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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426561/proteomics-as-a-tool-for-tapping-potential-of-entomopathogens-as-microbial-insecticides
#1
REVIEW
Nazmi Harith Fadzilah, Idris Abdul-Ghani, Maizom Hassan
Biopesticides are collective pest control harnessing the knowledge of the target pest and its natural enemies that minimize the risks of synthetic pesticides. A subset of biopesticides; bioinsecticides, are specifically used in controlling insect pests. Entomopathogens (EPMs) are micro-organisms sought after as subject for bioinsecticide development. However, lack of understanding of EPM mechanism of toxicity and pathogenicity slowed the progress of bioinsecticide development. Proteomics is a useful tool in elucidating the interaction of entomopathogenic fungi, entomopathogenic bacteria, and entomopathogenic virus with their target host...
November 13, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418667/the-contribution-of-gustatory-input-to-larval-acceptance-and-female-oviposition-choice-of-potential-host-plants-in-papilio-hospiton-g%C3%A3-n%C3%A3
#2
Giorgia Sollai, Roberto Crnjar
The Lepidopteran Papilio hospiton uses only plants belonging to the Apiaceae and the Rutaceae families as hosts. Both adult females and larvae are equipped with gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) capable of detecting sugars, bitters and salts, thus providing information for evaluating the chemical composition of the plant. Since the activation of these neurons may affect insect behavior, the aim of this study were: (a) to study the gustatory sensitivity of both females and larvae to the sap of two Apiaceae, Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Daucus carota (carrot), that are not used as host plants; (b) to cross-compare the spike activity evoked from these two plants with that evoked by Ferula communis (ferula), the host plant preferred by ovipositing females of P...
November 12, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417456/three-vital-rna-functions-and-interactions-in-the-process-of-silk-gland-apoptosis-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#3
Rui-Ting Chen, Ying Xiao, Zhen Liu, Lei-Lei Li, Yan Lu, Peng Jiao, Yun-Gen Miao
The Silkworm Bombyx mori is an important insect in terms of economics and a model organism with a complete metamorphosis. The economic importance of silkworms is dependent on the functions of the silkgland, a specialized organ that synthesizes silk proteins. The silk gland undergoes massive degeneration during the larval to pupal stage, which involves in cell apoptosis. In this paper, high throughput sequencing was used to detect the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA), long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), and microRNA (miRNA) from silk glands of Day 3 in the fifth instar larvae (L5D3) and the spinning 36h (sp36h)...
November 11, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397935/an-investigation-of-the-molecular-and-biochemical-basis-underlying-chlorantraniliprole-resistant-drosophila-strains-and-their-cross-resistance-to-other-insecticides
#4
A-Young Kim, Deok Ho Kwon, In Hong Jeong, Young Ho Koh
Chlorantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide insecticide that binds to the insect ryanodine receptor (RyR) and induces an uncontrolled release of Ca2+ , resulting in paralysis and ultimately death of the target insects. Recently, it was reported that chlorantraniliprole-resistant diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus, have mutations in their RyR. In this study, we developed two different chlorantraniliprole-resistant Drosophila melanogaster strain. The resistance ratio (RR) of the low-concentration chlorantraniliprole-treated resistant (Low-Res) strain was 2...
November 5, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390324/repellent-action-and-contact-toxicity-mechanisms-of-the-essential-oil-extracted-from-chinese-chive-against-plutella-xylostella-larvae
#5
Quan Gao, Li Song, Jia Sun, Hai-Qun Cao, Likun Wang, Huafeng Lin, Feng Tang
Botanical pesticides play increasingly important roles in the control of agricultural pests. In this study, the insecticidal effects, specifically the repellent action and contact toxicity, of the essential oil extracted from Chinese chive (EOC) against Plutella xylostella larvae were confirmed. The mechanisms of repellent's action were studied using electroantennograms (EAGs), and the effects on glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CarE), and acetyl cholinesterase were investigated after EOC treatments...
