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Natural Product Reports

E Mollo, M J Garson, G Polese, P Amodeo, M T Ghiselin
Covering: up to 2017The review summarizes results up to 2017 on chemosensory cues occurring in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The chemicals are grouped by their physicochemical properties to compare their potential mobility in the different media. In contrast to what is widely asserted in the literature, the report emphasizes that living organisms encounter and sense molecules of various degrees of solubility and volatility both on land and in aquatic environments. The picture that emerges from the review suggests a substantial revision of the traditional definitions of the chemical senses based on their spatial range, which is currently orienting the literature on chemosensory signaling, in favor of a new vision based on the natural products that are the actual mediators of the chemosensory perceptions...
April 26, 2017: Natural Product Reports
V Spiegler, E Liebau, A Hensel
Covering: 2001 up to the end of 2016Polyphenols comprise a structurally diverse class of natural products. As the development of new anthelmintic drugs against soil-transmitted helminthiases is an urgent need and polyphenols are widely used in the treatment of nematode infections in traditional medicine and modern science, we summarize the state of knowledge in the period of mainly 2001 up to the end of 2016 on plant extracts with known polyphenolic composition and of defined polyphenols, mainly from the classes of condensed and hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoids...
April 20, 2017: Natural Product Reports
K Riedel, D Sombroek, B Fiedler, K Siems, M Krohn
Covering: 2000 to 2016On the molecular level humans sense food by a variety of specialized tissues which express sensory receptors to handle nutritive value. In general, this means the interplay of gustatory, olfactory, trigeminal and haptic sensation is translated into perception and leads, in terms of taste, to descriptions like sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami. Further perceptions include astringent, cool, hot, prickle, lingering, kokumi and fatty to name predominant characterizations. It is still not fully understood how this plethora of impressions can be perceived by quite a limited number of receptors obviously being the initial compilers to judge palatability...
April 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Rebecca A Butcher
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces tens, if not hundreds, of different ascarosides as pheromones to communicate with other members of its species. Overlapping mixtures of these pheromones affect the development of the worm and a variety of different behaviors. The ascarosides represent a unique tool for dissecting the neural circuitry that controls behavior and that connects to important signaling pathways, such as the insulin and TGFβ pathways, that lie at the nexus of development, metabolism, and lifespan in C...
April 7, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Michał Michalak, Karol Michalak, Jerzy Wicha
Covering: early studies through to March 2016Cardenolides and bufadienolides constitute an attractive class of biologically active steroid derivatives which have been used for the treatment of heart disease in traditional remedies as well as in modern medicinal therapy. Due to their application as therapeutic agents and their unique molecular structures, bearing unsaturated 5- or 6-membered lactones (or other heterocycles) attached to the steroid core, cardio-active steroids have received great attention, which has intensified during the last decade, in the synthetic organic community...
April 5, 2017: Natural Product Reports
I T Malik, H Brötz-Oesterhelt
Covering: up to 2017The bacterial Clp protease is a highly conserved and structurally versatile machine. It has gained a lot of recognition during the last decade as a novel antibacterial drug target with an unprecedented mechanism of action. Due to its complexity, there are distinct means of interfering with its natural functions and several compounds targeting this machine have been identified. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge about natural products deregulating Clp proteolysis, a crucial and delicate process within the cell...
April 4, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Yunjiang Feng, Shahan Khokhar, Rohan A Davis
Covering: 1877 to 2017The ancestors of present-day crinoids are thought to be some of the earliest echinoderms, with fossil records dating back to the early Paleozoic Era (Ordovician Period, 505-440 million years ago). Their bright colours have been noted for over 100 years, and are attributed to a series of polyketide-derived pigments. Some crinoid metabolites display a range of biological activities, including cytotoxicity and fish anti-feedant activity. This review is divided into two parts. Part 1 is encyclopedic in scope, collating information on the >50 known metabolites isolated from crinoids, including their taxonomic source, collection location, chemical structure and biological activities...
March 30, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Sylvia Soldatou, Bill J Baker
Covering the literature on cold-water marine natural products from 2006 to 2016.This is an update report on marine natural products isolated from cold-water organisms in the last decade, following the previous review that covered the literature up to 2005. Emphasis is given to the biological activities as well as the spectroscopic methods used for the structure elucidation of the new metabolites isolated from cold-water habitats.
March 21, 2017: Natural Product Reports
John W Blunt, Brent R Copp, Robert A Keyzers, Murray H G Munro, Michèle R Prinsep
Covering: 2015. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2016, 33, 382-431This review covers the literature published in 2015 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1220 citations (792 for the period January to December 2015) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1340 in 429 papers for 2015), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin...
March 14, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Michiya Kamio, Charles D Derby
Benthic marine invertebrates sense molecules from other organisms and use these molecules to find and evaluate the organisms as sources of food. These processes depend on the detection and discrimination of molecules carried in sea water around and in the mouths of these animals. To understand these processes, researchers have studied how molecules released from food distribute in the sea water as a plume, how animals respond to the plume, the molecular identity of the attractants in the plume, the effect of turbulence on food-searching success, and how animals evaluate the quality of food and make decisions to eat or not...
