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Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662997/next-generation-immunohistochemistry-emerging-substitutes-to-genetic-testing
#1
REVIEW
Juliana Andrici, Anthony J Gill, Jason L Hornick
The identification of at-risk kindreds facilitates screening and risk reduction strategies for patients with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. Recently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has emerged as a cost-effective strategy for detecting or inferring the presence of mutations in both tumors and the germline of patients presenting with tumors associated with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. In this review we discuss the use of novel IHC markers, including PRKAR1A, β-catenin, SDHB, fumarate hydratase and 2SC, HRASQ61R, BAP1, parafibromin and glucagon, which have either established applications or show promise for surgical pathologists to complement morphological or clinical suspicion of hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes...
June 27, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684133/histopathology-of-fungal-diseases-of-the-lung
#2
REVIEW
Anja C Roden, Audrey N Schuetz
Fungal pneumonias can be a diagnostic problem. However, their recognition is important as they can pose a significant health risk, especially in the immunocompromised host. While many of these infections are accompanied by necrotizing or non-necrotizing granulomas, some might be characterized by cellular interstitial pneumonia, intra-alveolar frothy material or only minimal inflammatory change. Much of the tissue reaction is dependent on the immune status of the patient and the type of fungal organism. While many of the fungi can be identified in tissue, especially if using histochemical stains such as Grocott's Methenamine Silver (GMS) stain and/or Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain, in some cases, these stains are negative and the organisms can only be identified in cultures or using special techniques such as PCR or fungal serology...
June 14, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673729/histopathology-of-parasitic-infections-of-the-lung
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer M Boland, Bobbi S Pritt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673728/introduction-to-non-epithelial-lesions-of-the-breast-issue
#4
EDITORIAL
Kimberly H Allison Md
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693908/pathology-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease-facts-misconceptions-and-practical-tips-for-pathologists
#5
REVIEW
Deepali Jain, Subha Ghosh, Lucileia Teixeira, Sanjay Mukhopadhyay
Most pathologists are familiar with the microscopic features of tuberculosis and the need to examine special stains for acid-fast bacteria (AFB) in cases of granulomatous lung disease. However, misconceptions do exist, including the concept that finding AFB in "caseating granulomas" confirms the diagnosis of tuberculosis. This dogma is attributable to the high prevalence of tuberculosis in many countries, as well as unfamiliarity with the microscopic spectrum of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. This review aims to provide surgical pathologists with practical tips to identify AFB, illustrate the histologic overlap between pulmonary tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease, and highlight the importance of cultures in this setting...
June 7, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693907/histopathology-of-viral-infections-of-the-lung
#6
REVIEW
Bobbi S Pritt, Marie Christine Aubry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655479/the-pathology-of-pulmonary-bacterial-infection
#7
REVIEW
Richard L Kradin, Subbha Digumarthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645508/merkel-cell-carcinoma-melanoma-metastatic-mimics-of-breast-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Megan L Troxell
Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma can each occur primarily in breast skin, or metastasize to the breast. The breast is a rare site of metastasis of essentially any and every type of tumor, including carcinomas, sarcomas, and hematolymphoid neoplasms, and 10-30% of breast metastases may represent the initial presentation of disease. Although metastases generally recapitulate histologic features of the primary tumor, they are diagnostically challenging given their rarity and morphologic overlap with breast carcinoma, including special types of breast cancer...
May 31, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676174/vascular-lesions-of-the-breast
#9
REVIEW
Gabrielle M Baker, Stuart J Schnitt
Vascular lesions of the breast comprise a heterogeneous group that includes a variety of benign, atypical, and malignant lesions. The presentation of these lesions ranges from those that are microscopic and discovered incidentally, to large tumors that may extensively involve the breast parenchyma and skin. In addition, some non-vascular breast lesions have features that may mimic those of vascular lesions and need to be distinguished from them in order to avoid an erroneous diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the spectrum of vascular lesions of the breast with particular emphasis on those lesions of greatest clinical importance, angiosarcoma and atypical vascular lesions...
May 30, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662996/cutaneous-subcutaneous-mesenchymal-proliferations-of-the-breast
#10
REVIEW
Lurmag Y Orta, Jessica N Beyda, Garrett T Desman
Cutaneous mesenchymal "spindle cell" lesions arising in the vicinity of the breast represent a complex clinical and diagnostic scenario which may overlap histopathologically and immunohistochemically with mammary spindle cell proliferations, potentially impacting management and overall prognostication. In this review, we suggest a pattern-based approach to assist in the evaluation of these lesions. A comprehensive description of each entity is accompanied by a cutaneous and mammary differential diagnosis.
May 30, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662999/lipomatous-tumors-of-the-breast-a-contemporary-review
#11
REVIEW
J Jordi Rowe, Alison L Cheah, Benjamin C Calhoun
Breast tumors with lipomatous or liposarcomatous components are infrequently encountered, but can be a source of diagnostic difficulty if the context of the fatty differentiation is not recognized. Among the true adipocytic tumors, lipoma is the most common lipomatous tumor arising in the breast. Several mammary spindle cell tumors may show adipocytic differentiation, including fibroepithelial tumors and myofibroblastoma. Liposarcomatous components most often arise in malignant phyllodes tumors, as opposed to primary liposarcomas of the breast which are believed to be uncommon...
