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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571046/the-contributions-of-dr-kathleen-k-sulik-to-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-research-and-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Scott E Parnell, Edward P Riley, Kenneth R Warren, Kathleen T Mitchell, Michael E Charness
Dr. Kathleen Sulik (Kathy) has spent 35 years studying fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Beginning with her landmark 1981 Science paper describing the early gestational window when alcohol can cause the craniofacial malformations characteristic of FAS, Kathy has contributed a vast amount of research furthering our knowledge of FASD. After her seminal work that definitively demonstrated that alcohol is the causative factor in FAS, she and her lab went on to explore and define the stage-dependent effects of early gestational alcohol exposure on the face and brain in numerous different ways throughout her career...
June 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550584/proceedings-of-the-2017-annual-meeting-of-the-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-study-group
#2
REVIEW
Jeffrey R Wozniak, Anna Y Klintsova, Derek A Hamilton, Sandra M Mooney
The 2017 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting was titled "Prenatal alcohol exposure in the context of multiple factors affecting brain development." The theme was reflected in the interactions between members of the Teratology Society and the FASDSG this year. The first keynote speaker, Elaine Faustman, Ph.D., was a liaison between the societies and spoke about systems biology and the multiple genetic and environmental influences on development. The second keynote speaker, Rebecca Knickmeyer, Ph...
June 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550583/yawning-elicited-by-intravenous-ethanol-in-rhesus-monkeys-with-experience-self-administering-cocaine-and-ethanol-involvement-of-dopamine-d-3-receptors
#3
Paul W Czoty, William S John, Amy Hauck Newman, Michael A Nader
Characterization of the effects of long-term alcohol consumption on the brain would be aided by the development of behavioral assays that are relatively easy to implement in animal models of alcohol use disorders. Assessing unconditioned behaviors, such as drug-elicited yawning in models that permit long-term alcohol ingestion, may be a valuable complement to more invasive and costly procedures. The present studies investigated previous unexpected findings of ethanol-induced yawning in nonhuman primates. Subjects were adult male rhesus monkeys (n = 8), all of which had experience self-administering intravenous cocaine for several years...
June 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529507/borderline-personality-disorder-symptoms-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-actively-drinking-alcoholics
#4
George Fein, Mathew Price, Valerie A Cardenas
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often a complicating comorbid factor in alcohol use disorders and substance use disorders. Previous work showed that abstinent alcoholics endorsed lifetime and current symptoms of most of the BPD criteria at much higher rates than controls, with much higher symptom counts for short-term abstinent alcoholic (STAA) women than men, which is consistent with such symptoms negatively affecting female alcoholics' ability to maintain abstinence. Because prior work has also shown that treatment-naïve alcoholics (TNA) are not the same as treated alcoholics observed earlier in their alcohol dependence, but rather are a different population with potentially lower psychiatric comorbidity, in this study we compared BPD symptom criteria between TNA samples of comparable age to the control and STAA samples, including both men and women and individuals dependent on alcohol only or with lifetime dependence on both alcohol and drugs...
May 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525685/involvement-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-cross-sensitization-between-chronic-unpredictable-stress-and-ethanol-in-adolescent-and-adult-mice
#5
Jaqueline Borges Santos-Rocha, Mariana Rae, Ana Maria Aristimunho Teixeira, Simone Aparecida Teixeira, Carolina Demarchi Munhoz, Marcelo Nicolas Muscará, Tania Marcourakis, Karen K Szumlinski, Rosana Camarini
The peculiar neurochemical profile of the adolescent brain renders it differently susceptible to several stimuli, including stress and/or drug exposure. Among several stress mediators, nitric oxide (NO) has a role in stress responses. We have demonstrated that adolescent mice are less sensitive to ethanol-induced sensitization than adult mice. The present study investigated whether chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induces behavioral sensitization to ethanol in adolescent and adult Swiss mice, and investigated the influence of Ca2+ -dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the phenomenon...
May 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477921/reduced-expression-of-purinergic-p2x4-receptors-increases-voluntary-ethanol-intake-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#6
Sheraz Khoja, Nhat Huynh, Liana Asatryan, Michael W Jakowec, Daryl L Davies
Purinergic P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) belong to the P2X superfamily of ionotropic receptors that are gated by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Accumulating evidence indicates that P2X4Rs play an important role in regulation of ethanol intake. At the molecular level, ethanol's inhibitory effects on P2X4Rs are antagonized by ivermectin (IVM), in part, via action on P2X4Rs. Behaviorally, male mice deficient in the p2rx4 gene (P2X4R knockout [KO]) have been shown to exhibit a transient increase in ethanol intake over a period of 4 days, as demonstrated by social and binge drinking paradigms...
