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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323436/molecular-characterization-and-gene-silencing-of-laccase-1-in-the-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae
#1
Yong Zhang, Jia Fan, Frédéric Francis, Julian Chen
Laccase 1 (Lac1), a polyphenol oxidase, has been proposed to be involved in insect iron metabolism and immunity responses. However, little information is available on the roles of Lac 1 in insect-plant interactions. The grain aphid Sitobion avenae is one of the most destructive pests of cereal, directly drawing phloem sap and transmitting viruses. In the present study, we first cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of Lac 1 from S. avenae, and the putative protein sequence was predicted to have a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domain...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277917/characterization-and-functional-assay-of-a-fatty-acyl-coa-reductase-gene-in-the-scale-insect-ericerus-pela-chavannes-hemiptera-coccoidae
#2
Yan-Hong Hu, Xiao-Ming Chen, Pu Yang, Wei-Feng Ding
Ericerus pela Chavannes (Hemiptera: Coccoidae) is an economically important scale insect because the second instar males secrete a harvestable wax-like substance. In this study, we report the molecular cloning of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene (EpFAR) of E. pela. We predicted a 520-aa protein with the FAR family features from the deduced amino acid sequence. The EpFAR mRNA was expressed in five tested tissues, testis, alimentary canal, fat body, Malpighian tubules, and mostly in cuticle. The EpFAR protein was localized by immunofluorescence only in the wax glands and testis...
December 26, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265467/analysis-of-the-functions-of-the-signal-peptidase-complex-in-the-midgut-of-tribolium-castaneum
#3
Jingmin Guan, Jie Zhang, Shenglei Yuan, Bing Yang, Kevin D Clark, Erjun Ling, Wuren Huang
Signal peptidase complexes (SPCs) are conserved from bacteria to human beings, and are typically composed of four to five subunits. There are four genes encoding SPC proteins in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. To understand their importance to insect development, double-stranded RNA for each SPC gene was injected into red flour beetles at the early larval and adult stages. Knockdown of all four signal peptidase genes was lethal to larvae. Moreover, larvae had difficulty with old cuticle ecdysis. Knockdown of TcSPC12 alone did not affect pupal or adult development...
December 19, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235695/enzymatic-characterization-of-two-epsilon-class-glutathione-s-transferases-of-spodoptera-litura
#4
Aiko Hirowatari, Zhiwei Chen, Kazuei Mita, Kohji Yamamoto
Two cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST) of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura, were cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The deduced amino acid sequences of the resulting clones revealed 32-51% identities to the epsilon-class GSTs from other organisms. The recombinant proteins were functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells in soluble form and were purified to homogeneity. The enzymes were capable of catalyzing the bioconjugation of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)-propane, and ethacrynic acid...
December 13, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230863/characterization-of-a-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-brummer-gene-and-analysis-of-its-role-in-lipid-metabolism
#5
Jinming Zhou, Jing Yan, Keke You, Xia Chen, Zhineng Yuan, Qiang Zhou, Kai Lu
The brummer (bmm) genes encode the lipid storage droplet-associated triacylglycerols (TAG) lipases, which belong to the Brummer/Nutrin subfamily. These enzymes hydrolyze the ester bonds in TAG in lipid metabolism and act in insect energy homeostasis. Exposure to some agricultural chemicals leads to increased fecundity, which necessarily involves lipid metabolism, in some planthopper species. However, the biological roles of bmm in planthopper lipid storage and mobilization have not been investigated. Here, the open reading frame (ORF) of bmm (Nlbmm) was cloned and sequenced from the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens)...
