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Natural Product Reports

Walaa K Mousa, Bilal Athar, Nishanth J Merwin, Nathan A Magarvey
Covering: 2000 to 2017Decades of research on human microbiota have revealed much of their taxonomic diversity and established their direct link to health and disease. However, the breadth of bioactive natural products secreted by our microbial partners remains unknown. Of particular interest are antibiotics produced by our microbiota to ward off invasive pathogens. Members of the human microbiota exclusively produce evolved small molecules with selective antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. Herein, we expand upon the current knowledge concerning antibiotics derived from human microbiota and their distribution across body sites...
October 11, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Roberto G S Berlinck, Ariane F Bertonha, Mirelle Takaki, Julie P G Rodriguez
Covering: 2015 and 2016The chemistry and biology of natural guanidines isolated from microbial culture media, from marine invertebrates, as well as from terrestrial plants and animals, are reviewed. Emphasis is directed to the biosynthesis, total synthesis, ecological roles as well as on the evolution of guanidines isolated from natural sources.
October 2, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Robert A Hill, Andrew Sutherland
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as caesalpinflavin A from Caesalpina enneaphylla.
September 27, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Kirstin Scherlach, Christian Hertweck
The co-existence of different microbial species in one habitat is prerequisite for many ecosystem processes. To facilitate co-habitation of ecological niches, intricate mechanisms have evolved that regulate the growth and the behaviour of microbes. A crucial aspect for the establishment and maintenance of a microbial population is the communication among species. Whereas intraspecies communication processes have been widely studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying interspecies interactions...
September 8, 2017: Natural Product Reports
James R Hanson
Covering: January to December, 2016 previous review Nat. Prod. Rep., 2016, 33, 1227-1238This review covers the isolation and chemistry of diterpenoids from terrestrial as opposed to marine sources and includes labdanes, clerodanes, abietanes, pimaranes, kauranes, cembrenes and their cyclization products. There are 205 references.
September 6, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Yong Li, Xianglin Yin, Mingji Dai
Covering: 2000 to 2017Macrolactones are privileged structural motifs in many functional molecules, particularly natural products and pharmaceutical molecules. They are commonly synthesized from the corresponding seco acids with various stoichiometric activating reagents to promote the formation of the macrocycle. Advances in new methods and strategies for synthesizing macrolactones have been made over the years to improve the overall synthetic efficiency and economy. This highlight focuses on the recent developments of catalytic macrolactonization methods and strategies without the use of seco acids and their applications in natural product total synthesis...
August 30, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Patrick D Brown, Andrew L Lawrence
Covering: up to 2017This review highlights why careful consideration of the biosynthetic origin (the how) and the biological function (the why) of a natural product can be so useful during the determination of its structure. Recent examples of structural reassignments inspired by biosynthetic and functional insights will be presented. This review will demonstrate the importance of viewing the origin, structure and function of a natural product as intertwined threads of a single story, best viewed as a whole rather than as discrete topics...
August 29, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Elizabeth Skellam
Covering: up to 2017Cytochalasans are a class of natural products possessing a wide range of important biological activities, yet the full biosynthetic steps towards the formation of their characteristic chemical features remain unknown. This highlight provides an overview of the recent advances made in understanding the biosynthesis of this fascinating class of compounds, complementing and extending a previous comprehensive review of this topic (K. Scherlach, D. Boettger, N. Remme and C. Hertweck, Nat. Prod...
August 29, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Olga Genilloud
Covering: 2006 to 2017Actinomycetes have been, for decades, one of the most important sources for the discovery of new antibiotics with an important number of drugs and analogs successfully introduced in the market and still used today in clinical practice. The intensive antibacterial discovery effort that generated the large number of highly potent broad-spectrum antibiotics, has seen a dramatic decline in the large pharma industry in the last two decades resulting in a lack of new classes of antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action reaching the clinic...
August 18, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Alexander Kornienko, James J La Clair
Covering: up to June 2017Natural products and endogenous metabolites engage specific targets within tissues and cells through complex mechanisms. This review examines the extent to which natural systems have adopted the Paal-Knorr reaction to engage nucleophilic amine groups within biological targets. Current understanding of this mode of reactivity is limited by only a few examples of this reaction in a biological context. This highlight is intended to stimulate the scientific community to identify potential research directions and applications of the Paal-Knorr reaction in native and engineered biological systems...
