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Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

Jocelyne C Whitehead, Lingqian Li, Douglas A McQuiggan, Sara A Gambino, Malcolm A Binns, Jennifer D Ryan
INTRODUCTION: Preferential viewing of novel stimuli in the Visual Paired Comparison task has provided a useful marker of memory and medial temporal lobe function. We created a portable version of the VPC (P-VPC) and contrasted P-VPC metrics against the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in healthy adults, to assess the validity and reliability of the P-VPC as an indicator of memory function across age. A supplementary case series was conducted with individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, to provide a preliminary illustration of the P-VPC's use as a measure in clinical populations...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Mathilde Sacher, Andrei-Cristian Tudorache, David Clarys, Mohamed Boudjarane, Lionel Landré, Wissam El-Hage
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently associated with episodic memory deficits. To some extent, these deficits could be related to an impairment of metamemory in individuals with PTSD. This research consequently aims at investigating prospective (feeling-of-knowing, FOK) and retrospective (confidence) metamemory judgments for episodic information in PTSD. METHOD: Twenty participants with PTSD and without depression were compared to 30 healthy comparison participants on metamemory judgments during an episodic memory task...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Savanna M Tierney, Steven Paul Woods, Michael Weinborn, Romola S Bucks
OBJECTIVES: Apathy is common in older adults and has been linked to adverse health outcomes. The current study examined whether apathy contributes to problems managing activities of daily living (ADLs) and lower quality of life (QoL) in older adults. METHOD: Participants included 83 community-dwelling older adults. Apathy was assessed using a composite of the self and family-rating scales from the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale (FrSBe). A knowledgeable informant completed the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ), and participants completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQol) scale...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Marcin M Leśniak, Patryk Mazurkiewicz, Szczepan Iwański, Joanna Szutkowska-Hoser, Joanna Seniów
INTRODUCTION: This randomized, controlled, single-blind study compared the efficacy of group versus individual memory rehabilitation therapy for patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Subjects (N = 65) were assigned to individual (IT), group (GT), or no (NT) therapy during the three-week rehabilitation program. A neuropsychological assessment was conducted before treatment, immediately after completing treatment, and 4 months after completing treatment. Three levels of functioning were assessed: participation, disability, and impairment...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Philip Gerard Gasquoine
INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal studies have found that physical activity protects against Alzheimer disease, but the mechanism is unknown. The prevailing model derives from animal research and has physical activity directly affecting brain physiology by increasing brain volume, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and hippocampal neurogenesis with consequent gains in neuropsychological test scores. Supporting evidence has been mixed, with physical-activity-related gains across multiple neuropsychological domains considered indicative of the protective effect...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Mélanie Brion, Valérie Dormal, Séverine Lannoy, Serge Mertens, Philippe de Timary, Pierre Maurage
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) simultaneously present decreased inhibitory control and increased attention towards alcohol-related cues. The dual-process models have proposed that these symptoms reflect an imbalance between prefrontal/reflective and limbic/automatic systems, respectively leading to cognitive dysfunctions in executive processes and to alcohol-related bias. However, most previous research has focused on a separate exploration of these systems among ALC, and the direct measure of their interactions remains to be conducted...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Kathryn J Ralph, Bradley S Gibson, Dawn M Gondoli
INTRODUCTION: Existing evidence suggests that performance- and rating-based measures of working memory (WM) correlate poorly. Although some researchers have interpreted this evidence as suggesting that these measures may be assessing distinct cognitive constructs, another possibility is that rating-based measures are related to some but not all theoretically motivated performance-based measures. The current study distinguished between performance-based measures of primary memory (PM) and secondary memory (SM), and examined the relation between each of these components of WM and parent-ratings on the WM subscale of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-WM)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Serguei V S Pakhomov, Lynn E Eberly, David S Knopman
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to examine the association between perseverations produced on the semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task in asymptomatic individuals and the future diagnosis of cognitive impairment (CI). METHOD: Participants were individuals participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (N = 1269, Mage  = 79.3 years, SD = 5.1; 51% men). All were cognitively normal at baseline and were followed in 15-month intervals for up to 6 visits. Each neurocognitive assessment included SVF tasks ("animals," "fruits," and "vegetables")...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Kelli L Sullivan, Steven Paul Woods, Romola S Bucks, Shayne Loft, Michael Weinborn
INTRODUCTION: Older adults demonstrate poorer prospective memory (PM) performance than younger adults, particularly for time-based cues and other strategically demanding PM tasks. Intraindividual variability (IIV) in neurocognitive test performance is an index of cognitive control that may be related to the execution of strategically demanding PM tasks. METHOD: Participants included 194 older Australian adults (age 50 to 88 years) who completed the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), and clinical measures of executive functions...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Lucas S Broster, Juan Li, Benjamin Wagner, Charles D Smith, Gregory A Jicha, Frederick A Schmitt, Nancy Munro, Ryan H Haney, Yang Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) classically show disproportionate impairment in measures of working memory, but repetition learning effects are relatively preserved. As AD affects brain regions implicated in both working memory and repetition effects, the neural basis of this discrepancy is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the posterior repetition effect could account for this discrepancy due to the milder effects of AD at visual cortex. METHOD: Participants with early AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls performed a working memory task with superimposed repetition effects while electroencephalography was collected to identify possible neural mechanisms of preserved repetition effects...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Roanne Hurley, Liana Machado
