journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of Applied Physiology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146688/cycling-efficiency-and-energy-cost-of-walking-in-young-and-older-adults
#1
Glenn A Gaesser, Wesley J Tucker, Brandon J Sawyer, Dharini M Bhammar, Siddhartha S Angadi
To determine whether age affects cycling efficiency and the energy cost of walking (Cw), 190 healthy adults, ages 18-81 yr, cycled on an ergometer at 50 W and walked on a treadmill at 1.34 m/s. Ventilation and gas exchange at rest and during exercise were used to calculate net Cw and net efficiency of cycling. Compared to the 18-40 yr age group (2.17 ± 0.33 J/kg/m), net Cw was not different in the 60-64 yr (2.20 ± 0.40 J/kg/m) and 65-69 yr (2.20 ± 0.28 J/kg/m) age groups, but was significantly (P < 0...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146687/exercise-induces-muscle-fiber-type-switching-via-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-trpm2-dependent-ca-2-signaling
#2
Seo-Ho Lee, Byung-Ju Kim, Dae-Ryoung Park, Uh-Hyun Kim
The aim of the present study was to examine whether transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) plays a role in muscle fiber type transition during exercise. Mice were trained at a speed of 12 m/min at a slope of 0 ° for 60 min 5 consecutive d/wk for 4-wk. Exhaustion tests were performed on the treadmill (the speed was set at 6 m/min at a slope of 0° and increased at a rate of 1 m/min every 6 min). Isolated primary skeletal muscle cells from TRPM2 knockout (KO) mice showed lower amplitudes of electrical stimuli (ES)-induced Ca(2+) signals when compared to wild-type (WT) mice, due to a defect in Ca(2+) influx...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146686/specific-force-of-the-vastus-lateralis-in-adults-with-achondroplasia
#3
David Thomas Sims, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson, Adrian Burden, Carl Payton, Christopher I Morse
Achondroplasia is a clinical condition defined by shorter stature and disproportionate limb length. Force production in able-bodied individuals (controls) is proportional to muscle size, but given the disproportionate nature of Achondroplasia, normalising to anatomical cross sectional area (ACSA) is inappropriate. The aim of this study was to assess specific force of the vastus lateralis (VL) in 10 adults with Achondroplasia (22 ±3 yrs) and 18 gender matched controls (22 ±2 yrs). Isometric torque (iMVCτ) of the dominant knee extensors (KE) and in vivo measures of VL muscle architecture, volume, activation and patella tendon moment arm were used to calculate VL physiological CSA (PCSA), fascicle force and specific force in both groups...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146685/looking-beyond-macro-ventilatory-parameters-and-re-thinking-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#4
Michaela C Kollisch-Singule, Sumeet V Jain, Penny L Andrews, Joshua Satalin, Louis A Gatto, Jesús Villar, Daniel De Backer, Luciano Gattinoni, Gary F Nieman, Nader M Habashi
none.
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122966/skeletal-muscle-function-during-the-progression-of-cancer-cachexia-in-the-male-apc-min-mouse
#5
Brandon N VanderVeen, Justin P Hardee, Dennis K Fix, James A Carson
While cancer-induced skeletal muscle wasting has been widely investigated, the drivers of cancer-induced muscle functional decrements are only beginning to be understood. Decreased muscle function impacts cancer patient quality of life and health status, and several potential therapeutics have failed in clinical trials due to a lack of functional improvement. Furthermore, systemic inflammation and intrinsic inflammatory signaling's role in the cachectic disruption of muscle function requires further investigation...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122965/the-impact-of-dairy-protein-during-limb-immobilization-and-recovery-on-muscle-size-and-protein-synthesis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Sarah M Mitchell, Vandre Casagrande Figueiredo, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Frederick F Peelor, Marcelli Coronet, Chantal A Pileggi, Brenan Durainayagam, Aaron C Fanning, Sally D Poppitt, David Cameron-Smith
Muscle disuse results in the loss of muscular strength and size, due to an imbalance between protein synthesis (MPS) and breakdown (MPB). Protein ingestion stimulates MPS, although it is not established if protein is able to attenuate muscle loss with immobilization (IM) or influence the recovery consisting of ambulatory movement followed by resistance training (RT). Thirty men (49.9±0.6 years) underwent 14 days of unilateral leg IM, 14 days of ambulatory recovery (AR) and a further 6 RT sessions over 14 days...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122964/enhanced-muscle-blood-flow-with-intermittent-pneumatic-compression-of-the-lower-leg-during-plantar-flexion-exercise-and-recovery
#7
Kathryn A Zuj, Chekema N Prince, Richard L Hughson, Sean D Peterson
This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent compression of the lower limb would increase blood flow during exercise and post-exercise recovery. Data were collected from 12 healthy individuals (8 men) who performed three minutes of standing plantar flexion exercise. Three conditions were tested: no applied compression (NoComp), compression during the exercise period only (ExComp), and compression during two minutes of standing post-exercise recovery (RecComp). Doppler ultrasound was used to determine superficial femoral artery (SFA) blood flow responses...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122963/not-merely-a-protective-packing-organ-a-review-of-fascia-and-its-force-transmission-capacity
#8
Jan Wilke, Robert Schleip, Can A Yucesoy, Winfried Banzer
Recent research indicates that fascia is capable of changing its biomechanical properties. As it, moreover, links the skeletal muscles, forming a body-wide network of multidirectional myofascial continuity, the classical conception of muscles as independent actuators has been challenged. The present synthesis review hence aims to characterize the mechanical relevance of the connective tissue for the locomotor system. Results of cadaveric and animal studies suggest a clinically relevant myofascial force transmission to neighboring structures within one limb (e...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097633/emerging-wearable-physiological-monitoring-technologies-and-decision-aids-for-health-performance
#9
Michael N Sawka, Karl E Friedl
N/A.
