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Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506688/human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-fungal-infections
#1
REVIEW
Jeannette Guarner
The discovery of HIV was largely due to the presence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in young patients that did not have the usual known causes of immune deficiencies in the early 1980s. Currently, treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and the use of prophylaxis for PCP have lowered the frequency of fungal infections; however, these infections continue to cause morbidity and mortality in those patients that fall out or are not in care. The frequency of specific fungal diseases in HIV patients will depend on the prevalence of fungi in the particular geographic location...
April 8, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502523/human-immunodeficiency-virus-diagnostic-approach
#2
REVIEW
Jeannette Guarner
First descriptions of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome appeared in 1981. Four years later the causative agent was cultured which lead to development and production of tests that helped healthcare providers to identify persons living with HIV. Currently, diagnosis of HIV is performed with fourth generation immunoassays (those that detect p24 antigen together with IgM and IgG antibodies to HIV-1 and -2) which if positive need to be followed by an assay that can differentiate between HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses...
April 8, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506687/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-related-lymphomas-pathology-view-point
#3
REVIEW
Ebru Linke-Serinsöz, Falko Fend, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez
The contribution of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) to the development of specific types of malignant lymphomas occurring in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) setting has been extensively studied since the beginning of the HIV epidemic 35 years ago. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in 1996 has changed dramatically the incidence of HIV-related malignancies. Nevertheless, malignant lymphomas continue to be the major group of malignances observed in HIV infected individuals, and the most common cause of cancer related-deaths...
April 7, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442217/vasculopathic-and-vasculitic-dermatoses
#4
REVIEW
Alejandro A Gru, Andrea L Salavaggione
The inflammatory and non-inflammatory disorders affecting the blood vessels are an important cause of death among patients. Additionally, some of the findings could be very subtle, while the consequences of misdiagnosis tragic. There is a limited number of factors by which the cutaneous blood vessels can be affected and the most common examples in the clinical practice will be discussed here: non-inflammatory purpuras; vascular-occlusive disorders; urticarias; vasculitides; and neutrophilic dermatoses.
April 7, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502522/human-herpesvirus-8-related-diseases-histopathologic-diagnosis-and-disease-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Matthew Auten, Annette S Kim, Kyle T Bradley, Flavia G Rosado
The emergence of HIV/AIDS more than three decades ago led to an increased incidence of diseases caused by HHV8 co-infection, particularly Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. Over time, the development of highly effective AIDS therapies has resulted in a decreased incidence of HHV8-associated entities, which are now more commonly found in patients with undiagnosed and/or untreated AIDS. Due to their rarity, some of these diseases may be difficult to recognize without appropriate clinical information...
April 6, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396069/lichenoid-and-interface-dermatoses
#6
Alejandro A Gru, Andrea L Salavaggione
The terms 'lichenoid' and 'interface' dermatitis are often used interchangeably to describe an inflammatory pattern characterized histologically by damage to the basal keratinocytes in the epidermis. The mechanism of cell damage of such cells is now best understood as apoptosis, or programmed cell death. This inflammatory pattern of dermatoses, is also accompanied frequently by a band of lymphocytes and histiocytes in the superficial dermis, that often obscures the dermal-epidermal junction, hence the term 'lichenoid'...
March 22, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256363/variant-differentiation-patterns-in-primary-liver-carcinoma
#7
Christine Sempoux, Valérie Paradis, Romil Saxena
Hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are two distinct forms of primary liver carcinoma recognizable at the microscope by their architectural and cytological characteristics, as well as specific immunohistochemical profiles. This straightforward concept however, is increasing imperiled by the recognition of primary liver carcinomas that do not subscribe to a dichotomous paradigm of differentiation, and instead demonstrate biphenotypic differentiation, stem/progenitor cell like features or other variant patterns of differentiation...
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153435/introduction
#8
EDITORIAL
Romil Saxena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143798/diagnostic-histopathology-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-case-based-review
#9
Rashmi M Agni
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic malignant neoplasm in adults. Clinically, it tends to present late, and its prognosis historically has been poor, due to limited treatment options at the more advanced stage. A multidisciplinary approach for surveillance and early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in high-risk populations, combined with advances in surgical and other forms of ablative or chemotherapy, has greatly improved outcomes for patients with this tumor. Liver biopsies for HCC are becoming rare, being performed only for lesions that are atypical on imaging, to avoid the risk of bleeding or of inadvertently seeding the needle tract with HCC...
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131467/hepatocellular-adenoma-classification-variants-and-clinical-relevance
#10
Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Christine Sempoux, Charles Balabaud
Hepatocellular adenomas are benign tumors with two major complications, bleeding and malignant transformation. The overall narrative of hepatocellular adenoma has evolved over time. Solitary or multiple hepatocellular developing in the normal liver of women of child bearing age exposed to oral contraceptives still represents the most frequent clinical context, however, new associations are being recognized. Hepatocellular adenoma is discovered on a background of liver diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, vascular diseases, and alcoholic cirrhosis...
