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Alcohol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277285/the-effects-of-working-memory-load-and-attention-refocusing-on-delay-discounting-rates-in-alcohol-use-disorder-with-comorbid-antisocial-personality-disorder
#1
Rachel L Gunn, Kyle R Gerst, Allison J Lake, Peter R Finn
Executive working memory capacity (eWMC) is central to adaptive decision-making. Research has revealed reduced eWMC and higher rates of impulsive decision making in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs: DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence of Alcohol Abuse) and antisocial psychopathology (AP). Recent work has shown that placing a load on working memory (WM) further increases impulsive decision making on the delay discounting (DD) task in those with AUDs and AP. The current study examined the effects of an attention refocusing manipulation to offset the effects of this WM-load on DD rates in control subjects, those with AUDs without AP, and AUDs with AP (AUD-AP)...
February 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277284/alcohol-withdrawal-upregulates-mrna-encoding-for-cav2-1-%C3%AE-1-subunit-in-the-rat-inferior-colliculus
#2
Jamila Newton, Shubhankar Suman, Luli R Akinfiresoye, Kamal Datta, David M Lovinger, Prosper N'Gouemo
We previously reported increased current density through P-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in inferior colliculus (IC) neurons during alcohol withdrawal. However, the molecular correlate of this increased P-type channel current is currently unknown. Here, we probe changes in mRNA and protein expression of the pore-forming CaV2.1-α1 (P/Q-type) subunits in IC neurons during the course of alcohol withdrawal-induced seizures (AWSs). Rats received three daily doses of ethanol or the vehicle every 8 h for 4 consecutive days...
February 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277283/correlation-between-blood-alcohol-concentration-bac-breath-alcohol-concentration-brac-and-psychomotor-evaluation-in-a-clinical-monitored-study-of-alcohol-intake-in-brazil
#3
Ana Paula Drummond-Lage, Rodrigo Gomes de Freitas, Gabriel Cruz, Luigi Perillo, Marco Antonio Paiva, Alberto Julius Alves Wainstein
BACKGROUND: Policies that establish maximum blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) or breath alcohol concentration (BrACs) for drivers while driving can reduce traffic accidents by approximately 20%. In Brazil, the National Transit Council (CONTRAN) considers positive BAC and/or BrAC tests or signs of psychomotor capacity alterations as evaluated by a police authority to be an administrative infraction or even a crime. The observed clinical symptoms of alcohol intoxication based on a subject's appearance may not necessarily reflect the quantified BAC and/or BrAC...
February 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277282/evaluation-of-laboratory-tests-for-cirrhosis-and-for-alcohol-use-in-the-context-of-alcoholic-cirrhosis
#4
John B Whitfield, Steven Masson, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Jessica Hyman, Sebastian Mueller, Guruprasad Aithal, Florian Eyer, Dermot Gleeson, Andrew Thompson, Felix Stickel, Michael Soyka, Ann K Daly, Heather J Cordell, Tiebing Liang, Tatiana Foroud, Lawrence Lumeng, Munir Pirmohamed, Bertrand Nalpas, Camille Bence, Jean-Marc Jacquet, Alexandre Louvet, Romain Moirand, Pierre Nahon, Sylvie Naveau, Pascal Perney, Philippe Podevin, Paul S Haber, Helmut K Seitz, Christopher P Day, Philippe Mathurin, Timothy M Morgan, Devanshi Seth
Laboratory tests can play an important role in assessment of alcoholic patients, including for evaluation of liver damage and as markers of alcohol intake. Evidence on test performance should lead to better selection of appropriate tests and improved interpretation of results. We compared laboratory test results from 1578 patients between cases (with alcoholic cirrhosis; 753 men, 243 women) and controls (with equivalent lifetime alcohol intake but no liver disease; 439 men, 143 women). Comparisons were also made between 631 cases who had reportedly been abstinent from alcohol for over 60 days and 364 who had not...
