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Alcohol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912921/preface-to-a-special-issue-on-genetic-models-of-alcoholism-and-alcohol-stress-interactions
#1
EDITORIAL
Robert W Williams, Andrew Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908524/genetic-correlation-between-alcohol-preference-and-conditioned-fear-exploring-a-functional-relationship
#2
Julia A Chester, Marcus M Weera
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorders have a high rate of co-occurrence, possibly because they are regulated by common genes. In support of this idea, mice selectively bred for high (HAP) alcohol preference show greater fear potentiated startle (FPS), a model for fear-related disorders such as PTSD, compared to mice selectively bred for low (LAP) alcohol preference. This positive genetic correlation between alcohol preference and FPS behavior suggests that the two traits may be functionally related...
November 23, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884493/initial-genetic-dissection-of-serum-neuroactive-steroids-following-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-across-bxd-mouse-strains
#3
Patrizia Porcu, Todd K O'Buckley, Marcelo F Lopez, Howard C Becker, Michael F Miles, Robert W Williams, A Leslie Morrow
Neuroactive steroids modulate alcohol's impact on brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure alters neuroactive steroid levels in rats, humans, and some mouse strains. We conducted an exploratory analysis of the neuroactive steroids (3α,5α)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP), (3α,5α)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THDOC), and pregnenolone across 126-158 individuals and 19 fully inbred strains belonging to the BXD family, which were subjected to air exposure, or chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure...
November 10, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866807/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-identifies-dna-methylation-signals-differentiating-low-binge-from-heavy-alcohol-drinking
#4
Rita Cervera-Juanes, Larry J Wilhelm, Byung Park, Kathleen A Grant, Betsy Ferguson
Alcohol use disorders encompass a range of drinking levels and behaviors, including low, binge and heavy drinking. In this regard, investigating the neural state of individuals who chronically self-administer lower doses of alcohol may provide insight into mechanisms that prevent the escalation of alcohol use. DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms that stabilizes adaptations in gene expression and has been associated with alcohol use. Thus, we investigated DNA methylation, gene expression and the predicted neural effects in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) of male rhesus macaques categorized as "low" or "binge" drinkers, compared to "alcohol-naïve" and "heavy" drinkers based on drinking patterns during a 12 month alcohol self-administration protocol...
November 10, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865607/dna-modifications-in-models-of-alcohol-use-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Christopher T Tulisiak, R Adron Harris, Igor Ponomarev
Chronic alcohol use and abuse result in widespread changes to gene expression, some of which contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Gene expression is, in part, controlled by a group of regulatory systems often referred to as epigenetic factors, which includes, among other mechanisms, chemical marks made on the histone proteins around which genomic DNA is wound to form chromatin, and on nucleotides of the DNA itself. In particular, alcohol has been shown to perturb the epigenetic machinery, leading to changes in gene expression and cellular functions characteristic of AUD and, ultimately, to altered behavior...
November 9, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876231/paternal-preconception-alcohol-exposure-imparts-intergenerational-alcohol-related-behaviors-to-male-offspring-on-a-pure-c57bl-6j-background
#6
Gregory R Rompala, Andrey Finegersh, Michelle Slater, Gregg E Homanics
While alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a highly heritable condition, the basis of AUD in families with a history of alcoholism is difficult to explain by genetic variation alone. Emerging evidence suggests that parental experience prior to conception can impact inheritance of complex behaviors in offspring via non-genomic (epigenetic) mechanisms. For instance, male C57BL/6J (B6) mice exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol (CIE) prior to mating with Strain 129S1/SvImJ ethanol-naïve females produce male offspring with reduced ethanol drinking preference, increased ethanol sensitivity, and increased BDNF expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
November 5, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838001/the-allostatic-impact-of-chronic-ethanol-on-gene-expression-a-genetic-analysis-of-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-treatment-in-the-bxd-cohort
#7
Andrew D van der Vaart, Jennifer T Wolstenholme, Maren L Smith, Guy M Harris, Marcelo F Lopez, Aaron R Wolen, Howard C Becker, Robert W Williams, Michael F Miles
The transition from acute to chronic ethanol exposure leads to lasting behavioral and physiological changes such as increased consumption, dependence, and withdrawal. Changes in brain gene expression are hypothesized to underlie these adaptive responses to ethanol. Previous studies on acute ethanol identified genetic variation in brain gene expression networks and behavioral responses to ethanol across the BXD panel of recombinant inbred mice. In this work, we have performed the first joint genetic and genomic analysis of transcriptome shifts in response to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) by vapor chamber exposure in a BXD cohort...