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive electrical brain stimulation technique that has been used extensively over prefrontal cortex in an effort to enhance verbal working memory (WM). However, inconsistent and contradictory outcomes from similar stimulation protocols have created a strong need to examine methodologies in greater detail. This review undertook an in-depth look at both positive and negative prefrontal tDCS-WM findings in adult populations to shed light on methodological parameters that may be driving the inconsistent outcomes in the literature...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Laura Alonso-Recio, Pilar Martín-Plasencia, Miguel Ruiz, Juan Manuel Serrano
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairments are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients without dementia. These deficits are quite heterogeneous, which makes it difficult to recognize and treat them. For this reason, many authors have attempted to classify patients into more homogeneous groups with diverse results. The present study was designed to analyze the cognitive heterogeneity in PD patients using a novel data-driven approach, latent profile analysis (LPA), to classify patients according to cognitive characteristics...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Michael L Thomas, Gregory G Brown, Ruben C Gur, Tyler M Moore, Virginie M Patt, Victoria B Risbrough, Dewleen G Baker
INTRODUCTION: Models from signal detection theory are commonly used to score neuropsychological test data, especially tests of recognition memory. Here we show that certain item response theory models can be formulated as signal detection theory models, thus linking two complementary but distinct methodologies. We then use the approach to evaluate the validity (construct representation) of commonly used research measures, demonstrate the impact of conditional error on neuropsychological outcomes, and evaluate measurement bias...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Tyler Bell, Zina Trost, Melissa T Buelow, Olivio Clay, Jarred Younger, David Moore, Michael Crowe
INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia is a condition with symptoms of pain, physical function difficulties, and emotional problems, but is also characterized by complaints of poor cognition (often called "FibroFog"). Over the last two decades, a number of studies have examined cognitive differences between individuals with and without fibromyalgia. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a quantitative synthesis of these differences across multiple cognitive domains. METHOD: Following Cochrane guidelines, we identified 37 eligible studies for analysis where persons with fibromyalgia (total n = 964) were compared to participants from age-matched control groups without fibromyalgia (total n = 1025) on a range of neuropsychological measures...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Rachel P So, Lawrence S Kegeles, Xiangling Mao, Dikoma C Shungu, Arielle D Stanford, Chi-Ming A Chen
Working memory deficits in schizophrenia may be associated with impairments in the integration of neural activity across a distributed network of cortical areas. However, evaluation of the contribution of this integration to working memory impairments in patients is severely confounded by behavioral performance. In the present multidimensional-neuroimaging study, measures of neural oscillations at baseline and during a working memory task, baseline gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and behavioral performance were obtained...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Adrià Rofes, Andrea Talacchi, Barbara Santini, Giampietro Pinna, Lyndsey Nickels, Roelien Bastiaanse, Gabriele Miceli
BACKGROUND: The relationship between spontaneous speech and formal language testing in people with brain tumors (gliomas) has been rarely studied. In clinical practice, formal testing is typically used, while spontaneous speech is less often evaluated quantitatively. However, spontaneous speech is quicker to sample and may be less prone to test/retest effects, making it a potential candidate for assessing language impairments when there is restricted time or when the patient is unable to undertake prolonged testing...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Ryan A Mace, William E Mansbach
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of cognitive, sensory, and physical impairments is expected to grow alongside increasing life expectancy. These chronic conditions pose challenges for geriatric assessment. We examined whether Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool (BCAT) modifications to accommodate visual and motor limitations would retain strong validity for identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. METHOD: Psychometric analyses were performed on archival data (N = 458) from community-dwelling older adults and residents of assisted living facilities and nursing homes in Maryland, USA (age ≥ 50 years)...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Megan Fresson, Benoit Dardenne, Thierry Meulemans
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis threat (DT) phenomenon shows that, in some cases, reminding people with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) about their past neurological history diminishes subsequent cognitive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of personal relevance (i.e., domain identification) and type of threat (i.e., implicit vs. explicit) as moderating variables. We investigated intrusive thoughts as a potential mediator. METHOD: Control (non-mTBI) and mTBI participants were recruited and completed a domain identification questionnaire...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Annabelle Arnould, Lucien Rochat, Philippe Azouvi, Martial van der Linden
INTRODUCTION: Apathy is a core feature in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The psychological processes underlying apathy are still unclear, and the few studies conducted on this subject have essentially focused on cognitive processes and informant reports of apathetic manifestations. The aims of the present study were to examine self-reports versus informant reports of diminished initiative/interest, as well as their relationship with different cognitive factors (attention/executive mechanisms, episodic memory, and multitasking) and personal identity factors (self-esteem and self-efficacy beliefs)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Shiva Khoshnoud, Mousa Shamsi, Mohammad Ali Nazari, Scott Makeig
Several neurocognitive studies have indicated that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit cognitive deficits in perceptual timing functions; however, only a few electroencephalographic studies have investigated their time reproduction abilities. In the present research, 15 children with ADHD were studied along with 19 age-matched control subjects (aged 7-11 years) as they attempted to reproduce shorter (1000 ms) and longer (2200 ms) time intervals. Trial-mean event-related potential (ERP) and event-related spectral perturbation measures were used to compare the electroencephalography (EEG) source-level activity patterns of the ADHD and control subjects during the time-encoding and reproduction phases...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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