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Brenda J Curtis, Jill A Shults, Devin M Boe, Luis Ramirez, Elizabeth J Kovacs
Cutaneous burn injury is one of the most devastating injuries one can obtain with tissue damage extending beyond the skin wound to distal organs, including the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and lungs. Multiple organ failure is a leading cause of death after burn injury resulting in excessive systemic and localized inflammation directly contributing to end organ damage. We postulated that the gut-liver-lung inflammatory axis underscores multiple organ failure in the context of burn injury and is hyper-activated when ethanol intoxication precedes burn...
September 11, 2018: Alcohol
Derrick R Samuelson, Robert W Siggins, Sanbao Ruan, Angela M Amedee, Jiusong Sun, Quan Karen Zhu, Wayne A Marasco, Christopher M Taylor, Meng Luo, David A Welsh, Judd E Shellito
Alcohol use in persons living with HIV (PLWH) worsens the severity of bacterial pneumonia. However, the exact mechanism(s) by which this occurs remain ill-defined. We hypothesized that alcohol in the setting of HIV infection decreases S. pneumoniae clearance from the lung through mechanisms mediated by the gut microbiota. Humanized BLT (bone marrow, liver, thymus) mice were infected with 1x104 TCID50 of HIV (BAL and JRCSF strains) via IP injection. One week post HIV infection animals were switched to a Lieber-DeCarli 5% ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet for 10 days, alcohol-fed animals were also given 2 binges of 2 g kg-1 ethanol on days 5 and 10...
September 10, 2018: Alcohol
Jeanette Gaydos, Alicia McNally, Ellen L Burnham
Community-acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae occurs commonly in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Pneumonia in the AUD patient is associated with poorer outcomes, and specific therapies to mitigate disease severity in these patients do not exist. Numerous investigations have attributed increased severity of pneumonia in AUDs to aberrant function of the alveolar macrophage (AM), a lung immune cell critical in host defense initiation. No studies have examined the response of human AMs to S. pneumoniae in AUDs...
September 5, 2018: Alcohol
Yan Wang, Daniel J Fridberg, Robert F Leeman, Robert L Cook, Eric C Porges
Wearable alcohol biosensors have emerged as a valuable tool for noninvasive, objective and continuous monitoring of alcohol consumption. However, to date their research and clinical applications have been limited by several factors including large size, high cost, and social stigma. In contrast, recently developed wrist-worn alcohol biosensors are smaller, less expensive, and may be more acceptable for daily use. However, these devices are at the prototype phase and have just begun to be tested for research applications...
September 1, 2018: Alcohol
John D Roache, Tara E Karns-Wright, Martin Goros, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, Charles W Mathias, Donald M Dougherty
BACKGROUND: Several studies have objectively quantified drinking through the use of Alcohol Monitoring System's (AMS) transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) device known as SCRAM CAM. Criteria that AMS uses to detect drinking are known to be conservative and only reliably detect heavy drinking equivalent to 5 or more standard drinks. Our group has developed Research Rules used to process TAC data in a manner that will detect low-level and moderate drinking even though it is below the AMS criteria for detection...
September 1, 2018: Alcohol
Catharine E Fairbairn, I Gary Rosen, Susan E Luczak, Walter J Venerable
Transdermal alcohol sensors offer enormous promise for the continuous, objective assessment of alcohol use. Although these sensors have been employed as abstinence monitors for some time now, it is only recently that models have been developed aimed at allowing researchers to derive estimates of the precise amount and time course of drinking directly from transdermal data. Using data from a combined laboratory-ambulatory study, the current research aims to examine the validity of recently developed methods for estimating BrAC (breath alcohol concentration) directly from transdermal data...
September 1, 2018: Alcohol
Helen Cheng, Adrian Furnham
Our objective was to investigate various psychological and socio-demographic factors in childhood and adulthood that relate to alcohol intake and binge drinking at age 42 years. Data were drawn from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70), a prospective longitudinal study monitoring the development of babies born in the in 1970 with nine follow-ups. The analytic sample comprised 5267 cohort members with data on parental social class at birth, cognitive ability at age 10, locus of control at age 16, psychological distress at age 30, educational qualifications at age 34, and current occupation and alcohol consumption at age 42 years...
