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Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095744/the-effects-of-age-on-the-learning-and-forgetting-of-primacy-middle-and-recency-components-of-a-multi-trial-word-list
#1
Jason W Griffin, Samantha E John, Jason W Adams, Cara A Bussell, Jessica L Saurman, Brandon E Gavett
The serial position effect reveals that recall of a supraspan list of words follows a predictable pattern, whereby words at the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of a list are recalled more easily than words in the middle. This effect has typically been studied using single list-learning trials, but in neuropsychology, multi-trial list-learning tests are more commonly used. The current study examined trends in learning for primacy, middle, and recency effects across multiple trials in younger and older age cohorts...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095735/criterion-validity-of-the-d-kefs-color-word-and-verbal-fluency-switching-paradigms-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Luke B Anderson, Rebekah Jaroh, Hillary Smith, Carrie-Ann H Strong, Jacobus Donders
The present study was composed of two parts examining the clinical utility of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Verbal Fluency and Color-Word subtests in traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the first part, the performance of 128 outpatients with mild to severe TBI on the Verbal Fluency and Color-Word subtests was examined in relation to two primary indicators of TBI severity: length of coma and the presence of intracranial lesions on neuroimaging through regression analysis. After controlling for education, ethnicity, and complicating premorbid and comorbid factors, length of coma predicted performance on the Color-Word Inhibition/Switching subtest, whereas the presence of diffuse lesions was related to Verbal Fluency Category Switching performance...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092209/executive-function-is-an-important-consideration-for-coping-strategy-use-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Lisa B Grech, Litza A Kiropoulos, Katherine M Kirby, Ernest Butler, Mark Paine, Robert Hester
INTRODUCTION: Executive function deficits are prevalent in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), and PwMS use less adaptive coping than healthy controls. This cross-sectional study assessed whether there is a relationship between executive function and coping in PwMS. METHOD: One hundred and seven participants with relapsing remitting or secondary progressive MS (n = 83 and 24, respectively; age M = 48.8 ± 11.1 years) completed measures of coping and executive function...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078966/visual-and-cross-modal-cues-increase-the-identification-of-overlapping-visual-stimuli-in-balint-s-syndrome
#4
Daniela D'Imperio, Michele Scandola, Valeria Gobbetto, Cristina Bulgarelli, Matteo Salgarello, Renato Avesani, Valentina Moro
INTRODUCTION: Cross-modal interactions improve the processing of external stimuli, particularly when an isolated sensory modality is impaired. When information from different modalities is integrated, object recognition is facilitated probably as a result of bottom-up and top-down processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cross-modal stimulation in a case of simultanagnosia. METHOD: We report a detailed analysis of clinical symptoms and an (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) brain positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study of a patient affected by Balint's syndrome, a rare and invasive visual-spatial disorder following bilateral parieto-occipital lesions...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052738/determining-optimal-impairment-rating-methodology-for-a-new-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-screening-procedure
#5
Jody Kamminga, Mark Bloch, Trina Vincent, Angela Carberry, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
INTRODUCTION: The current study sought to determine the optimal impairment rating definition for a new HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) screening procedure as compared to standard neuropsychological testing. METHOD: A total of 55 HIV-infected (HIV+; 19% AIDS; 87% on combination antiretroviral therapy, cART; 80% plasma undetectable) and 22 demographically comparable HIV-uninfected (HIV-) control adults (all male) enrolled in an urban Australian primary care cohort study completed the CogState computerized cognitive screen, a standard independence in activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaire, and a standard neuropsychological test battery...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052734/motor-timing-intraindividual-variability-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-cognitively-intact-elders-at-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Christina D Kay, Michael Seidenberg, Sally Durgerian, Kristy A Nielson, J Carson Smith, John L Woodard, Stephen M Rao
INTRODUCTION: Intraindividual variability (IIV) in motor performance has been shown to predict future cognitive decline. The apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 (APOE-ε4) allele is also a well-established risk factor for memory decline. Here, we present novel findings examining the influence of the APOE-ε4 allele on the performance of asymptomatic healthy elders in comparison to individuals with amnestic MCI (aMCI) on a fine motor synchronization, paced finger-tapping task (PFTT). METHOD: Two Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk groups, individuals with aMCI (n = 24) and cognitively intact APOE-ε4 carriers (n = 41), and a control group consisting of cognitively intact APOE-ε4 noncarriers (n = 65) completed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the PFTT, which requires index finger tapping in synchrony with a visual stimulus (interstimulus interval = 333 ms)...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052720/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-methylphenidate-and-atomoxetine-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-meta-analysis-based-on-head-to-head-trials
