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Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877855/introduction-to-pathology-of-infections-of-the-lung
#1
EDITORIAL
Sanjay Mukhopadhyay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662997/next-generation-immunohistochemistry-emerging-substitutes-to-genetic-testing
#2
REVIEW
Juliana Andrici, Anthony J Gill, Jason L Hornick
The identification of at-risk kindreds facilitates screening and risk reduction strategies for patients with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. Recently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has emerged as a cost-effective strategy for detecting or inferring the presence of mutations in both tumors and the germline of patients presenting with tumors associated with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. In this review we discuss the use of novel IHC markers, including PRKAR1A, β-catenin, SDHB, fumarate hydratase and 2SC, HRASQ61R, BAP1, parafibromin and glucagon, which have either established applications or show promise for surgical pathologists to complement morphological or clinical suspicion of hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes...
June 27, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751104/myofibroblastic-fibroblastic-and-myoid-lesions-of-the-breast
#3
REVIEW
Gregor Krings, Patrick McIntire, Sandra J Shin
Myofibroblastic, fibroblastic and/or myoid lesions are rare in the breast but comprise the majority of mammary mesenchymal spindle cell lesions. Whereas most have similar features to their counterparts at extramammary sites, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is considered a breast-specific myofibroblastic proliferation on the same spectrum as myofibroblastoma. Other lesions with myofibroblastic/fibroblastic differentiation include fibromatosis and nodular fasciitis, as well as more aggressive tumors such as the rarely reported myofibrosarcoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and fibrosarcoma...
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688536/fibroepithelial-lesions-the-who-spectrum
#4
REVIEW
Gregor Krings, Gregory R Bean, Yunn-Yi Chen
Fibroepithelial lesions of the breast comprise a morphologically and biologically heterogeneous group of biphasic tumors with epithelial and stromal components that demonstrate widely variable clinical behavior. Fibroadenomas are common benign tumors with a number of histologic variants, most of which pose no diagnostic challenge. Cellular and juvenile fibroadenomas can have overlapping features with phyllodes tumors and should be recognized. Phyllodes tumors constitute a spectrum of lesions with varying clinical behavior and are graded as benign, borderline or malignant based on a set of histologic features according to recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO)...
September 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619468/preface-for-the-hiv-issue
#5
EDITORIAL
Jeannette Guarner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578979/hiv-associated-kidney-diseases-clarifying-concordance-between-renal-failure-in-hiv-infection-and-histopathologic-manifestations-at-kidney-biopsy
#6
REVIEW
Carla L Ellis
Patients with HIV infection have a wide spectrum of renal diseases. Some are known to be the direct effect of the viral infection while others are renal diseases that also occur in uninfected populations. HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is considered to be a subtype of primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis that is distinct in HIV infected patients. It is more frequent in the African-American population and associated with mutations of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene. HIV associated immune complex kidney disease (HIVICD) encompasses a spectrum of HIV associated renal diseases characterized by the presence of immune complex deposition within glomeruli...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566241/the-global-hiv-epidemic-what-the-pathologist-needs-to-know
#7
REVIEW
Carlos Del Rio
The World Health Organization estimates that at the end of 2015, approximately 36.7 million people were living with HIV worldwide. An estimated 0.8% of adults aged 15-49 years are infected with HIV with women representing a little over half of these infections. The burden of the epidemic varies considerably between regions of the world and within countries. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world with most infections accounting for approximately 70% of people living with HIV. In the United States the number of new infections decreased by 19% between 2005 and 2014 yet, close to 40,000 new infections occurred in 2015 and, as people with HIV live longer and new infections continue, the number of people living with HIV in the US now stands at nearly 1...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552210/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-iris-what-pathologists-should-know
#8
REVIEW
Ann Marie Nelson, Yukari C Manabe, Sebastian B Lucas
Antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the quality and length of life for those patients able to access effective and sustained treatment. The resulting restoration of the immune response is associated with a change in the clinical presentation of opportunistic infections, and the histologic reaction to pathogens. A complex combination of alterations in host response across the stages of HIV infection has been documented over the past 3 decades. The defects are seen in both acute and chronic phases of inflammation and involve innate and adaptive immunity...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552209/aging-with-hiv-in-the-art-era
#9
REVIEW
Emma Kaplan-Lewis, Judith A Aberg, Mikyung Lee
In the current era of therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), life expectancy for persons living with HIV (PLWH) approaches that of the general population. This newly prolonged survival among PLWH is associated with an increased prevalence of comorbidities due to the inflammation, immune activation and immune senescence associated with HIV infection. Higher prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use, co-infection with viral hepatitis and traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia contribute as well...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550962/hiv-and-mycobacteria
#10
REVIEW
Gary W Procop
