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Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779432/performance-validity-in-older-adults-observed-versus-predicted-false-positive-rates-in-relation-to-number-of-tests-administered
#1
Jeremy J Davis
INTRODUCTION: This study examined false positive rates on embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) in older adults grouped by cognitive status. METHOD: The research design involved secondary analysis of data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database. Participants (N = 22,688) were grouped by cognitive status: normal (n = 10,319), impaired (n = 1,194), amnestic or nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 5,414), and dementia (n = 5,761)...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720037/brain-s-compensatory-response-to-drug-induced-cognitive-impairment
#2
Immanuel Babu Henry Samuel, Christopher Barkley, Susan E Marino, Chao Wang, Sahng-Min Han, Angela K Birnbaum, Jean E Cibula, Mingzhou Ding
INTRODUCTION: Topiramate (TPM), a frequently prescribed antiseizure medication, can cause severe cognitive side-effects. Though these side-effects have been studied behaviorally, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of TPM's impact on cognition, nine healthy volunteers completed three study sessions: a no-drug baseline session and two sessions during which they received either TPM or placebo. Electroencephalogram was recorded during each session while subjects performed a working-memory task with three memory-loads...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690816/is-motor-activity-during-cognitive-assessment-an-indicator-for-feigned-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-adults
#3
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Tabea S Send, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
OBJECTIVES: Several approaches, ranging from self-ratings of symptoms and impairments to objective neuropsychological testing, have been utilized during clinical evaluation in order to assess symptom and performance validity of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Motor activity has not been considered yet in this context, which is surprising given that hyperactivity is a prominent characteristic of ADHD. Hence, the goal of the present study was to explore the incremental value of motor activity when assessing the credibility of individuals with adult ADHD at clinical evaluation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690820/effects-of-concussions-on-visually-guided-motor-actions-a-literature-review
#4
Christopher Fueger, Wendy E Huddleston
Athletes must be able to successfully navigate the soccer pitch or hockey rink to win the game, requiring maximal cognitive resources to successfully compete. Concussions potentially deplete these resources, and the long-term impact of concussions on an individual's goal-directed visually guided behavior continues to elude the scientific community. While the acute effects on cognition and the motor system have been elucidated elsewhere, long-term effects on performance have been less clear. Additionally, most investigations into long-term postinjury motor behaviors have focused on balance and gait, with little focus on functional upper extremity movements...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690819/the-influence-of-rightward-and-leftward-spatial-deviations-of-spatial-attention-on-emotional-picture-recognition
#5
Aleksandra Mańkowska, Michał Harciarek, John B Williamson, Kenneth M Heilman
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported that positive emotions are primarily mediated by the left hemisphere and negative emotions by the right hemisphere. Since each hemisphere primarily allocates attention toward the contralateral hemispace, we wanted to learn how inducing a spatial attentional orienting bias to right and left egocentric hemispace might influence the recognition and perception of visually presented emotional scenes. METHOD: Participants were 42 healthy, right-handed young adults...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669461/connected-speech-and-language-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review-of-picture-description-tasks
#6
Kimberly D Mueller, Bruce Hermann, Jonilda Mecollari, Lyn S Turkstra
INTRODUCTION: The neuropsychological profile of people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia includes a history of decline in memory and other cognitive domains, including language. While language impairments have been well described in AD dementia, language features of MCI are less well understood. Connected speech and language analysis is the study of an individual's spoken discourse, usually elicited by a target stimulus, the results of which can facilitate understanding of how language deficits typical of MCI and AD dementia manifest in everyday communication...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614925/selective-map-following-navigation-deficit-a-new-case-of-developmental-topographical-disorientation
#7
Massimiliano Conson, Filippo Bianchini, Mario Quarantelli, Maddalena Boccia, Sara Salzano, Antonella Di Vita, Cecilia Guariglia
INTRODUCTION: Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) is a lifelong condition in which affected individuals are selectively impaired in navigating space. Although it seems that DTD is widespread in the population, only a few cases have been studied from both a behavioral and a neuroimaging point of view. Here, we report a new case of DTD, never described previously, of a young woman (C.F.) showing a specific deficit in translating allocentrically coded information into egocentrically guided navigation, in presence of spared ability of constructing such representations...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614901/background-distraction-during-vertical-solid-and-character-line-bisections
