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R J Lamb, Brett C Ginsburg, Alexander Greig, Charles W Schindler
Ethanol-paired Conditioned Stimuli are widely thought to invigorate ethanol responding, and thus, precipitate relapse to drinking. However, preclinical studies investigating this issue using Pavlovian Instrumental Transfer (PIT) procedures have had mixed results, with some studies finding PIT while others did not. The studies failing to show PIT used Lewis rats and induced ethanol drinking using a post-prandial drinking procedure. The present experiments examined whether either of these two variables influenced the magnitude of PIT observed...
January 11, 2019: Alcohol
Jeanette N McClintick, Jay A Tischfield, Li Deng, Manav Kapoor, Xiaoling Xuei, Howard J Edenberg
The short term effects of alcohol on gene expression in brain tissue cannot directly be studied in humans. Because neuroimmune signaling is altered by alcohol, immune cells are a logical, accessible choice to study and might provide biomarkers. RNAseq was used to study the effects of 48 h exposure to ethanol on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 21 alcoholics and 21 controls. Ethanol exposure resulted in differential expression of 4,577 of the 12,526 genes detectably expressed in the LCLs (FDR ≤ 0.05); 55% of these showed increased expression...
January 8, 2019: Alcohol
Gopalakrishnan Natarajan, Curtis Perriotte-Olson, Carol A Casey, Terrence M Donohue, Geoffrey A Talmon, Edward N Harris, Alexander V Kabanov, Viswanathan Saraswathi
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that nanoformulated copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Nano) attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation in obese animals. Here, we sought to determine whether Nano treatment attenuates alcohol-associated liver disease (AALD) and AT inflammation in alcohol-fed mice. METHODS: We pre-treated E-47 cells (HepG2 cells that over-express CYP2E1) with native- or nano- SOD for 6 h, followed by treatment with ethanol and/or linoleic acid (LA), a free fatty acid...
January 3, 2019: Alcohol
Jonathan Kent Gore-Langton, Linda Patia Spear
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2018: Alcohol
Olalekan Ogunsakin, Phanuwat Sriyotha, Taylor Burns, Tete Hottor, Michael McCaskill
Ethanol has been found to affect pulmonary cells by interfering with vitamin D metabolism and pulmonary defense mechanisms. The objective of this study was to understand the mechanisms of ethanol's disruptive influence on the vitamin D pathway and inhibition of anti-microbial peptide cathelicidin (LL-37). Bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2Bs), primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), primary human alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs), and human monocyte cells (THP-1s) were used in this study. These cells were cultured and exposed to different treatment groups: media only control, ethanol (70mM) only, diallyl disulfide (DADS) (10μM) only, and a co-exposure of ethanol(70mM) and DADS (10μM) for 10 or 24 hours...
December 20, 2018: Alcohol
Juna Konomi Johnson, Frank L Harris, Xiao-Du Ping, Theresa W Gauthier, Lou Ann S Brown
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that maternal alcohol use significantly increases the risk of sepsis in premature and term newborns. In the mouse, fetal ethanol exposure results in an immunosuppressed phenotype for the alveolar macrophage (AM) and decreases bacterial phagocytosis. In pregnant mice, ethanol decreased AM zinc homeostasis which contributed to immunosuppression and impaired AM phagocytosis. In this study, we explored whether ethanol-induced zinc insufficiency extended to the pup AM and contributed to immunosuppression and exacerbated viral lung infections...
December 20, 2018: Alcohol
Zhenhua Ren, Xin Wang, Mei Xu, Jacqueline A Frank, Jia Luo
Developmental exposure to ethanol may cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and immature central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to ethanol. In addition to the developing brain, we previously showed that ethanol also caused neuroapoptosis, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. Minocycline is an antibiotic that inhibits microglial activation and alleviates neuroinflammation. We sought to determine whether minocycline could protect spinal cord neurons against ethanol-induced damage...
