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Journal of Applied Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428252/low-frequency-blood-pressure-oscillations-and-inotrope-treatment-failure-in-premature-infants
#1
Zachary Andrew Vesoulis, Jessica Hao, Christopher McPherson, Nathalie El Ters, Amit M Mathur
BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanism as to why some hypotensive preterm infants do not respond to inotropic medications remains unclear. For these infants, we hypothesize that impaired vasomotor function is a significant factor and is manifested through a decrease in low-frequency blood pressure variability across regulatory components of vascular tone. METHODS: Infants born 28 weeks estimated gestational age underwent prospective recording of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) for 72h after birth...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428251/loopomics-a-new-functional-approach-to-life
#2
Bruno Burlando
Living beings maintain steady state despite a complex of processes occurring at various scales, from molecules to organisms. Such a property, called homeostasis, has been known since long, but a full explanation of it is still missing. I propose to view biological systems as a complex of Functional Agents (FA), such as biomolecules, cells or organs, where each FA is controlled upstream by at least one FA, and controls downstream at least one FA. By applying this scheme to each FA, and given a finite number of them, a closed network is obtained, where every FA is involved in at least one loop...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428250/functional-roles-of-globin-proteins-in-hypoxia-tolerant-ectothermic-vertebrates
#3
Angela Fago
Globins are heme-containing proteins ubiquitously expressed in vertebrates, where they serve a broad range of biological functions, directly or indirectly related to the tight control of oxygen levels and its toxic products in vivo. Perhaps the most investigated of all proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin are primarily involved in oxygen transport and storage, but also in facilitating arterial vasodilation, suppressing mitochondrial respiration and preventing tissue oxidative damage via accessory redox enzymatic activities during hypoxia...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408697/the-combined-effect-of-bacillus-coagulans-gbi-30-6086-and-hmb-supplementation-on-muscle-integrity-and-cytokine-response-during-intense-military-training
#4
Yftach Gepner, Jay R Hoffman, Elad Shemesh, Jeffrey R Stout, David D Church, Alyssa N Varanoske, Hila Zelicha, Ilan Shelef, Yacov Chen, Hagai Frankel, Ishay Ostfeld
The purpose of this study was to compare the co-administration of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30) with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) calcium (CaHMB) to CaHMB alone on the inflammatory response and muscle integrity during 40-days of intense military training. Soldiers were randomly assigned to one of two groups: CaHMB with BC30 (CaHMBBC30; n=9) or CaHMB with placebo (CaHMBPL, n=9). A third group of participants served as a control (CTL; n=8). During the first 28 days soldiers were garrisoned on base and participated in the same training tasks...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408696/assessment-of-tongue-mechanical-properties-using-different-contraction-tasks
#5
Wen-Yang Li, Simon Gakwaya, Didier Saey, Frédéric Sériès
Inadequate UA dilator muscle function may play an important role in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To date, tongue mechanical properties have been mainly assessed using protrusion protocol with conflicting results, while performance during elevation task among patients with OSA remains unknown. This study was aimed to assess tongue muscle strength, strength stability, endurance time, fatigue indices and muscle total work, using elevation and protrusion tasks with repetitive isometric fatiguing contractions during awake in 12 normal+mild, 17 moderate and 11 severe patients with OSA, and to assess the influence of BMI and age...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408695/effect-of-exercise-timing-on-elevated-postprandial-glucose-levels
#6
Yoichi Hatamoto, Ryoma Goya, Yosuke Yamada, Eichi Yoshimura, Sena Nishimura, Yasuki Higaki, Hiroaki Tanaka
There is no consensus regarding optimal exercise timing for reducing post prandial glucose (PPG). The purpose of the present study was to determine the most effective exercise timing. Eleven participants completed four different exercise patterns 1) no exercise; 2) preprandial exercise (jogging); 3) postprandial exercise; and 4) brief periodic exercise intervention (3 sets of 1 min jogging + 30 s rest, every 30 min, 20 times total)] in a random order separated by a minimum of five days. Pre- and postprandial exercise consisted of 20 sets of intermittent exercise (1 min jogging + 30 s rest per set) repeated 3 times per day...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408694/determinants-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-activity-in-the-intestinal-mucosa
