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Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129357/in-situ-neoplasia-in-lymph-node-pathology
#1
REVIEW
Naoki Oishi, Santiago Montes-Moreno, Andrew L Feldman
In situ neoplasia represents the earliest form of malignant progression and is characterized by localization limited to the compartment corresponding to the cell of origin. Like other cancers, lymphoid neoplasms are considered to develop by multistep pathogenetic mechanisms. However, because of the circulating nature of lymphocytes, in situ lymphoid neoplasia may be difficult to identify histopathologically, and the compartment to which it is restricted may be physiological rather than strictly anatomical. The 2016 WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms recognizes two in situ entities: in situ follicular neoplasia (ISFN) and in situ mantle cell neoplasia (ISMCN)...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150219/non-neoplastic-histiocytic-and-dendritic-cell-disorders-in-lymph-nodes
#2
REVIEW
Caoimhe Egan, Elaine S Jaffe
Benign and malignant proliferations of histiocytes and dendritic cells may be encountered in lymph nodes. Reactive histiocytic and dendritic cell infiltrates occur in response to diverse stimuli and in addition to causing lymphadenopathy, may be present unexpectedly in lymph nodes excised for other indications. This review summarizes the pathogenesis and histopathological features of the various non-neoplastic histiocytic and dendritic cell infiltrates that can occur in lymph nodes.
November 3, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110897/iatrogenic-lesions-of-soft-tissue-and-bone
#3
REVIEW
S M O'Connor, S E Wobker, D M Cardona, W Eward, R J Esther, L G Dodd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066044/iatrogenic-solid-tumors-following-immunosuppressive-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Kossivi Dantey, Liron Pantanowitz
Immunosuppression induced by chronic medication, such as occurs post-transplantation, may increase a patient's risk of developing solid tumors. These are often rare tumors characterized by odd presentations. This review focuses on commonly encountered iatrogenic, non-hematopoietic solid tumors following immunotherapy and provides a practical approach to their diagnosis. All of the malignancies covered in this review are viral-induced. They include human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinomas, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated tumors, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)-related Merkel cell carcinoma, and Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-related Kaposi sarcoma...
September 20, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964593/iatrogenically-false-positive-sentinel-lymph-nodes-in-breast-cancer-methods-of-recognition-and-evaluation
#5
REVIEW
Anupma Nayak, Ira J Bleiweiss
With the introduction of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy as a standard procedure for staging clinically node negative breast cancer patients, meticulous pathologic evaluation of SLNs by serial sections and/or immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins has become commonplace in order to detect small volume metastases (isolated tumor cells and micrometastases). This practice has also brought to the fore the concept of iatrogenically false positive sentinel nodes secondary to epithelial displacement produced largely by preoperative needling procedures...
September 20, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877855/introduction-to-pathology-of-infections-of-the-lung
#6
EDITORIAL
Sanjay Mukhopadhyay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751104/myofibroblastic-fibroblastic-and-myoid-lesions-of-the-breast
#7
REVIEW
Gregor Krings, Patrick McIntire, Sandra J Shin
Myofibroblastic, fibroblastic and/or myoid lesions are rare in the breast but comprise the majority of mammary mesenchymal spindle cell lesions. Whereas most have similar features to their counterparts at extramammary sites, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is considered a breast-specific myofibroblastic proliferation on the same spectrum as myofibroblastoma. Other lesions with myofibroblastic/fibroblastic differentiation include fibromatosis and nodular fasciitis, as well as more aggressive tumors such as the rarely reported myofibrosarcoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and fibrosarcoma...
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688536/fibroepithelial-lesions-the-who-spectrum
#8
REVIEW
Gregor Krings, Gregory R Bean, Yunn-Yi Chen
Fibroepithelial lesions of the breast comprise a morphologically and biologically heterogeneous group of biphasic tumors with epithelial and stromal components that demonstrate widely variable clinical behavior. Fibroadenomas are common benign tumors with a number of histologic variants, most of which pose no diagnostic challenge. Cellular and juvenile fibroadenomas can have overlapping features with phyllodes tumors and should be recognized. Phyllodes tumors constitute a spectrum of lesions with varying clinical behavior and are graded as benign, borderline or malignant based on a set of histologic features according to recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO)...
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676174/vascular-lesions-of-the-breast
#9
REVIEW
Gabrielle M Baker, Stuart J Schnitt
Vascular lesions of the breast comprise a heterogeneous group that includes a variety of benign, atypical, and malignant lesions. The presentation of these lesions ranges from those that are microscopic and discovered incidentally, to large tumors that may extensively involve the breast parenchyma and skin. In addition, some non-vascular breast lesions have features that may mimic those of vascular lesions and need to be distinguished from them in order to avoid an erroneous diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the spectrum of vascular lesions of the breast with particular emphasis on those lesions of greatest clinical importance, angiosarcoma and atypical vascular lesions...
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673728/introduction-to-non-epithelial-lesions-of-the-breast-issue
#10
EDITORIAL
Kimberly H Allison Md
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662999/lipomatous-tumors-of-the-breast-a-contemporary-review
#11
REVIEW
J Jordi Rowe, Alison L Cheah, Benjamin C Calhoun
Breast tumors with lipomatous or liposarcomatous components are infrequently encountered, but can be a source of diagnostic difficulty if the context of the fatty differentiation is not recognized. Among the true adipocytic tumors, lipoma is the most common lipomatous tumor arising in the breast. Several mammary spindle cell tumors may show adipocytic differentiation, including fibroepithelial tumors and myofibroblastoma. Liposarcomatous components most often arise in malignant phyllodes tumors, as opposed to primary liposarcomas of the breast which are believed to be uncommon...