November 1, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817987/adolescent-binge-pattern-alcohol-exposure-alters-genome-wide-dna-methylation-patterns-in-the-hypothalamus-of-alcohol-na%C3%A3-ve-male-offspring
#8
AnnaDorothea Asimes, Audrey Torcaso, Elena Pinceti, Chun K Kim, Nancy J Zeleznik-Le, Toni R Pak
Teenage binge drinking is a major health concern in the United States, with 21% of teenagers reporting binge-pattern drinking behavior in the last 30 days. Recently, our lab showed that alcohol-naïve offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence exhibited altered gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus, a brain region involved in stress regulation. We employed Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing as an unbiased approach to test the hypothesis that parental exposure to binge-pattern alcohol during adolescence alters DNA methylation profiles in their alcohol-naïve offspring...
October 24, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814928/mouse-strain-differences-in-punished-ethanol-self-administration
#9
Lindsay R Halladay, Adrina Kocharian, Andrew Holmes
Determining the neural factors contributing to compulsive behaviors such as alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) has become a significant focus of current preclinical research. Comparison of phenotypic differences across genetically distinct mouse strains provides one approach to identify molecular and genetic factors contributing to compulsive-like behaviors. Here we examine a rodent assay for punished ethanol self-administration in four widely used inbred strains known to differ on ethanol-related behaviors: C57BL/6J (B6), DBA/2J (D2), 129S1/SvImJ (S1), and BALB/cJ (BALB)...
October 18, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894806/genetic-divergence-in-the-transcriptional-engram-of-chronic-alcohol-abuse-a-laser-capture-rna-seq-study-of-the-mouse-mesocorticolimbic-system
#10
Megan K Mulligan, Khyobeni Mozhui, Ashutosh K Pandey, Maren L Smith, Suzhen Gong, Jesse Ingels, Michael F Miles, Marcelo F Lopez, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams
Genetic factors that influence the transition from initial drinking to dependence remain enigmatic. Recent studies have leveraged chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) paradigms to measure changes in brain gene expression in a single strain at 0, 8, 72 h, and even 7 days following CIE. We extend these findings using LCM RNA-seq to profile expression in 11 brain regions in two inbred strains - C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) - 72 h following multiple cycles of ethanol self-administration and CIE. Linear models identified differential expression based on treatment, region, strain, or interactions with treatment...
October 15, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793545/chronic-binge-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy-alters-rat-maternal-uterine-artery-pressure-response
#11
Vishal D Naik, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Katie L Davis-Anderson, Marcus Orzabal, Ivan Ivanov, Jayanth Ramadoss
We aimed to investigate pressure-dependent maternal uterine artery responses and vessel remodeling following gestational binge alcohol exposure. Two groups of pregnant rats were used: the alcohol group (28.5% wt/v, 6.0 g/kg, once-daily orogastric gavage in a binge paradigm between gestational day (GD) 5-19) and pair-fed controls (isocalorically matched). On GD20, excised, pressurized primary uterine arteries were studied following equilibration (60 mm Hg) using dual chamber arteriograph. The uterine artery diameter stabilized at 20 mm Hg, showed passive distension at 40 mm Hg, and redeveloped tone at 60 mm Hg...
October 13, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793543/variable-effects-of-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-exposure-on-ethanol-drinking-in-a-genetically-diverse-mouse-cohort
#12
Marcelo F Lopez, Michael F Miles, Robert W Williams, Howard C Becker
The BXD family of mice were generated by crossing and inbreeding ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J and ethanol-avoiding DBA/2J strains that differ greatly in genome sequence and other behaviors. This study evaluated variations in the level of voluntary ethanol intake in a cohort of 42 BXD strains and both progenitor strains using a model of alcohol dependence and relapse drinking. A total of 119 BXDs (85 males, 34 females) (n ∼ 4 per genotype; 1/genotype/sex/group) were evaluated along with males from both progenitor strains (n = 14-15/genotype)...
