractions in the fasted or refed state. Puromycin was injected 30 min prior to sacrifice to measure protein synthesis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909226/unique-cytokine-and-chemokine-responses-to-exertional-heat-stroke-in-mice
#8
Michelle A King, Lisa R Leon, Deborah A Morse, Thomas L Clanton
In heat stroke, cytokines are believed to play important roles in multi-organ dysfunction and recovery of damaged tissue. The time course of the cytokine response is well defined in passive heat stroke (PHS), but little is known about exertional heat stroke (EHS). In this study we used a recently developed mouse EHS model to measure the responses of circulating cytokines/chemokines and cytokine gene expression in muscle. A very rapid increase in circulating IL-6 was observed at max core temperature (Tc,max) that peaked at 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#9
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909224/sarcomeric-protein-modification-during-adrenergic-stress-enhances-cross-bridge-kinetics-and-cardiac-output
#10
Kenneth S Gresham, Ranganath Mamidi, Jiayang Li, Hyerin Kwak, Julian E Stelzer
Molecular adaptations to chronic neurohormonal stress, including sarcomeric protein cleavage and phosphorylation, provide a mechanism to increase ventricular contractility and enhance cardiac output, yet the link between sarcomeric protein modifications and changes in myocardial function remains unclear. To examine the effects of neurohormonal stress on post-translational modifications of sarcomeric proteins, mice were administered combined α- and β-adrenergic receptor agonists (isoproterenol and phenylephrine; IPE) for 14 days using implantable osmotic pumps...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881671/sex-based-difference-in-achilles-peritendinous-levels-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-growth-factors-after-acute-resistance-exercise
#11
Broc D Astill, Mark S Katsma, David J Cauthon, Jason Greenlee, Mark Murphy, Donald Curtis, Chad C Carroll
Several recent investigations have demonstrated that the ability of various tendons to alter structural and functional properties in response to exercise are muted in women when compared to men. We hypothesize that this disparity between men and women may be due to a reduced tendon production of key mediators of tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in response to mechanical loading, e.g. exercise. Using microdialysis before and after an acute bout of resistance exercise, we evaluated Achilles peritendinous levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which have both been shown to increase tendon collagen synthesis...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881670/the-effect-of-alternate-day-caloric-restriction-on-the-metabolic-consequences-of-eight-days-bed-rest-in-healthy-lean-men-a-randomized-trial
#12
Nina Majlund Harder-Lauridsen, Signe Tellerup Nielsen, Sebastian Porsdam Mann, Mark Preben Lyngbæk, Fabiana Braga Benatti, Annika Reynberg Langkilde, Ian Law, Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Carsten Thomsen, Kirsten Moller, Kristian Karstoft, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Rikke Krogh-Madsen
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and alternate-day fasting/caloric restriction may both ameliorate aspects of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, visceral fat mass accumulation, and cognitive impairment, by overlapping mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alternate-day caloric restriction (ADCR) with overall energy balance would reduce insulin resistance and accumulation of visceral fat, in addition to improving cognitive functions, after eight consecutive days in bed...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881669/aerobic-exercise-in-humans-mobilizes-hsc-in-an-intensity-dependent-manner
#13
Jeff M Baker, Joshua P Nederveen, Gianni Parise
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are necessary to maintain, repair, and reconstitute the hematopoietic blood cell system. Mobilization of these cells from bone marrow to blood can be greatly increased under certain conditions, one such being exercise. The purpose of this study was to identify the importance of exercise intensity in hematopoietic mobilization, to better understand the mobilization kinetics post exercise, and to determine if exercise is capable of mobilizing several specific populations of hematopoietic cells that have clinical relevance in a transplant setting...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881668/restoration-of-thermoregulation-after-exercise
#14
Glen P Kenny, Ryan McGinn
Performing exercise, especially in the hot conditions, can heat the body causing significant increases in internal body temperature. To offset this increase, powerful and highly developed autonomic thermoregulatory responses (i.e., skin blood flow and sweating) are activated to enhance whole-body heat loss; a response mediated by temperature sensitive receptors in both the skin and the internal core regions of the body. Independent of thermal control of heat loss, nonthermal factors can have profound consequences on the body's ability to dissipate heat during exercise...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881667/a-mechanistic-physicochemical-model-of-carbon-dioxide-transport-in-blood