September 1, 2018: Alcohol
Emily K Grantham, Sean P Farris
Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is a multifarious psychiatric condition resulting from complex relationships between genetics, gene expression, neuroadaptations, and environmental influences. Understanding these complex relationships is essential to uncovering the mechanisms involved in the development and progression of AUD, with the ultimate goal of devising effective behavioral and therapeutic interventions. Technical advances in the fields of omics-based research and bioinformatics have yielded insights into gene interactions, biological networks, and cellular responses across humans and animal models...
August 22, 2018: Alcohol
Karienn S Montgomery, Eric A Bancroft, Annette S Fincher, Ewelina A Migut, Vincent Provasek, David Murchison, Dustin W DuBois
Perinatal ethanol exposure disrupts a variety of developmental processes in neurons important for establishing a healthy brain. These ethanol-induced impairments known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are not fully understood, and currently, there is no effective treatment. Further, growing evidence suggests that adult females are more susceptible to ethanol, with the effects of perinatal ethanol exposure also being sexually divergent. Female models have been historically underutilized in neurophysiological investigations, but here, we used a third-trimester binge-ethanol model of FASD to examine changes to basal forebrain (BF) physiology and behavior in female Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 2018: Alcohol
Catherine A Staton, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Rachel Wojcik, Jon Mark Hirshon, Mark Mvungi, Blandina T Mmbaga, Monica Swahn
Annually, alcohol causes 3.3 million deaths; countless more alcohol-related injury patients are treated in emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. Studies show that alcohol-related injury patients reduce their at-risk alcohol-use behavior with a brief negotiational interview (BNI) in the ED. This project aims to identify potential perceived barriers to implementing a BNI in Tanzania. A knowledge, attitude, and practice questionnaire was piloted and administered to all emergency department health care practitioners, including physicians, advanced medical officers, and nurses...
September 2018: Alcohol
Julie A Thompson, Noel Martinson, Melissa Martinson
Rising mortality in the United States due to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and the dearth of effective treatments for ALD have led to increased research in this area, particularly in alcoholic hepatitis. To understand the burden of illness and potential economic value of effective treatments, we conducted a health care claims analysis of over 15,000 commercially insured adults who were hospitalized with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) between 2006 and 2013 and followed for up to 5 years. Their average age was 54 years and 68% were male...
September 2018: Alcohol
Gregory C Loney, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi, Delna Kapadia, Paul J Meyer
The conditioned taste aversion (CTA) induced by ethanol is a key factor limiting ethanol intake. Nicotine, a drug co-consumed with ethanol, may decrease this aversion by modulating the unconditioned effects of ethanol or by disrupting the association between ethanol and its associated cues. This study analyzed ethanol-induced CTA and conditioned place aversion (CPA) in Long-Evans rats with subchronic exposure to nicotine. The rats were treated with nicotine (0.0 or 0.4 mg/kg) three times before conditioning (on lickometer training sessions 3, 4, and 5) and across conditioning days...
September 2018: Alcohol
Deborah A Finn, Melinda L Helms, Michelle A Nipper, Allison Cohen, Jeremiah P Jensen, Leslie L Devaud
Alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) are characterized by repeated episodes of binge drinking. Based on reports that exposure to predator odor stress (PS) consistently increases ethanol intake, the present studies examined whether prior binge drinking differentially altered responsivity to PS and subsequent ethanol intake in male and female mice, when compared to mice without prior binge exposure. Initial studies in naïve male and female C57BL/6J mice confirmed that 30-min exposure to dirty rat bedding significantly increased plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels and anxiety-related behavior, justifying the use of dirty rat bedding as PS in the subsequent drinking studies...
September 2018: Alcohol
Boris Castillo-Chabeco, Gloria Figueroa, Tiyash Parira, Jacqueline Napuri, Marisela Agudelo
Inflammation supports the progression of alcohol-related organ injury. Recent research findings have linked ethanol exposure to changes in histone acetylation and deacetylation in the brain and in peripheral tissues, leading to ethanol-dependence related damage. One of the mechanisms that has been shown to play a major role during inflammation is the cannabinoid system. Previous research has demonstrated that ethanol can modulate cannabinoid receptors' functions. Our lab has shown that the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR55), a novel cannabinoid receptor, is upregulated in binge drinkers and in cells treated acutely with ethanol...