#8
Julio A Rodriguez, Damon G Lamb, Liliana Salazar, Lauren N Correa, Diana M Mosquera, Zared J Schwartz, Ronald A Cohen, Adam D Falchook, Kenneth M Heilman
Background-objectives: When vertical lines are positioned above or below the center of the page, line bisection deviates toward the center of the page, suggesting that the edges of the page distract the allocation of attention to the line. A letter-character line (LCL) bisection requires both global and focal attention, to identify the target letter closest to the line's center. If more focal and less global attention is allocated to a LCL, more global attentional resources may be available and inadvertently allocated to the page...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569517/discrepancies-between-crystallized-and-fluid-ability-are-associated-with-frequency-of-social-and-physical-engagement-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#9
Deirdre M O'Shea, Robert Fieo, Adam Woods, John Williamson, Eric Porges, Ron Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Age differences have been noted in the discrepancies between crystallized and fluid ability (Gc-Gf). Larger Gc-Gf discrepancies have also been shown to be associated with Alzheimer's disease biomarkers and clinical severity. However, little is known regarding the relationship between Gc-Gf discrepancies in normal aging and functional outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine this. METHOD: Data from 104 adults (Mage  = 71.70 years, SD = 9...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562838/different-aspects-of-facial-affect-recognition-impairment-following-traumatic-brain-injury-the-role-of-perceptual-and-interpretative-abilities
#10
Arianna Rigon, Michelle W Voss, Lyn S Turkstra, Bilge Mutlu, Melissa C Duff
It is well established that many individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are impaired at facial affect recognition, yet little is known about the mechanisms underlying such deficits. In particular, little work has examined whether the breakdown of facial affect recognition abilities occurs at the perceptual level (e.g., recognizing a smile) or at the verbal categorization stage (e.g., assigning the label "happy" to a smiling face). The aim of the current study was to investigate the integrity of these two distinct facial affect recognition subskills in a sample of 38 individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI and 24 demographically matched healthy individuals...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547067/portable-eyetracking-based-assessment-of-memory-decline
#11
Jocelyne C Whitehead, Lingqian Li, Douglas A McQuiggan, Sara A Gambino, Malcolm A Binns, Jennifer D Ryan
INTRODUCTION: Preferential viewing of novel stimuli in the Visual Paired Comparison task has provided a useful marker of memory and medial temporal lobe function. We created a portable version of the VPC (P-VPC) and contrasted P-VPC metrics against the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in healthy adults, to assess the validity and reliability of the P-VPC as an indicator of memory function across age. A supplementary case series was conducted with individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, to provide a preliminary illustration of the P-VPC's use as a measure in clinical populations...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536791/prospective-and-retrospective-episodic-metamemory-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Mathilde Sacher, Andrei-Cristian Tudorache, David Clarys, Mohamed Boudjarane, Lionel Landré, Wissam El-Hage
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently associated with episodic memory deficits. To some extent, these deficits could be related to an impairment of metamemory in individuals with PTSD. This research consequently aims at investigating prospective (feeling-of-knowing, FOK) and retrospective (confidence) metamemory judgments for episodic information in PTSD. METHOD: Twenty participants with PTSD and without depression were compared to 30 healthy comparison participants on metamemory judgments during an episodic memory task...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532707/real-world-implications-of-apathy-among-older-adults-independent-associations-with-activities-of-daily-living-and-quality-of-life
#13
Savanna M Tierney, Steven Paul Woods, Michael Weinborn, Romola S Bucks
OBJECTIVES: Apathy is common in older adults and has been linked to adverse health outcomes. The current study examined whether apathy contributes to problems managing activities of daily living (ADLs) and lower quality of life (QoL) in older adults. METHOD: Participants included 83 community-dwelling older adults. Apathy was assessed using a composite of the self and family-rating scales from the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale (FrSBe). A knowledgeable informant completed the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ), and participants completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQol) scale...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510651/effects-of-group-versus-individual-therapy-for-patients-with-memory-disorder-after-an-acquired-brain-injury-a-randomized-controlled-study
#14
Marcin M Leśniak, Patryk Mazurkiewicz, Szczepan Iwański, Joanna Szutkowska-Hoser, Joanna Seniów