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662998/hematolymphoid-lesions-of-the-breast
#12
REVIEW
Jenny Hoffmann, Robert S Ohgami
Hematolymphoid malignancies of the breast are most commonly neoplasms of mature B-lymphocytes, and may arise as a primary disease or by secondary involvement of a systemic disease. Primary breast lymphomas (PBL) account for 0.04-0.5% of breast malignancies, less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), and less than 5% of extranodal lymphomas (Lakhani et al., 2012; Swerdlow et al., 2008; Joks et al., 2011; Bari┼čta et al., 2000; Giardini et al., 1992; Brogi and Harris, 1999; Topalovski et al., 1999).(1-7) Secondary breast lymphomas (SBL) are also rare, with an estimated annual incidence of 0...
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662996/cutaneous-subcutaneous-mesenchymal-proliferations-of-the-breast
#13
REVIEW
Lurmag Y Orta, Jessica N Beyda, Garrett T Desman
Cutaneous mesenchymal "spindle cell" lesions arising in the vicinity of the breast represent a complex clinical and diagnostic scenario which may overlap histopathologically and immunohistochemically with mammary spindle cell proliferations, potentially impacting management and overall prognostication. In this review, we suggest a pattern-based approach to assist in the evaluation of these lesions. A comprehensive description of each entity is accompanied by a cutaneous and mammary differential diagnosis.
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647116/peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors-of-the-breast
#14
REVIEW
Vivek Charu, Ashley Cimino-Mathews
Benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors can involve the breast, presenting as masses in the dermis, deep breast parenchyma or axillary soft tissue. Although the histologic features are frequently characteristic, diagnosis can be challenging on core needle biopsy, and the differential diagnosis includes a variety of other benign and malignant spindle cell lesions of the breast. Here, we review the key clinical and pathological features of breast schwannoma, neurofibroma, granular cell tumor, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor...
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645508/merkel-cell-carcinoma-melanoma-metastatic-mimics-of-breast-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Megan L Troxell
Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma can each occur primarily in breast skin, or metastasize to the breast. The breast is a rare site of metastasis of essentially any and every type of tumor, including carcinomas, sarcomas, and hematolymphoid neoplasms, and 10-30% of breast metastases may represent the initial presentation of disease. Although metastases generally recapitulate histologic features of the primary tumor, they are diagnostically challenging given their rarity and morphologic overlap with breast carcinoma, including special types of breast cancer...
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629810/spindle-cell-lesions-of-the-breast-an-approach-to-diagnosis
#16
REVIEW
Timothy Kwang Yong Tay, Puay Hoon Tan
Spindle cell lesions of the breast are among the less common entities encountered in breast pathology. They encompass a whole spectrum of benign reactive lesions to high grade malignant neoplasms. An accurate diagnosis is important to ensure that the patient receives the appropriate management. While this group of conditions broadly share the same basic morphology of a lesion composed of spindle cells, there are often recognizable differences on histology, which coupled with ancillary studies and correlation with the clinical and imaging findings, can help one to arrive at a specific diagnosis...
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619468/preface-for-the-hiv-issue
#17
EDITORIAL
Jeannette Guarner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578979/hiv-associated-kidney-diseases-clarifying-concordance-between-renal-failure-in-hiv-infection-and-histopathologic-manifestations-at-kidney-biopsy
#18
REVIEW
Carla L Ellis
Patients with HIV infection have a wide spectrum of renal diseases. Some are known to be the direct effect of the viral infection while others are renal diseases that also occur in uninfected populations. HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is considered to be a subtype of primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis that is distinct in HIV infected patients. It is more frequent in the African-American population and associated with mutations of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene. HIV associated immune complex kidney disease (HIVICD) encompasses a spectrum of HIV associated renal diseases characterized by the presence of immune complex deposition within glomeruli...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566241/the-global-hiv-epidemic-what-the-pathologist-needs-to-know
#19
REVIEW
Carlos Del Rio
The World Health Organization estimates that at the end of 2015, approximately 36.7 million people were living with HIV worldwide. An estimated 0.8% of adults aged 15-49 years are infected with HIV with women representing a little over half of these infections. The burden of the epidemic varies considerably between regions of the world and within countries. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world with most infections accounting for approximately 70% of people living with HIV. In the United States the number of new infections decreased by 19% between 2005 and 2014 yet, close to 40,000 new infections occurred in 2015 and, as people with HIV live longer and new infections continue, the number of people living with HIV in the US now stands at nearly 1...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552210/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-iris-what-pathologists-should-know
#20
REVIEW
Ann Marie Nelson, Yukari C Manabe, Sebastian B Lucas
Antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the quality and length of life for those patients able to access effective and sustained treatment. The resulting restoration of the immune response is associated with a change in the clinical presentation of opportunistic infections, and the histologic reaction to pathogens. A complex combination of alterations in host response across the stages of HIV infection has been documented over the past 3 decades. The defects are seen in both acute and chronic phases of inflammation and involve innate and adaptive immunity...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
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