May 29, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688536/fibroepithelial-lesions-the-who-spectrum
#12
REVIEW
Gregor Krings, Gregory R Bean, Yunn-Yi Chen
Fibroepithelial lesions of the breast comprise a morphologically and biologically heterogeneous group of biphasic tumors with epithelial and stromal components that demonstrate widely variable clinical behavior. Fibroadenomas are common benign tumors with a number of histologic variants, most of which pose no diagnostic challenge. Cellular and juvenile fibroadenomas can have overlapping features with phyllodes tumors and should be recognized. Phyllodes tumors constitute a spectrum of lesions with varying clinical behavior and are graded as benign, borderline or malignant based on a set of histologic features according to recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO)...
May 28, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662998/hematolymphoid-lesions-of-the-breast
#13
REVIEW
Jenny Hoffmann, Robert S Ohgami
Hematolymphoid malignancies of the breast are most commonly neoplasms of mature B-lymphocytes, and may arise as a primary disease or by secondary involvement of a systemic disease. Primary breast lymphomas (PBL) account for 0.04-0.5% of breast malignancies, less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), and less than 5% of extranodal lymphomas (Lakhani et al., 2012; Swerdlow et al., 2008; Joks et al., 2011; Barişta et al., 2000; Giardini et al., 1992; Brogi and Harris, 1999; Topalovski et al., 1999).(1-7) Secondary breast lymphomas (SBL) are also rare, with an estimated annual incidence of 0...
May 28, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647116/peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors-of-the-breast
#14
REVIEW
Vivek Charu, Ashley Cimino-Mathews
Benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors can involve the breast, presenting as masses in the dermis, deep breast parenchyma or axillary soft tissue. Although the histologic features are frequently characteristic, diagnosis can be challenging on core needle biopsy, and the differential diagnosis includes a variety of other benign and malignant spindle cell lesions of the breast. Here, we review the key clinical and pathological features of breast schwannoma, neurofibroma, granular cell tumor, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor...
May 27, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629810/spindle-cell-lesions-of-the-breast-an-approach-to-diagnosis
#15
REVIEW
Timothy Kwang Yong Tay, Puay Hoon Tan
Spindle cell lesions of the breast are among the less common entities encountered in breast pathology. They encompass a whole spectrum of benign reactive lesions to high grade malignant neoplasms. An accurate diagnosis is important to ensure that the patient receives the appropriate management. While this group of conditions broadly share the same basic morphology of a lesion composed of spindle cells, there are often recognizable differences on histology, which coupled with ancillary studies and correlation with the clinical and imaging findings, can help one to arrive at a specific diagnosis...
May 27, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619469/a-pattern-based-approach-to-reactive-lymphadenopathies
#16
REVIEW
Alexandar Tzankov, Stephan Dirnhofer
A crucial task in histopathological examination of enlarged lymph nodes is to discriminate malignant form benign processes. The central importance of this issue is reflected by the fact that benign lymphadenopathies mistaken for lymphomas belong to the most commonly misdiagnosed cancers. In addition, recognition of distinct histopathological patterns of reactive lymph node changes narrow down the potential number of causative agents, especially of those that can be specifically identified by means of often very resource-consuming ancillary techniques; thus, the more precise the differential diagnosis established upon histopathological examination is, the more targetable and efficient the application of these techniques will be...
May 25, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619468/preface-for-the-hiv-issue
#17
EDITORIAL
Jeannette Guarner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578979/hiv-associated-kidney-diseases-clarifying-concordance-between-renal-failure-in-hiv-infection-and-histopathologic-manifestations-at-kidney-biopsy
#18
REVIEW
Carla L Ellis
Patients with HIV infection have a wide spectrum of renal diseases. Some are known to be the direct effect of the viral infection while others are renal diseases that also occur in uninfected populations. HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is considered to be a subtype of primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis that is distinct in HIV infected patients. It is more frequent in the African-American population and associated with mutations of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene. HIV associated immune complex kidney disease (HIVICD) encompasses a spectrum of HIV associated renal diseases characterized by the presence of immune complex deposition within glomeruli...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566241/the-global-hiv-epidemic-what-the-pathologist-needs-to-know
#19
REVIEW
Carlos Del Rio
The World Health Organization estimates that at the end of 2015, approximately 36.7 million people were living with HIV worldwide. An estimated 0.8% of adults aged 15-49 years are infected with HIV with women representing a little over half of these infections. The burden of the epidemic varies considerably between regions of the world and within countries. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world with most infections accounting for approximately 70% of people living with HIV. In the United States the number of new infections decreased by 19% between 2005 and 2014 yet, close to 40,000 new infections occurred in 2015 and, as people with HIV live longer and new infections continue, the number of people living with HIV in the US now stands at nearly 1...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552210/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-iris-what-pathologists-should-know
#20
REVIEW
Ann Marie Nelson, Yukari C Manabe, Sebastian B Lucas
Antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the quality and length of life for those patients able to access effective and sustained treatment. The resulting restoration of the immune response is associated with a change in the clinical presentation of opportunistic infections, and the histologic reaction to pathogens. A complex combination of alterations in host response across the stages of HIV infection has been documented over the past 3 decades. The defects are seen in both acute and chronic phases of inflammation and involve innate and adaptive immunity...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
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