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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218552/development-of-a-highly-accurate-and-sensitive-diagnostic-tool-for-pyrethroid-resistant-chimeric-p450-cyp337b3-of-helicoverpa-armigera-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#1
Bo Hey Choi, Joon Haeng Hur, David G Heckel, Juil Kim, Young Ho Koh
Recent studies have shown that pyrethroid resistance in the cotton bollworm (CBW) Helicoverpa armigera is conferred by the generation of a chimeric CYP337B3 gene, which resulted from unequal crossing-over between the CYP337B1 and CYP337B2 genes. In this study, we developed a diagnostic protocol based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of chimeric CYP337B3. The CYP337B3 LAMP assay utilized six primers and generated strong fluorescence signals visible to the naked eye under normal or ultraviolet light...
September 15, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188567/identification-and-characterization-of-capa-and-pyrokinin-genes-in-the-brown-marmorated-stink-bug-halyomorpha-halys-hemiptera-gene-structure-immunocytochemistry-and-differential-expression
#2
Seung-Joon Ahn, Man-Yeon Choi
CAPA and pyrokinin (PK) neuropeptides are produced from two different genes, capa and pyrokinin, respectively. In this study, we identified and characterized the capa and pyrokinin genes from the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera). The capa gene encodes two CAPA-PVK (periviscerokinin) peptides (DAGLFPFPRVamide and EQLIPFPRVamide) and one CAPA-DH (diapause hormone; NGASGNGGLWFGPRLamide). The pyrokinin gene encodes three PK2 peptides (QLVSFRPRLamide, SPPFAPRLamide, and FYAPFSPRLamide). The whole-mounting immunocytochemistry revealed the neurons contained PRXamide-like peptides throughout the cerebral ganglia (CRG), gnathal ganglia (GNG), thoracic ganglia (TG), and abdominal ganglia (AG)...
September 6, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176073/juvenile-hormone-affects-the-splicing-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-early-trypsin-messenger-rna
#3
Dov Borovsky, Robert G Hancock, Pierre Rougé, Charles A Powell, Robert G Shatters
The full length of Culex quiquefasciatus early trypsin has been cloned and sequenced and a three-dimensional (3D) model of the enzyme was built showing that the enzyme has the canonical trypsin's active pocket containing H78, D123, S129, and D128. The biosynthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) III by the corpora allata (CA) in female Cx. quiquefasciatus is sugar-dependent. Females that were maintained on water after emergence synthesize very little JH III, JH III bisepoxide, and methyl farnesoate (MF) (3.8, 1.1, and 0...
September 3, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120804/superoxide-dismutase-from-venom-of-the-ectoparasitoid-scleroderma-guani-inhibits-melanization-of-hemolymph
#4
Nai-Yong Liu, Jing-Mei Huang, Xue-Min Ren, Zhi-Wen Xu, Nai-Sheng Yan, Jia-Ying Zhu
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) known as an important antioxidative stress protein has been recently found in venoms of several parasitoid wasps. However, its functions and characteristics as a virulent factor remain scarcely described. Here, we report the characterization of two venomous SOD genes (SguaSOD1 and SguaSOD3) from the ectoparasitoid, Scleroderma guani. The metal binding sites, cysteine amino acid positions and signature sequences of the SOD family were conserved within SguaSOD1 and SguaSOD3. Relatively high levels of their transcripts were observed in pupae followed a decrease in early adults, after which they had the highest transcriptions, indicating that their productions would be regulated in venom apparatus...
August 17, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120792/eicosanoid-mediation-of-immune-responses-at-early-bacterial-infection-stage-and-its-inhibition-by-photorhabdus-temperata-subsp-temperata-an-entomopathogenic-bacterium
#5
Hyoil Kim, Duyeol Choi, Jihyeon Jung, Yonggyun Kim
An entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata (Ptt) infects insect hemocoel by the vectoring activity of its symbiotic nematode, Heterorhabditis megidis. The bacterium induces host immunosuppression by inhibiting eicosanoid biosynthesis. This study investigated the role of eicosanoids in immune responses of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, in the early bacterial infection stage (first 3 hr postinfection [PI]). After infection with the nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (Ec), the bacterium maintained its population for the first 3 hr PI, then rapidly decreased in numbers...