#7
Raphael R Fagundes, Cormac T Taylor
The intestinal mucosa is exposed to fluctuations in oxygen levels due to constantly changing rates of oxygen demand and supply and its juxtaposition with the anoxic environment of the intestinal lumen. This frequently results in a state of hypoxia in the healthy mucosa even in the physiologic state. Furthermore, pathophysiologic hypoxia (which is more severe and extensive) is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a ubiquitously expressed regulator of cellular adaptation to hypoxia, is central to both the adaptive and the inflammatory responses of cells of the intestinal mucosa in IBD patients...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385921/the-effects-of-physical-exercise-on-non-motor-symptoms-and-on-neuroimmune-rage-network-in-experimental-parkinsonism
#8
Sofia D Viana, Inês R Pita, Cristina Lemos, Daniel Rial, Patrícia Couceiro, Paulo Rodrigues-Santos, Francisco Caramelo, Félix Carvalho, Syed F Ali, Rui D Prediger, Carlos A Fontes Ribeiro, Frederico C Pereira
Parkinson's disease (PD) prodromic stages comprise neuropsychiatric perturbations that critically compromise patient's quality of life. These non-motor symptoms (NMS) are associated with exacerbated innate immunity, a hallmark of overt PD. Physical exercise (PE) has the potential to improve neuropsychiatric deficits and to modulate immune network including receptors for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in distinct pathological settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that PE i) alleviates PD NMS and ii) modulates neuroimmune RAGE-network in experimental PD...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385920/blood-pressure-and-calf-muscle-oxygen-extraction-during-plantar-flexion-exercise-in-peripheral-artery-disease
#9
J Carter Luck, Amanda J Miller, Faisal Aziz, John F Radtka, David N Proctor, Urs A Leuenberger, Lawrence I Sinoway, Matthew D Muller
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic vascular disease that affects 200 million worldwide. While PAD primarily affects large arteries, it is also associated with microvascular dysfunction, an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise, and high cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that fatiguing plantar flexion exercise that evokes claudication elicits a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO2) and a higher rise in BP in PAD compared to age-matched healthy subjects, but low-intensity steady state plantar flexion elicits similar responses between groups...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385919/supplementing-an-energy-adequate-higher-protein-diet-with-protein-does-not-enhance-fat-free-mass-restoration-after-short-term-severe-negative-energy-balance
#10
Claire E Berryman, John J Sepowitz, Holly L McClung, Harris R Lieberman, Emily K Farina, James P McClung, Arny A Ferrando, Stefan M Pasiakos
Negative energy balance during military operations can be severe and result in significant reductions in fat-free mass (FFM). Consuming supplemental high-quality protein following such military operations may accelerate restoration of FFM. Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and whole-body protein turnover (single-pool (15)N-alanine method) were determined before (PRE) and after 7 d (POST) of severe negative energy balance during military training in 63 male US Marines (mean±SD, 25±3 y, 84±9 kg)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385918/eight-weeks-of-local-vibration-training-increases-dorsiflexor-muscles-cortical-voluntary-activation
#11
Robin Souron, Adrien Farabet, Leonard Féasson, Alain Belli, Guillaume Y Millet, Thomas Lapole
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week local vibration training (LVT) program on functional and corticospinal properties of dorsiflexor muscles. Forty-four young subjects were allocated to a training (VIB, n = 22) or control (CON, n = 22) group. The VIB group performed twenty-four 1-h sessions (3 sessions/week) of 100-Hz vibration applied to the right tibialis anterior (TA). Both legs were tested in each group before training (PRE), after 4 (MID) and 8 (POST) weeks of training, and two weeks after training (POST2W)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385917/exercise-training-induced-bradycardia-is-caused-by-changes-in-intrinsic-sinus-node-function
#12
Mark R Boyett, Yanwen Wang, Shu Nakao, Jonathan Ariyaratnam, George Hart, Oliver Monfredi, Alicia D'Souza, George E Billman
N/A.