February 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084632/impact-of-a-brief-intervention-on-reducing-alcohol-use-and-increasing-alcohol-treatment-services-utilization-among-alcohol-and-drug-using-adult-emergency-department-patients
#5
Roland C Merchant, Justin Romanoff, Zihao Zhang, Tao Liu, Janette R Baird
Most previous brief intervention (BI) studies have focused on alcohol or drug use, instead of both substances. Our primary aim was to determine if an alcohol- and drug-use BI reduced alcohol use and increased alcohol treatment services utilization among adult emergency department (ED) patients who drink alcohol and require an intervention for their drug use. Our secondary aims were to assess when the greatest relative reductions in alcohol use occurred, and which patients (stratified by need for an alcohol use intervention) reduced their alcohol use the most...
December 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084630/progressive-white-matter-atrophy-with-altered-lipid-profiles-is-partially-reversed-by-short-term-abstinence-in-an-experimental-model-of-alcohol-related-neurodegeneration
#6
Emine B Yalcin, Tory McLean, Ming Tong, Suzanne M de la Monte
Chronic ethanol exposure causes white matter (WM) atrophy and degeneration with major impairments in the structural integrity of myelin. Since myelin is composed of oligodendrocyte lipid-rich membranes, understanding the consequences and reversibility of alcohol-related oligodendrocyte dysfunction in relation to myelin structure could provide new insights into the pathogenesis of WM degeneration and potential strategies for treatment. Adult male Long Evans rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diets containing 0% or 26% ethanol (caloric) for 3 or 8 weeks...
December 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965657/interactive-effects-of-ethanol-on-ulcerative-colitis-and-its-associated-testicular-dysfunction-in-pubertal-balb-c-mice
#7
Isaac A Adedara, Babajide O Ajayi, Ifeoluwa O Awogbindin, Ebenezer O Farombi
Available epidemiological reports have indicated an increase in the incidence of ulcerative colitis, as well as alcohol consumption, globally. The present study investigated the possible interactive effects of ethanol consumption on ulcerative colitis and its associated testicular dysfunction using six groups of 12 pubertal mice each. Group I (Control) mice received drinking water alone. Group II mice received ethanol alone at 5 g/kg body weight. Group III mice received 2.5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in drinking water followed by normal drinking water...
November 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965656/effects-of-binge-alcohol-exposure-on-burkholderia-thailandensis-alveolar-macrophage-interaction
#8
Victor Jimenez, Ryan Moreno, Emily Kaufman, Heidie Hornstra, Erik Settles, Bart J Currie, Paul Keim, Fernando P Monroy
Alcohol consumption has diverse and well-documented effects on the human immune system and its ability to defend against infective agents. One example is melioidosis, a disease caused by infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is of public health importance in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, with an expanding global distribution. While B. pseudomallei infections can occur in healthy humans, binge alcohol use is progressively being recognized as a major risk factor. Although binge alcohol consumption has been considered as a risk factor for the development of melioidosis, no experimental studies have investigated the outcomes of alcohol exposure on Burkholderia spp...
November 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965655/the-new-kisspeptin-derivative-kissorphin-kso-attenuates-acute-hyperlocomotion-and-sensitization-induced-by-ethanol-and-morphine-in-mice
#9
Ewa Gibula-Bruzda, Marta Marszalek-Grabska, Kinga Gawel, Roza Trzcinska, Jerzy Silberring, Jolanta H Kotlinska
Kissorphin (KSO) is a new peptide derived from kisspeptin-10. This peptide possesses neuropeptide FF (NPFF)-like biological activity in vitro; NPFF, in many cases, inhibits opioid and ethanol effects in rodents. Therefore, the current study explored the influence of KSO on acute ethanol- and morphine-induced hyperactivity, and on the development and expression of locomotor sensitization induced by these drugs. In the present study, sensitization to locomotor effects was induced by repeated exposure to ethanol (2...