August 30, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Xiao-Yu Liu, Yong Qin
Covering: 2015 to March 2017ortho-Benzoquinones generated from dearomatization of aromatic compounds are highly reactive intermediates in organic synthesis. One of their most important applications involves the participation in Diels-Alder cycloadditions, facilitating rapid access to molecular complexity. This powerful strategy has recently been utilized in the syntheses of diverse diterpenoid alkaloids and their biogenetically relevant diterpenes, which is the subject of this Highlight.
August 30, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Xingwang Zhang, Shengying Li
Covering: 2000 to 2017Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) are the most versatile biocatalysts in nature. The catalytic competence of these extraordinary hemoproteins is broadly harnessed by numerous chemical defenders such as bacteria, fungi, and plants for the generation of diverse and complex natural products. Rather than the common tailoring reactions (e.g. hydroxylation and epoxidation) mediated by the majority of biosynthetic P450s, in this review, we will focus on the unusual P450 enzymes in relation to new chemistry, skeleton construction, and structure re-shaping via their own unique catalytic power or the intriguing protein-protein interactions between P450s and other proteins...
August 30, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Jeffrey D Rudolf, Chin-Yuan Chang, Ming Ma, Ben Shen
Covering: up to January 2017Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) are some of the most exquisite and versatile biocatalysts found in nature. In addition to their well-known roles in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism in humans, P450s are key players in natural product biosynthetic pathways. Natural products, the most chemically and structurally diverse small molecules known, require an extensive collection of P450s to accept and functionalize their unique scaffolds. In this review, we survey the current catalytic landscape of P450s within the Streptomyces genus, one of the most prolific producers of natural products, and comprehensively summarize the functionally characterized P450s from Streptomyces...
August 30, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Miao Liu, Wei-Guang Wang, Han-Dong Sun, Jian-Xin Pu
Covering: December 2005 to June 2016. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2006, 23, 673-698Over the last decade, great efforts have been made to conduct phytochemistry research on the genus Isodon, which have led to the isolation and identification of a number of diterpenoids. At the same time, these newly reported diterpenoids with diverse structures have led to new findings on their biological functions and chemical synthesis research. In this update, we review more than 600 new diterpenoids, including their structures, classifications, biogenetic pathways, bioactivities, and chemical synthesis...
August 30, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Wenhan Zhang, Joseph M Ready
Covering: 1993-2017This review discusses the isolation, biological activity, and syntheses of the dictyodendrin class of natural products, covering the years 1993-2017. The dictyodendrins are a family of alkaloids isolated from marine sponges, Dictyodendrilla verongiformis and Ianthella sp., which possess a highly substituted pyrrolo[2,3-c]carbazole core at the phenol or quinone oxidation states. Dictyodendrins exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as telomerase inhibition, BACE1 enzyme inhibition, and cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines...
August 2, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Robert A Hill, Andrew Sutherland
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as svetamycin B from a Streptomyces species.
August 2, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Kira J Weissman
Correction for 'Uncovering the structures of modular polyketide synthases' by Kira J. Weissman, Nat. Prod. Rep., 2015, 32, 436-453.
August 2, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Andrew M Gulick
Covering: up to 2017.Natural products are important secondary metabolites produced by bacterial and fungal species that play important roles in cellular growth and signaling, nutrient acquisition, intra- and interspecies communication, and virulence. A subset of natural products is produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), a family of large, modular enzymes that function in an assembly line fashion. Because of the pharmaceutical activity of many NRPS products, much effort has gone into the exploration of their biosynthetic pathways and the diverse products they make...
August 2, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Jadel M Kratz, Ulrike Grienke, Olaf Scheel, Stefan A Mann, Judith M Rollinger
Covering: 1996-December 2016The human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) channel is a voltage-gated potassium channel playing an essential role in the normal electrical activity in the heart. It is involved in the repolarization and termination of action potentials in excitable cardiac cells. Mutations in the hERG gene and hERG channel blockage by small molecules are associated with increased risk of fatal arrhythmias. Several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to hERG channel-related cardiotoxicity...
August 2, 2017: Natural Product Reports
Andrew R Osborn, Kelsey M Kean, P Andrew Karplus, Taifo Mahmud
Covering up to: 1999-2016This highlight covers a family of enzymes of growing importance, the sedoheptulose 7-phosphate cyclases, initially of interest due to their involvement in the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically relevant secondary metabolites. More recently, these enzymes have been found throughout Prokarya and Eukarya, suggesting their broad potential biological roles in nature.
August 2, 2017: Natural Product Reports
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