#7
Qiang Liu, Hong Zhang, Qingqing Fang, Lili Qin
INTRODUCTION: Comparative efficacy and safety are important issues for appropriate drug selection for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. Therefore we conducted a meta-analysis, where we compared atomoxetine (ATX) and methylphenidate (MPH) for ADHD treatment in children and adolescents. METHOD: Literature retrieval was conducted in relevant databases from their inception to April 2016 to select head-to-head trials that compared ATX and MPH in children and adolescents...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043200/predictors-of-wais-r-vocabulary-in-late-life-differences-by-race
#8
Ruth T Morin, Elizabeth Midlarsky
BACKGROUND: Vocabulary scores tend to be significantly related to education in heterogeneous groups of older adults, even after controlling for confounding variables. However, there may be other factors that impinge on cognitive functioning for certain demographic groups, particularly those whose educational opportunities were limited, and who may have experienced considerable stress as a result of their minority status. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore possible predictors of vocabulary scores among African American and White older adults...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998199/uniqueness-of-action-monitoring-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-response-types-and-temporal-aspects
#9
Kota Suzuki, Yosuke Kita, Kotoe Sakihara, Shogo Hirata, Ryusuke Sakuma, Hideyuki Okuzumi, Masumi Inagaki
BACKGROUND: Action monitoring, the process for evaluating the appropriateness of one's own actions, is reported to be atypical in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: We examined the characteristics of action monitoring in 11 children with ASD and 12 children with typical development (TD), analyzing stimulus-locked and response-locked event-related potential components (i.e., N2; error-related negativity, ERN; and error positivity, Pe) related to execution of a flanker task...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976973/elevated-rates-of-memory-impairment-in-military-service-members-and-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#10
Nikki H Stricker, Sara M Lippa, Deborah L Green, Susan M McGlynn, Laura J Grande, William P Milberg, Regina E McGlinchey
INTRODUCTION: Studies investigating the neurocognitive effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) routinely find "deficits" in various cognitive domains. However, the rate of cognitive impairment in individuals with PTSD remains unclear, as studies have focused on null hypothesis testing (NHT) and inferring patterns of impairment rather than empirically determining the rate of cognitive impairment in this sample. METHOD: This study examined rates of cognitive impairment using a domain-specific approach in non-treatment-seeking Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn service members and veterans with (n = 92) and without (n = 79) PTSD and without substance abuse/dependence who passed a performance validity measure and were matched on age, education, estimated IQ, and ethnicity...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951747/differences-between-left-and-right-sided-neglect-revisited-a-large-cohort-study-across-multiple-domains
#11
Antonia F Ten Brink, Jurre H Verwer, J Matthijs Biesbroek, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Tanja C W Nijboer
: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a syndrome that can occur after right- and left-hemisphere damage. It is generally accepted that left-sided USN is more severe than right-sided USN. Evidence for such a difference in other domains is lacking. Primary aims were to compare frequency, severity, region specificity, cognition, physical functioning, and physical independence between left and right USN. Secondary aims were to compare lesion characteristics. A total of 335 stroke patients admitted for inpatient rehabilitation were included...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892813/thinking-about-social-and-nonsocial-alternative-possibilities-in-premature-preschoolers
#12
María Dolores Roldán-Tapia, Sergio Moreno-Ríos, Rosa Cánovas-López
INTRODUCTION: Prematurely born preschoolers show developmental cognitive delay compared to full-term children. There are important neurological networks developing at preschool age related to perspective taking about the attribution of belief and to deduction with contrary-to-fact situations. Other deductive abilities may be completed during that period. METHOD: A group of very prematurely born children (N = 35) aged between 4 and 5 years was compared with a control group of children born at full term (N = 35)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892808/self-reported-impulsivity-in-huntington-s-disease-patients-and-relationship-to-executive-dysfunction-and-reward-responsiveness
#13
Patricia L Johnson, Geoffrey F Potts, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, Cynthia R Cimino
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have directly investigated impulsivity in Huntington's disease (HD) despite known changes in dopaminergic and frontal functioning, changes that have been associated with impulsivity in other disorders and in the normal population. This study sought to further categorize impulsivity in HD through examining differences in self-reported impulsivity between community controls and HD patients, the relationship between executive dysfunction and impulsivity, and the relationship of a reward/punishment behavioral inhibition task in relation to these self-report measures...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892775/the-emotion-word-fluency-test-ewft-initial-psychometric-validation-and-physiological-evidence-in-young-adults
#14
