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Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316843/diagnosis-threat-and-underperformance-the-threat-must-be-relevant-and-implicit
#1
Megan Fresson, Benoit Dardenne, Thierry Meulemans
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis threat (DT) phenomenon shows that, in some cases, reminding people with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) about their past neurological history diminishes subsequent cognitive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of personal relevance (i.e., domain identification) and type of threat (i.e., implicit vs. explicit) as moderating variables. We investigated intrusive thoughts as a potential mediator. METHOD: Control (non-mTBI) and mTBI participants were recruited and completed a domain identification questionnaire...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316833/self-appraisals-and-episodic-memory-different-psychological-factors-related-to-patient-versus-informant-reports-of-apathy-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Annabelle Arnould, Lucien Rochat, Philippe Azouvi, Martial van der Linden
INTRODUCTION: Apathy is a core feature in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The psychological processes underlying apathy are still unclear, and the few studies conducted on this subject have essentially focused on cognitive processes and informant reports of apathetic manifestations. The aims of the present study were to examine self-reports versus informant reports of diminished initiative/interest, as well as their relationship with different cognitive factors (attention/executive mechanisms, episodic memory, and multitasking) and personal identity factors (self-esteem and self-efficacy beliefs)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258410/different-cortical-source-activation-patterns-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-during-a-time-reproduction-task
#3
Shiva Khoshnoud, Mousa Shamsi, Mohammad Ali Nazari, Scott Makeig
Several neurocognitive studies have indicated that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit cognitive deficits in perceptual timing functions; however, only a few electroencephalographic studies have investigated their time reproduction abilities. In the present research, 15 children with ADHD were studied along with 19 age-matched control subjects (aged 7-11 years) as they attempted to reproduce shorter (1000 ms) and longer (2200 ms) time intervals. Trial-mean event-related potential (ERP) and event-related spectral perturbation measures were used to compare the electroencephalography (EEG) source-level activity patterns of the ADHD and control subjects during the time-encoding and reproduction phases...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226762/assessing-cognitive-functioning-in-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorder
#4
Kirsten M Frazer, Jennifer J Manly, Geraldine Downey, Carl L Hart
INTRODUCTION: There have been mixed findings assessing the impact of regular cocaine use on cognitive functioning. This study employed a comprehensive cognitive battery to compare the performance of individuals diagnosed with a cocaine use disorder (N = 3 abusers, N = 17 dependent) against the performance of two control groups: (a) non-drug-users, and (b) marijuana users who report no cocaine use (N = 7 marijuana abusers, N = 0 dependent, N = 13 marijuana users with no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, DSM-IV, diagnosis)...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202669/the-relationship-between-smell-identification-and-neuropsychological-domains-results-from-a-sample-of-community-dwelling-adults-suspected-of-dementia
#5
William F Goette, Amy E Werry, Andrew L Schmitt
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the theoretical relationships between smell identification and cognitive tasks based on existing neuroimaging and anatomical findings. METHOD: Utilizing data collected from a memory assessment clinic, theory-derived mediation and moderation models were tested. The sample used in this study consisted of 103 (39 male, 64 female) individuals referred for memory assessments. The sample's mean education was 12.4 years (SD = 3.2), and the mean age of the sample was 77...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168420/vulnerabilities-in-sequencing-and-task-switching-in-healthy-youth-offspring-of-parents-with-mood-disorders
#6
Manpreet K Singh, Sara M Leslie, Kalpa Bhattacharjee, Melina Gross, Elizabeth F Weisman, Laila M Soudi, Owen R Phillips, Alexander Onopa
INTRODUCTION: Visuospatial processing and task switching are impaired in individuals with mood disorders. It is unknown whether early deficits are present before mood symptom on set or are related to risk for a specific type of mood disorder. To investigate, we compared visual attention and task switching during sequencing among never-disordered youth with parental family histories of bipolar (BD) and major depressive disorders (MDD) and healthy controls (HC) with no personal or family history of psychopathology...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161963/age-differences-in-cognitive-flexibility-when-overcoming-a-preexisting-bias-through-feedback
#7
Cristina G Wilson, Amy T Nusbaum, Paul Whitney, John M Hinson
INTRODUCTION: Older adults are often worse than younger adults at adapting to changing situational demands, and this difference is commonly attributed to an age-related decline in acquiring and updating information. Previous research on aging and cognitive flexibility has used measures that require adapting to novel associations learned during a laboratory task (e.g., choice X led to positive outcomes but now leads to negative outcomes). However, in everyday life people must frequently overcome associations based on preexisting beliefs and biases (e...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115192/a-novel-experimental-paradigm-to-evaluate-children-and-adolescents-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comparison-with-two-standard-neuropsychological-methods