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097632/improvements-in-force-variability-and-structure-from-vision-to-memory-guided-submaximal-isometric-knee-extension-in-subacute-stroke
#10
John W Chow, Dobrivoje S Stokic
We examined changes in variability, accuracy, frequency composition, and temporal regularity of force signal from vision-guided to memory-guided force-matching tasks in 17 subacute stroke and 17 age-matched healthy subjects. Subjects performed a unilateral isometric knee extension at 10%, 30%, and 50% of peak torque (MVC) for 10 s (3 trials each). Visual feedback was removed at the 5s-mark in the first 2 trials (feedback withdrawal), and 30 s after the second trial the subjects were asked to produce the target force without visual feedback (force recall)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097631/chronic-exposure-to-electronic-cigarette-e-cig-results-in-impaired-cardiovascular-function-in-mice
#11
I Mark Olfert, Evan DeVallance, Hannah Hoskinson, Kayla W Branyan, Stuart Clayton, Christopher R Pitzer, David Patrick Sullivan, Matthew J Breit, Zhong-Xin Wu, Powsiri Klinkhachorn, W Kyle Mandler, Brett H Erdreich, Barbara S Ducatman, Randy W Bryner, Piyali Dasgupta, Paul D Chantler
Proponents for electronic cigarettes(E-cigs) claim they are a safe alternative to smoking tobacco-based cigarettes,however little is known about the long-term effects of E-cig vapor exposure on vascular function.The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiovascular consequences of chronic E-cig exposure. Female mice (C57Bl/6 background strain)were randomly assigned to chronic daily exposure of E-cig vapor, standard cigarette smoke(using 3R4F-reference-cigarette), or filtered-air(N=15/group). Respective whole-body exposures consisted of 4 x 1-hour exposure blocks, separated by 30-minute intervals of fresh air breaks, resulting in intermittent daily exposure for a total of 4h/day, 5days/week for 8-months...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097630/effects-of-endothelin-related-gene-polymorphisms-and-aerobic-exercise-habit-on-age-related-arterial-stiffening-a-10-year-longitudinal-study
#12
Jun Sugawara, Tsubasa Tomoto, Naohiro Noda, Satoko Matsukura, Kazuya Tsukagoshi, Koichiro Hayashi, Mutsuko Hieda, Seiji Maeda
Increased arterial stiffness has emerged as a strong predictor of future cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to elucidate influences of endothelin (ET)-related genetic polymorphisms and regular physical activity on age-related arterial stiffening through a 10-year longitudinal study. A decadal change in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, was evaluated retrospectively among 92 volunteers (63 ± 14yrs, 51 men). The targeted single-nucleotide polymorphisms were ET-A receptor SNP rs5333 (ET-A) and ET-B receptor SNP rs5351 (ET-B)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097629/increased-respiratory-neural-drive-and-work-of-breathing-in-exercise-induced-laryngeal-obstruction
#13
Emil Schwarz Walsted, Azmy Faisal, Caroline J Jolley, Laura L Swanton, Matthew J Pavitt, Yuan-Ming Luo, Vibeke Backer, Michael I Polkey, James H Hull
Rationale: Exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly understood. Objectives: To evaluate exercise related changes in laryngeal aperture on ventilation, pulmonary mechanics and respiratory neural drive. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 12 subjects (six with EILO and six healthy age- and gender-matched controls)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097628/morphological-and-functional-properties-of-the-conducting-human-airways-investigated-by-in-vivo-ct-and-in-vitro-mri
#14
Tristan Van de Moortele, Christine H Wendt, Filippo Coletti
The accurate representation of the human airway anatomy is crucial for understanding and modeling the structure-function relationship in both healthy and diseased lungs. The present knowledge in this area is based on morphometric studies of excised lung casts, partially complemented by in vivo studies in which computed tomography (CT) was used on a small number of subjects. In the present study, we analyze CT scans of a cohort of healthy subjects and obtain comprehensive morphometric information down to the seventh generation of bronchial branching, including airway diameter, length, branching angle, and rotation angle...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074714/potential-for-non-invasive-assessment-of-lung-inhomogeneity-using-highly-precise-highly-time-resolved-measurements-of-gas-exchange
#15
James E Mountain, Peter Santer, David Patrick O'Neill, Nicholas M J Smith, Luca Ciaffoni, John H Couper, Grant A D Ritchie, Gus Hancock, Jonathan P Whiteley, Peter A Robbins
