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Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892813/thinking-about-social-and-nonsocial-alternative-possibilities-in-premature-preschoolers
#1
María Dolores Roldán-Tapia, Sergio Moreno-Ríos, Rosa Cánovas-López
INTRODUCTION: Prematurely born preschoolers show developmental cognitive delay compared to full-term children. There are important neurological networks developing at preschool age related to perspective taking about the attribution of belief and to deduction with contrary-to-fact situations. Other deductive abilities may be completed during that period. METHOD: A group of very prematurely born children (N = 35) aged between 4 and 5 years was compared with a control group of children born at full term (N = 35)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892808/self-reported-impulsivity-in-huntington-s-disease-patients-and-relationship-to-executive-dysfunction-and-reward-responsiveness
#2
Patricia L Johnson, Geoffrey F Potts, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, Cynthia R Cimino
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have directly investigated impulsivity in Huntington's disease (HD) despite known changes in dopaminergic and frontal functioning, changes that have been associated with impulsivity in other disorders and in the normal population. This study sought to further categorize impulsivity in HD through examining differences in self-reported impulsivity between community controls and HD patients, the relationship between executive dysfunction and impulsivity, and the relationship of a reward/punishment behavioral inhibition task in relation to these self-report measures...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892775/the-emotion-word-fluency-test-ewft-initial-psychometric-validation-and-physiological-evidence-in-young-adults
#3
Christopher A Abeare, Sabrina Freund, Kristen Kaploun, Tara McAuley, Claudiu Dumitrescu
INTRODUCTION: The clinical assessment of affective functioning has been slow to incorporate findings from affective neuroscience. Of particular interest in the current study is the assessment of affective word production. METHOD: In a series of four studies, we examined test-retest and interrater reliability for the Emotion Word Fluency Test (EWFT), basic construct validity with existing verbal fluency measures, physiological responses across verbal fluency tasks, and a novel scoring method to examine qualitative aspects of participant response sets...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876444/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-verbal-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-correlates-of-recency-and-recognition-memory
#4
Adam M Staffaroni, Rebecca J Melrose, Lorraine P Leskin, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Dylan Harwood, Mark Mandelkern, David L Sultzer
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to distinguish the functional neuroanatomy of verbal learning and recognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word Learning task. METHOD: In 81 Veterans diagnosed with dementia due to AD, we conducted a cluster-based correlation analysis to assess the relationships between recency and recognition memory scores from the CERAD Word Learning Task and cortical metabolic activity measured using [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876440/cannabis-alcohol-use-psychological-distress-and-decision-making-style
#5
James G Phillips, Rowan P Ogeil
INTRODUCTION: There have been suggestions of hypofrontality in cannabis users. To understand cannabis-related differences in decisional processes, Janis and Mann's conflict model of decision making was applied to recreational cannabis smokers who varied in their alcohol use and level of psychological distress. METHOD: An online sample of recreational substance users (114 male, 119 female) completed the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale (K10), and the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) for cannabis...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868580/attention-lapses-in-children-with-spina-bifida-and-hydrocephalus-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
Gabriel G De la Torre, Alba Martin, Elizabeth Cervantes, Rocio Guil, Jose M Mestre
Attentional lapses are usually defined as temporary and often brief shifts of attention away from some primary task to unrelated internal information processing. This study addressed the incidence of attention lapses and differences in attentional functioning in 30 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 26 healthy children, and 29 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus (SBH). Assessments were conducted using computerized tonic and phasic attention tests, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Trail Making Test Form B (TMT-B)...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868477/association-between-olfaction-and-higher-cortical-functions-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-healthy-older-adults
#7
Amanda M Ward, Matthew Calamia, Erin Thiemann, Jamie Dunlap, Daniel Tranel
INTRODUCTION: Neural regions important for smell are proximal and closely connected to cortical areas that have been strongly implicated in higher order functions of value-based decision making and emotional memory. The integrity of these neural regions are affected in aging and neurodegenerative conditions. Two specific predictions follow from these neuroanatomical arrangements-namely, that olfaction would be associated with value-based decision making and with emotional memory. METHOD: To test these predictions, we measured these different capacities in participants with presumed varying degrees of integrity of the relevant brain structures: specifically, 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 8 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 20 healthy older adults...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868476/latent-structure-of-cognitive-performance-in-the-adult-children-study