September 2018: Alcohol
Fabiola Hernández-Vázquez, Cosette Reyes-Guzmán, Milagros Méndez
Clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between novelty-seeking behavior and the susceptibility to consume drugs of abuse. Although several animal studies have demonstrated this correlation with psychostimulants or morphine, studies with alcohol have shown conflicting results. The aim of this work was to investigate alcohol-induced motor effects in Wistar rats with different responses to novelty. Animals were classified as Low- (LR) or High-Responders (HR) to novelty, depending on their horizontal activity in an automated open field...
September 2018: Alcohol
Sarah Soyeon Oh, Woorim Kim, Kyu-Tae Han, Eun-Cheol Park, Sung-In Jang
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between drinking behavior (alcohol consumption frequency, average alcohol intake per drinking session) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components (central obesity, raised triglycerides, decreased HDL cholesterol, raised blood pressure, raised fasting plasma glucose) in Korean men and women above the age of 20. METHODS: Our study employed data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) for the years 2007-2013...
September 2018: Alcohol
Cheng Huang, Xiong-Wen Lv, Tao Xu, Ming-Ming Ni, Jia-Lu Xia, Shuang-Peng Cai, Qun Zhou, Xing Li, Yang Yang, Lei Zhang, Hong-Wei Yao, Xiao-Ming Meng, Hua Wang, Jun Li
BACKGROUND: An increase in alcohol consumption and related harmful effects has been reported among the elderly population in Asia. Of note, it is important to monitor patterns of alcohol use, and to establish a valid and reliable evaluation system when screening for risky consumption in this age group. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible alcoholic liver disease (ALD) risk factors of a local population in elderly Chinese adults. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 3393 Chinese adults over 40 years old in Hefei...
September 2018: Alcohol
Luis-Gabriel Mendoza-Ruiz, Priscila Vázquez-León, Lucía Martínez-Mota, Eduardo Ramírez San Juan, Abraham Miranda-Páez
Human adolescents who drink alcohol are more likely to become alcoholics in adulthood. Alcohol administration (intraperitoneally) or drinking (in a 2-bottle free choice paradigm) during the juvenile/adolescent age of rats promotes voluntary alcohol consumption in adulthood. On the other hand, there is growing evidence that the orexinergic system plays a role in several rewarded behaviors, including alcohol ingestion. Since it is unknown what effect is exerted in adulthood by forced oral ethanol intake and/or administration of orexin-A (OX-A) in juvenile rats, the present study aimed to evaluate this question...
August 2018: Alcohol
Sara Vitoria-Estruch, Angel Romero-Martínez, Marisol Lila, Luis Moya-Albiol
Despite extensive evidence of heterogeneity in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrator profiles, there has been little research into neuropsychological deficits that might help us understand differences within this violent population. Moreover, studies on this topic have not paid much attention to the role of alcohol abuse in neuropsychological domains of IPV perpetrators. Hence, the current study was designed to examine neuropsychological differences among individuals who have committed domestic violence with high (n = 28, HA) and low (n = 35, LA) levels of alcohol consumption, and non-violent individuals (n = 37) to establish differential neuropsychological profiles...
August 2018: Alcohol
Rifqi O Affan, Siyuan Huang, Stephen M Cruz, Lee A Holcomb, Edward Nguyen, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic alcohol consumption (also termed binge drinking) contributes to a wide range of health and cognitive deficits, but the associated brain-based indices are poorly understood. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine spontaneous neural oscillations in young adults as a function of quantity, frequency, and the pattern of their alcohol consumption. Sixty-one young adults (23.4 ± 3.4 years of age) were assigned to binge drinking (BD) and light drinking (LD) groups that were equated on gender, race/ethnic identity, age, educational background, and family history of alcoholism...
August 2018: Alcohol
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