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Megha Bendre, Linnea Granholm, Ryan Drennan, Ann Meyer, Liying Yan, Kent W Nilsson, Ingrid Nylander, Erika Comasco
Early life stress (ELS) or alcohol consumption can influence DNA methylation and affect gene expression. The monoamine oxidase A (Maoa) encodes the enzyme that metabolizes monoaminergic neurotransmitters crucial for the stress response, alcohol reward, and reinforcement. Previously, we reported lower Maoa expression in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of male rats exposed to ELS during the first three postnatal weeks, and to voluntary alcohol consumption in adulthood, compared with controls. The present study continued to investigate the effect of ELS and alcohol consumption on Maoa methylation, and its relation to Maoa expression in these animals...
November 8, 2018: Alcohol
Joseph R Troisi
Self-administration of Ethanol (E) and nicotine (N) occurs frequently in tandem orders (i.e., N→E vs. E→N) and thereby produce differing interoceptive profiles of subjective effects in humans. If the interoceptive stimulus characteristics of N→E differ from E→N, it is possible that such differences contribute to their co-dependence. The rationale for the present investigation was to determine if E when preceded or followed by N produces different discriminative stimulus effects in rats. In two experiments, using a one manipulanda operant drug discrimination procedure, rats were trained to discriminate temporal sequential administrations of ethanol (1...
November 5, 2018: Alcohol
K E Bosse, V M Chiu, S C Lloyd, A C Conti
Individuals fetally exposed to alcohol have a disproportionate risk for developing lifetime alcohol dependence, an association that may be confounded by the presence of comorbid conditions, such as anxiety. Anxiety is also observed following fetal alcohol exposure and known to exacerbate ethanol consumption, highlighting the utility of animal models to assess this relationship. The present study evaluated the impact of third-trimester equivalent ethanol exposure on ethanol consumption and anxiety-like, marble burying behavior in adult, male C57BL/6 mice following exposure to chronic intermittent ethanol vapor, proposed to model dependence...
October 29, 2018: Alcohol
Analía G Karadayian, Paulina Lombardi, Juanita Bustamante, Silvia Lores-Arnaiz
Alcohol hangover (AH) has been associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We herein postulate that AH-induced mitochondrial alterations can be due to a different pattern of response in synaptosomes and non-synaptic (NS) mitochondria. Mice received i.p. injections of EtOH (3.8 g/kg) or saline and were sacrificed 6 hours after. Brain cortex NS mitochondria and synaptosomes were isolated by Ficoll gradient. Oxygen consumption rates were measured in NS mitochondria and synaptosomes by high-resolution respirometry...
October 29, 2018: Alcohol
Bruce E Hetzler, Lauren W Y McLester-Davis, Sadie E Tenpas
Methylphenidate (MPD) is a psychostimulant used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most adult ADHD patients use ethanol in combination with MPD. This research examined the effects of MPD and ethanol on flash-evoked potentials (FEPs) recorded from the visual cortex (VC; a cortical response frequently used to assess neural activity and sensory processing) and superior colliculus (SC; a structure involved in attention and orientation) of chronically implanted male Long-Evans rats, and on body temperature and open field behavior...
October 27, 2018: Alcohol
David Kinnamon, Kai-Chun Lin, Devangsingh Sankhala, Sriram Muthukumar, Shalini Prasad
Here we demonstrate for the first time a dynamic monitoring of the ethanol metabolite Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) for a more robust evaluation of alcohol consumption compared to conventional methods. A wearable biosensor device capable of reporting EtG levels in sweat both continuously via low power impedance spectroscopy is reported. The custom hardware was compared against conventional benchtop potentiostat, demonstrating comparable results in the application space of EtG detection in low volume sweat. The device successfully differentiated three distinct EtG concentrations correlating to simulated drinking scenarios estimated to be 1, 2, and 3 standard U...
October 23, 2018: Alcohol
John S Y Chan, Yi Jin, Yuejia Luo, Jin H Yan
Alcohol drinking is associated with impaired cognitive and motor performance. This electrophysiological study examined the differences in the preparatory processes preceding motor imagery (visual and kinaesthetic) and execution between hazardous drinkers and non-hazardous drinking controls. Twenty-two hazardous drinkers and 22 non-hazardous drinking controls were recruited to participate in the study. They were required to produce a three-key response sequence physically or mentally three seconds after the appearance of a corresponding cue...