November 2, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387888/molecular-cloning-and-functional-analysis-of-small-heat-shock-protein-19-1-gene-from-the-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#6
Jiawei Zhang, Qingqing Li, Yu Sun, Jiwu Tian, Zaijin Hu, Baojian Zhu, Chaoliang Liu
Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are a class of highly conserved proteins that are ubiquitously found in all types of organisms, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. In the current study, we identified and characterized the full-length cDNA encoding sHSP 19.1 from the oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi. Ap-sHSP is 510 bp in length, and encodes a protein of 169 amino acid residues. The protein contains conserved domains found in insect sHSPs, and it belongs to the α-crystallin-HSPs_p23-like superfamily. Recombinant Ap-sHSP was expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and a rabbit anti-Ap-sHSP 19...
November 2, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387887/variation-in-the-cuticular-hydrocarbons-of-the-mexican-fruit-fly-anastrepha-ludens-males-between-strains-and-age-classes
#7
Carlos-Felipe Bosa, Leopoldo Cruz-López, Karina Guillén-Navarro, Cristina Silvia Zepeda-Cisneros, Pablo Liedo
In this study cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) were characterized from wings of individual unmated males of different Anastrepha ludens (Loew) mass-reared strains of different ages (3 and 19-day-old): (a) a standard mass-reared colony (control), (b) a genetic sexing strain, (c) a selected strain, (d) a hybrid strain, and (e) wild males. We found that the hydrocarbon profiles in all males included two n-alkanes, five monomethyl alkanes, and two alkenes. CHCs ranged from C26 to C31 . The most prominent peaks were 2-methyloctacosane (2-Me-C28), n-nonacosene (C29:1), 2-methyltriacontane (2-Me-C30), and n-hentriacontene (C31:1)...
November 2, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387866/degradation-of-sex-pheromone-and-plant-volatile-components-by-an-antennal-glutathione-s-transferase-in-the-oriental-fruit-moth-grapholita-molesta-busck-lepidoptera-tortricidae
#8
Guang-Wei Li, Xiu-Lin Chen, Xiang-Li Xu, Jun-Xiang Wu
Insect antennae have a primary function of perceiving and discerning odorant molecules including sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. The assumption that genes highly expressed in the antennae may have an olfactory-related role associated with signal transduction. Here, one delta subfamily glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene (GmolGSTD1) was obtained from an antennal transcriptome of Grapholita molesta. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results revealed that GmolGSTD1 was mainly expressed in antennae and the expression levels were significantly higher in female antennae than in male antennae...
November 2, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30350371/olfactory-attraction-mediated-by-the-maxillary-palps-in-the-striped-fruit-fly-bactrocera-scutellata-electrophysiological-and-behavioral-study
#9
Kye Chung Park, Seon Ah Jeong, Gimyon Kwon, Hyun-Woo Oh
Here, we report that the olfactory attraction of the striped fruit fly, Bactrocera scutellata (Hendel; Diptera: Tephritidae), a serious pest of pumpkin and other cucurbitaceae plants, to cue lure and raspberry ketone is mediated by the maxillary palps. The antennae, bearing three morphological types (basiconic, trichoid, and coeloconic) of olfactory sensilla, in male and female B. scutellata exhibited significant electroantennogram (EAG) responses to a plant volatile compound, 3-octanone, and methyl eugenol, whereas cue lure, raspberry ketone, and zingerone that are known to attract several other species of Bactrocera fruit flies elicited no significant EAG responses from both sexes...
October 22, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302815/evaluation-of-the-attractant-effect-and-lipid-profile-modulation-of-natural-fixed-oils-on-the-medfly-ceratitis-capitata-wiedemann
#10
Antonella Rosa, Alessandra Piras, Gianfranca Carta, Paolo Solari, Roberto Crnjar, Carla Masala
The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824; Diptera: Tephritidae), is a polyphagous pest in horticulture, mainly targeting Citrus fruits. Natural essential and fixed oils are currently under investigation for their broad-spectrum in pest control. To gain better knowledge about medfly behavior and biochemistry, we examined with behavioral and biochemical assays, the effects on C. capitata from six natural fixed oils obtained from vegetable (five) or animal (one) matrices using the eco-friendly supercritical CO 2 extraction...