December 7, 2018: Alcohol
Leslie L Devaud, Mehrdad Alavi, Jeremiah P Jensen, Melinda L Helms, Michelle A Nipper, Deborah A Finn
Human studies reported that the number of past-year stressors was positively related to current drinking patterns, including binge drinking. In animal models, exposure to predator odor stress (PS), considered a model of traumatic stress, consistently increased ethanol intake. Recently, we reported that repeated PS significantly increased ethanol intake and had a synergistic interaction with prior binge drinking (binge group) in male but not in female C57BL/6J mice, when compared to mice without prior binge exposure (control group)...
December 6, 2018: Alcohol
C N Miller, C Ruggery, H M Kamens
Binge alcohol drinking is a health burden in the United States which has an alarming economic impact. Unfortunately, medications available for alcohol abuse have low efficacy or adverse side effects creating a need to evaluate novel therapies. Growing research suggests that 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), an α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, may be effective at reducing ethanol consumption. However, its effect on binge-like ethanol consumption and other alcohol behaviors have not been examined...
November 26, 2018: Alcohol
Thaddeus M Barney, Andrew S Vore, Anny Gano, Jamie E Mondello, Terrence Deak
Recent studies have demonstrated unique brain cytokine signatures associated with acute ethanol intoxication (increased IL-6) and withdrawal (increased IL-1β and TNFα). The purpose of the present studies was to examine the potential functional role of increased central interleukin-6 (IL-6). We utilized two tests of ethanol sensitivity to establish a potential role for IL-6 after high (3.5-4.0 g/kg i.p) or moderate (2.0 g/kg i.p) doses of ethanol: loss of righting reflex (LORR) and conditioned taste aversion (CTA), respectively...
November 22, 2018: Alcohol
Douglas B Matthews, Meredith R Watson, Kimberly James, Abigail Kastner, Amelia Schneider, Guy Mittleman
The average age of the population in the United States and other countries is increasing. Understanding the health consequences in the aged population is critical. Elderly individuals consume ethanol, often at elevated rates, and in some cases in a binge episode. The present study sought to investigate if binge like ethanol exposure in aged male rats produced differential health and behavioral effects compared to adult male and adolescent male rats. Subjects were exposed to either 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg ethanol every other day via intraperitoneal injection for 20 days and tested on a variety of behavioral measures and body weight...
November 22, 2018: Alcohol
Lauren G Poole, Juliane I Beier, Edilson Torres-Gonzales, Connie F Schlueter, Shanice V Hudson, Amanda Artis, Nikole L Warner, Calvin T Nguyen-Ho, Christine E Dolin, Jeffrey D Ritzenthaler, Gary W Hoyle, Jesse Roman, Gavin E Arteel
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use disorders are major risk factors for the development of and susceptibility to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although these risks of alcohol consumption on the lung are well described, mechanisms by which alcohol abuse promotes acute lung injury are poorly understood. These gaps in our understanding are due, at least in part, to limitations of animal models to recapitulate human alcohol consumption. Recently, a new model of chronic plus binge alcohol exposure was developed that is hypothesized to better model drinking patterns of individuals with alcohol use disorders...
November 13, 2018: Alcohol
Kristina L Bailey, Todd A Wyatt, Dawn M Katafiasz, Keenan W Taylor, Art J Heires, Joseph H Sisson, Debra J Romberger, Ellen L Burnham
PURPOSE: Cannabis use is increasing due to recent legislative changes. In addition, cannabis is often used in conjunction with alcohol. The airway epithelium is the first line of defense against infectious microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize airborne microbes and initiate the inflammatory cytokine response. How cannabis use in conjunction with alcohol affects pulmonary innate immunity mediated by TLRs is unknown. METHODS: Samples and data from an existing cohort of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), along with samples from additional participants with cannabis use alone and with AUD were utilized...
November 9, 2018: Alcohol
M Camargo Moreno, J B Lewis, E J Kovacs, E M Lowery
The relatively low long-term survival rate of lung transplants as compared to other organ recipients serves as an impetus to identify potential lung dysfunction as early as possible. There is an association between donor heavy alcohol use and acute lung injury in the lung allograft after transplant, known as primary graft dysfunction. Excessive alcohol use (EAU) can induce pulmonary immune dysregulation in response to an infection. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important component of the innate immune response to pulmonary infections, but the impact of EAU on AMPs in the allograft lung has not been evaluated...
