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Journal of Applied Physiology

Peng Li, Pei-Pei Huang, Yun Yang, Chi Liu, Yan Lu, Fang Wang, Wei Sun, Xiang-Qing Kong
Sympathetic activity is enhanced in patients with essential or secondary hypertension, as well as in various hypertensive animal models. Therapeutic targeting of sympathetic activation is considered an effective antihypertensive strategy. We hypothesized that renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) attenuates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and renal disease in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Rats underwent 2K1C modeling or sham surgery; then, rats underwent RSD or sham 4 weeks later, thus resulting in four groups (normotensive-sham, normotensive-RSD, 2K1C-sham, and 2K1C-RSD)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Susan Roberta Hopkins, Peter D Wagner
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Cian McGinley, David John Bishop
This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid/base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1. We investigated whether 4 weeks of work-matched, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), performed either just above the lactate threshold (HIITΔ20; n = 8), or close to peak aerobic power (HIITΔ90; n = 8), influenced adaptations in acid/base transport protein abundance, non-bicarbonate muscle buffer capacity (βmin vitro), and exercise capacity in active men...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Chris McGlory, Michaela C Devries, Stuart M Phillips
Exercise results in the rapid remodelling of skeletal muscle imparting a positive impact on human health. This process is underpinned by acute and chronic changes in both gene and protein synthesis. In this short review we provide a brief summary of our current understanding regarding how exercise influences these processes as well as the subsequent impact on muscle protein turnover and resultant shift in muscle phenotype. We explore concepts of ribosomal biogenesis and the potential role of increased translational capacity versus translational efficiency in contributing to muscular hypertrophy...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Amy E Mendham, Rob Duffield, Aaron J Coutts, Frank E Marino, Andriy Boyko, Andrew J McAinch, David John Bishop
PURPOSE: This study assessed the mitochondrial related signaling responses to a single bout of non-contact, modified football (touch rugby), played as small-sided games (SSG), or cycling (CYC) exercise in sedentary, obese, middle-aged men. METHOD: In a randomized, cross-over design, nine middle-aged, sedentary, obese men completed two, 40-min exercise conditions (CYC and SSG) separated by a 21-d recovery period. Heart rate (HR) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion were collected during each bout...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Gommaar D'Hulst, Louise Deldicque
Skeletal muscle wasting has been shown to be a mechanism by which humans are able to adapt to extreme altitude. Nonetheless, the literature is conflicting regarding the altitude or time point at which this phenomenon starts to occur. Using the metric recently suggested by Garvivan-Lewis et al. (8), we propose an hypoxic dose of 5000 km·h as the cut-off point above which hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy starts to develop. As such, we suggest that both elevation and hours of altitude exposure should be incorporated in future studies unraveling hypoxic regulation of muscle mass...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Felicita Andreotti, Giulio Coluzzi, Teodosio Pafundi, Teresa Rio, Eliano Pio Navarese, Filippo Crea, Massimo Pistolesi, Attilio Maseri, Charles H Hennekens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Karambir Notay, Jeremy D Seed, Anthony V Incognito, Connor J Doherty, Massimo Nardone, Mathew J Burns, Philip J Millar
Resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) demonstrates high intra-individual reproducibility when sampled over 5-30 minute epochs, though shorter sampling durations are commonly used prior to, and during, a stress to quantify sympathetic responsiveness. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intra-test validity and reliability of MSNA sampled over 2-minute, 1-minute, 30-second, and 15-second epoch durations. We retrospectively analyzed 68 resting fibular nerve microneurographic recordings obtained from 53 young healthy participants (37 males; 23±6 years of age)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Thomas M Langer, Suzanne E Neumueller, Emma Crumley, Nicholas J Burgraff, Sawan Talwar, Matthew Robert Hodges, Lawrence G Pan, Hubert V Forster
Unilateral dialysis of the broad spectrum muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (50 mM) into the ventral respiratory column (VRC; including the pre-Bӧtzinger Complex region) of awake goats increased pulmonary ventilation (V̇I) and breathing frequency (f), conceivably due to local compensatory increases in serotonin (5-HT) and substance P (SP) measured in effluent mock cerebral spinal fluid (mCSF). In contrast, unilateral dialysis of a triple cocktail of antagonists to muscarinic (atropine; 5 mM), neurokinin-1 (NK-1) and 5-HT2A receptors does not alter V̇I or f, but increases local SP...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Thomas Beltrame, Robert Amelard, Rodrigo Villar, Mohammad Javad Shafiee, Alexander Wong, Richard L Hughson
The study of oxygen uptake (VO2) dynamics during walking exercise transitions adds valuable information regarding fitness level and energy expenditure. However, direct VO2 measurements are not applicable for measurements in the general population under realistic settings. Devices to measure VO2 are associated with elevated cost, uncomfortable use of a mask, need of trained technicians and impossibility of long-term data collection. The objective of this study was to predict the VO2 dynamics from heart rate and inputs from the treadmill ergometer by a novel artificial neural network approach...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Eric Rousseau, Cesar Augusto Melo-Silva, Simon Gakwaya, Frédéric Sériès
