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Journal of Applied Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345963/deletion-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-in-skeletal-muscle-results-in-impaired-contractility-in-female-mice
#1
Brittany C Collins, Tara L Mader, Christine A Cabelka, Melissa R Iñigo, Espen E Spangenburg, Dawn A Lowe
Estradiol deficiency in females can result in skeletal muscle strength loss, and treatment with estradiol mitigates the loss. There are three primary estrogen receptors and estradiol elicits effects through these receptors in various tissues. Ubiquitous estrogen receptor α (ERα) knockout mice exhibit numerous biological disorders, but little is known regarding the specific role of ERα in skeletal muscle contractile function. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of skeletal muscle specific ERα deletion on contractile function, hypothesizing that ERα is a main receptor through which estradiol affects muscle strength in females...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345962/role-of-selected-polymorphisms-in-determining-muscle-fiber-composition-in-japanese-men-and-women
#2
Hiroshi Kumagai, Takuro Tobina, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Ryo Kakigi, Takamasa Tsuzuki, Hirofumi Zempo, Keisuke Shiose, Eiichi Yoshimura, Hideaki Kumahara, Makoto Ayabe, Yasuki Higaki, Ryo Yamada, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Akira Kiyonaga, Hisashi Naito, Hiroaki Tanaka, Noriyuki Fuku
Genetic polymorphisms and sex differences are suggested to affect muscle fiber composition; however, no study has investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences in Japanese population. The present study included 211 healthy Japanese individuals (102 men and 109 women). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine the proportion of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MHC-I, MHC-IIa, and MHC-IIx)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212672/cardiovascular-response-to-prescribed-detraining-among-recreational-athletes
#3
Charles Richard Pedlar, Marcel G Brown, Robert E Shave, James M Otto, Aimee Drane, Jennifer Michaud-Finch, Miranda Contursi, Meagan M Wasfy, Adolph Hutter, Michael H Picard, Gregory D Lewis, Aaron L Baggish
Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR) and the attendant myocardial adaptations characteristic of the athlete's heart may regress during periods of exercise reduction or abstinence. The time course and mechanisms underlying this reverse remodeling, specifically the impact of concomitant plasma volume (PV) contraction on cardiac chamber size, remain incompletely understood. We therefore studied recreational runners (n=21, aged 34 ± 7 years; 48% male) who completed an 18-week training program (~7 h.w-1) culminating in the 2016 Boston Marathon after which total exercise exposure was confined to <2 h...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212671/influence-of-age-and-gender-on-the-phase-and-strength-of-the-relation-between-heart-period-and-systolic-blood-pressure-spontaneous-fluctuations
#4
Juliana C Milan-Mattos, Alberto Porta, Natália M Perseguini, Vinicius Minatel, Patricia Rehder-Santos, Anielle C M Takahashi, Stela M Mattiello, Aparecida M Catai
Aging affects baroreflex regulation. The effect of senescence on baroreflex control was assessed from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) through the HP-SAP gain, while the HP-SAP phase and strength are usually disregarded. This study checks whether the HP-SAP phase and strength, as estimated respectively via the phase of the HP-SAP cross-spectrum (PhHP-SAP) and squared coherence function (K2HP-SAP), varies with age in healthy individuals and trends are gender-dependent...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212670/repeated-measurement-of-mo2-in-small-aquatic-organisms-a-manual-intermittent-flow-respirometer-using-off-the-shelf-components
#5
Daniel W Baker, Michael E Hudson, Emily J Frost, Mary A Sewell
Measurement of rates of oxygen consumption (MO2) in small aquatic embryos or larvae (< 1mm) in response to altered environmental conditions has traditionally been challenging. Here, using modifications of a commercially available fluorescent optode flow-through cell (FTC: PreSens™ FTC-PSt3) and routine laboratory supplies (syringes, stopcocks, tubing), we have constructed a manual intermittent flow respirometer (MIFR) that allows measurement of MO2 in small numbers of individuals when sequentially exposed to different environmental conditions (e...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212669/long-duration-bed-rest-modifies-sympathetic-neural-recruitment-strategies-in-males-and-females
#6
Stephen A Klassen, Steven De Abreu, Danielle K Greaves, Derek S Kimmerly, Philippe Arbeille, Pierre Denise, Richard L Hughson, Hervé Normand, J Kevin Shoemaker
To understand the impact of physical deconditioning with head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) on the malleability of sympathetic discharge patterns, we studied a) baseline integrated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography) from 13 females participating in the WISE-2005 60-day HDBR study (Female, retrospective analysis), b) integrated MSNA and multi-unit action potential (AP) analysis in 13 males (Male) performed on data collected at baseline and during physiological stress imposed by end-inspiratory apnea, in a new 60-day HDBR study, and c) a repeatability study (Control, n = 6, retrospective analysis, 4 weeks between tests)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191983/alteration-in-upper-airway-dilator-muscle-co-activation-during-sleep-comparison-of-patients-with-osa-and-healthy-subjects
#7
Ron Oliven, Guy Cohen, Yaniv Dotan, Mostafa Somri, Alan R Schwartz, Arie Oliven