October 21, 2018: Alcohol
Macarena Soledad Fernández, Jorge Carrizo, Wladimir Plaza, Paola Haeger, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Prenatal and/or early postnatal ethanol exposure (PEE) is associated with significant behavioral and physiological deficits in offspring, including alterations in stress response systems and a greater likelihood of alcohol use disorders. Stress-induced ethanol drinking after PEE, however, has been largely unexplored. The present study analyzed ethanol intake in male Sprague-Dawley rats after protracted prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure and tested whether social isolation during the sensitive period of adolescence modulates the effects of PEE on ethanol drinking...
October 17, 2018: Alcohol
Agnes Schröder, Erika Calvano Küchler, Marjorie Omori, Gerrit Spanier, Peter Proff, Christian Kirschneck
Consumption of toxic substances like alcohol is widespread in the general population and thus also in patients receiving orthodontic treatment. Since human periodontal ligament (hPDL) fibroblasts play a key role in orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) by expressing cytokines and chemokines, we wanted to clarify, whether ethanol modulates the physiological activity and expression pattern of hPDL fibroblasts during static compressive force application. We pre-incubated hPDL fibroblasts for 24h with different ethanol concentrations, corresponding to casual (0...
October 15, 2018: Alcohol
Alexis Kuerbis, M Carrington Reid, Jordan E Lake, Suzette Glasner-Edwards, Jessica Jenkins, Diana Liao, Jury Candelario, Alison A Moore
BACKGROUND: Adults 50 and older make up approximately 50% of persons living with HIV. Multiple co-morbidities are common among this group, including chronic pain and substance abuse, yet little is known about the daily factors that either enhance or inhibit these experiences or behaviors. This study explored daily drivers of substance use, pain, and relief from pain among older adults living with HIV utilizing ecological momentary assessment (EMA). METHOD: Participants (N=55), ages 49-71, completed seven consecutive days of daily EMA online surveys prior to treatment initiation within a randomized controlled trial...
October 8, 2018: Alcohol
Carla J Rash, Nancy M Petry, Sheila M Alessi, Nancy P Barnett
Rates of heavy alcohol use in soup kitchen attendees range from 30% to 38%, but these data are based entirely on self-reported drinking. Little is known about the intensity or frequency of drinking in this population. We assessed alcohol use transdermally every 30 minutes over a 3-week period among heavy drinkers who attended local soup kitchens. In addition to transdermal alcohol monitoring, participants were randomly assigned to daily breath alcohol monitoring with or without reinforcement for alcohol-negative breath samples (BrAC)...
October 8, 2018: Alcohol
Waylin Yu, Lara S Hwa, Viren H Makhijani, Joyce Besheer, Thomas L Kash
Sex differences in chronic pain and alcohol abuse are not well understood. The development of rodent models is imperative for investigating the underlying changes behind these pathological states. In the present study, we investigated whether hind paw treatment with the inflammatory agent Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) could generate hyperalgesia and alter alcohol consumption in male and female C57BL/6J mice. CFA treatment led to greater nociceptive sensitivity for both sexes in the Hargreaves test, and increased alcohol drinking for males in a continuous access two-bottle choice (CA2BC) paradigm...
October 6, 2018: Alcohol
Kristi J Warren, Jill A Poole, Jenea M Sweeter, Jane M DeVasure, Todd A Wyatt
Matrix metalloproteinases are important for proper airway matrix structure and wound healing. These enzymes are also implicated in many airway diseases. Previously, chronic ethanol consumption was shown to prolong inflammation and delay viral clearance in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-infected mice. We hypothesize that alcohol alters anti-viral immunity by disrupting immune cell chemotaxis in the lung. BALB/c mice were randomly selected to consume 18% alcohol ad libitum for 8 weeks prior to infection with RSV-2A...
October 3, 2018: Alcohol
Michael E Price, Carresse L Gerald, Jacqueline A Pavlik, Sarah L Schlichte, Matthew C Zimmerman, Jane M Devasure, Todd A Wyatt, Joseph H Sisson
Alcohol exposure is associated with decreased mucociliary clearance, a key innate defense essential to lung immunity. Previously we identified that prolonged alcohol exposure results in dysfunction of airway cilia that persists at the organelle level. This dysfunction is characterized by a loss of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated cilia stimulation. However, whether or not ciliary dysfunction develops intrinsically at the organelle level has not been explored. We hypothesized that prolonged alcohol exposure directly to isolated demembranated cilia (axonemes) causes ciliary dysfunction...