May 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477030/association-between-alcoholism-and-the-gene-encoding-the-endocannabinoid-synthesizing-enzyme-diacylglycerol-lipase-alpha-in-the-japanese-population
#7
Hiroki Ishiguro, Susumu Higuchi, Tadao Arinami, Emmanuel S Onaivi
The endocannabinoid system has been recognized to be involved in neuropsychiatric diseases. 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) is one of the two main endocannabinoids, and their regulation could play roles in disorders under environmental influence. This study investigated the involvement of the 2-AG biosynthesizing enzyme diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLA) in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. We investigated a possible association between alcoholism and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human DAGLA gene in the Japanese population...
May 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453023/implications-of-altered-maternal-cytokine-concentrations-on-infant-outcomes-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#8
K D Sowell, J Y Uriu-Adams, J Van de Water, C D Chambers, C D Coles, J A Kable, L Yevtushok, N Zymak-Zakutnya, W Wertelecki, C L Keen
Excessive alcohol consumption has been shown to increase serum plasma levels of numerous immune cytokines. Maternal immune activation and elevated cytokines have been implicated in certain neurological disorders (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) in the offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated cytokines during pregnancy are a risk factor in women who gave birth to a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) or a child with neurobehavioral impairment, regardless of prenatal alcohol exposure...
May 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448234/gene-expression-changes-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-alcohol-preferring-p-rats-following-binge-like-alcohol-drinking
#9
Jeanette N McClintick, William J McBride, Richard L Bell, Zheng-Ming Ding, Yunlong Liu, Xiaoling Xuei, Howard J Edenberg
Binge drinking of alcohol during adolescence is a serious public health concern with long-term consequences, including decreased hippocampal and prefrontal cortex volume and deficits in memory. We used RNA sequencing to assess the effects of adolescent binge drinking on gene expression in these regions. Male adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats were exposed to repeated binge drinking (three 1-h sessions/day during the dark/cycle, 5 days/week for 3 weeks starting at 28 days of age; ethanol intakes of 2.5-3 g/kg/session)...
May 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427829/alcohol-na%C3%A3-ve-usvs-distinguish-male-had-1-from-lad-1-rat-strains
#10
Nitish Mittal, Neha Thakore, James M Reno, Richard L Bell, W Todd Maddox, Timothy Schallert, Christine L Duvauchelle
Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are mediated through specific dopaminergic and cholinergic neural pathways and serve as real-time measures of positive and negative emotional status in rodents. Although most USV studies focus primarily on USV counts, each USV possesses a number of characteristics shown to reflect activity in the associated neurotransmitter system. In the present study, we recorded spontaneously emitted USVs from alcohol-naïve high alcohol drinking (HAD-1) and low alcohol drinking (LAD-1) rats...
May 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427828/an-alcohol-withdrawal-test-battery-measuring-multiple-behavioral-symptoms-in-mice
#11
Pamela Metten, Jason P Schlumbohm, Lawrence C Huang, Gian D Greenberg, Wyatt R Hack, Stephanie E Spence, John C Crabbe
Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time...
May 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413668/qtc-prolongation-increased-nt-probnp-and-pre-clinical-myocardial-wall-remodeling-in-excessive-alcohol-consumers-the-sabpa-study
#12
Annemarie Wentzel, Leoné Malan, Jacobus D Scheepers, Nicolaas T Malan
Alcohol contributes greatly to vascular and structural modifications. Due to differences in the metabolism and tolerance of alcohol between ethnic groups, the manner of these modifications may differ. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption - measured via ethnic-specific gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) cut-points - and markers of cardiac perfusion, electrical activity, and pre-clinical structural alterations. A South African target population study was performed in a bi-ethnic cohort (n = 405)...
May 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425959/imaging-mass-spectrometry-of-frontal-white-matter-lipid-changes-in-human-alcoholics
#13
Suzanne M de la Monte, Jared Kay, Emine B Yalcin, Jillian J Kril, Donna Sheedy, Greg T Sutherland
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUD) are associated with white matter (WM) degeneration with altered myelin integrity. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) enables high throughput analysis of myelin lipid biochemical histopathology to help characterize disease mechanisms. PURPOSE: This study utilized MALDI-IMS to investigate frontal lobe WM myelin lipid abnormalities in AUD. METHODS: Standardized cores of formalin-fixed WM from Brodmann Area 4 (BA4) and BA8/9 of 20 postmortem AUD and 19 control adult human brains were embedded in carboxymethyl-cellulose, cryo-sectioned (8 μm), thaw-mounted onto indium tin oxide (ITO) -coated glass slides, and sublimed with 2,5-dihydroxybenzxoic acid (DHB) matrix...
March 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425958/difference-in-sensitivities-of-blood-hdl-cholesterol-and-ldl-cholesterol-levels-to-alcohol-in-middle-aged-japanese-men
#14
Ichiro Wakabayashi
Blood HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels are known to be higher and lower, respectively, in drinkers than in nondrinkers, and the beneficial effects of alcohol on cholesterol metabolism are thought to mainly explain the lower risk for ischemic heart disease in light-to-moderate drinkers than in nondrinkers. However, it remains unknown whether sensitivities of HDL and LDL cholesterol levels to alcohol are different or not. The subjects of this study were 21,572 middle-aged Japanese men, and they were divided into three tertile groups for blood HDL cholesterol levels...