In patients with OSA, substantial increases in genioglossus (GG) activity during hypopneas/apneas usually fail to restore normal airflow. We have previously suggested that sleep-induced alteration in tongue muscle coordination may explain this finding, as retractor muscles co-activation was reduced during sleep, as compared to wakefulness. The present study was undertaken to evaluate if these alterations in dilator muscle activation during sleep play a role in the pathogenesis of OSA, and whether co-activation of additional peri-pharyngeal muscles (non-GG muscles: styloglossus, geniohyoid, sternohyoid and sterno-cleido-mastoid) is also impaired during sleep...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191982/case-studies-in-physiology-exercise-induced-diaphragm-fatigue-in-a-paralympic-champion-rower-with-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Nicholas B Tiller, Thomas R Aggar, Christopher R West, Lee M Romer
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this case report was to determine whether maximal upper-body exercise was sufficient to induce diaphragm fatigue in a Paralympic champion adaptive rower with low-lesion spinal cord injury (SCI). CASE PRESENTATION: An elite arms-only oarsman (age 28 y, stature 1.89 m, mass 90.4 kg) with motor-complete SCI (T12) performed a 1000 m time-trial on an adapted rowing ergometer. Exercise measurements comprised pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange, diaphragm EMG-derived indices of neural respiratory drive and intrathoracic pressure-derived indices of respiratory mechanics...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191981/impact-of-training-state-on-fasting-induced-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-metabolism-in-humans
#9
Lærke Bertholdt, Anders Gudiksen, Tomasz Stankiewicz, Ida Villesen, Jonas Tybirk, Gerrit van Hall, Jens Bangsbo, Peter Plomgaard, Henriette Pilegaard
Recruitment of fatty acids from adipose tissue is essential during fasting. However, the molecular mechanisms behind fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue and the potential impact of training state in this are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate 1) fasting-induced regulation of lipolysis and glyceroneogenesis in human adipose tissue as well as 2) the impact of training state on basal oxidative capacity and fasting-induced metabolic regulation in human adipose tissue...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191980/prior-automatic-posture-and-activity-identification-improves-physical-activity-energy-expenditure-prediction-from-hip-worn-triaxial-accelerometry
#10
Maël Garnotel, Thomas Bastian, Hector-Manuel Romero-Ugalde, Aurélia Maire, Julien Dugas, Alexandre Zahariev, Maeva Doron, Pierre Jallon, Guillaume Charpentier, Sylvia Franc, Stéphane Blanc, Stéphane Bonnet, Chantal Simon
Accelerometry is increasingly used to quantify physical activity (PA) and related energy expenditure (EE). Linear regression models designed to derive PAEE from accelerometry-counts have shown their limits, mostly due to the lack of consideration of the nature of activities performed. Here we tested whether a model coupling an automatic activity/posture recognition (AAR) algorithm with an activity-specific count-based model, developed in 61 subjects in laboratory conditions, improved PAEE and total EE (TEE) predictions from hip-worn triaxial-accelerometer (ActigraphGT3X+TM) in free-living conditions...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146688/cycling-efficiency-and-energy-cost-of-walking-in-young-and-older-adults
#11
Glenn A Gaesser, Wesley J Tucker, Brandon J Sawyer, Dharini M Bhammar, Siddhartha S Angadi
To determine whether age affects cycling efficiency and the energy cost of walking (Cw), 190 healthy adults, ages 18-81 yr, cycled on an ergometer at 50 W and walked on a treadmill at 1.34 m/s. Ventilation and gas exchange at rest and during exercise were used to calculate net Cw and net efficiency of cycling. Compared to the 18-40 yr age group (2.17 ± 0.33 J/kg/m), net Cw was not different in the 60-64 yr (2.20 ± 0.40 J/kg/m) and 65-69 yr (2.20 ± 0.28 J/kg/m) age groups, but was significantly (P < 0...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146687/exercise-induces-muscle-fiber-type-switching-via-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-trpm2-dependent-ca-2-signaling
#12
Seo-Ho Lee, Byung-Ju Kim, Dae-Ryoung Park, Uh-Hyun Kim
The aim of the present study was to examine whether transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) plays a role in muscle fiber type transition during exercise. Mice were trained at a speed of 12 m/min at a slope of 0 ° for 60 min 5 consecutive d/wk for 4-wk. Exhaustion tests were performed on the treadmill (the speed was set at 6 m/min at a slope of 0° and increased at a rate of 1 m/min every 6 min). Isolated primary skeletal muscle cells from TRPM2 knockout (KO) mice showed lower amplitudes of electrical stimuli (ES)-induced Ca(2+) signals when compared to wild-type (WT) mice, due to a defect in Ca(2+) influx...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146686/specific-force-of-the-vastus-lateralis-in-adults-with-achondroplasia
#13
David Thomas Sims, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson, Adrian Burden, Carl Payton, Christopher I Morse
Achondroplasia is a clinical condition defined by shorter stature and disproportionate limb length. Force production in able-bodied individuals (controls) is proportional to muscle size, but given the disproportionate nature of Achondroplasia, normalising to anatomical cross sectional area (ACSA) is inappropriate. The aim of this study was to assess specific force of the vastus lateralis (VL) in 10 adults with Achondroplasia (22 ±3 yrs) and 18 gender matched controls (22 ±2 yrs). Isometric torque (iMVCτ) of the dominant knee extensors (KE) and in vivo measures of VL muscle architecture, volume, activation and patella tendon moment arm were used to calculate VL physiological CSA (PCSA), fascicle force and specific force in both groups...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146685/looking-beyond-macro-ventilatory-parameters-and-re-thinking-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#14
Michaela C Kollisch-Singule, Sumeet V Jain, Penny L Andrews, Joshua Satalin, Louis A Gatto, Jesús Villar, Daniel De Backer, Luciano Gattinoni, Gary F Nieman, Nader M Habashi
none.