October 3, 2018: Alcohol
Brianna Harris, Akeem Mcalister, Tacriasha Willoughby, Vijay Sivaraman
Previous studies demonstrate that acute alcohol intoxication significantly impairs lung immune responses, which can lead to the tissue undefended from microbial infection and resulting disease. Data suggest that acute intoxication presents an axis where simultaneously suppressing early pro-inflammatory cytokines while inducing anti-inflammatory signals contribute to alcohol-dependent immune suppression in the lung, and thus undeterred microbial replication. Interestingly, alcoholics and those with alcohol use disorder present with increased pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Disease (ARDs), suggesting a more active priming of inflammatory responses in the lungs...
October 1, 2018: Alcohol
Mary M Tomkins, Clayton Neighbors, Mai-Ly N Steers
Religiousness has been a consistent protective factor against problem drinking. Religiousness is also positively related to some domains of mental health (Koenig, 2009). We propose that Vallerand and Houlfort's (2003) theory of passion, which includes two different approaches to any given activity, might offer a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between religiousness and alcohol use. The current study longitudinally assessed the relationships among harmonious and obsessive passion for religion, alcohol-related problems, and mental health...
September 27, 2018: Alcohol
Saeid Mohammadi, Alireza Nezami, Zohre Esmaeili, Mohammad Reza Rouini, Yalda Hoseinzade Ardakani, Hoda Lavasani, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari
Damage to the liver can lead to changes in the metabolism of tramadol. In this study, the rate of tramadol metabolites in rats with damaged liver induced by ethanol and acetaminophen were assessed in a recirculation perfusion system. Tramadol hydrochloride (TrHC) is a central nervous system (CNS) acting synthetic analgesic drug having both opioid and non-opioid properties. Acetaminophen is a mild analgesic and antipyretic agent which can cause centrilobular hepatic necrosis in toxic doses. On the other hand, alcohol causes death from the hepatic disease...
September 21, 2018: Alcohol
Melike Sirlanci, I Gary Rosen, Tamara L Wall, Susan E Luczak
Alcohol biosensor devices have been developed to unobtrusively measure transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC), the amount of ethanol diffusing through the skin, in nearly continuous fashion in naturalistic settings. Because TAC data are affected by physiological and environmental factors that vary across individuals and drinking episodes, there is not an elementary formula to convert TAC into easily-interpretable metrics like blood and breath alcohol concentrations (BAC/BrAC). In our prior work, we addressed this conversion problem in a deterministic way by developing physics/physiological-based models to convert TAC to estimated BrAC (eBRAC), in which the model parameter values were individually determined for each person wearing a specific transdermal sensor using simultaneously collected TAC (via a biosensor) and BrAC (via a breath analyzer) during a calibration episode...
September 20, 2018: Alcohol
Daniel E Alarcón, Andrew R Delamater
The acquired motivational impact of conditioned stimuli has been studied using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task, where a cue paired with a reward is consistently shown to energize responses separately trained with that same reward ("specific" PIT). However, most alcohol studies have shown that alcohol-related cues elevate responses trained with either the same alcohol reward or with other non-alcoholic rewards ("general" PIT). The effects of extinction on this alcohol PIT effect have not been fully explored...
September 18, 2018: Alcohol
Thomas Joseph Wukitsch, Emily Kae Reinhardt, Stephen W Kiefer, Mary Eileen Cain
Little is known about the influence of rearing environments concurrent with voluntary intermittent access to ethanol on subsequent adult ethanol-related behaviors. Previous research has shown that adult rats reared in post-weaning, social isolation conditions (IC) respond more for operant ethanol compared to laboratory standard conditions (SC). Ethanol exposed adolescents tend to consume more ethanol in adulthood than rats exposed as adults. The current study examined voluntary ethanol consumption during adolescence between IC and SC rats, subsequent operant responding for ethanol, and extinction of responding in the same rats as adults...
September 18, 2018: Alcohol
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