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Natural Product Reports

Ashley C Lindsay, Se Hun Kim, Jonathan Sperry
Covering: 1969 to 2018Azepinoindole natural products can be broadly classified as being of monoterpenoid or non-monoterpenoid origin. The non-monoterpenoid azepinoindoles have not received as much attention in the literature as their more revered monoterpenoid counterparts. In this review, an overview of all non-monoterpenoid azepinoindoles is provided. Various biological and chemical aspects are discussed, including their isolation, biosynthesis and the elegant total synthesis studies that have been inspired by these alkaloids...
July 19, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Maude Cloutier, Kevin Muru, Gokulakrishnan Ravicoularamin, Charles Gauthier
Covering: up to 2018Burkholderia species are a vast group of human pathogenic, phytopathogenic, and plant- or environment-associated bacteria. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. cepacia complex are the causative agents of melioidosis, glanders, and cystic fibrosis-related infections, respectively, which are fatal diseases in humans and animals. Due to their high resistance to antibiotics, high mortality rates, and increased infectivity via the respiratory tract, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei have been listed as potential bioterrorism agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
July 19, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Katherine S Ryan, Catherine L Drennan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2018: Natural Product Reports
James B McAlpine, Shao-Nong Chen, Andrei Kutateladze, John B MacMillan, Giovanni Appendino, Andersson Barison, Mehdi A Beniddir, Maique W Biavatti, Stefan Bluml, Asmaa Boufridi, Mark S Butler, Robert J Capon, Young H Choi, David Coppage, Phillip Crews, Michael T Crimmins, Marie Csete, Pradeep Dewapriya, Joseph M Egan, Mary J Garson, Grégory Genta-Jouve, William H Gerwick, Harald Gross, Mary Kay Harper, Precilia Hermanto, James M Hook, Luke Hunter, Damien Jeannerat, Nai-Yun Ji, Tyler A Johnson, David G I Kingston, Hiroyuki Koshino, Hsiau-Wei Lee, Guy Lewin, Jie Li, Roger G Linington, Miaomiao Liu, Kerry L McPhail, Tadeusz F Molinski, Bradley S Moore, Joo-Won Nam, Ram P Neupane, Matthias Niemitz, Jean-Marc Nuzillard, Nicholas H Oberlies, Fernanda M M Ocampos, Guohui Pan, Ronald J Quinn, D Sai Reddy, Jean-Hugues Renault, José Rivera-Chávez, Wolfgang Robien, Carla M Saunders, Thomas J Schmidt, Christoph Seger, Ben Shen, Christoph Steinbeck, Hermann Stuppner, Sonja Sturm, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati, Dean J Tantillo, Robert Verpoorte, Bin-Gui Wang, Craig M Williams, Philip G Williams, Julien Wist, Jian-Min Yue, Chen Zhang, Zhengren Xu, Charlotte Simmler, David C Lankin, Jonathan Bisson, Guido F Pauli
Covering: up to 2018With contributions from the global natural product (NP) research community, and continuing the Raw Data Initiative, this review collects a comprehensive demonstration of the immense scientific value of disseminating raw nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data, independently of, and in parallel with, classical publishing outlets. A comprehensive compilation of historic to present-day cases as well as contemporary and future applications show that addressing the urgent need for a repository of publicly accessible raw NMR data has the potential to transform natural products (NPs) and associated fields of chemical and biomedical research...
July 13, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Robert A Hill, Joseph D Connolly
Covering 2014. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2017, 34, 90-122This review covers the isolation and structure determination of triterpenoids reported during 2014 including squalene derivatives, lanostanes, holostanes, cycloartanes, cucurbitanes, dammaranes, euphanes, tirucallanes, tetranortriterpenoids, quassinoids, lupanes, oleananes, friedelanes, ursanes, hopanes, serratanes, isomalabaricanes and saponins; 374 references are cited.
July 11, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Olivia Goethe, Abigail Heuer, Xiaoshen Ma, Zhixun Wang, Seth B Herzon
Covering: up to 2018Pleuromutilins are a clinically validated class of antibiotics derived from the fungal diterpene (+)-pleuromutilin (1). Pleuromutilins inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) of the ribosome. In this review we summarize the biosynthesis and recent total syntheses of (+)-pleuromutilin (1). We review the mode of interaction of pleuromutilins with the bacterial ribosome, which involves binding of the C14 extension and the tricyclic core to the P and A sites of the PTC, respectively...
