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Natural Product Reports

Robert A Hill, Andrew Sutherland
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as svetamycin B from a Streptomyces species.
July 18, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Kira J Weissman
Correction for 'Uncovering the structures of modular polyketide synthases' by Kira J. Weissman, Nat. Prod. Rep., 2015, 32, 436-453.
July 5, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Anna Müller, Anna Klöckner, Tanja Schneider
Covering: up to 2017History points to the bacterial cell wall biosynthetic network as a very effective target for antibiotic intervention, and numerous natural product inhibitors have been discovered. In addition to the inhibition of enzymes involved in the multistep synthesis of the macromolecular layer, in particular, interference with membrane-bound substrates and intermediates essential for the biosynthetic reactions has proven a valuable antibacterial strategy. A prominent target within the peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway is lipid II, which represents a particular "Achilles' heel" for antibiotic attack, as it is readily accessible on the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane...
July 4, 2017: Natural Product Reports
J Masschelein, M Jenner, G L Challis
Covering: up to 2017The overwhelming majority of antibiotics in clinical use originate from Gram-positive Actinobacteria. In recent years, however, Gram-negative bacteria have become increasingly recognised as a rich yet underexplored source of novel antimicrobials, with the potential to combat the looming health threat posed by antibiotic resistance. In this article, we have compiled a comprehensive list of natural products with antimicrobial activity from Gram-negative bacteria, including information on their biosynthetic origin(s) and molecular target(s), where known...
June 26, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Andrew M Gulick
Covering: up to 2017.Natural products are important secondary metabolites produced by bacterial and fungal species that play important roles in cellular growth and signaling, nutrient acquisition, intra- and interspecies communication, and virulence. A subset of natural products is produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), a family of large, modular enzymes that function in an assembly line fashion. Because of the pharmaceutical activity of many NRPS products, much effort has gone into the exploration of their biosynthetic pathways and the diverse products they make...
June 23, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Francesc Rabanal, Yolanda Cajal
Covering: 1947-early 2017, particularly from 2005-early 2017The rise of bacterial pathogens with acquired resistance to almost all available antibiotics is becoming a serious public health issue. Polymyxins, antibiotics that were mostly abandoned a few decades ago because of toxicity concerns, are ultimately considered as a last-line therapy to treat infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. This review surveys the progress in understanding polymyxin structure, and their chemistry, mechanisms of antibacterial activity and nephrotoxicity, biomarkers, synergy and combination with other antimicrobial agents and antibiofilm properties...
June 19, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Gerard D Wright
Natural products and their derivatives are mainstays of our antibiotic drugs, but they are increasingly in peril. The combination of widespread multidrug resistance in once susceptible bacterial pathogens, disenchantment with natural products as sources of new drugs, lack of success using synthetic compounds and target-based discovery methods, along with shifting economic and regulatory issues, conspire to move investment in research and development away from the antibiotics arena. The result is a growing crisis in antibiotic drug discovery that threatens modern medicine...
June 1, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Michael Graf, Mario Mardirossian, Fabian Nguyen, A Carolin Seefeldt, Gilles Guichard, Marco Scocchi, C Axel Innis, Daniel N Wilson
Covering: up to 2017The innate immune system employs a broad array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to attack invading microorganisms. While most AMPs act by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane, specific subclasses of AMPs have been identified that pass through membranes and inhibit bacterial growth by targeting fundamental intracellular processes. One such subclass is the proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) that bind to the ribosome and interfere with the process of protein synthesis. A diverse range of PrAMPs have been identified in insects, such as bees, wasps and beetles, and crustaceans, such as crabs, as well as in mammals, such as cows, sheep, goats and pigs...
May 24, 2017: Natural Product Reports
P Klahn, M Brönstrup
Covering: up to the end of 2016Novel antimicrobial drugs are continuously needed to counteract bacterial resistance development. An innovative molecular design strategy for novel antibiotic drugs is based on the hybridization of an antibiotic with a second functional entity. Such conjugates can be grouped into two major categories. In the first category (antimicrobial hybrids), both functional elements of the hybrid exert antimicrobial activity. Due to the dual targeting, resistance development can be significantly impaired, the pharmacokinetic properties can be superior compared to combination therapies with the single antibiotics, and the antibacterial potency is often enhanced in a synergistic manner...