August 17, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120789/culturable-epiphytic-bacteria-isolated-from-teleogryllus-occipitalus-crickets-metabolize-insecticides
#6
Linling He, Bo Liu, Jiewei Tian, Fengjuan Lu, Xiaoguang Li, Yongqiang Tian
The development of insecticide resistance is attributed to evolutionary changes in pest insect genomes, such as alteration of drug target sites, upregulation of degrading enzymes, and enhancement of drug excretion. Beyond these well-known mechanisms, symbiotic bacteria may confer insecticide resistance to host crickets. The current study was designed to screen all possible culturable bacterial groups found living in and on the bodies of Teleogryllus occipitalis crickets. We recovered 263 visible bacterial colonies and cultured them individually...
August 17, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076774/properties-of-a-novel-carboxymethyl-chitosan-derived-from-silkworm-pupa
#7
Lin Zhu, De-Qing Zou, Zuo-Qing Fan, Na Wang, Ying-Ying Bo, Yu-Qing Zhang, Guang Guo
In this study, a carboxymethyl chitosan derived from silkworm pupa (SP-carboxymethyl chitosan) was prepared. The physical characteristics of the SP chitin, chitosan, and carboxymethyl chitosan were analyzed. The scanning electron microscopy results showed that the surfaces of the samples from SP were more uneven, with more surface fractures compared with those of the reference substance (RS). Thermal analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the main molecular chain structures of SP samples and RSs had no substantial differences...
August 4, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003605/influence-of-rearing-temperature-on-triacylglycerol-storage-in-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#8
Zhaorigetu Hubhachen, Robin D Madden, Jack W Dillwith
Total fatty acids in the pea aphid reared at low temperatures increased significantly compared to that at high rearing temperatures. This change is reflected in a large increase of myristic acid, which occurs exclusively in triacylglycerols. When aphids were moved from 25°C to a lower rearing temperature at 10°C, saturated fatty acids accumulated over time, reaching a maximum at 16th day. When aphids were moved to 4°C, a temperature below the developmental threshold, those aphids did not accumulate saturated fatty acids...
July 12, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984841/crinkled-employs-wingless-pathway-for-wing-development-in-tribolium-castaneum
#9
Chengjun Li, Yaoyao Lu, Shangshang Ma, Peng Lü, Bin Li, Keping Chen
Crinkled is associated with embryonic denticle formation and auditory organ development in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the functions of Crinkled have not been fully investigated. Additionally, the genes that participate in the Crinkled pathway are unknown. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that crinkled exhibits a one-to-one orthologous relationship in insects. In Tribolium castaneum, the crinkled gene is 6,498 bp in length and consists of six exons. Crinkled expression peaked during two phases in Tribolium: late embryonic and pupal stages...
July 9, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978533/preventive-effects-of-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-against-imidacloprid-intoxication-on-bombyx-mori-larvae
#10
Hui-Ju Gao, Yong-Liang Sun, Gui-Zhen Song, Bin Su, Meng-Meng Zhang, Chun-Jiu Ren, Yan-Wen Wang
Imidacloprid, a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide, is toxic to silkworm (Bombyx mori). To explore whether N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has an effect on preventing silkworm (B. mori) from toxification caused by imidacloprid, we fed the fifth-instar larvae with mulberry leaves dipped in 200 mg/L NAC solution before exposing in imidacloprid, and investigated the silkworm growth, survival rate, feed efficiency, cocoon quality, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in midgut. The results showed that addition of NAC could significantly increase body weight, survival rate, and feed efficiency of imidacloprid poisoned silkworm larvae (P < 0...
July 5, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978503/aluminum-toxicity-related-to-sod-and-expression-of-presenilin-and-creb-in-bombyx-mori
#11
Longhai Liu, Xiaoran Qian, Mengling Chao, Yijiao Zhao, Junyi Huang, Taichu Wang, Fan Sun, Erjun Ling, Hongsheng Song
Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental metal factor that can be potentially associated with pathological changes leading to neurotoxicity. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important economic insect and has also been used as a model organism in various research areas. However, the toxicity of Al on silkworm physiology has not been reported. Here, we comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of Al on the silkworm, focusing on its effects on viability and development, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and the expression of presenilin and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in BmE cells and silkworm larvae...