#15
David Patrick O'Neill, Peter A Robbins
A number of mathematical models have been produced that, given the Pco2 and Po2 of blood, will calculate the total concentrations for CO2 and O2 in blood. However, all these models contain at least some empirical features, and thus do not represent all of the underlying physicochemical processes in an entirely mechanistic manner. The aim of this study was to develop a physicochemical model of CO2 carriage by the blood to determine whether our understanding of the physical chemistry of the major chemical components of blood together with their interactions is sufficiently strong to predict the physiological properties of CO2 carriage by whole blood...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856720/non-destructive-cryo-micro-ct-imaging-enables-structural-and-molecular-analysis-of-human-lung-tissue
#16
Dragos Mihai Vasilescu, André B Phillion, Naoya Tanabe, Daisuke Kinose, David F Paige, Jacob J Kantrowitz, Gang Liu, Hanqiao Liu, Nick Fishbane, Stijn E Verleden, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Marc E Lenburg, Christopher S Stevenson, Avrum Spira, Joel D Cooper, Tillie-Louise Hackett, James C Hogg
Micro Computed Tomography (CT) enables 3-dimensional (3D) imaging of complex soft tissue structures, but current protocols used to achieve this goal preclude cellular and molecular phenotyping of the tissue. Here we describe a radiolucent cryo stage that permits micro CT imaging of unfixed frozen human lung samples at a spatial resolution of 11 µm under conditions where the sample is maintained frozen at -30°C during imaging. The cryo stage was tested for thermal stability to maintain samples frozen up to 8 hours...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856719/the-effect-of-obesity-on-the-contractile-performance-of-isolated-mouse-soleus-edl-and-diaphragm-muscles
#17
Jason Tallis, Cameron Hill, Rob S James, Val M Cox, Frank Seebacher
Obesity affects the major metabolic and cellular processes involved in skeletal muscle contractility. Surprisingly, the effect of obesity on isolated skeletal muscle performance remains unresolved. The present study is the first to examine the muscle specific changes in contractility following dietary induced obesity using an isolated muscle work-loop (WL) model that more closely represents in vivo muscle performance. Following 16-week high calorific feeding, soleus (SOL), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and diaphragm (DIA) were isolated from female (CD-1) mice and contractile performance compared against a lean control group...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856718/central-and-peripheral-responses-to-static-and-dynamic-stretch-of-skeletal-muscle-mechano-and-metabo-reflex-implications
#18
Massimo Venturelli, Emiliano Cé, Eloisa Limonta, Angela V Bisconti, Michela Devoto, Susanna Rampichini, Fabio Esposito
Passive static stretching (SS), circulatory cuff occlusion (CCO), and the combination of both (SS+CCO) have been used to investigate the mechano- and metabo-reflex, respectively. However, the effects of dynamic stretching (DS) alone or in combination with CCO (DS+CCO) on the same reflexes have never been explored. The aim of the study was to compare central and peripheral hemodynamic responses to DS, SS, DS+CCO, and SS+CCO. In ten participants, femoral blood flow (FBF), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were assessed during DS and SS of the quadriceps muscle with and without CCO...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856717/confidence-in-the-curve-establishing-instantaneous-cost-mapping-techniques-using-bilateral-ankle-exoskeletons
#19
Jeffrey Russell Koller, Deanna H Gates, Daniel Perry Ferris, Christian David Remy
Lower extremity robotic prostheses and exoskeletons can require tuning a large number of control parameters on a subject-specific basis to reduce users' metabolic power during locomotion. We refer to the functional relationship between control parameter configurations and users' metabolic power as the metabolic cost landscape. Standard practice for estimating a metabolic cost landscape, and thus identifying optimal parameter configurations, is to vary control parameters while measuring steady state metabolic power during walking...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856716/relationship-between-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-endogenous-carbon-monoxide
#20
Masanori Azuma, Kimihiko Murase, Ryo Tachikawa, Satoshi Hamada, Takeshi Matsumoto, Takuma Minami, Morito Inouchi, Kiminobu Tanizawa, Tomohiro Handa, Toru Oga, Michiaki Mishima, Kazuo Chin
Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) levels are recognized as a surrogate marker for activity of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is induced by various factors including hypoxia and oxidative stress. Few reports have evaluated endogenous CO in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Whether exhaled or blood CO is more reflected by OSA is not known. Sixty-nine patients with suspected OSA were prospectively included in this study. Exhaled and blood CO were evaluated at night and morning. Blood and exhaled CO levels were well correlated both at night and morning (r=0...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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