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Leslie R Amodeo, Diana Kneiber, Derek N Wills, Cindy L Ehlers
Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood...
February 7, 2017: Alcohol
Anna K Radke, Nicholas J Jury, Eric Delpire, Kazu Nakazawa, Andrew Holmes
N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are involved in the regulation of alcohol drinking, but the contribution of NMDAR subunits located on specific neuronal populations remains incompletely understood. The current study examined the role of GluN2B-containing NMDARs expressed on cortical principal neurons and cortical interneurons in mouse ethanol drinking. Consumption of escalating concentrations of ethanol was measured in mice with GluN2B gene deletion in either cortical principal neurons (GluN2B(CxNULL)) or interneurons (GluN2B(InterNULL)), using a two-bottle choice paradigm...
February 2017: Alcohol
Todd B Nentwig, Kevin P Myers, Judith E Grisel
Initial subjective response to the rewarding properties of alcohol predicts voluntary consumption and the risk for alcohol use disorders. We assessed the initial subjective reward to alcohol in rats using a single exposure conditioned place preference (SE-CPP) paradigm. Sprague-Dawley rats demonstrate preference for a context paired with a single systemic injection of ethanol (1.0 g/kg, delivered intraperitoneally). However, expression of SE-CPP in males depended on pairing ethanol with the first exposure of two (ethanol; saline) to the conditioning apparatus and procedures, while conditioning day did not appreciably affect SE-CPP in females, consistent with the view that females experience heightened addiction vulnerability...
February 2017: Alcohol
Qian Wang, Jing-Wen Song, Yang Liu, Xian-Xian Zhao
Ethanol has been reported to have toxicity on embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The present study aims to address the teratogenic effects of ethanol on the growth and cardiac differentiation of ESCs. Mouse embryonic stem D3 cells were employed. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were used to determine cytotoxicity. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to analyze the expressions of cardiac differentiation-related and Wnt signaling factors...
February 2017: Alcohol
Mara Soledad Mattalloni, Romina Deza-Ponzio, Paula Alejandra Albrecht, Liliana Marina Cancela, Miriam Beatriz Virgolini
Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant that elicits differential responses to drugs of abuse. Particularly, ethanol consumption has been demonstrated to be increased as a consequence of environmental Pb exposure, with catalase (CAT) and brain acetaldehyde (ACD, the first metabolite of ethanol) playing a role. The present study sought to interfere with ethanol metabolism by inhibiting ALDH2 (mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase) activity in both liver and brain from control and Pb-exposed rats as a strategy to accumulate ACD, a substance that plays a major role in the drug's reinforcing and/or aversive effects...
February 2017: Alcohol
Jessica A Baker, Jingxin Li, Diana Zhou, Ming Yang, Melloni N Cook, Byron C Jones, Megan K Mulligan, Kristin M Hamre, Lu Lu
Alcohol abuse is a complex disorder, which is confounded by other factors, including stress. In the present study, we examined gene expression in the hippocampus of BXD recombinant inbred mice after exposure to ethanol (NOE), stress (RSS), and the combination of both (RSE). Mice were given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 1.8 g/kg ethanol or saline, and subsets of both groups were exposed to acute restraint stress for 15 min or controls. Gene expression in the hippocampus was examined using microarray analysis...
February 2017: Alcohol
Kari J Buck, Gang Chen, Laura B Kozell
Physiological dependence and associated withdrawal episodes are thought to constitute a motivational force sustaining alcohol use/abuse and contributing to relapse in alcoholics. Although no animal model exactly duplicates alcoholism, models for specific factors, including the withdrawal syndrome, are useful for identifying potential genetic and neural determinants of liability in humans. We previously identified highly significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with large effects on predisposition to withdrawal after chronic and acute alcohol exposure in mice and mapped these loci to the same region of chromosome 1 (Alcdp1 and Alcw1, respectively)...
February 2017: Alcohol
Robert W Williams, Andrew Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Alcohol
Julia A Chester, Marcus M Weera
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorders have a high rate of co-occurrence, possibly because they are regulated by common genes. In support of this idea, mice selectively bred for high (HAP) alcohol preference show greater fear potentiated startle (FPS), a model for fear-related disorders such as PTSD, compared to mice selectively bred for low (LAP) alcohol preference. This positive genetic correlation between alcohol preference and FPS behavior suggests that the two traits may be functionally related...
February 2017: Alcohol
Megan K Mulligan, Khyobeni Mozhui, Ashutosh K Pandey, Maren L Smith, Suzhen Gong, Jesse Ingels, Michael F Miles, Marcelo F Lopez, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams
Genetic factors that influence the transition from initial drinking to dependence remain enigmatic. Recent studies have leveraged chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) paradigms to measure changes in brain gene expression in a single strain at 0, 8, 72 h, and even 7 days following CIE. We extend these findings using LCM RNA-seq to profile expression in 11 brain regions in two inbred strains - C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) - 72 h following multiple cycles of ethanol self-administration and CIE. Linear models identified differential expression based on treatment, region, strain, or interactions with treatment...
February 2017: Alcohol
Patrizia Porcu, Todd K O'Buckley, Marcelo F Lopez, Howard C Becker, Michael F Miles, Robert W Williams, A Leslie Morrow
Neuroactive steroids modulate alcohol's impact on brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure alters neuroactive steroid levels in rats, humans, and some mouse strains. We conducted an exploratory analysis of the neuroactive steroids (3α,5α)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP), (3α,5α)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THDOC), and pregnenolone across 126-158 individuals and 19 fully inbred strains belonging to the BXD family, which were subjected to air exposure, or chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure...