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385916/mild-aerobic-exercise-blocks-elastin-fiber-fragmentation-and-aortic-dilatation-in-a-mouse-model-of-marfan-syndrome-associated-aortic-aneurysm
#13
Christine P Gibson, Cory Nielsen, Ramona Alex, Kimbal Cooper, Michael Farney, Douglas Gaufin, Jason Z Cui, Cornelis van Breemen, Tom L Broderick, Johana Vallejo-Elias, Mitra Esfandiarei
Regular low impact physical activity is generally allowed in patients with Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. However, being above-average in height encourages young adults with this syndrome to engage in high-intensity contact sports, which unfortunately increases the risk for aortic aneurysm and rupture, the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary (wheel-cage) or forced (treadmill) aerobic exercise at different intensities on aortic function and structure in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385915/physiology-in-medicine-understanding-dynamic-alveolar-physiology-to-minimize-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-vili
#14
Gary F Nieman, Joshua Satalin, Michaela Kollisch-Singule, Penny L Andrews, Hani Aiash, Nader M Habashi, Louis A Gatto
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a serious clinical problem with the main treatment being supportive in the form of mechanical ventilation. However, mechanical ventilation can be a double edge sword, if set improperly can exacerbate the tissue damage caused by ARDS and is known as ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). In order to minimize VILI we must understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of tissue damage at the alveolar level. In this Physiology in Medicine paper the dynamic physiology of alveolar inflation and deflation during mechanical ventilation will be reviewed...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385914/sympathetic-nervous-system-activation-reduces-contraction-induced-rapid-vasodilation-in-the-leg-of-humans-independent-of-age
#15
William E Hughes, Nicholas T Kruse, Darren P Casey
Contraction-induced rapid vasodilation is attenuated similarly in the upper and lower limbs of older adults. In the forearm, this attenuation is in part due to a greater sympathetic vasoconstriction. We examined whether the age-related reduction in contraction-induced vasodilation in the leg is also due to a sympathetic vasoconstrictive mechanism. Thirteen young (24±1yr) and twelve older adults (67±1yr) performed single leg knee-extension at 20% and 40% of work-rate maximum (WRmax) during control and cold-pressor test (CPT) conditions...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360123/impact-of-positive-pressure-ventilation-on-mean-systemic-filling-pressure-in-critically-ill-patients-after-death
#16
Xavier Repessé, Cyril Charron, Guillaume Geri, Alix Aubry, Alexis Paternot, Julien Maizel, Michel Slama, Antoine Vieillard-Baron
Introduction Mean systemic filling pressure (Pms) defines the pressure measured in the venous-arterial system when the cardiac output is nil. Its estimation has been proposed in patients with beating hearts by building the venous return curve, using different pairs of right atrial pressure/cardiac output during mechanical ventilation. We raised the hypothesis according to which the Pms is altered by tidal ventilation and PEEP, which would challenge this extrapolation method based on cardiopulmonary interactions...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360122/increased-cerebral-blood-volume-pulsatility-during-head-down-tilt-with-elevated-carbon-dioxide-the-spacecot-study
#17
Gary E Strangman, Quan Zhang, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Edwin Mulder, Brian Stevens, Jonathan B Clark, Eric M Bershad
Astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have exhibited hyperopic shifts, posterior eye globe flattening, dilated optic nerve sheaths, and even optic disc swelling from spaceflight. Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) consequent to cephalad fluid shifts is commonly hypothesized as contributing to these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) is frequently utilized as an Earth-based analog to study similar fluid shifts. Sealed environments like the ISS also exhibit elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), a potent arteriolar vasodilator that could further affect cerebral blood volume and flow, intracranial compliance, and ICP...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360121/prosthetic-model-but-not-stiffness-or-height-affects-the-metabolic-cost-of-running-for-athletes-with-unilateral-transtibial-amputations
#18
Owen N Beck, Paolo Taboga, Alena Marie Grabowski
Running-specific prostheses enable athletes with lower limb amputations to run by emulating the spring-like function of biological legs. Current prosthetic stiffness and height recommendations aim to mitigate kinematic asymmetries for athletes with unilateral transtibial amputations. However, it's unclear how different prosthetic configurations influence the biomechanics and metabolic costs of running. Consequently, we investigated how prosthetic model, stiffness, and height affect the biomechanics and metabolic costs of running...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360120/voluntary-up-regulation-of-reflex-cough-is-possible-in-healthy-older-adults-and-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Alexandra E Brandimore, Karen Wheeler Hegland, Michael S Okun, Paul W Davenport, Michelle S Troche
BACKGROUND: Cough is an airway protective mechanism that serves to detect and forcefully eject aspirate material. Existing research has identified the ability of healthy young adults to suppress, or modify cough motor output based on external cueing. However, no study has evaluated the ability of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy older adults (HOAs) to up-regulate cough motor output. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of people with PD and healthy age-matched controls (HOAs) to volitionally up-regulate reflex and voluntary cough function with verbal instruction and visual biofeedback of airflow targets...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360119/optical-clearing-impact-of-optical-and-dielectric-properties-of-clearing-solutions-on-pulmonary-tissue-mechanics
#20
David Schwenninger, Hans-Joachim Priebe, Matthias Schneider, Hanna Runck, Josef Guttmann
Optical clearing allows tissue visualization under preservation of organ integrity. Optical clearing of organs with a physiological change in three-dimensional geometry (e.g. lung) would additionally allow visualization of macroscopic and microscopic tissue geometry. A prerequisite, is the preservation of the tissue mechanics of the optically cleared lung tissue. We investigated the impact of optical and dielectric properties of clearing solutions on biomechanics and clearing potency in porcine tissue strips of healthy lungs...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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