November 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965654/broad-spectrum-protein-kinase-inhibition-by-the-staurosporine-analog-kt-5720-reverses-ethanol-withdrawal-associated-loss-of-neun-fox-3
#10
Anna R Reynolds, Meredith A Saunders, Jennifer N Berry, Lynda J Sharrett-Field, Sydney Winchester, Mark A Prendergast
Chronic, intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure is known to produce neuroadaptive alterations in excitatory neurotransmission that contribute to the development of dependence. Although activation of protein kinases (e.g., cyclic AMP [cAMP]-dependent protein kinase) is implicated in the synaptic trafficking of these receptors following CIE exposure, the functional consequences of these effects are yet to be fully understood. The present study sought to delineate the influence of protein kinase in regulating cytotoxicity following CIE exposure, as well as to examine the relative roles of ethanol exposure and ethanol withdrawal (EWD) in promoting these effects...
November 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965653/alcohol-use-disorders-and-suicide-results-from-a-psychological-autopsy-study-in-australia
#11
Kairi Kõlves, Brian M Draper, John Snowdon, Diego De Leo
INTRODUCTION: People who die by suicide have a higher risk of an alcohol-use disorder (AUD) at the time of death. The present study aims to compare 1) suicide cases with and without AUD, and 2) suicide and sudden-death controls with AUD. METHODS: The psychological autopsy method was utilized to investigate suicide and sudden death in Australia (QLD and NSW). Initial information was gathered from coroners' offices. Potential informants were approached and semi-structured interviews were conducted...
November 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965652/increased-risk-of-pyogenic-liver-abscess-in-patients-with-alcohol-intoxication-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Yao-Chien Wang, Kai-Wei Yang, Tien-Ying Peter Lee, Cheng-Li Lin, Geng-Wang Liaw, Dong-Zong Hung, Chia-Hung Kao, Wei-Kung Chen, Tse-Yen Yang
We designed a population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the association between the event of alcohol intoxication and the risk of pyogenic liver abscess. The present study enrolled 245,076 patients with a history of alcohol intoxication from 2000 to 2010 and matched each of them with four comparison patients, with similar mean age and sex ratios. We determined the cumulative incidences and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of liver abscess. A significant association was observed between alcohol intoxication and liver abscess...
November 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965651/altered-functional-connectivity-during-spatial-working-memory-in-children-with-heavy-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#13
M Alejandra Infante, Eileen M Moore, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Susan F Tapert, Sarah N Mattson, Edward P Riley
Individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol often have impaired spatial working memory (SWM). This study examines functional connections of frontal and parietal regions that support SWM in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. Children ages 10 to 16 with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE group; n = 18) and controls (CON group; n = 19) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a SWM task. Whole brain task-related functional connectivity of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) seed regions were estimated for each participant using a psychophysiological interaction approach...
November 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965650/acute-ethanol-intoxication-suppresses-pentraxin-3-expression-in-a-mouse-sepsis-model-involving-cecal-ligation-and-puncture
#14
Shogo Kasuda, Risa Kudo, Katsuya Yuui, Yoshihiko Sakurai, Katsuhiko Hatake
Acute ethanol intoxication impairs immunological reactions and increases the risk of sepsis; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Pentraxin (PTX) 3 is a humoral pattern recognition receptor whose levels rapidly increase in response to inflammation. PTX3 production is triggered by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and is mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). As PTX3 exerts protective effects against sepsis as well as acute lung injury, we investigated whether acute ethanol exposure exacerbates sepsis by altering PTX3 expression...
November 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127884/regional-dysregulation-of-taurine-and-related-amino-acids-in-the-fetal-rat-brain-following-gestational-alcohol-exposure
#15
Raine Lunde-Young, Katie Davis-Anderson, Vishal Naik, Matthew Nemec, Guoyao Wu, Jayanth Ramadoss
The fetal brain exhibits exquisite alcohol-induced regional neuronal vulnerability. A candidate mechanism for alcohol-mediated brain deficits is disruption of amino acid (AA) bioavailability. AAs are vitally important for proper neurodevelopment, as they comprise the most abundant neurotransmitters in the brain and act as neurotransmitter precursors, nitric oxide donors, antioxidants, and neurotrophic factors, which induce synaptogenesis, neuronal proliferation, and migration. We hypothesized that gestational alcohol alters brain AA concentrations, disrupts AAs associated with neuropathogenesis, and that alterations are region-specific...