October 9, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246413/inhibition-of-silkworm-vacuolar-type-atpase-activity-by-its-inhibitor-bafilomycin-a1-induces-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-in-an-embryonic-cell-line-of-silkworm
#11
Xiao-Yin Tan, Xin Wang, Qing-Song Liu, Xiao-Qian Xie, Yi Li, Bing-Qian Li, Zhi-Qing Li, Qing-You Xia, Ping Zhao
Vacuolar-type ATPase (V-ATPase) is a type of hydrogen ion transporter located in the vesicular membrane-like system, which mediates active transport and intracellular acidification in various compartments. In mammals, V-ATPase has been reported to play a key role in cell proliferation and apoptosis. The studies of V-ATPase in silkworm mainly focus on the acidification regulation of midgut and silk gland and immune resistance. However, there are few reports about the function of silkworm V-ATPase on cell proliferation, autophagy, and apoptosis...
November 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218552/development-of-a-highly-accurate-and-sensitive-diagnostic-tool-for-pyrethroid-resistant-chimeric-p450-cyp337b3-of-helicoverpa-armigera-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#12
Bo Hey Choi, Joon Haeng Hur, David G Heckel, Juil Kim, Young Ho Koh
Recent studies have shown that pyrethroid resistance in the cotton bollworm (CBW) Helicoverpa armigera is conferred by the generation of a chimeric CYP337B3 gene, which resulted from unequal crossing-over between the CYP337B1 and CYP337B2 genes. In this study, we developed a diagnostic protocol based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of chimeric CYP337B3. The CYP337B3 LAMP assay utilized six primers and generated strong fluorescence signals visible to the naked eye under normal or ultraviolet light...
November 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188567/identification-and-characterization-of-capa-and-pyrokinin-genes-in-the-brown-marmorated-stink-bug-halyomorpha-halys-hemiptera-gene-structure-immunocytochemistry-and-differential-expression
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Seung-Joon Ahn, Man-Yeon Choi
CAPA and pyrokinin (PK) neuropeptides are produced from two different genes, capa and pyrokinin, respectively. In this study, we identified and characterized the capa and pyrokinin genes from the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera). The capa gene encodes two CAPA-PVK (periviscerokinin) peptides (DAGLFPFPRVamide and EQLIPFPRVamide) and one CAPA-DH (diapause hormone; NGASGNGGLWFGPRLamide). The pyrokinin gene encodes three PK2 peptides (QLVSFRPRLamide, SPPFAPRLamide, and FYAPFSPRLamide). The whole-mounting immunocytochemistry revealed the neurons contained PRXamide-like peptides throughout the cerebral ganglia (CRG), gnathal ganglia (GNG), thoracic ganglia (TG), and abdominal ganglia (AG)...
November 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176073/juvenile-hormone-affects-the-splicing-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-early-trypsin-messenger-rna
#14
Dov Borovsky, Robert G Hancock, Pierre Rougé, Charles A Powell, Robert G Shatters
The full length of Culex quiquefasciatus early trypsin has been cloned and sequenced and a three-dimensional (3D) model of the enzyme was built showing that the enzyme has the canonical trypsin's active pocket containing H78, D123, S129, and D128. The biosynthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) III by the corpora allata (CA) in female Cx. quiquefasciatus is sugar-dependent. Females that were maintained on water after emergence synthesize very little JH III, JH III bisepoxide, and methyl farnesoate (MF) (3.8, 1.1, and 0...
November 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120804/superoxide-dismutase-from-venom-of-the-ectoparasitoid-scleroderma-guani-inhibits-melanization-of-hemolymph
#15
Nai-Yong Liu, Jing-Mei Huang, Xue-Min Ren, Zhi-Wen Xu, Nai-Sheng Yan, Jia-Ying Zhu
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) known as an important antioxidative stress protein has been recently found in venoms of several parasitoid wasps. However, its functions and characteristics as a virulent factor remain scarcely described. Here, we report the characterization of two venomous SOD genes (SguaSOD1 and SguaSOD3) from the ectoparasitoid, Scleroderma guani. The metal binding sites, cysteine amino acid positions and signature sequences of the SOD family were conserved within SguaSOD1 and SguaSOD3. Relatively high levels of their transcripts were observed in pupae followed a decrease in early adults, after which they had the highest transcriptions, indicating that their productions would be regulated in venom apparatus...