#8
Marcos F Rosetti, Rosa E Ulloa, Ernesto Reyes-Zamorano, Lino Palacios-Cruz, Francisco de la Peña, Robyn Hudson
INTRODUCTION: In this study we evaluated a recently developed test, the Ball Search Field Task (BSFT) as a neuropsychological tool for measuring cognitive and behavioral performance of individuals with disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which are frequently accompanied by cognitive deficits and a lack of behavioral inhibition. The task provides a complementary method of assessment that attempts ecological validity by drawing on challenges faced in real-world situations...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113534/the-relationship-between-neuropsychological-tests-of-visuospatial-function-and-lobar-cortical-thickness
#9
Davor N Zink, Justin B Miller, Jessica Z K Caldwell, Christopher Bird, Sarah J Banks
INTRODUCTION: Tests of visuospatial function are often administered in comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. These tests are generally considered assays of parietal lobe function; however, the neural correlates of these tests, using modern imaging techniques, are not well understood. In the current study we investigated the relationship between three commonly used tests of visuospatial function and lobar cortical thickness in each hemisphere. METHOD: Data from 374 patients who underwent a neuropsychological evaluation and MRI scans in an outpatient dementia clinic were included in the analysis...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105564/assessment-of-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-stress-related-exhaustion-using-the-cognitive-assessment-battery-cab
#10
Susanne Ellbin, Nina Engen, Ingibjörg H Jonsdottir, Arto I K Nordlund
INTRODUCTION: The health care system is facing an increased number of patients seeking care for burnout/stress-related exhaustion. One of the core features of this condition is cognitive impairment-effective and easy tools are needed to assess cognition in this patient group. Our objective was to determine whether the Cognitive Assessment Battery (CAB) could be used for this purpose. METHOD: Ninety-three patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED) and 111 controls were included in the study and tested with CAB...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072106/auditory-attention-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-exploration-of-volumetric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings
#11
Sanam J Lalani, Tyler C Duffield, Haley G Trontel, Erin D Bigler, Tracy J Abildskov, Alyson Froehlich, Molly B D Prigge, Brittany G Travers, Jeffrey S Anderson, Brandon A Zielinski, Andrew Alexander, Nicholas Lange, Janet E Lainhart
Studies have shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to perform significantly below typically developing individuals on standardized measures of attention, even when controlling for IQ. The current study sought to examine within ASD whether anatomical correlates of attention performance differed between those with average to above-average IQ (AIQ group) and those with low-average to borderline ability (LIQ group) as well as in comparison to typically developing controls (TDC). Using automated volumetric analyses, we examined regional volume of classic attention areas including the superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus in ASD AIQ (n = 38) and LIQ (n = 18) individuals along with 30 TDC...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064318/comparing-the-performance-of-people-who-stutter-and-people-who-do-not-stutter-on-the-test-of-everyday-attention
#12
Silviya Doneva, Steve Davis, Penny Cavenagh
INTRODUCTION: Compelling findings into the relationship between stuttering and attentional ability have started to emerge, with some child and adult studies indicating poorer attentional ability among people who stutter (PWS). The purpose of the present research was to provide a more complete picture of the attentional abilities of PWS, as well as to gather insights into their individual attentional performance. METHOD: We compared the attentional ability of PWS to that of people who do not stutter (PWNS) by using the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353391/validity-of-self-reported-concentration-and-memory-problems-relationship-with-neuropsychological-assessment-and-depression
#13
Rosemarie M Bowler, Shane W Adams, Ralf Schwarzer, Vihra V Gocheva, Harry A Roels, Yangho Kim, Catherine L Kircos, Chris W Wright, Michelle Colledge, George Bollweg, Danelle T Lobdell
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the validity of self-reported concentration and memory problems (CMP) in residents environmentally exposed to manganese (Mn). METHOD: Self-report of CMP from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was compared to neuropsychological assessment (Trails A&B; Digit Span; Digit Symbol; Similarities; Auditory Consonant Trigrams, ACT; NAB Memory; Rey-Osterrieth, Rey-O, Delayed). Participants included 146 residents from Ohio exposed to air-Mn, with a modeled average concentration of 0...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349778/neuropsychological-measurement-of-inhibitory-control-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-exploratory-antisaccade-paradigm
#14