November 9, 2018: Alcohol
Megha Bendre, Linnea Granholm, Ryan Drennan, Ann Meyer, Liying Yan, Kent W Nilsson, Ingrid Nylander, Erika Comasco
Early life stress (ELS) or alcohol consumption can influence DNA methylation and affect gene expression. The monoamine oxidase A (Maoa) encodes the enzyme that metabolizes monoaminergic neurotransmitters crucial for the stress response, alcohol reward, and reinforcement. Previously, we reported lower Maoa expression in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of male rats exposed to ELS during the first three postnatal weeks, and to voluntary alcohol consumption in adulthood, compared with controls. The present study continued to investigate the effect of ELS and alcohol consumption on Maoa methylation, and its relation to Maoa expression in these animals...
November 8, 2018: Alcohol
Joseph R Troisi
Self-administration of Ethanol (E) and nicotine (N) occurs frequently in tandem orders (i.e., N→E vs. E→N) and thereby produce differing interoceptive profiles of subjective effects in humans. If the interoceptive stimulus characteristics of N→E differ from E→N, it is possible that such differences contribute to their co-dependence. The rationale for the present investigation was to determine if E when preceded or followed by N produces different discriminative stimulus effects in rats. In two experiments, using a one manipulanda operant drug discrimination procedure, rats were trained to discriminate temporal sequential administrations of ethanol (1...
November 5, 2018: Alcohol
K E Bosse, V M Chiu, S C Lloyd, A C Conti
Individuals fetally exposed to alcohol have a disproportionate risk for developing lifetime alcohol dependence, an association that may be confounded by the presence of comorbid conditions, such as anxiety. Anxiety is also observed following fetal alcohol exposure and known to exacerbate ethanol consumption, highlighting the utility of animal models to assess this relationship. The present study evaluated the impact of third-trimester equivalent ethanol exposure on ethanol consumption and anxiety-like, marble burying behavior in adult, male C57BL/6 mice following exposure to chronic intermittent ethanol vapor, proposed to model dependence...
October 29, 2018: Alcohol
Analía G Karadayian, Paulina Lombardi, Juanita Bustamante, Silvia Lores-Arnaiz
Alcohol hangover (AH) has been associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We herein postulate that AH-induced mitochondrial alterations can be due to a different pattern of response in synaptosomes and non-synaptic (NS) mitochondria. Mice received i.p. injections of EtOH (3.8 g/kg) or saline and were sacrificed 6 hours after. Brain cortex NS mitochondria and synaptosomes were isolated by Ficoll gradient. Oxygen consumption rates were measured in NS mitochondria and synaptosomes by high-resolution respirometry...
October 29, 2018: Alcohol
Bruce E Hetzler, Lauren W Y McLester-Davis, Sadie E Tenpas
Methylphenidate (MPD) is a psychostimulant used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most adult ADHD patients use ethanol in combination with MPD. This research examined the effects of MPD and ethanol on flash-evoked potentials (FEPs) recorded from the visual cortex (VC; a cortical response frequently used to assess neural activity and sensory processing) and superior colliculus (SC; a structure involved in attention and orientation) of chronically implanted male Long-Evans rats, and on body temperature and open field behavior...
October 27, 2018: Alcohol
Winona C Booher, Nicole R Hoft, Marissa A Ehringer
The mesolimbic dopaminergic reward pathway is activated by both alcohol and exercise, suggesting exercise as a possible treatment or preventative method for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Prior studies conducted in our lab have demonstrated the hedonic substitution of voluntary alcohol consumption for voluntary wheel running in female C57Bl/6Ibg mice, and a trend in male C57Bl/6Ibg mice. Given the important contribution of genetic background on AUDs, this study aims to assess the effects of voluntary wheel running on voluntary alcohol consumption in two moderate alcohol consuming strains of mice, C3H/Ibg and 129/SvEvTac...
October 25, 2018: Alcohol
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