Christopher A Abeare, Sabrina Freund, Kristen Kaploun, Tara McAuley, Claudiu Dumitrescu
INTRODUCTION: The clinical assessment of affective functioning has been slow to incorporate findings from affective neuroscience. Of particular interest in the current study is the assessment of affective word production. METHOD: In a series of four studies, we examined test-retest and interrater reliability for the Emotion Word Fluency Test (EWFT), basic construct validity with existing verbal fluency measures, physiological responses across verbal fluency tasks, and a novel scoring method to examine qualitative aspects of participant response sets...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876444/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-verbal-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-correlates-of-recency-and-recognition-memory
#15
Adam M Staffaroni, Rebecca J Melrose, Lorraine P Leskin, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Dylan Harwood, Mark Mandelkern, David L Sultzer
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to distinguish the functional neuroanatomy of verbal learning and recognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word Learning task. METHOD: In 81 Veterans diagnosed with dementia due to AD, we conducted a cluster-based correlation analysis to assess the relationships between recency and recognition memory scores from the CERAD Word Learning Task and cortical metabolic activity measured using [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876440/cannabis-alcohol-use-psychological-distress-and-decision-making-style
#16
James G Phillips, Rowan P Ogeil
INTRODUCTION: There have been suggestions of hypofrontality in cannabis users. To understand cannabis-related differences in decisional processes, Janis and Mann's conflict model of decision making was applied to recreational cannabis smokers who varied in their alcohol use and level of psychological distress. METHOD: An online sample of recreational substance users (114 male, 119 female) completed the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale (K10), and the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) for cannabis...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868580/attention-lapses-in-children-with-spina-bifida-and-hydrocephalus-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Gabriel G De la Torre, Alba Martin, Elizabeth Cervantes, Rocio Guil, Jose M Mestre
Attentional lapses are usually defined as temporary and often brief shifts of attention away from some primary task to unrelated internal information processing. This study addressed the incidence of attention lapses and differences in attentional functioning in 30 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 26 healthy children, and 29 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus (SBH). Assessments were conducted using computerized tonic and phasic attention tests, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Trail Making Test Form B (TMT-B)...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868477/association-between-olfaction-and-higher-cortical-functions-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-healthy-older-adults
#18
Amanda M Ward, Matthew Calamia, Erin Thiemann, Jamie Dunlap, Daniel Tranel
INTRODUCTION: Neural regions important for smell are proximal and closely connected to cortical areas that have been strongly implicated in higher order functions of value-based decision making and emotional memory. The integrity of these neural regions are affected in aging and neurodegenerative conditions. Two specific predictions follow from these neuroanatomical arrangements-namely, that olfaction would be associated with value-based decision making and with emotional memory. METHOD: To test these predictions, we measured these different capacities in participants with presumed varying degrees of integrity of the relevant brain structures: specifically, 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 8 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 20 healthy older adults...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868476/latent-structure-of-cognitive-performance-in-the-adult-children-study
#19
Denise Head, Samantha Allison, Nathaniel Lucena, Jason Hassenstab, John C Morris
OBJECTIVE: The Adult Children Study (ACS) at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center is a longitudinal investigation designed to identify and validate potential biomarkers of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) in cognitively normal individuals with and without a family history of AD. The purpose of the current study was to validate the proposed latent structure of the ACS psychometric battery. METHOD: Confirmatory factor analyses of baseline data in a sample of 229 (75 men) cognitively normal middle-aged to older adult individuals assessed a hypothesized 4-factor model of cognitive performance...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845600/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-its-controversial-effects-on-cognition
#20
Maria Devita, Sonia Montemurro, Sara Ramponi, Maurizio Marvisi, Daniele Villani, Maria Clara Raimondi, Maria Luisa Rusconi, Sara Mondini
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a sleep disorder that may affect many brain functions. We are interested in the cognitive consequences of the condition with regard to the quality of life of individuals with this disorder. A debate is still underway as to whether cognitive difficulties caused by obstructive sleep apnea actually induce a "pseudodementia" pattern. This work provides a brief overview of the main controversies currently surrounding this issue. We report findings and opinions on structural and cognitive brain changes in individuals affected by obstructive sleep apnea by highlighting the involvement of executive functions and the possible reversibility of signs following-treatment with continuous positive airway pressure...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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