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Natural Product Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513710/are-highly-morphed-peptide-frameworks-lurking-silently-in-microbial-genomes-valuable-as-next-generation-antibiotic-scaffolds
#1
Christopher T Walsh
Antibiotics are a therapeutic class that, once deployed, select for resistant bacterial pathogens and so shorten their useful life cycles. As a consequence new versions of antibiotics are constantly needed. Among the antibiotic natural products, morphed peptide scaffolds, converting conformationally mobile, short-lived linear peptides into compact, rigidified small molecule frameworks, act on a wide range of bacterial targets. Advances in bacterial genome mining, biosynthetic gene cluster prediction and expression, and mass spectroscopic structure analysis suggests many more peptides, modified both in side chains and peptide backbones, await discovery...
May 17, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497823/natural-products-modulating-the-herg-channel-heartaches-and-hope
#2
REVIEW
Jadel M Kratz, Ulrike Grienke, Olaf Scheel, Stefan A Mann, Judith M Rollinger
Covering: 1996-December 2016The human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) channel is a voltage-gated potassium channel playing an essential role in the normal electrical activity in the heart. It is involved in the repolarization and termination of action potentials in excitable cardiac cells. Mutations in the hERG gene and hERG channel blockage by small molecules are associated with increased risk of fatal arrhythmias. Several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to hERG channel-related cardiotoxicity...
May 12, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497154/hot-off-the-press
#3
Robert A Hill, Andrew Sutherland
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as macrophilone A from Macrorhynchia philippina.
May 12, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497152/the-sedoheptulose-7-phosphate-cyclases-and-their-emerging-roles-in-biology-and-ecology
#4
Andrew R Osborn, Kelsey M Kean, P Andrew Karplus, Taifo Mahmud
Covering up to: 1999-2016This highlight covers a family of enzymes of growing importance, the sedoheptulose 7-phosphate cyclases, initially of interest due to their involvement in the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically relevant secondary metabolites. More recently, these enzymes have been found throughout Prokarya and Eukarya, suggesting their broad potential biological roles in nature.
May 12, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466897/chemical-mediation-as-a-structuring-element-in-marine-gastropod-predator-prey-interactions
#5
REVIEW
L Bornancin, I Bonnard, S C Mills, B Banaigs
Covering: up to 2017Chemical mediation regulates behavioral interactions between species and thus affects population structure, community organization and ecosystem function. Among marine taxa that have developed chemical mediation strategies, gastropods belong to a diverse group of molluscs found worldwide, including species with a coiled, reduced or absent shell. Most gastropods use natural products to mediate a wide range of behaviors such as defense, prey location or interactions with con- and hetero-geners...
May 3, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426037/medicinal-plant-extracts-and-plant-derived-polyphenols-with-anthelmintic-activity-against-intestinal-nematodes
#6
REVIEW
V Spiegler, E Liebau, A Hensel
Covering: 2001 up to the end of 2016Polyphenols comprise a structurally diverse class of natural products. As the development of new anthelmintic drugs against soil-transmitted helminthiases is an urgent need and polyphenols are widely used in the treatment of nematode infections in traditional medicine and modern science, we summarize the state of knowledge in the period of mainly 2001 up to the end of 2016 on plant extracts with known polyphenolic composition and of defined polyphenols, mainly from the classes of condensed and hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoids...
April 20, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378871/the-synthesis-of-cardenolide-and-bufadienolide-aglycones-and-related-steroids-bearing-a-heterocyclic-subunit
#7
REVIEW
Michał Michalak, Karol Michalak, Jerzy Wicha
Covering: early studies through to March 2016Cardenolides and bufadienolides constitute an attractive class of biologically active steroid derivatives which have been used for the treatment of heart disease in traditional remedies as well as in modern medicinal therapy. Due to their application as therapeutic agents and their unique molecular structures, bearing unsaturated 5- or 6-membered lactones (or other heterocycles) attached to the steroid core, cardio-active steroids have received great attention, which has intensified during the last decade, in the synthetic organic community...
April 5, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375422/conformational-control-of-the-bacterial-clp-protease-by-natural-product-antibiotics
#8
REVIEW
I T Malik, H Brötz-Oesterhelt
Covering: up to 2017The bacterial Clp protease is a highly conserved and structurally versatile machine. It has gained a lot of recognition during the last decade as a novel antibacterial drug target with an unprecedented mechanism of action. Due to its complexity, there are distinct means of interfering with its natural functions and several compounds targeting this machine have been identified. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge about natural products deregulating Clp proteolysis, a crucial and delicate process within the cell...
April 4, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357435/crinoids-ancient-organisms-modern-chemistry
#9
REVIEW
Yunjiang Feng, Shahan Khokhar, Rohan A Davis
Covering: 1877 to 2017The ancestors of present-day crinoids are thought to be some of the earliest echinoderms, with fossil records dating back to the early Paleozoic Era (Ordovician Period, 505-440 million years ago). Their bright colours have been noted for over 100 years, and are attributed to a series of polyketide-derived pigments. Some crinoid metabolites display a range of biological activities, including cytotoxicity and fish anti-feedant activity. This review is divided into two parts. Part 1 is encyclopedic in scope, collating information on the >50 known metabolites isolated from crinoids, including their taxonomic source, collection location, chemical structure and biological activities...
March 30, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322384/cold-water-marine-natural-products-2006-to-2016
#10
REVIEW
Sylvia Soldatou, Bill J Baker
Covering the literature on cold-water marine natural products from 2006 to 2016.This is an update report on marine natural products isolated from cold-water organisms in the last decade, following the previous review that covered the literature up to 2005. Emphasis is given to the biological activities as well as the spectroscopic methods used for the structure elucidation of the new metabolites isolated from cold-water habitats.