INTRODUCTION: This randomized, controlled, single-blind study compared the efficacy of group versus individual memory rehabilitation therapy for patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Subjects (N = 65) were assigned to individual (IT), group (GT), or no (NT) therapy during the three-week rehabilitation program. A neuropsychological assessment was conducted before treatment, immediately after completing treatment, and 4 months after completing treatment. Three levels of functioning were assessed: participation, disability, and impairment...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510648/effects-of-physical-activity-on-delayed-memory-measures-in-randomized-controlled-trials-with-nonclinical-older-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-participants
#15
Philip Gerard Gasquoine
INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal studies have found that physical activity protects against Alzheimer disease, but the mechanism is unknown. The prevailing model derives from animal research and has physical activity directly affecting brain physiology by increasing brain volume, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and hippocampal neurogenesis with consequent gains in neuropsychological test scores. Supporting evidence has been mixed, with physical-activity-related gains across multiple neuropsychological domains considered indicative of the protective effect...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509075/imbalance-between-cognitive-systems-in-alcohol-dependence-and-korsakoff-syndrome-an-exploration-using-the-alcohol-flanker-task
#16
Mélanie Brion, Valérie Dormal, Séverine Lannoy, Serge Mertens, Philippe de Timary, Pierre Maurage
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) simultaneously present decreased inhibitory control and increased attention towards alcohol-related cues. The dual-process models have proposed that these symptoms reflect an imbalance between prefrontal/reflective and limbic/automatic systems, respectively leading to cognitive dysfunctions in executive processes and to alcohol-related bias. However, most previous research has focused on a separate exploration of these systems among ALC, and the direct measure of their interactions remains to be conducted...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506429/parent-ratings-of-working-memory-are-uniquely-related-to-performance-based-measures-of-secondary-memory-but-not-primary-memory
#17
Kathryn J Ralph, Bradley S Gibson, Dawn M Gondoli
INTRODUCTION: Existing evidence suggests that performance- and rating-based measures of working memory (WM) correlate poorly. Although some researchers have interpreted this evidence as suggesting that these measures may be assessing distinct cognitive constructs, another possibility is that rating-based measures are related to some but not all theoretically motivated performance-based measures. The current study distinguished between performance-based measures of primary memory (PM) and secondary memory (SM), and examined the relation between each of these components of WM and parent-ratings on the WM subscale of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-WM)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502483/recurrent-perseverations-on-semantic-verbal-fluency-tasks-as-an-early-marker-of-cognitive-impairment
#18
Serguei V S Pakhomov, Lynn E Eberly, David S Knopman
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to examine the association between perseverations produced on the semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task in asymptomatic individuals and the future diagnosis of cognitive impairment (CI). METHOD: Participants were individuals participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (N = 1269, Mage  = 79.3 years, SD = 5.1; 51% men). All were cognitively normal at baseline and were followed in 15-month intervals for up to 6 visits. Each neurocognitive assessment included SVF tasks ("animals," "fruits," and "vegetables")...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812421/right-hemispatial-ipsilesional-neglect-with-chronic-right-hemisphere-strokes
#19
John B Williamson, Damon G Lamb, D Brandon Burtis, Salsabil Haque, Eduardo M Zilli, Tigran Kesayan, Michal Harciarek, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND: Patients who present with spatial neglect after stroke often perform normally on tests for neglect after a few weeks. Whereas tests for neglect are often performed directly in front of a patient, in their actual environments many important stimuli may be present within their left or right hemispace. The presence and severity of neglect often depends on the hemisphere injured. It is possible, in chronic stroke, for spatial judgments to be influenced by an interaction of stroke laterality and the spatial location of stimuli...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766459/subjective-cognitive-complaints-and-neuropsychological-performance-in-former-smokers-with-and-without-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
Amanda M Brunette, Kristen E Holm, Frederick S Wamboldt, Elizabeth Kozora, David J Moser, Barry J Make, James D Crapo, Kimberly Meschede, Howard D Weinberger, Kerrie L Moreau, Russell P Bowler, Karin F Hoth
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association of perceived cognitive difficulties with objective cognitive performance in former smokers. We hypothesized that greater perceived cognitive difficulties would be associated with poorer performance on objective executive and memory tasks. METHOD: Participants were 95 former smokers recruited from the COPDGene study. They completed questionnaires (including the Cognitive Difficulties Scale [CDS] and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), neuropsychological assessment, and pulmonary function testing...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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