July 6, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Matthew J Palframan, Gerald Pattenden
Covering: up to May 2018The verticillene family of 6,12-membered ring-fused diterpenes are found in plants, liverworts, corals and insects. Carbocations derived from verticillene hydrocarbons are central intermediates in the biosynthesis of the taxane and the phomactin families of polycyclic natural products. This perspective delineates these unique biosynthetic interrelationships, which are reinforced by recent biomimetic synthesis investigations, alongside quantum chemical calculations and targeted engineering studies of the taxadiene synthase (TXS) cascade...
July 6, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Maja Klaus, Martin Grininger
Covering: mid 1990s to 2018Over the last two decades, diverse approaches have been explored to generate new polyketides by engineering polyketide synthases (PKSs). Although it has been proven possible to produce new compounds by designed PKSs, engineering strategies failed to make polyketides available via widely applicable rules and protocols. Still, organic synthetic routes have to be employed whenever new polyketides are needed for applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry. In light of the rising demand for commodity products from feedstock and for fast and cheap access to pharmaceutical compounds, the need for harnessing PKSs to produce such molecules is more urgent than ever before...
June 25, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Shu-Shan Gao, Nathchar Naowarojna, Ronghai Cheng, Xueting Liu, Pinghua Liu
Covering: up to 2018α-Ketoglutarate (αKG, also known as 2-oxoglutarate)-dependent mononuclear non-haem iron (αKG-NHFe) enzymes catalyze a wide range of biochemical reactions, including hydroxylation, ring fragmentation, C-C bond cleavage, epimerization, desaturation, endoperoxidation and heterocycle formation. These enzymes utilize iron(ii) as the metallo-cofactor and αKG as the co-substrate. Herein, we summarize several novel αKG-NHFe enzymes involved in natural product biosyntheses discovered in recent years, including halogenation reactions, amino acid modifications and tailoring reactions in the biosynthesis of terpenes, lipids, fatty acids and phosphonates...
June 22, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Kaiqing Ma, Brandon S Martin, Xianglin Yin, Mingji Dai
Covering: 2000-2018In this review, we highlight recent examples of natural product total syntheses employing transition metal-mediated/catalyzed carbonylative cyclization strategies to build key ring systems. It mainly covers carbonylative cyclizations for the construction of O-heterocycles, N-heterocycles and carbocycles including cyclic ketones and phenols. The reaction types include carbonylation of epoxide to β-lactones, carbonylative (macro)lactonization/lactamization, the Semmelhack reaction, tandem hydroformylation-cyclization, the Pauson-Khand reaction, carbonylative C-H activation cyclization, the Stille/Suzuki carbonylation, [n + m + 1] carbonylative cycloaddition, the Dötz annulation, and others...
June 20, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Michael W Mullowney, Ryan A McClure, Matthew T Robey, Neil L Kelleher, Regan J Thomson
Covering: up to 2018Thioester reductase domains catalyze two- and four-electron reductions to release natural products following assembly on nonribosomal peptide synthetases, polyketide synthases, and their hybrid biosynthetic complexes. This reductive off-loading of a natural product yields an aldehyde or alcohol, can initiate the formation of a macrocyclic imine, and contributes to important intermediates in a variety of biosyntheses, including those for polyketide alkaloids and pyrrolobenzodiazepines. Compounds that arise from reductase-terminated biosynthetic gene clusters are often reactive and exhibit biological activity...
June 19, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Benjamin J Kotopka, Yanran Li, Christina D Smolke
Covering: 2006 to 2018Phytochemicals are important sources for the discovery and development of agricultural and pharmaceutical compounds, such as pesticides and medicines. However, these compounds are typically present in low abundance in nature, and the biosynthetic pathways for most phytochemicals are not fully elucidated. Heterologous production of phytochemicals in plant, bacterial, and yeast hosts has been pursued as a potential approach to address sourcing issues associated with many valuable phytochemicals, and more recently has been utilized as a tool to aid in the elucidation of plant biosynthetic pathways...
June 13, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Peter J Harrison, Teresa M Dunn, Dominic J Campopiano
A new review covering up to 2018Sphingolipids are essential molecules that, despite their long history, are still stimulating interest today. The reasons for this are that, as well as playing structural roles within cell membranes, they have also been shown to perform a myriad of cell signalling functions vital to the correct function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Indeed, sphingolipid disregulation that alters the tightly-controlled balance of these key lipids has been closely linked to a number of diseases such as diabetes, asthma and various neuropathologies...