November 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120789/culturable-epiphytic-bacteria-isolated-from-teleogryllus-occipitalus-crickets-metabolize-insecticides
#16
Linling He, Bo Liu, Jiewei Tian, Fengjuan Lu, Xiaoguang Li, Yongqiang Tian
The development of insecticide resistance is attributed to evolutionary changes in pest insect genomes, such as alteration of drug target sites, upregulation of degrading enzymes, and enhancement of drug excretion. Beyond these well-known mechanisms, symbiotic bacteria may confer insecticide resistance to host crickets. The current study was designed to screen all possible culturable bacterial groups found living in and on the bodies of Teleogryllus occipitalis crickets. We recovered 263 visible bacterial colonies and cultured them individually...
October 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076774/properties-of-a-novel-carboxymethyl-chitosan-derived-from-silkworm-pupa
#17
Lin Zhu, De-Qing Zou, Zuo-Qing Fan, Na Wang, Ying-Ying Bo, Yu-Qing Zhang, Guang Guo
In this study, a carboxymethyl chitosan derived from silkworm pupa (SP-carboxymethyl chitosan) was prepared. The physical characteristics of the SP chitin, chitosan, and carboxymethyl chitosan were analyzed. The scanning electron microscopy results showed that the surfaces of the samples from SP were more uneven, with more surface fractures compared with those of the reference substance (RS). Thermal analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the main molecular chain structures of SP samples and RSs had no substantial differences...
October 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003605/influence-of-rearing-temperature-on-triacylglycerol-storage-in-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#18
Zhaorigetu Hubhachen, Robin D Madden, Jack W Dillwith
Total fatty acids in the pea aphid reared at low temperatures increased significantly compared to that at high rearing temperatures. This change is reflected in a large increase of myristic acid, which occurs exclusively in triacylglycerols. When aphids were moved from 25°C to a lower rearing temperature at 10°C, saturated fatty acids accumulated over time, reaching a maximum at 16th day. When aphids were moved to 4°C, a temperature below the developmental threshold, those aphids did not accumulate saturated fatty acids...
October 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984841/crinkled-employs-wingless-pathway-for-wing-development-in-tribolium-castaneum
#19
Chengjun Li, Yaoyao Lu, Shangshang Ma, Peng Lü, Bin Li, Keping Chen
Crinkled is associated with embryonic denticle formation and auditory organ development in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the functions of Crinkled have not been fully investigated. Additionally, the genes that participate in the Crinkled pathway are unknown. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that crinkled exhibits a one-to-one orthologous relationship in insects. In Tribolium castaneum, the crinkled gene is 6,498 bp in length and consists of six exons. Crinkled expression peaked during two phases in Tribolium: late embryonic and pupal stages...
October 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978533/preventive-effects-of-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-against-imidacloprid-intoxication-on-bombyx-mori-larvae
#20
Hui-Ju Gao, Yong-Liang Sun, Gui-Zhen Song, Bin Su, Meng-Meng Zhang, Chun-Jiu Ren, Yan-Wen Wang
Imidacloprid, a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide, is toxic to silkworm (Bombyx mori). To explore whether N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has an effect on preventing silkworm (B. mori) from toxification caused by imidacloprid, we fed the fifth-instar larvae with mulberry leaves dipped in 200 mg/L NAC solution before exposing in imidacloprid, and investigated the silkworm growth, survival rate, feed efficiency, cocoon quality, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in midgut. The results showed that addition of NAC could significantly increase body weight, survival rate, and feed efficiency of imidacloprid poisoned silkworm larvae (P < 0...
October 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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