May 22, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Christopher T Walsh
Antibiotics are a therapeutic class that, once deployed, select for resistant bacterial pathogens and so shorten their useful life cycles. As a consequence new versions of antibiotics are constantly needed. Among the antibiotic natural products, morphed peptide scaffolds, converting conformationally mobile, short-lived linear peptides into compact, rigidified small molecule frameworks, act on a wide range of bacterial targets. Advances in bacterial genome mining, biosynthetic gene cluster prediction and expression, and mass spectroscopic structure analysis suggests many more peptides, modified both in side chains and peptide backbones, await discovery...
May 17, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Jadel M Kratz, Ulrike Grienke, Olaf Scheel, Stefan A Mann, Judith M Rollinger
Covering: 1996-December 2016The human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) channel is a voltage-gated potassium channel playing an essential role in the normal electrical activity in the heart. It is involved in the repolarization and termination of action potentials in excitable cardiac cells. Mutations in the hERG gene and hERG channel blockage by small molecules are associated with increased risk of fatal arrhythmias. Several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to hERG channel-related cardiotoxicity...
May 12, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Andrew R Osborn, Kelsey M Kean, P Andrew Karplus, Taifo Mahmud
Covering up to: 1999-2016This highlight covers a family of enzymes of growing importance, the sedoheptulose 7-phosphate cyclases, initially of interest due to their involvement in the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically relevant secondary metabolites. More recently, these enzymes have been found throughout Prokarya and Eukarya, suggesting their broad potential biological roles in nature.
May 12, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Navid Adnani, Scott R Rajski, Tim S Bugni
Covering: 2010 up to 2017Life on Earth is characterized by a remarkable abundance of symbiotic and highly refined relationships among life forms. Defined as any kind of close, long-term association between two organisms, symbioses can be mutualistic, commensalistic or parasitic. Historically speaking, selective pressures have shaped symbioses in which one organism (typically a bacterium or fungus) generates bioactive small molecules that impact the host (and possibly other symbionts); the symbiosis is driven fundamentally by the genetic machineries available to the small molecule producer...
July 6, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Bradley S Moore, Guy T Carter, Mark Brönstrup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Robert A Hill, Andrew Sutherland
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as macrophilone A from Macrorhynchia philippina.
June 7, 2017: Natural Product Reports
L Bornancin, I Bonnard, S C Mills, B Banaigs
Covering: up to 2017Chemical mediation regulates behavioral interactions between species and thus affects population structure, community organization and ecosystem function. Among marine taxa that have developed chemical mediation strategies, gastropods belong to a diverse group of molluscs found worldwide, including species with a coiled, reduced or absent shell. Most gastropods use natural products to mediate a wide range of behaviors such as defense, prey location or interactions with con- and hetero-geners...
June 7, 2017: Natural Product Reports
V Spiegler, E Liebau, A Hensel
Covering: 2001 up to the end of 2016Polyphenols comprise a structurally diverse class of natural products. As the development of new anthelmintic drugs against soil-transmitted helminthiases is an urgent need and polyphenols are widely used in the treatment of nematode infections in traditional medicine and modern science, we summarize the state of knowledge in the period of mainly 2001 up to the end of 2016 on plant extracts with known polyphenolic composition and of defined polyphenols, mainly from the classes of condensed and hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoids...
June 7, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Yunjiang Feng, Shahan Khokhar, Rohan A Davis
Covering: 1877 to 2017The ancestors of present-day crinoids are thought to be some of the earliest echinoderms, with fossil records dating back to the early Paleozoic Era (Ordovician Period, 505-440 million years ago). Their bright colours have been noted for over 100 years, and are attributed to a series of polyketide-derived pigments. Some crinoid metabolites display a range of biological activities, including cytotoxicity and fish anti-feedant activity. This review is divided into two parts. Part 1 is encyclopedic in scope, collating information on the >50 known metabolites isolated from crinoids, including their taxonomic source, collection location, chemical structure and biological activities...
June 7, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Sylvia Soldatou, Bill J Baker
Covering the literature on cold-water marine natural products from 2006 to 2016.This is an update report on marine natural products isolated from cold-water organisms in the last decade, following the previous review that covered the literature up to 2005. Emphasis is given to the biological activities as well as the spectroscopic methods used for the structure elucidation of the new metabolites isolated from cold-water habitats.
June 7, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Giovanni Appendino, Mark Brönstrup, Julia M Kubanek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
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