#8
Denise Head, Samantha Allison, Nathaniel Lucena, Jason Hassenstab, John C Morris
OBJECTIVE: The Adult Children Study (ACS) at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center is a longitudinal investigation designed to identify and validate potential biomarkers of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) in cognitively normal individuals with and without a family history of AD. The purpose of the current study was to validate the proposed latent structure of the ACS psychometric battery. METHOD: Confirmatory factor analyses of baseline data in a sample of 229 (75 men) cognitively normal middle-aged to older adult individuals assessed a hypothesized 4-factor model of cognitive performance...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845600/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-its-controversial-effects-on-cognition
#9
Maria Devita, Sonia Montemurro, Sara Ramponi, Maurizio Marvisi, Daniele Villani, Maria Clara Raimondi, Maria Luisa Rusconi, Sara Mondini
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a sleep disorder that may affect many brain functions. We are interested in the cognitive consequences of the condition with regard to the quality of life of individuals with this disorder. A debate is still underway as to whether cognitive difficulties caused by obstructive sleep apnea actually induce a "pseudodementia" pattern. This work provides a brief overview of the main controversies currently surrounding this issue. We report findings and opinions on structural and cognitive brain changes in individuals affected by obstructive sleep apnea by highlighting the involvement of executive functions and the possible reversibility of signs following-treatment with continuous positive airway pressure...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841098/effects-of-acute-beta-adrenergic-antagonism-on-verbal-problem-solving-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-exploration-of-treatment-response-markers
#10
Rachel M Zamzow, Bradley J Ferguson, Alexandra S Ragsdale, Morgan L Lewis, David Q Beversdorf
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social communication as well as restricted, repetitive behaviors. Evidence suggests that some individuals with ASD have cognitive impairments related to weak central coherence and hyperrestricted processing. Reducing noradrenergic activity may improve aspects of network processing and thus improve cognitive abilities, such as verbal problem solving, in individuals with ASD. The present pilot study explores the effects of acute administration of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol on verbal problem solving in adults and adolescents with ASD...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841096/evaluating-working-memory-comparing-change-detection-tasks-and-wechsler-working-memory-subtests-in-school-age-children
#11
Alison Colbert, Jin Bo
Among a number of methods for assessing working memory (WM), span tasks have been commonly utilized in clinical psychology, whereas change-detection tasks are often used in experimental or cognitive psychology. This study sought to understand the use of change-detection tasks in children and to evaluate the relationship between change-detection tasks and clinical WM measures in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). Results revealed that the overall pattern of performance in change-detection tasks for children was similar to adults' performance in the literature; with increased array size, response accuracy systematically decreased...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841088/interbrains-cooperation-hyperscanning-and-self-perception-in-joint-actions
#12
Michela Balconi, Maria Elide Vanutelli
The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural bases of cooperative behaviors and social self-perception underlying the execution of joint actions by using a hyperscanning brain paradigm with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We firstly found that an artificial positive feedback on the cognitive performance was able to affect the self-perception of social position and hierarchy (higher social ranking) for the dyad, as well as the cognitive performance (decreased error rate, ER, and response times, RTs)...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841084/diagnostic-terminology-athlete-status-and-history-of-concussion-affect-return-to-play-expectations-and-anticipated-symptoms-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Kiersten Kelly, Kristi Erdal
"Mild traumatic brain injury" (mTBI) and "concussion" are terms often used interchangeably. However, "mTBI" is frequently seen as representing a broader injury that encompasses the construct of "concussion," which often conveys transience or decreased severity. The present study examined the influence of varying diagnostic terminology on acute injury expectations in an undergraduate population (N = 105). Participants were presented with an mTBI vignette and were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which the term "mTBI" or "concussion" was used to describe the injury...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841082/sex-differences-in-hiv-effects-on-visual-memory-among-substance-dependent-individuals