June 4, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Atsushi Minami, Taro Ozaki, Chengwei Liu, Hideaki Oikawa
Covering: 2000 to 2018In the late 1960s, structurally unique fusicoccane- and ophiobolane-type di/sesterterpenes were isolated and their homologs were found to be widely distributed in various organisms. Nearly a half century later, the first terpene synthase PaFS was identified, which triggered the discovery of a number of di/sesterterpene synthases, which were named as cyclopentane-forming terpene synthases (CPF-TSs). In the past 10 years, CPF-TSs have emerged as a new type of class I terpene synthases, which afford di/sesterterpenes with characteristic polycyclic molecular skeletons; they catalyze two different types of cyclizations, defined as type A and B, which are relevant to the initial cyclization mode of a polyprenyl diphosphate...
June 1, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Yizhou Liu, Shaofei Zhang, Jonathan S Lindsey
Covering: up to 2018Chlorophylls, bacteriochlorophylls and related hydroporphyrins constitute invaluable natural products but have largely remained outside the scope of viable syntheses. The campaign toward chlorophyll a by Woodward and coworkers is a deservedly celebrated landmark in organic synthesis yet the route entailed 49 steps, relied on semisynthetic replenishment of advanced intermediates, and then pointed to (but did not implement) uncertain literature procedures for the final transformations. Indeed, the full synthesis at any scale of any (bacterio)chlorophylls - conversion of small-molecule starting materials to the product - has never been accomplished...
May 30, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Patrick Rabe, Jos J A G Kamps, Christopher J Schofield, Christopher T Lohans
Covering: up to 20172-Oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases and the homologous oxidase isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) play crucial roles in the biosynthesis of β-lactam ring containing natural products. IPNS catalyses formation of the bicyclic penicillin nucleus from a tripeptide. 2OG oxygenases catalyse reactions that diversify the chemistry of β-lactams formed by both IPNS and non-oxidative enzymes. Reactions catalysed by the 2OG oxygenases of β-lactam biosynthesis not only involve their typical hydroxylation reactions, but also desaturation, epimerisation, rearrangement, and ring-forming reactions...
May 29, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Soleiman E Helaly, Benjarong Thongbai, Marc Stadler
Covering: up to December 2017The diversity of secondary metabolites in the fungal order Xylariales is reviewed with special emphasis on correlations between chemical diversity and biodiversity as inferred from recent taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. The Xylariales are arguably among the predominant fungal endophytes, which are the producer organisms of pharmaceutical lead compounds including the antimycotic sordarins and the antiparasitic nodulisporic acids, as well as the marketed drug, emodepside. Many Xylariales are "macromycetes", which form conspicuous fruiting bodies (stromata), and the metabolite profiles that are predominant in the stromata are often complementary to those encountered in corresponding mycelial cultures of a given species...
May 18, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Alejandro M Roncero, Ignacio E Tobal, Rosalina F Moro, David Díez, Isidro S Marcos
Covering: 1970 to 2017Diterpenes with a halimane skeleton constitute a small group of natural products that can be biogenetically considered as being between labdane and clerodane diterpenoids. Some of these compounds show biological activities, such as antitumour, mosquito repellency, germination inhibition and antimicrobial, as well as being biomarkers for tuberculosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reviews on these compounds. In this review, halimane skeleton diterpenoids are classified according to their biogenetic origin, characterization and/or the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis...
April 27, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Robert A Hill, Andrew Sutherland
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as mollebenzylanol A from Rhododendron molle.
June 20, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Helga U van der Heul, Bohdan L Bilyk, Kenneth J McDowall, Ryan F Seipke, Gilles P van Wezel
Covering: 2000 to 2018 The antimicrobial activity of many of their natural products has brought prominence to the Streptomycetaceae, a family of Gram-positive bacteria that inhabit both soil and aquatic sediments. In the natural environment, antimicrobial compounds are likely to limit the growth of competitors, thereby offering a selective advantage to the producer, in particular when nutrients become limited and the developmental programme leading to spores commences. The study of the control of this secondary metabolism continues to offer insights into its integration with a complex lifecycle that takes multiple cues from the environment and primary metabolism...
June 20, 2018: Natural Product Reports
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