February 20, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Jeroen S Dickschat
Covering: up to January 2017This review gives a comprehensive overview of the production of fungal volatiles, including the history of the discovery of the first compounds and their distribution in the various investigated strains, species and genera, as unravelled by modern analytical methods. Biosynthetic aspects and the accumulated knowledge about the bioactivity and biological functions of fungal volatiles are also covered. A total number of 325 compounds is presented in this review, with 247 cited references...
February 16, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Cedric L Hugelshofer, Thomas Magauer
Covering: up to January 2017This highlight article presents some recent examples of dyotropic rearrangements, which were applied in natural product total synthesis or proposed to occur in biosyntheses. The implementation of dyotropic reactions in the preparation of complex natural products has resulted in the development of elegant synthetic routes, and thereby highlights the utility of these powerful, yet relatively underrepresented, transformations.
February 9, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Tony Velkov, Kade D Roberts, Jian Li
Covering: 1975 up to the end of 2016The decline in the discovery and development of novel antibiotics has resulted in the emergence of bacteria that are resistant to almost all available antibiotics. Currently, polymyxin B and E (colistin) are being used as the last-line therapy against life-threatening infections, unfortunately resistance to polymyxins in both the community and hospital setting is becoming more common. Octapeptins are structurally related non-ribosomal lipopeptide antibiotics that do not exhibit cross-resistance with polymyxins and have a broader spectrum of activity that includes Gram-positive bacteria...
February 9, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Robert A Hill, Andrew Sutherland
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as furanmonogone A from Hypericum monogynum.
April 5, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Haichao Liu, Yanxing Jia
Covering: 2000 to 2017Ergot alkaloids are among the most important pharmaceuticals and natural toxins. Significant progress has been achieved in recent years on the research of ergot alkaloids. In this review, we re-introduced the history of ergot alkaloids. Meanwhile, we summarized all the natural products and semi-synthetic derivatives of ergot alkaloids. We also briefly described the biosynthesis and semi-synthesis of ergot alkaloid drugs from raw materials obtained by fermentation. Moreover, we reviewed the advances that have been made in the total synthesis of ergot alkaloids since 2000...
April 5, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Samantha L Kristufek, Kevin T Wacker, Yi-Yun Timothy Tsao, Lu Su, Karen L Wooley
Covering: 2010-Aug. 2016In an effort towards enhancing function and sustainability, natural products have become of interest in the field of polymer chemistry. This review details the blending of chemistries developed through synthetic organic chemistry and polymer chemistry. Through synthetic organic chemical transformations, such as functional group interconversion, a protection/deprotection series, or installation of a functional group, various designs towards novel, synthetic, bio-based polymer systems are described...
April 5, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Tobias Becker, Jacques Pasteels, Christiane Weigel, Hans-Martin Dahse, Kerstin Voigt, Wilhelm Boland
Covering up to September 2016This review reports on natural compounds that derive from the isoxazolinone ring as well as the 3-nitropropanoic acid (3-NPA) moiety. These structural elements occur in compounds that have been identified in plants, insects, bacteria and fungi. In particular, plants belonging to the family of legumes produce such compounds. In the case of insects, isoxazolin-5-one and 3-NPA derivatives were found in leaf beetles of the subtribe Chrysomelina. A number of these natural products have been synthesized so far...
April 5, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Romain Duval, Christophe Duplais
Correction for 'Fluorescent natural products as probes and tracers in biology' by Romain Duval et al., Nat. Prod. Rep., 2017, DOI: 10.1039/c6np00111d.
March 17, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Neha Garg, Tal Luzzatto-Knaan, Alexey V Melnik, Andrés Mauricio Caraballo-Rodríguez, Dimitrios J Floros, Daniel Petras, Rachel Gregor, Pieter C Dorrestein, Vanessa V Phelan
Covering: up to 2016Humans are walking microbial ecosystems, each harboring a complex microbiome with the genetic potential to produce a vast array of natural products. Recent sequencing data suggest that our microbial inhabitants are critical for maintaining overall health. Shifts in microbial communities have been correlated to a number of diseases including infections, inflammation, cancer, and neurological disorders. Some of these clinically and diagnostically relevant phenotypes are a result of the presence of small molecules, yet we know remarkably little about their contributions to the health of individuals...
February 1, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Romain Duval, Christophe Duplais
Covering: 1985 up to the end of 2016Fluorescence is a remarkable property of many natural products in addition to their medicinal and biological values. Herein, we provide a review on these peculiar secondary metabolites to stimulate prospecting of them as original fluorescent tracers, endowed with unique photophysical properties and with applications in most fields of biology. The compounds are spectrally categorized (i.e. fluorescing from violet to the near infra-red) and further structurally classified within each category...
January 26, 2017: Natural Product Reports
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