December 12, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218733/a-gene-driven-recovery-mechanism-drosophila-larvae-increase-feeding-activity-for-post-stress-weight-recovery
#6
Masasuke Ryuda, Miku Tabuchi, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Takashi Matsumura, Masanori Ochiai, Yoichi Hayakawa
Recovery from weight loss after stress is important for all organisms, although the recovery mechanisms are not fully understood. We are working to clarify these mechanisms. Here, we recorded enhanced feeding activity of Drosophila melanogaster larvae from 2 to 4 h after heat stress at 35°C for 1 h. During the post-stress period, expression levels of sweet taste gustatory receptor genes (Grs), Gr5a, Gr43a, Gr64a, and Gr64f, were elevated, whereas bitter taste Grs, Gr66a, and Gr33a, were decreased in expression and expression of a non-typical taste receptor Gr, Gr68a, was unchanged...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194761/development-and-use-of-a-piggybac-based-jumpstarter-system-in-drosophila-suzukii
#7
Fu-Chyun Chu, William Klobasa, Nathaniel Grubbs, Marcé D Lorenzen
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive pest that primarily attacks fresh, soft-skinned fruit. Although others have reported successful integration of marked piggyBac elements into the D. suzukii genome, with a very respectable transgenesis rate of ∼16%, here we take this work a step further by creating D. suzukii jumpstarter strains. These were generated through integration of a fluorescent-marked Minos element carrying a heat shock protein 70-driven piggyBac transposase gene. We demonstrate that there is a dramatic increase in transformation rates when germline transformation is performed in a transposase-expressing background...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194737/differential-expression-of-a-fructose-receptor-gene-in-honey-bee-workers-according-to-age-and-behavioral-role
#8
Tomoyuki Takada, Taiyo Sasaki, Ryoichi Sato, Shingo Kikuta, Maki N Inoue
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers contribute to the maintenance of colonies in various ways. The primary functions of workers are divided into two types depending on age: young workers (nurses) primarily engage in such behaviors as cleaning and food handling within the hive, whereas older workers (foragers) acquire floral nutrients beyond the colony. Concomitant with this age-dependent change in activity, physiological changes occur in the tissues and organs of workers. Nurses supply younger larvae with honey containing high levels of glucose and supply older larvae with honey containing high levels of fructose...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193300/rna-interference-mediated-knockdown-and-virus-induced-suppression-of-troponin-c-gene-adversely-affect-the-behavior-or-fitness-of-the-green-rice-leafhopper-nephotettix-cincticeps
#9
Hanhong Lan, Xiaojing Hong, Ranran Huang, Xin Lin, Qinghuang Li, Kaihui Li, Tao Zhou
The green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps, is a major rice pest in Southeast Asia and Southern China. Novel control strategies must be explored to control the rice pest. Behavior or fitness regulation of insect by modulating the Troponin C (TnC) may be a novel strategy in the comprehensive management of the insect pest. However, characterizations and functions of TnC, especially regarding effect of its RNA interference-mediated gene knockdown on the behavior or fitness of N. cincticeps remain unknown...
November 30, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193252/immune-function-of-a-rab-related-protein-by-modulating-the-jak-stat-signaling-pathway-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#10
Chen Chen, Salah Eldein, Xiaosan Zhou, Yu Sun, Jin Gao, Yuxuan Sun, Chaoliang Liu, Lei Wang
The Rab-family GTPases mainly regulate intracellular vesicle transport, and play important roles in the innate immune response in invertebrates. However, the function and signal transduction of Rab proteins in immune reactions remain unclear in silkworms. In this study, we analyzed a Rab-related protein of silkworm Bombyx mori (BmRABRP) by raising antibodies against its bacterially expressed recombinant form. Tissue distribution analysis showed that BmRABRP mRNA and protein were high expressed in the Malpighian tubule and fat body, respectively...
November 30, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193264/role-of-antheraea-pernyi-serpin-12-in-prophenoloxidase-activation-and-immune-responses
#11
Saima Kausar, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Cen Qian, Baojian Zhu, Jin Gao, Yu Sun, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Chaoliang Liu
Serine protease inhibitors play a key role in the immune system of invertebrates by controlling proteolytic cascades. Besides its importance, the knowledge on immune functions of serpins in most of insects is fragmentary. In the present study, we identified serpin-12 from Antheraea pernyi encoding a predicted 402 amino acid residue protein (Apserpin-12). We expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was used for the synthesis of rabbit anti-Apserpin-12 polyclonal antibodies and functional studies...
November 29, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193258/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-provides-insights-of-anti-insect-molecular-mechanism-of-cassia-obtusifolia-trypsin-inhibitor-against-pieris-rapae
#12
Mian Xiang, Xian Zhang, Yin Deng, Yangyang Li, Jihua Yu, Jianquan Zhu, Xinhe Huang, Jiayu Zhou, Hai Liao
Pieris rapae, a serious Lepidoptera pest of cultivated crucifers, utilizes midgut enzymes to digest food and detoxify secondary metabolites from host plants. A recombinant trypsin inhibitor (COTI) from nonhost plant, Cassia obtusifolia, significantly decreased activities of trypsin-like proteases in the larval midgut on Pieris rapae and could suppress the growth of larvae. In order to know how COTI took effect, transcriptional profiles of P. rapae midgut in response to COTI was studied. A total of 51,544 unigenes were generated and 45...
November 29, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193237/cloning-and-analysis-of-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-lc-and-immune-deficiency-from-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella
#13
Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiang-Jun Rao
Peptidoglycan (PGN) exists in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as a component of the cell wall. PGN is an important target to be recognized by the innate immune system of animals. PGN recognition proteins (PGRP) are responsible for recognizing PGNs. In Drosophila melanogaster, PGRP-LC and IMD (immune deficiency) are critical for activating the Imd pathway. Here, we report the cloning and analysis of PGRP-LC and IMD (PxPGRP-LC and PxIMD) from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), the insect pest of cruciferous vegetables...
November 28, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164671/characterization-of-two-groups-of-spodoptera-exigua-h%C3%A3-bner-lepidoptera-noctuidae-c-type-lectins-and-insights-into-their-role-in-defense-against-the-densovirus-jcdv
#14
Laila Gasmi, Agata K Jakubowska, Juan Ferré, Mylène Ogliastro, Salvador Herrero
Insect innate immunity relies on numerous soluble and membrane-bound receptors, named pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), which enable the insect to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. C-type lectins are among the best-studied PRPs and constitute the most diverse family of animal lectins. Here we have characterized two groups of Spodoptera exigua C-type lectins that differ in their phylogeny, domain architecture, and expression pattern. One group includes C-type lectins with similar characteristics to other lepidopteran lectins, and a second group includes bracoviral-related lectins (bracovirus-like lectins, Se-BLLs) recently acquired by horizontal gene transfer...