March 21, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485741/olfaction-taste-and-chemoreception-scientific-evidence-replaces-essays-in-biopoetry
#11
EDITORIAL
Giovanni Appendino, Mark Brönstrup, Julia M Kubanek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485430/contact-chemosensation-of-phytochemicals-by-insect-herbivores
#12
Stefan Pentzold, Antje Burse, Wilhelm Boland
Contact chemosensation, or tasting, is a complex process governed by nonvolatile phytochemicals that tell host-seeking insects whether they should accept or reject a plant. During this process, insect gustatory receptors (GRs) contribute to deciphering a host plant's metabolic code. GRs recognise many different classes of nonvolatile compounds; some GRs are likely to be narrowly tuned and others, broadly tuned. Although primary and/or secondary plant metabolites influence the insect's feeding choice, their decoding by GRs is challenging, because metabolites in planta occur in complex mixtures that have additive or inhibitory effects; in diverse forms composed of structurally unrelated molecules; and at different concentrations depending on the plant species, its tissue and developmental stage...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471462/the-role-of-metals-in-mammalian-olfaction-of-low-molecular-weight-organosulfur-compounds
#13
REVIEW
Eric Block, Victor S Batista, Hiroaki Matsunami, Hanyi Zhuang, Lucky Ahmed
Covering: up to the end of 2017While suggestions concerning the possible role of metals in olfaction and taste date back 50 years, only recently has it been possible to confirm these proposals with experiments involving individual olfactory receptors (ORs). A detailed discussion of recent experimental results demonstrating the key role of metals in enhancing the response of human and other vertebrate ORs to specific odorants is presented against the backdrop of our knowledge of how the sense of smell functions both at the molecular and whole animal levels...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443894/taste-and-smell-in-aquatic-and-terrestrial-environments
#14
REVIEW
E Mollo, M J Garson, G Polese, P Amodeo, M T Ghiselin
Covering: up to 2017The review summarizes results up to 2017 on chemosensory cues occurring in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The chemicals are grouped by their physicochemical properties to compare their potential mobility in the different media. In contrast to what is widely asserted in the literature, the report emphasizes that living organisms encounter and sense molecules of various degrees of solubility and volatility both on land and in aquatic environments. The picture that emerges from the review suggests a substantial revision of the traditional definitions of the chemical senses based on their spatial range, which is currently orienting the literature on chemosensory signaling, in favor of a new vision based on the natural products that are the actual mediators of the chemosensory perceptions...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393162/human-cell-based-taste-perception-a-bittersweet-job-for-industry
#15
K Riedel, D Sombroek, B Fiedler, K Siems, M Krohn
Covering: 2000 to 2016On the molecular level humans sense food by a variety of specialized tissues which express sensory receptors to handle nutritive value. In general, this means the interplay of gustatory, olfactory, trigeminal and haptic sensation is translated into perception and leads, in terms of taste, to descriptions like sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami. Further perceptions include astringent, cool, hot, prickle, lingering, kokumi and fatty to name predominant characterizations. It is still not fully understood how this plethora of impressions can be perceived by quite a limited number of receptors obviously being the initial compilers to judge palatability...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386618/decoding-chemical-communication-in-nematodes
#16
Rebecca A Butcher
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces tens, if not hundreds, of different ascarosides as pheromones to communicate with other members of its species. Overlapping mixtures of these pheromones affect the development of the worm and a variety of different behaviors. The ascarosides represent a unique tool for dissecting the neural circuitry that controls behavior and that connects to important signaling pathways, such as the insulin and TGFβ pathways, that lie at the nexus of development, metabolism, and lifespan in C...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217773/finding-food-how-marine-invertebrates-use-chemical-cues-to-track-and-select-food
#17
REVIEW
Michiya Kamio, Charles D Derby
Benthic marine invertebrates sense molecules from other organisms and use these molecules to find and evaluate the organisms as sources of food. These processes depend on the detection and discrimination of molecules carried in sea water around and in the mouths of these animals. To understand these processes, researchers have studied how molecules released from food distribute in the sea water as a plume, how animals respond to the plume, the molecular identity of the attractants in the plume, the effect of turbulence on food-searching success, and how animals evaluate the quality of food and make decisions to eat or not...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322409/hot-off-the-press
#18
Robert A Hill, Andrew Sutherland
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as furanmonogone A from Hypericum monogynum.
April 5, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300233/ergot-alkaloids-synthetic-approaches-to-lysergic-acid-and-clavine-alkaloids
#19
REVIEW
Haichao Liu, Yanxing Jia
Covering: 2000 to 2017Ergot alkaloids are among the most important pharmaceuticals and natural toxins. Significant progress has been achieved in recent years on the research of ergot alkaloids. In this review, we re-introduced the history of ergot alkaloids. Meanwhile, we summarized all the natural products and semi-synthetic derivatives of ergot alkaloids. We also briefly described the biosynthesis and semi-synthesis of ergot alkaloid drugs from raw materials obtained by fermentation. Moreover, we reviewed the advances that have been made in the total synthesis of ergot alkaloids since 2000...
April 5, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290568/monomer-design-strategies-to-create-natural-product-based-polymer-materials
#20
REVIEW
Samantha L Kristufek, Kevin T Wacker, Yi-Yun Timothy Tsao, Lu Su, Karen L Wooley
Covering: 2010-Aug. 2016In an effort towards enhancing function and sustainability, natural products have become of interest in the field of polymer chemistry. This review details the blending of chemistries developed through synthetic organic chemistry and polymer chemistry. Through synthetic organic chemical transformations, such as functional group interconversion, a protection/deprotection series, or installation of a functional group, various designs towards novel, synthetic, bio-based polymer systems are described...
April 5, 2017: Natural Product Reports
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