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122966/skeletal-muscle-function-during-the-progression-of-cancer-cachexia-in-the-male-apc-min-mouse
#15
Brandon N VanderVeen, Justin P Hardee, Dennis K Fix, James A Carson
While cancer-induced skeletal muscle wasting has been widely investigated, the drivers of cancer-induced muscle functional decrements are only beginning to be understood. Decreased muscle function impacts cancer patient quality of life and health status, and several potential therapeutics have failed in clinical trials due to a lack of functional improvement. Furthermore, systemic inflammation and intrinsic inflammatory signaling's role in the cachectic disruption of muscle function requires further investigation...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122965/the-impact-of-dairy-protein-during-limb-immobilization-and-recovery-on-muscle-size-and-protein-synthesis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Sarah M Mitchell, Vandre Casagrande Figueiredo, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Frederick F Peelor, Marcelli Coronet, Chantal A Pileggi, Brenan Durainayagam, Aaron C Fanning, Sally D Poppitt, David Cameron-Smith
Muscle disuse results in the loss of muscular strength and size, due to an imbalance between protein synthesis (MPS) and breakdown (MPB). Protein ingestion stimulates MPS, although it is not established if protein is able to attenuate muscle loss with immobilization (IM) or influence the recovery consisting of ambulatory movement followed by resistance training (RT). Thirty men (49.9±0.6 years) underwent 14 days of unilateral leg IM, 14 days of ambulatory recovery (AR) and a further 6 RT sessions over 14 days...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122964/enhanced-muscle-blood-flow-with-intermittent-pneumatic-compression-of-the-lower-leg-during-plantar-flexion-exercise-and-recovery
#17
Kathryn A Zuj, Chekema N Prince, Richard L Hughson, Sean D Peterson
This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent compression of the lower limb would increase blood flow during exercise and post-exercise recovery. Data were collected from 12 healthy individuals (8 men) who performed three minutes of standing plantar flexion exercise. Three conditions were tested: no applied compression (NoComp), compression during the exercise period only (ExComp), and compression during two minutes of standing post-exercise recovery (RecComp). Doppler ultrasound was used to determine superficial femoral artery (SFA) blood flow responses...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122963/not-merely-a-protective-packing-organ-a-review-of-fascia-and-its-force-transmission-capacity
#18
Jan Wilke, Robert Schleip, Can A Yucesoy, Winfried Banzer
Recent research indicates that fascia is capable of changing its biomechanical properties. As it, moreover, links the skeletal muscles, forming a body-wide network of multidirectional myofascial continuity, the classical conception of muscles as independent actuators has been challenged. The present synthesis review hence aims to characterize the mechanical relevance of the connective tissue for the locomotor system. Results of cadaveric and animal studies suggest a clinically relevant myofascial force transmission to neighboring structures within one limb (e...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097633/emerging-wearable-physiological-monitoring-technologies-and-decision-aids-for-health-performance
#19
Michael N Sawka, Karl E Friedl
N/A.
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097632/improvements-in-force-variability-and-structure-from-vision-to-memory-guided-submaximal-isometric-knee-extension-in-subacute-stroke
#20
John W Chow, Dobrivoje S Stokic
We examined changes in variability, accuracy, frequency composition, and temporal regularity of force signal from vision-guided to memory-guided force-matching tasks in 17 subacute stroke and 17 age-matched healthy subjects. Subjects performed a unilateral isometric knee extension at 10%, 30%, and 50% of peak torque (MVC) for 10 s (3 trials each). Visual feedback was removed at the 5s-mark in the first 2 trials (feedback withdrawal), and 30 s after the second trial the subjects were asked to produce the target force without visual feedback (force recall)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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