Matthew Reinhard, Nathaniel Allen, Ling M Wong, Barbara L Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to uncover inhibitory control dynamics and assess antisaccade eye-tracking tasks for relevance in a veteran posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) population. METHOD: Participants were 36 veterans enrolled at the Washington DC Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The groups (PTSD diagnosed vs. controls) did not vary between age and sex. Participants completed a testing battery of clinical neuropsychological measures and two different eye-tracking conditions, one that utilized face stimuli and one with standard shape stimuli, which test pro- (PS) and antisaccade (AS) eye movements...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301977/cognitive-complaints-in-women-with-fibromyalgia-are-they-due-to-depression-or-to-objective-cognitive-dysfunction
#15
Olga Gelonch, Maite Garolera, Joan Valls, Lluís Rosselló, Josep Pifarré
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive complaints are common in fibromyalgia, but it is unclear whether they represent an objective cognitive dysfunction or whether they could be explained by depressive symptoms. Here, we aim to elucidate the frequency of subjective cognitive complaints in a sample of women with fibromyalgia, in addition to analyzing associations between these subjective complaints and objective measures linked to the attention and executive cognitive domains. Finally, we aim to investigate the ability of demographic, clinical, and psychological variables to explain the subjective complaints observed...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293987/risk-taking-and-the-triarchic-model-of-psychopathy
#16
Robert J Snowden, Chloe Smith, Nicola S Gray
INTRODUCTION: High risk behaviors, such as aggression, criminality, sexual promiscuity, drug use, and gambling, are often associated with psychopathic traits. Such behaviors might arise due to a lack of fear of the consequences (boldness) or due to impulsive actions (disinhibition). We examined risk taking behavior in the laboratory setting using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), where an individual can inflate a balloon to earn a reward, but will lose this accumulated reward if the balloon bursts...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165881/subtle-visuomotor-deficits-and-reduced-benefit-from-practice-in-early-treated-phenylketonuria
#17
Claudia Caprile, Jaume Campistol, Laura Puigcerver, Alfonso-Pablo Gutiérrez-Mata, Itziar Alonso-Colmenero, Roser Colomé, Jordi Navarra
INTRODUCTION: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare metabolic disease that causes slight-to-severe neurological symptoms. Slow performance has been observed in PKU but the influence of high-order (i.e., not purely motor) deficits and of temporary variations of the phenylalanine (Phe) level on this slowness has not been fully corroborated as yet. Response speed and the effect of motor practice during the performance of a visuomotor coordination task were measured, in a group of patients with early-treated phenylketonuria (ET PKU)...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145153/prospective-memory-function-and-cue-salience-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-findings-from-the-sydney-memory-and-ageing-study
#18
Claire L Thompson, Julie D Henry, Peter G Rendell, Adrienne Withall, Nicole A Kochan, Perminder Sachdev, Henry Brodaty
OBJECTIVE: Prospective memory (PM) is crucial to the maintenance of functional independence in late adulthood and is consistently impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). There remains a need for brief but valid measures of this construct that can be used as part of a comprehensive clinical assessment of cognition. Since the distinctiveness of PM cues is argued to determine the degree of strategic, controlled demands of PM paradigms, two variants of a brief measure were developed, one of which presented low-salience and the other high-salience PM cues...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122474/screening-for-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-positive-adults-aged-50-years-and-older-montreal-cognitive-assessment-relates-to-self-reported-and-clinician-rated-everyday-functioning
#19
P L Fazeli, K B Casaletto, E Paolillo, R C Moore, D J Moore, The Hnrp Group
As the HIV+ population ages, the risk for and need to screen for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) increases. The aim of this study is to determine the utility and ecological validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) among older HIV+ adults. A total of 100 HIV+ older adults aged 50 years or over completed a comprehensive neuromedical and neurocognitive battery, including the MoCA and several everyday functioning measures. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicates ≤26 as the optimal cut-off balancing sensitivity (84...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061082/motor-planning-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-longitudinal-perspective
#20
Jessica Mireille Lust, Steffie Spruijt, Peter H Wilson, Bert Steenbergen
INTRODUCTION: Motor planning is important for daily functioning. Deficits in motor planning can result in slow, inefficient, and clumsy motor behavior and are linked to disruptions in performance of activities of daily living in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the evidence in CP is primarily based on cross-sectional data. METHOD: Data are presented on the development of motor planning in children with CP using a longitudinal design with three measurement occasions, each separated by 1 year...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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