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126357/hepatoblastoma
#11
Divya Sharma, Girish Subbarao, Romil Saxena
Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary malignant hepatic tumor of infancy and childhood, occurring predominantly in the first two years of life. The management of hepatoblastoma has changed markedly over the last 3 decades; neoadjuvant chemotherapy is now standard, particularly in unresectable tumors resulting in considerable preoperative tumor shrinkage and sometimes near total ablation of the tumor. A 20 month old infant was incidentally found to have a 7.6cm right sided retroperitoneal tumor on routine screening ultrasonography for left ureteral stenosis...
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117103/well-differentiated-hepatocellular-nodule-making-a-diagnosis-on-biopsy-and-resection-specimens-of-patients-with-advanced-stage-chronic-liver-disease
#12
Prodromos Hytiroglou
Guided liver biopsy is commonly employed to determine the identity of distinct hepatic nodules detected on imaging studies of patients with advanced stage chronic liver diseases. Discrimination among large regenerative nodule, dysplastic nodule and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma is often difficult and relies on subtle histologic findings. Sampling is an important consideration in biopsy material, as compared to resection specimens, because the diagnostic features may be focal within the nodule...
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110996/fibrolamellar-carcinoma-a-histologically-unique-tumor-with-unique-molecular-findings
#13
Rondell P Graham, Michael S Torbenson
Fibrolamellar carcinoma is a unique type of hepatocellular carcinoma with a distinctive predilection for young patients without underlying liver disease, characteristic large neoplastic cells with intervening, dense fibrosis, co-expression of keratin 7 and CD68 and activation of protein kinase A (most often by formation of DNAJB1-PRKACA). Fibrolamellar carcinoma has a similar prognosis to conventional hepatocellular carcinomas arising in non-cirrhotic livers. The current American Joint Cancer Committee staging system does not provide optimal stratification of patients with fibrolamellar carcinoma and an alternate systems should be considered in the future...
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109716/primary-mesenchymal-liver-tumors-of-childhood
#14
Omer Saeed, Romil Saxena
Primary mesenchymal tumors of the liver represent a significant proportion of liver tumors among neonates, infants and young children. They may be discovered incidentally or present with an alarmingly large, rapidly growing abdominal mass. One third of pediatric liver tumors are benign with hemangioma and mesenchymal hamartoma being the commonest in that order. Infantile hemangioendothelioma and mesenchymal hamartoma represent the commonest liver tumors among neonates and infants. Mesenchymal hamartoma may even present in utero...
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109715/differential-diagnosis-of-epithelioid-and-clear-cell-tumors-in-the-liver
#15
Steven Alexander Mann, Romil Saxena
A tumor composed of large eosinophilic cells in the liver raises concern for hepatocellular carcinoma, which is typically composed of such cells. However, there are other tumors, both primary and metastatic, that may be composed predominantly of large epithelioid cells. Distinction of these tumors from hepatocellular carcinoma and from each other is of obvious importance for patient management. Similarly, a clear cell tumor anywhere in the body triggers suspicion for renal cell carcinoma. However, other tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma can rarely be composed entirely of cell cells and the distinction of these from one another, and of primary from metastatic disease is vital...
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109714/biliary-tumors-with-pancreatic-counterparts
#16
Yasuni Nakanuma, Yoshiko Sudo
Some biliary diseases mimic pancreatic diseases pathologically as well as pathogenetically. Such diseases can be called "biliary diseases with pancreatic counterparts". Biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN), intraductal papillary neoplasm of bile ducts (IPNB), hepatobiliary mucinous cystic neoplasm (hMCN), and IgG4-inflammatory pseudotumor represent the biliary counterparts of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanIN), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of pancreas (IPMN), pancreatic MCN, and mass forming type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), respectively...
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108047/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Justin Hartke, Matthew Johnson, Marwan Ghabril
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a leading cancer worldwide. Its incidence is increasing, and is closely related to advanced liver disease. Cirrhosis represents the greatest risk factor for this malignancy, and is the main indication for screening and surveillance. The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma can frequently, and uniquely, be made on characteristic multiphase contrast based cross-sectional imaging rather than strict need for tissue sampling. Despite advances in medical, locoregional and surgical therapies, hepatocellular carcinoma remains one of the most common causes of cancer-related death globally...
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094162/intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#18
Masayuki Nakano, Shun-Ichi Ariizumi, Masakazu Yamamoto
Cholangiocarcinoma, also referred to as cholangiocellular carcinoma (particularly in Japan), develops along the biliary tract. The tumor may be intra- or extrahepatic and have different features with specific treatments based on the site of origin. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of cholangiorcarcinoma, such as those proposed by EASL (European Association for the Study of the Liver)(1) and the Mayo Clinic(2) classify the tumor into intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal cholangiocarcinoma. There are three main macroscopic patterns of growth of cholangiocarcinoma: mass-forming, periductal-infiltrating and intraductal...
March 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237387/common-spongiotic-dermatoses
#19
Alejandro A Gru, Andrea L Salavaggione
This review article focuses on the spongiotic tissue reaction pattern and some of the common entities that practicing pathologists can frequently encounter in their practice. The spongiotic tissue reaction pattern is the single most common one encountered in the routine analysis of inflammatory dermatoses, and the most non-specific one as well. Spongiotic dermatoses include a very large list of disorders which are best grouped under neutrophilic, eosinophilic, miliarial, follicular and pityriasiform forms of spogiosis...
February 10, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209252/preface
#20
EDITORIAL
Mark R Wick, Alejandro A Gru
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
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