Inhomogeneity in the lung impairs gas exchange and can be an early marker of lung disease. We hypothesised that highly precise measurements of gas exchange contain sufficient information to quantify many aspects of the inhomogeneity non-invasively. Our aim was to explore whether one parameterization of lung inhomogeneity could both fit such data and provide reliable parameter estimates. A mathematical model of gas exchange in an inhomogeneous lung was developed, containing inhomogeneity parameters for compliance, vascular conductance and deadspace, all relative to lung volume...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074713/effects-of-contraction-mode-and-stimulation-frequency-on-electrical-stimulation-induced-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#16
Yuki Ashida, Koichi Himori, Daisuke Tatebayashi, Ryotaro Yamada, Riki Ogasawara, Takashi Yamada
We compared the skeletal muscle hypertrophy resulting from isometric (Iso) or eccentric (Ecc) electrical stimulation (ES) training with different stimulation frequencies. Male Wistar rats were assigned to the Iso and Ecc groups. These were divided into three further sub-groups that were stimulated at 10 Hz (Iso-10 and Ecc-10), 30 Hz (Iso-30 and Ecc-30), or 100 Hz (Iso-100 and Ecc-100). In experiment 1, the left plantarflexor muscles were stimulated every other day for 3 weeks. In experiment 2, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling was investigated 6 hours after one bout of ES...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074712/mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-therapy-with-mitoq-ameliorates-aortic-stiffening-in-old-mice
#17
Rachel A Gioscia-Ryan, Micah L Battson, Lauren M Cuevas, Jason S Eng, Michael P Murphy, Douglas R Seals
Aortic stiffening is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunction and other chronic disorders of aging. Mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species are a key source of arterial oxidative stress which may contribute to arterial stiffening by promoting adverse structural changes-including collagen overabundance and elastin degradation-and enhancing inflammation, but the potential for mitochondria-targeted therapeutic strategies to ameliorate aortic stiffening with primary aging is unknown...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074711/enhanced-cerebral-perfusion-during-brief-exposures-to-cyclic-intermittent-hypoxemia
#18
Xiaoli Liu, Diqun Xu, James R Hall, Sarah Ross, Shande Chen, Howe Liu, Robert T Mallet, Xiangrong Shi
Cerebral vasodilation and increased cerebral oxygen extraction help maintain cerebral oxygen uptake in the face of hypoxemia. This study examined cerebrovascular responses to intermittent hypoxemia in eight healthy men breathing 10% O2 for 5 cycles, each 6 min, interspersed with 4 min of room air breathing. Hypoxia exposures raised heart rate (P<0.01) without altering arterial pressure, and increased ventilation (P<0.01) by expanding tidal volume. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and cerebral tissue oxygenation (ScO2) fell (P<0...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074710/muscle-damage-produced-by-isometric-contractions-in-human-elbow-flexors
#19
Trevor James Allen, Tyson Jones, Anthony Tsay, David Lloyd Morgan, Uwe Proske
Isometric exercise is often prescribed during rehabilitation from injury in order to maintain muscle condition and prevent disuse atrophy. However such exercise can lead to muscle soreness and damage. Here we investigate which parameters of isometric contractions are responsible for the damage. Bouts of 30 repetitions of maximum voluntary contractions of elbow flexors in 38 subjects were carried out and peak force, soreness and tenderness were measured before the exercise, immediately afterwards, at 2h, and 24h post-exercise...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074709/a-time-course-evaluation-of-inflammatory-and-oxidative-markers-following-high-intensity-exercise-in-horses-a-pilot-study
#20
Jennifer Laura MacNicol, Michael Ivan Lindinger, Wendy Pearson
Exercise is a physiological stress resulting in reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators, the accumulation of which are thought to contribute to degenerative articular diseases. The horse is of particular interest in this regard as equine athletes are frequently exposed to repetitive bouts of high intensity exercise. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of the response of articular and systemic oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers following high intensity, exhaustive exercise in horses...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
journal
journal
28986
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"