#14
Michael K Keutmann, Raul Gonzalez, Pauline M Maki, Leah H Rubin, Jasmin Vassileva, Eileen M Martin
HIV's effects on episodic memory have not been compared systematically between male and female substance-dependent individuals. We administered the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) to 280 substance-dependent HIV+ and HIV- men and women. Groups were comparable on demographic, substance use, and comorbid characteristics. There were no significant main effects of sex or HIV serostatus on BVMT-R performance, but HIV+ women performed significantly more poorly on delayed recall. This effect was most prominent among cocaine-dependent HIV+ women...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829324/callosal-ideomotor-apraxia-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Ann Marie Cimino-Knight, Leslie J Gonzalez Rothi, Ying He, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Impaired ability to perform skilled movements with the left upper limb in patients with corpus callosum injury has been well described (callosal apraxia) with some displaying spatial-temporal errors primarily in response to verbal commands (verbal callosal disconnection apraxia), with imitation, and when using actual tools (callosal ideomotor apraxia). Additionally some patients with callosal injury also make content errors when selecting and using the incorrect tool with their left upper limb (callosal conceptual apraxia)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829317/personal-semantic-and-episodic-autobiographical-memories-in-korsakoff-syndrome-a-comparison-of-interview-methods
#16
Yvonne C M Rensen, Roy P C Kessels, Ellen M Migo, Arie J Wester, Paul A T M Eling, Michael D Kopelman
OBJECTIVE: The temporal gradient in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome has been of particular interest in the literature, as many studies have found evidence for a steep temporal gradient, but others have observed more uniform remote memory impairment across all past time periods. Inconsistencies might be the result of the nature of remote memory impairment under study (i.e., nonpersonal or autobiographical memory) and of methodological differences in the examination of remote memory loss...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829310/traumatic-brain-injury-and-alcohol-substance-abuse-a-bayesian-meta-analysis-comparing-the-outcomes-of-people-with-and-without-a-history-of-abuse
#17
David J Unsworth, Jane L Mathias
Alcohol and substance (drugs and/or alcohol) abuse are major risk factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it remains unclear whether outcomes differ for those with and without a history of preinjury abuse. A meta-analysis was performed to examine this issue. The PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for research that compared the neuroradiological, cognitive, or psychological outcomes of adults with and without a documented history of alcohol and/or substance abuse who sustained nonpenetrating TBIs...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753292/trying-to-remember-effort-mediates-the-relationship-between-frequency-of-cannabis-use-and-memory-performance
#18
Rayna B Hirst, Kaitlyn R Young, Louise M Sodos, Robert E Wickham, Mitch Earleywine
INTRODUCTION: While many studies suggest that regular cannabis use leads to deficits in cognitive functioning, particularly in memory, few have measured effort put forth during testing, and none have examined this as a potential mediator. Both age of onset of regular cannabis use and frequency of use have been linked to increased risk of memory deficits. The present study sought to determine whether effort mediated the relationship between frequency or age of onset of cannabis use and learning and memory performance...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750469/conceptual-model-and-cluster-analysis-of-behavioral-symptoms-in-two-cohorts-of-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injuries
#19
Shannon B Juengst, Galen Switzer, Byung Mo Oh, Patricia M Arenth, Amy K Wagner
INTRODUCTION: Behavioral changes often occur after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can lead to poor health, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Challenges in evaluating these behaviors often result from the complexity and variability in the way they are conceptualized and defined. We propose and test a conceptual model that is specific to behavioral symptoms after TBI, to serve as a basis for better assessment and treatment. We hypothesized that clusters of individuals, with unique emotional, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics, would emerge that would illustrate this conceptual model...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748144/comparison-of-self-reported-and-informant-reported-depressive-symptoms-in-an-outpatient-neuropsychology-clinic-sample
#20
Matthew Calamia, John P K Bernstein
INTRODUCTION: Depressive symptoms are common in patients assessed by neuropsychologists, and these symptoms can have an effect on cognitive functioning. Discrepancies between patient- and informant-reported depressive symptoms have been found in some diagnostic groups, raising concerns as to the value of assessing depressive symptoms via self-report alone. This study aimed to examine the relationship between these discrepancies and cognitive functioning in a heterogeneous outpatient neuropsychological sample...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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