The importance of mycobacteria as opportunistic pathogens, particularly members of the M. avium complex (MAC), in patients with progressive HIV infection was recognized early in the AIDS epidemic. It took longer to appreciate the global impact and devastation that would result from the deadly synergy that exists between HIV and M. tuberculosis. This HIV/M. tuberculosis co-pandemic is ongoing and claiming millions of lives every year. In addition to MAC, a number of other non-tuberculous mycobacteria have been recognized as opportunistic pathogens in HIV-infected individuals; some of these are more commonly encountered (e...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549522/pathobiology-of-human-papillomaviruses-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-persons
#11
REVIEW
Uma Krishnamurti, Elizabeth R Unger
There is a complex interrelationship between human papillomaviruses (HPV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) that has been recognized from the start of the HIV epidemic. Cervical cancer was used as a surveillance indicator for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) before definitive identification of the viral etiology of either condition were known. Careful epidemiologic studies combined with clinical and laboratory measures of HPV, HPV-associated disease, and HIV have helped us understand many aspects of the relationship between these two virus groups; however, questions remain...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506688/human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-fungal-infections
#12
REVIEW
Jeannette Guarner
The discovery of HIV was largely due to the presence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in young patients that did not have the usual known causes of immune deficiencies in the early 1980s. Currently, treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and the use of prophylaxis for PCP have lowered the frequency of fungal infections; however, these infections continue to cause morbidity and mortality in those patients that fall out or are not in care. The frequency of specific fungal diseases in HIV patients will depend on the prevalence of fungi in the particular geographic location...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506687/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-related-lymphomas-pathology-view-point
#13
REVIEW
Ebru Linke-Serinsöz, Falko Fend, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez
The contribution of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) to the development of specific types of malignant lymphomas occurring in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) setting has been extensively studied since the beginning of the HIV epidemic 35 years ago. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in 1996 has changed dramatically the incidence of HIV-related malignancies. Nevertheless, malignant lymphomas continue to be the major group of malignances observed in HIV infected individuals, and the most common cause of cancer related-deaths...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502523/human-immunodeficiency-virus-diagnostic-approach
#14
REVIEW
Jeannette Guarner
First descriptions of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome appeared in 1981. Four years later the causative agent was cultured which lead to development and production of tests that helped healthcare providers to identify persons living with HIV. Currently, diagnosis of HIV is performed with fourth generation immunoassays (those that detect p24 antigen together with IgM and IgG antibodies to HIV-1 and -2) which if positive need to be followed by an assay that can differentiate between HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502522/human-herpesvirus-8-related-diseases-histopathologic-diagnosis-and-disease-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Matthew Auten, Annette S Kim, Kyle T Bradley, Flavia G Rosado
The emergence of HIV/AIDS more than three decades ago led to an increased incidence of diseases caused by HHV8 co-infection, particularly Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. Over time, the development of highly effective AIDS therapies has resulted in a decreased incidence of HHV8-associated entities, which are now more commonly found in patients with undiagnosed and/or untreated AIDS. Due to their rarity, some of these diseases may be difficult to recognize without appropriate clinical information...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684133/histopathology-of-fungal-diseases-of-the-lung
#16
REVIEW
Anja C Roden, Audrey N Schuetz
Fungal pneumonias can be a diagnostic problem. However, their recognition is important as they can pose a significant health risk, especially in the immunocompromised host. While many of these infections are accompanied by necrotizing or non-necrotizing granulomas, some might be characterized by cellular interstitial pneumonia, intra-alveolar frothy material or only minimal inflammatory change. Much of the tissue reaction is dependent on the immune status of the patient and the type of fungal organism. While many of the fungi can be identified in tissue, especially if using histochemical stains such as Grocott's Methenamine Silver (GMS) stain and/or Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain, in some cases, these stains are negative and the organisms can only be identified in cultures or using special techniques such as PCR or fungal serology...
June 14, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673729/histopathology-of-parasitic-infections-of-the-lung
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer M Boland, Bobbi S Pritt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673728/introduction-to-non-epithelial-lesions-of-the-breast-issue
#18
EDITORIAL
Kimberly H Allison Md
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693908/pathology-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease-facts-misconceptions-and-practical-tips-for-pathologists
#19
REVIEW
Deepali Jain, Subha Ghosh, Lucileia Teixeira, Sanjay Mukhopadhyay
Most pathologists are familiar with the microscopic features of tuberculosis and the need to examine special stains for acid-fast bacteria (AFB) in cases of granulomatous lung disease. However, misconceptions do exist, including the concept that finding AFB in "caseating granulomas" confirms the diagnosis of tuberculosis. This dogma is attributable to the high prevalence of tuberculosis in many countries, as well as unfamiliarity with the microscopic spectrum of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. This review aims to provide surgical pathologists with practical tips to identify AFB, illustrate the histologic overlap between pulmonary tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease, and highlight the importance of cultures in this setting...
June 7, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693907/histopathology-of-viral-infections-of-the-lung
#20
REVIEW
Bobbi S Pritt, Marie Christine Aubry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
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