September 30, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220747/effects-of-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-modulation-on-ethanol-and-sucrose-seeking-and-consumption-in-the-rat
#16
Kyle A Windisch, Cristine L Czachowski
Previous studies suggest that group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) are involved in regulating ethanol-seeking and consumption. The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (LY37) and selective mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator biphenyl‑indanone A (BINA) were used to investigate the relative contribution of mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors on ethanol- and sucrose-seeking and consumption. A microinjection study was then performed to examine the role of nucleus accumbens (NAc) core mGluR2/3 on ethanol-seeking. For the systemic experiments, separate groups of male Wistar rats [LY37 (0-2...
September 23, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127885/summary-of-the-2016-alcohol-and-immunology-research-interest-group-airig-meeting
#17
REVIEW
Lisbeth A Boule, Cynthia Ju, Marisela Agudelo, Tiyash Parira, Abigail Cannon, Booker Davis, Jonathan Eby, Gail Cresci, Derrick R Samuelson, Pradeep Shukla, Waddah A Alrefai, Suhas Sureshchandra, Subhash C Pandey, Bernd Schnabl, Brenda J Curtis, Todd A Wyatt, Mashkoor A Choudhry, Elizabeth J Kovacs
On November 18, 2016 the 21st annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Center for Translational Research and Education at Loyola University Chicago's Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, IL. The 2016 meeting focused broadly on alcohol and inflammation, epigenetics, and the microbiome. The four plenary sessions of the meeting were Alcohol, Inflammation, and Immunity; Alcohol and Epigenetics; Alcohol, Transcriptional Regulation, and Epigenetics; and Alcohol, Intestinal Mucosa, and the Gut Microbiome...
September 23, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084629/urinary-bladder-volume-measured-in-whole-body-ct-scans-is-a-useful-marker-for-alcohol-intoxication
#18
Denis Gümbel, Frank Schneidler, Matthias Frank, Britta Bockholdt, Peter Hinz, Matthias Napp, Romy Spitzmüller, Axel Ekkernkamp, Sönke Langner
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether urinary bladder volume (UBV) and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) correlate in a cohort of emergency trauma patients. Furthermore, the feasibility of semi-automated 3D-CT volumetry for urinary bladder volumetry calculations in whole-body CT examinations was elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Whole-body CT scans of 831 individuals treated in the emergency department with suspected multiple injuries were included...
September 23, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084628/first-description-and-evaluation-of-snps-in-the-adh-and-aldh-genes-in-a-population-of-alcoholics-in-central-west-brazil
#19
Thallita Monteiro Teixeira, Hugo Delleon da Silva, Rebeca Mota Goveia, Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla, Diego Peres Alonso, Alessandro Arruda Alves, Daniela Melo E Silva, Rosane Garcia Collevatti, Lucilene Arilho Bicudo, Nádia Aparecida Bérgamo, Elisângela de Paula Silveira-Lacerda
Worldwide, different studies have reported an association of alcohol-use disorder (AUD) with different types of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). In Brazil, there is little information about the occurrence of these SNPs in the AUD population and an absence of studies characterizing the population in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Actually, in Brazil, there are more than 4 million people with AUD. Despite the major health hazards of AUD, information on alcohol consumption and its consequences are not well understood...
September 23, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084631/hazardous-alcohol-use-among-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-depression
#20
Mythily Subramaniam, Mithila Valli Mahesh, Chao Xu Peh, Junda Tan, Restria Fauziana, Pratika Satghare, Bhanu Gupta, Kandasami Gomathinayagam, Siow Ann Chong
AIMS: The current study aimed to 1) report the prevalence of hazardous alcohol use in an outpatient population among those with schizophrenia and depressive disorders, 2) assess the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of hazardous alcohol use, 3) examine the association of hazardous alcohol use with severity of depression, anxiety and smoking, and 4) assess the association of hazardous alcohol use with quality of life. METHODS: Three hundred ten outpatients seeking treatment at a tertiary psychiatric institute with a diagnosis of either schizophrenia spectrum disorder or depressive disorder were included in the study...
September 22, 2017: Alcohol
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