October 13, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916144/non-communicable-diseases-at-a-regional-hospital-in-nepal-findings-of-a-high-burden-of-alcohol-related-disease
#13
M S Amundsen, T M G Kirkeby, S Giri, R Koju, S S Krishna, B Ystgaard, E Solligård, K Risnes
Recent global burden of disease reports find that a major proportion of global deaths and disability worldwide can be attributed to alcohol use. Thus, it may be surprising that very few studies have reported on the burden of alcohol-related disease in low income settings. The evidence of non-communicable disease (NCD) burden in Nepal was recently reviewed and concluded that data is still lacking, particularly to describe the burden of alcohol-related diseases (ARDs). Therefore, here we report on NCD burden and specifically ARDs, in hospitalized patients at a regional hospital in Nepal...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916143/hyponatremia-effect-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-on-their-physical-and-mental-health-status
#14
Ordak Michal, Maj-Zurawska Magdalena, Matsumoto Halina, Bujalska-Zadrozny Magdalena, Nasierowski Tadeusz, Muszynska Elzbieta, Wojnar Marcin
Hyponatremia, i.e. reduction of sodium level in the blood plasma below 135 mmol/L, is one of the most common electrolyte disorders occurring in people addicted to alcohol. Numerous psychopathological symptoms may be significantly associated with its occurrence. Since sodium is one of the main bioelements, which is responsible for proper neuromuscular excitability maintenance and contributes in nerve impulses conduction, sodium balance disorders may be related to a risk to basic life functions. The tested group included 100 alcohol dependent patients (M = 90, F = 10)...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916142/alcohol-sensitivity-alcohol-use-and-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-in-older-chinese-men-the-guangzhou-biobank-cohort-study
#15
Shao Jun Xu, Chao Qiang Jiang, Wei Sen Zhang, Kar Keung Cheng, Catherine Mary Schooling, Lin Xu, Bin Liu, Ya Li Jin, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Tai Hing Lam
Compared to other ethnic groups Asians are more likely to be sensitive to alcohol, due to polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. Although previous studies have found positive association between regular alcohol use and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP), whether this association is modified by alcohol sensitivity has not been clarified. We therefore sought to examined this potential effect modification in a cross-sectional community sample with high prevalence of alcohol sensitivity, using data from 2903 men aged ≥50years recruited during phase 1 of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916141/dna-damage-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-and-association-with-polymorphisms-in-the-promoter-region-of-the-cyp2e1-gene-in-alcoholics-from-central-brazil
#16
Jheneffer Sonara Aguiar Ramos, Alessandro Arruda Alves, Mariana Paiva Lopes, Thays Millena Alves Pedroso, Leandro Prado Felício, Wanessa Fernandes Carvalho, Fernanda Craveiro Franco, Caroline Oliveira Araújo Melo, Macks Wendhell Gonçalves, Thannya Nascimento Soares, Aparecido Divino da Cruz, Daniela de Melo E Silva
DNA damage caused by the accumulation of bio-products generated in the biotransformation of ethanol to acetaldehyde mediated by the CYP2E1 enzyme has been studied. To evaluate DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes and the possible association with polymorphisms in the promoter region of the CYP2E1 gene, we performed a case-control study including 75 alcoholics and 59 individuals who consume alcohol socially. Alcoholics were previously diagnosed by the Psychosocial Care Center - Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS A/D) in the city of Goiania, Goias state, Central Brazil...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916140/moderate-alcohol-consumption-after-a-mental-stressor-attenuates-the-endocrine-stress-response
#17
I C Schrieks, M M Joosten, W A A Klöpping-Ketelaars, R F Witkamp, H F J Hendriks
Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is limited. Therefore, our objective was to study whether moderate alcohol consumption immediately after a mental stressor attenuates the stress response. Twenty-four healthy men (age 21-40 y, BMI 18-27 kg/m(2)) participated in a placebo-controlled trial...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916139/effects-of-an-ethanol-paired-cs-on-responding-for-ethanol-and-food-comparisons-with-a-stimulus-in-a-truly-random-control-group-and-to-a-food-paired-cs-on-responding-for-food
#18
R J Lamb, Brett C Ginsburg, Charles W Schindler
Motivational increases due to exposure to alcohol-paired Conditioned Stimuli (CS) are central to some accounts of alcoholism. However, few studies isolate a stimulus's function as a CS from its other potential functions. Pavlovian-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) procedures isolate a stimulus's function as a CS from its other functions. Though there are several relevant studies using PIT, knowledge gaps exist. Particularly, it is not clear that an alcohol-paired CS will increase alcohol seeking compared to the same stimulus in a Truly-Random-Control group, nor whether such increases are specific to alcohol seeking...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916138/alcohol-exposure-differentially-effects-anti-tumor-immunity-in-females-by-altering-dendritic-cell-function
#19
Matthew G Thompson, Flor Navarro, Lennox Chitsike, Luis Ramirez, Elizabeth J Kovacs, Stephanie K Watkins
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a critical component of anti-tumor immunity due to their ability to induce a robust immune response to antigen (Ag). Alcohol was previously shown to reduce DC ability to present foreign Ag and promote pro-inflammatory responses in situations of infection and trauma. However the impact of alcohol exposure on generation of an anti-tumor response, especially in the context of generation of an immune vaccine has not been examined. In the clinic, DC vaccines are typically generated from autologous blood, therefore prior exposure to substances such as alcohol may be a critical factor to consider regarding the effectiveness in generating an immune response...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793544/modulation-of-ethanol-reward-sensitivity-by-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-containing-the-%C3%AE-6-subunit
#20
Melissa J Guildford, Anthony V Sacino, Andrew R Tapper
The prevalent co-abuse of nicotine and alcohol suggests a common neural mechanism underlying the actions of the two drugs. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco, activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α6 subunit (α6* nAChRs) in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a region known to be crucial for drug reward. Recent evidence suggests that ethanol may potentiate ACh activation of these receptors as well, although whether α6* nAChR expression is necessary for behavioral effects of acute ethanol exposure is unknown...
December 2016: Alcohol
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