November 22, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159836/mechanisms-of-calcium-sequestration-by-isolated-malpighian-tubules-of-the-house-cricket-acheta-domesticus
#15
Austin Browne, Michael J O'Donnell
Hemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved by the Malpighian tubules, primarily by sequestering excess Ca(2+) within internal calcium stores (Ca-rich granules) most often located within type I (principal) tubule cells. Using both the scanning ion-selective electrode technique and the Ramsay secretion assay this study provides the first measurements of basolateral and transepithelial Ca(2+) fluxes across the Malpighian tubules of an Orthopteran insect, the house cricket Acheta domesticus. Ca(2+) transport was specific to midtubule segments, where 97% of the Ca(2+) entering the tubule is sequestered within intracellular calcium stores and the remaining 3% is secreted into the lumen...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114912/silencing-pyruvate-kinase-nlpyk-leads-to-reduced-fecundity-in-brown-planthoppers-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-hemiptera-delphacidae
#16
Lin-Quan Ge, Bo Huang, Xin Li, Hao-Tian Gu, Sui Zheng, Ze Zhou, Hong Miao, Jin-Cai Wu
Pyruvate kinase (PYK) operates in the glycolytic pathway, responsible for regulating the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The previous work indicates PYK acts in development of Drosophila embryos and in embryonic muscle growth, from which it may be inferred that PYK acts in insect fecundity. More to the point, as a central enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, PYK acts in many energy-spending functions in most organisms. On the background findings that triazophos (TZP) stimulates fecundity via increase activities of several genes in brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens, we investigated the combined influence of TZP and silencing a N...
November 7, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086997/carbonic-anhydrase-ii-confers-resistance-to-deltamethrin-in-culex-pipiens-pallens
#17
Wenyun Ye, Cheng Zhang, Na Xu, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Bo Shen, Dan Zhou, Changliang Zhu
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metabolic enzymes that regulate the physiological equilibrium in a variety of organisms. In this study, we investigated the function of CA II in Culex pipiens pallens using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and double-stranded RNA injection. CA II transcripts were more abundant in the deltamethrin-susceptible strain than the deltamethrin-resistant strain. The activities of metabolic enzymes increased when the CA II expression was silenced. These findings suggest CA II regulates deltamethrin resistance by altering metabolic enzyme activity, and could serve as a potential genetic marker for monitoring deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024043/proteomic-analysis-of-the-venom-of-the-predatory-ant-pachycondyla-striata-hymenoptera-formicidae
#18
Pollyanna Pereira Santos, Patricia Dias Games, Dihego Oliveira Azevedo, Edvaldo Barros, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, José Eduardo Serrão
The ants use their venom for predation, defense, and communication. The venom of these insects is rich in peptides and proteins, and compared with other animal venoms, ant venoms remain poorly explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein content of the venom in the Ponerinae ant Pachycondyla striata. Venom samples were collected by manual gland reservoir dissection, and samples were submitted to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and separation by ion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry using tanden matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-quadrupole with time-of-flight (ESI-Q/TOF) mass spectrometry for obtaining amino acid sequence...
November 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940716/inhibition-of-translation-initiation-factor-eif4a-is-required-for-apoptosis-mediated-by-microplitis-bicoloratus-bracovirus
#19
Shu-Mei Dong, Ji-Hui Cui, Wei Zhang, Xue-Wen Zhang, Tian-Chao Kou, Qiu-Chen Cai, Sha Xu, Shan You, Dong-Shuai Yu, Lei Ding, Jian-Hua Lai, Ming Li, Kai-Jun Luo
Apoptotic hemocytes induced by Microplitis bicoloratus parasitism have been reported, and M. bicoloratus bracovirus (MbBV) is known to be the apoptosis inducer. However, the mechanism how MbBV regulates apoptosis remains unclear. eIF4A, one of translation initiation factors, was found from a Spodoptera litura transcriptome, the expression of which in the parasitized hemocytes of S. litura was inhibited in RT-qPCR analysis. The western blot also illustrated eIF4A at 6-day post-parasitization was inhibited in hemocytes...
November 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925517/differences-in-protein-expression-among-five-species-of-stream-stonefly-plecoptera-along-a-latitudinal-gradient-in-japan
#20
Maribet Gamboa, Maria Claret Tsuchiya, Suguru Matsumoto, Hisato Iwata, Kozo Watanabe
Proteome variation among natural populations along an environmental gradient may provide insights into how the biological functions of species are related to their local adaptation. We investigated protein expression in five stream stonefly species from four geographic regions along a latitudinal gradient in Japan with varying climatic conditions. The extracted proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization of time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF), yielding 446 proteins...
November 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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