February 2017: Alcohol
Andrew D van der Vaart, Jennifer T Wolstenholme, Maren L Smith, Guy M Harris, Marcelo F Lopez, Aaron R Wolen, Howard C Becker, Robert W Williams, Michael F Miles
The transition from acute to chronic ethanol exposure leads to lasting behavioral and physiological changes such as increased consumption, dependence, and withdrawal. Changes in brain gene expression are hypothesized to underlie these adaptive responses to ethanol. Previous studies on acute ethanol identified genetic variation in brain gene expression networks and behavioral responses to ethanol across the BXD panel of recombinant inbred mice. In this work, we have performed the first joint genetic and genomic analysis of transcriptome shifts in response to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) by vapor chamber exposure in a BXD cohort...
February 2017: Alcohol
Lindsay R Halladay, Adrina Kocharian, Andrew Holmes
Determining the neural factors contributing to compulsive behaviors such as alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) has become a significant focus of current preclinical research. Comparison of phenotypic differences across genetically distinct mouse strains provides one approach to identify molecular and genetic factors contributing to compulsive-like behaviors. Here we examine a rodent assay for punished ethanol self-administration in four widely used inbred strains known to differ on ethanol-related behaviors: C57BL/6J (B6), DBA/2J (D2), 129S1/SvImJ (S1), and BALB/cJ (BALB)...
February 2017: Alcohol
Marcelo F Lopez, Michael F Miles, Robert W Williams, Howard C Becker
The BXD family of mice were generated by crossing and inbreeding ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J and ethanol-avoiding DBA/2J strains that differ greatly in genome sequence and other behaviors. This study evaluated variations in the level of voluntary ethanol intake in a cohort of 42 BXD strains and both progenitor strains using a model of alcohol dependence and relapse drinking. A total of 119 BXDs (85 males, 34 females) (n ∼ 4 per genotype; 1/genotype/sex/group) were evaluated along with males from both progenitor strains (n = 14-15/genotype)...
February 2017: Alcohol
Nicholas J Jury, Jeffrey F DiBerto, Thomas L Kash, Andrew Holmes
Rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) differ between men and women, and there is also marked variation between sexes in the effects of acute and chronic alcohol. In parallel to observations in humans, prior studies in rodents have described male/female differences across a range of ethanol-related behaviors, including ethanol drinking. Nonetheless, there remain gaps in our knowledge of the role of sex in moderating the effects of ethanol, particularly in models of chronic ethanol exposure. The goal of the current study was to assess various behavioral sequelae of exposing female C57BL/6J mice to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) via ethanol vapors...
February 2017: Alcohol
Jennifer A Rinker, Diana B Fulmer, Heather Trantham-Davidson, Maren L Smith, Robert W Williams, Marcelo F Lopez, Patrick K Randall, L Judson Chandler, Michael F Miles, Howard C Becker, Patrick J Mulholland
Alcohol (ethanol) dependence is a chronic relapsing brain disorder partially influenced by genetics and characterized by an inability to regulate harmful levels of drinking. Emerging evidence has linked genes that encode KV7, KIR, and KCa2 K(+) channels with variation in alcohol-related behaviors in rodents and humans. This led us to experimentally test relations between K(+) channel genes and escalation of drinking in a chronic-intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure model of dependence in BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice...
February 2017: Alcohol
Cody A Siciliano, Jason L Locke, Tiffany A Mathews, Marcelo F Lopez, Howard C Becker, Sara R Jones
Alcoholism is a prevalent and debilitating neuropsychiatric disease, and much effort has been aimed at elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maladaptive alcohol drinking in an effort to design rational treatment strategies. In preclinical literature, the use of inbred mouse lines has allowed for the examination of ethanol effects across vulnerable and resistant phenotypes. C57BL/6J mice consistently show higher rates of ethanol drinking compared to most mouse strains. Conversely, DBA/2J mice display low rates of ethanol consumption...
February 2017: Alcohol
M S Amundsen, T M G Kirkeby, S Giri, R Koju, S S Krishna, B Ystgaard, E Solligård, K Risnes
Recent global burden of disease reports find that a major proportion of global deaths and disability worldwide can be attributed to alcohol use. Thus, it may be surprising that very few studies have reported on the burden of alcohol-related disease in low income settings. The evidence of non-communicable disease (NCD) burden in Nepal was recently reviewed and concluded that data is still lacking, particularly to describe the burden of alcohol-related diseases (ARDs). Therefore, here we report on NCD burden and specifically ARDs, in hospitalized patients at a regional hospital in Nepal...
December 2016: Alcohol
Ordak Michal, Maj-Zurawska Magdalena, Matsumoto Halina, Bujalska-Zadrozny Magdalena, Nasierowski Tadeusz, Muszynska Elzbieta, Wojnar Marcin
Hyponatremia, i.e. reduction of sodium level in the blood plasma below 135 mmol/L, is one of the most common electrolyte disorders occurring in people addicted to alcohol. Numerous psychopathological symptoms may be significantly associated with its occurrence. Since sodium is one of the main bioelements, which is responsible for proper neuromuscular excitability maintenance and contributes in nerve impulses conduction, sodium balance disorders may be related to a risk to basic life functions. The tested group included 100 alcohol dependent patients (M = 90, F = 10)...
December 2016: Alcohol
Shao Jun Xu, Chao Qiang Jiang, Wei Sen Zhang, Kar Keung Cheng, Catherine Mary Schooling, Lin Xu, Bin Liu, Ya Li Jin, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Tai Hing Lam
Compared to other ethnic groups Asians are more likely to be sensitive to alcohol, due to polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. Although previous studies have found positive association between regular alcohol use and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP), whether this association is modified by alcohol sensitivity has not been clarified. We therefore sought to examined this potential effect modification in a cross-sectional community sample with high prevalence of alcohol sensitivity, using data from 2903 men aged ≥50years recruited during phase 1 of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study...
December 2016: Alcohol
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