March 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396309/persistent-light-to-moderate-alcohol-intake-and-lung-function-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Monica M Vasquez, Duane L Sherrill, Tricia D LeVan, Wayne J Morgan, Joseph H Sisson, Stefano Guerra
Alcohol intake has been inconsistently associated with lung function levels in cross-sectional studies. The goal of our study was to determine whether longitudinally assessed light-to-moderate alcohol intake is associated with levels and decline of lung function. We examined data from 1333 adult participants in the population-based Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airway Obstructive Disease. Alcohol intake was assessed with four surveys between 1972 and 1992. Subjects who completed at least two surveys were classified into longitudinal drinking categories ("never", "inconsistent", or "persistent drinker")...
March 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316477/challenges-of-diagnosing-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-in-foster-and-adopted-children
#16
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Laura Garrison, Shikhar Shrestha, Janet Sharkis, Rajesh Miranda, Karen Rogers
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) might be 10-15 times more prevalent among foster/adopted children compared to the general population; however, many of these children remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. The lack of confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may be a key barrier to diagnosis. Our sample included 681 patients evaluated for FASD, according to the University of Washington 4-Digit Diagnostic Code, at a pediatric specialty clinic. Guardianship status and other patient characteristics were evaluated by multinomial logistic regression as potential predictors of being classified into one of the following FASD groups: 1) full or partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS/pFAS; n = 97); 2) Static Encephalopathy/Alcohol-Exposed (SE/AE) or Neurobehavioral Disorder/Alcohol-Exposed (ND/AE) (n = 135); and 3) some features of FASD (equivalent to pFAS, SE/AE or ND/AE phenotypes) but unknown PAE (n = 449)...
March 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310048/alcohol-operant-self-administration-investigating-how-alcohol-seeking-behaviors-predict-drinking-in-mice-using-two-operant-approaches
#17
Mariah B Blegen, Daniel da Silva E Silva, Roland Bock, Nadege Morisot, Dorit Ron, Veronica A Alvarez
Alcohol operant self-administration paradigms are critical tools for studying the neural circuits implicated in both alcohol-seeking and consummatory behaviors and for understanding the neural basis underlying alcohol-use disorders. In this study, we investigate the predictive value of two operant models of oral alcohol self-administration in mice, one in which alcohol is delivered into a cup following nose-poke responses with no accurate measurement of consumed alcohol solution, and another paradigm that provides access to alcohol via a sipper tube following lever presses and where lick rate and consumed alcohol volume can be measured...
March 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310047/differential-comt-expression-and-behavioral-effects-of-comt-inhibition-in-male-and-female-wistar-and-alcohol-preferring-rats
#18
Aqilah M McCane, Michael J DeLory, Maureen M Timm, Sarine S Janetsian-Fritz, Christopher C Lapish, Cristine L Czachowski
Polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene have been associated with alcoholism, suggesting that alterations in the metabolism of catecholamines may be a critical component of the neuropathology of alcoholism. In the current experiments, the COMT inhibitor tolcapone was utilized in an operant behavioral model of reinforcer-seeking and drinking to determine if this compound was capable of remediating the excessive seeking and drinking phenotype of the alcohol-preferring P rat. Tolcapone was administered to male and female alcohol-reinforced P and Wistar rats...
March 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304397/evaluation-of-a-novel-method-for-the-analysis-of-alcohol-biomarkers-ethyl-glucuronide-ethyl-sulfate-and-phosphatidylethanol
#19
Van Long Nguyen, Phillip Paull, Paul S Haber, Kate Chitty, Devanshi Seth
Currently available markers and methods to evaluate alcohol consumption are indirect and suboptimal, or rely on self-report, which have inherent problems. Direct metabolites of alcohol, phosphatidylethanol (PEth), ethyl sulfate (EtS), and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), are known to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, methods were established for the identification of PEth in erythrocytes and EtG and EtS in serum using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The three biomarkers were tested and validated in volunteer teetotalers (n = 4) and drinkers (n = 10), and applied in patients (n = 8) hospitalized with alcohol-related problems...
March 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289821/maternal-hair-testing-to-disclose-self-misreporting-in-drinking-and-smoking-behavior-during-pregnancy
#20
Maria Dolores Gomez-Roig, Emilia Marchei, Sally Sabra, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Luisa Mastrobattista, Simona Pichini, Eduard Gratacós, Oscar Garcia-Algar
This study aimed to objectively verify smoking and drinking behavior during pregnancy and to disclose self-misreporting through maternal hair analysis. A total of 153 women attending a university hospital in Barcelona (Spain) were selected and interviewed after delivery, on their smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy. A 9-cm hair strand was collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as biomarkers of tobacco and alcohol consumption, respectively...
March 2018: Alcohol
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