We tested the hypothesis that stimulating the genioglossus by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) during the ascendant portion of the inspiratory flow of airflow-limited breaths would sustain the recruitment of upper airway dilator muscles over time and improve airway dynamics without arousing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. In a cross-sectional design, 9 OSA patients underwent a rTMS trial during stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Submental muscle motor threshold (SUBMT) and motor-evoked potential were evaluated during wakefulness and sleep...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Tracey J Smith, Marques A Wilson, James P Karl, Krista Austin, Asma Bukhari, Stefan M Pasiakos, Kristie L O'Connor, Harris R Lieberman
: Military personnel and some athlete populations endure short-term energy deficits from reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure (EE) that may degrade physical and cognitive performance due to severe hypoglycemia (<3.1 mmol/L). The extent to which energy deficits alter normoglycemia (3.9-7.8 mmol/L) in healthy individuals is not known since prior studies measured glucose infrequently, not continuously. PURPOSE: To characterize the glycemic response to acute, severe energy deficit compared to fully fed control condition, using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Ryota Asahara, Kanji Matsukawa, Kei Ishii, Nan Liang, Kana Endo
When performing exercise arbitrarily, activation of central command should start prior to the onset of exercise, but when exercise is forced to start with cue, activation of central command should be delayed. We examined whether the in advance activation of central command influenced the ventilatory response and reflected in the prefrontal oxygenation, by comparing the responses during exercise with arbitrary and cued start. The breath-by-breath respiratory variables and the prefrontal oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) were measured during one-legged cycling...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Ramona Ritzmann, Kathrin Freyler, Anne Krause, Albert Gollhofer
On our astronomical neighbours Mars and the Moon, bouncing movements are the preferred locomotor techniques. During bouncing, the stretch-shortening cycle describes the muscular activation pattern. This study aimed to identify gravity-dependent changes in kinematic and neuromuscular characteristics in the stretch-shortening cycle. Hence, neuromuscular control of limb muscles as well as correlations between the muscles' pre-activation, reflex components, and the force output were assessed in lunar, Martian, and Earth gravity...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Daniel T Cannon, Ana Claudia Coelho, Robert Cao, Andrew Cheng, Janos Porszasz, Richard Casaburi, Harry B Rossiter
Muscle fatigue (a reduced power for a given activation) is common following exercise in COPD. Whether muscle fatigue, and reduced maximal voluntary locomotor power, are sufficient to limit whole-body exercise in COPD is unknown. We hypothesized in COPD: 1) exercise is terminated with a locomotor muscle power reserve; 2) reduction in maximal locomotor power is related to ventilatory limitation; and 3) muscle fatigue at intolerance is less than age-matched controls. We used a rapid switch from hyperbolic to isokinetic cycling to measure the decline in peak isokinetic power at the limit of incremental exercise ('performance fatigue') in 13 COPD (FEV1 49±17 %pred) and 12 controls...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Eduardo V Lemes, Eduardo Colombari, Daniel B Zoccal
Abdominal expiratory activity is absent at rest and is evoked during metabolic challenges, such as hypercapnia and hypoxia, or after the exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH). The mechanisms engaged during this process are not completely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT), acting in the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG), is able to generate active expiration. In anesthetized (urethane, i.p.), tracheostomized, spontaneously-breathing adult male Holtzman rats we microinjected a serotoninergic agonist and antagonist bilaterally in the RTN/pFRG and recorded diaphragm and abdominal muscle activities...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Gorel Nyman, Bengt Röken, Eva-Maria Hedin, Goran Hedenstierna
The trachea in the giraffe is long but narrow and dead space ventilation is in general considered to be of similar size as in other mammals. Less is known about matching of ventilation and lung blood flow. The lungs are large, up to 1 m high and 0.7 m wide, that may cause considerable ventilation/perfusion (VA/Q) mis-match by the influence of gravitational forces, leading to hypoxemia. We studied a young giraffe under anesthesia utilizing multiple inert gas elimination technique to analyze VA/Q distribution and arterial oxygenation and compared the results with other species of different sizes, including man...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Rodrigo Soria, Matthias Egger, Urs Scherrer, Nicole Bender, Stefano F Rimoldi
More than 140 million people are living at high altitude worldwide. An increase of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is a hallmark of high-altitude exposure and, if pronounced, may be associated with important morbidity and mortality. Surprisingly, there is little information on the usual PAP in high-altitude populations. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review (MEDLINE and EMBASE) and meta-analysis of studies published (in English or Spanish) between 2000 and 2015 on echocardiographic estimations of PAP and measurements of arterial oxygen saturation in apparently healthy participants from general populations of high-altitude dwellers (>2500 m)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Bradford Julian Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Elsamma Chacko
How blood glucose responds to exercise depends on the timing of the physical activity with respect to the proximate meal. Although study after study has confirmed this, many researchers still report results without specifying exercise timing. This laxity could be the source of some of the uncertainties and inconsistencies found in the field. In place of the current practice of using the binary categorization of the feeding cycle into pre-meal and post-meal periods, we look at it as consisting of four time intervals: the pre-meal period plus the early, mid- and late postprandial periods...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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