July 5, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956367/brummer-dependent-lipid-mobilization-regulates-starvation-resistance-in-nilaparvata-lugens
#12
Jinming Zhou, Xia Chen, Jing Yan, Keke You, Zhineng Yuan, Qiang Zhou, Kai Lu
Energy homeostasis is an essential characteristic of all organisms, requiring fluctuation in energy accumulation, mobilization, and exchange with the external environment. In insects, energy mobilization is under control of the lipase brummer (bmm), which regulates nutritional status by hydrolyzing the ester bonds in triacylglycerol (TAG). In the present study, we investigated the role of bmm in the lipid mobilization and starvation resistance in the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens), which is economically one of the most important rice pests in Asia...
June 28, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926517/pheromone-binding-proteins-in-the-asian-gypsy-moth-females-lymantria-dispar-recognizing-the-sex-pheromone-and-plant-volatiles
#13
Yanxue Yu, Ping Zhou, Junhua Zhang, Chao Zheng, Jian Zhang, Naizhong Chen
Lepidopterans are known to have different pheromone-binding proteins with differential expression patterns that facilitate specific signal transduction of semiochemicals. Two PBPs of the Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were reported to express in both females and males, but their physiological functions were unknown. Results showed that LdisPBP1 and LdisPBP2 were expressed in the sensilla trichodea of males and the s. trichodea and s. basiconica of females. When LdisPBP1 gene was targeted by RNA interference (RNAi) in males, the expression of LdisPBP1 and LdisPBP2 decreased by 69 and 76%, respectively, and when LdisPBP2 gene was targeted by RNAi, they decreased by 60 and 42%, respectively...
September 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873106/molecular-characterization-of-a-typical-2-cys-thioredoxin-peroxidase-from-the-asiatic-rice-borer-chilo-suppressalis-and-its-role-in-oxidative-stress
#14
Ye Cao, Qing Yang, Xiao-Hui Tu, Shi-Guang Li, Su Liu
In insects, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX) plays an important role in protecting against oxidative damage. However, studies on the molecular characteristics of TPXs in the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis, are limited. In this work, a cDNA sequence (CsTpx3) encoding a TPX was identified from C. suppressalis. The deduced CsTPX3 protein shares high sequence identity and two positionally conserved cysteines with orthologs from other insect species, and was classified as a typical 2-Cys TPX. CsTpx3 was expressed most highly during the fifth-instar larval stage, and transcripts were most abundant in the midgut...
September 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862562/unexpected-link-between-insect-innexins-and-apoptosis-of-hela-cells
#15
Wei Zhang, Meng-Wei Liu, Ming Li, Wei Xiao, Xue-Wen Zhang, Hao-Juan He, Ya-Bin Chen, Lei Ding, Kai-Jun Luo
Little is known about how mammalian cells respond to the expression of innexins (Inxs), which are known to mediate cell-to-cell communication that causes apoptosis in the cells of the insect Spodoptera litura. The mammalian expression system, p3xFLAG tag protein, containing the CMV promoter, allowed us to construct two C-terminally elongated innexins (Cte-Inxs), SpliInx2 (Inx2-FLAG), and SpliInx3 (Inx3-FLAG), which were predicted to have the same secondary topological structures as the native SpliInx2 and SpliInx3...
September 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851149/the-wolbachia-protein-tomo-interacts-with-a-host-rna-to-induce-polarization-defects-in-drosophila-oocytes
#16
Manabu Ote, Daisuke Yamamoto
Wolbachia is an endosymbiont prevalent in arthropods. To maximize its transmission thorough the female germline, Wolbachia induces in infected hosts male-to-female transformation, male killing, parthenogenesis, and cytoplasmic incompatibility, depending on the host species and Wolbachia strain involved. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these host manipulations by Wolbachia remain largely unknown. The Wolbachia strain wMel, an inhabitant of Drosophila melanogaster, impairs host oogenesis only when transplanted into a heterologous host, for example, Drosophila simulans...
September 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851138/heart-mechanical-and-hemodynamic-parameters-of-a-beetle-tenebrio-molitor-at-selected-ages
#17
Joanna Pacholska-Bogalska, Monika Szymczak, Paweł Marciniak, Karolina Walkowiak-Nowicka, Grzegorz Rosiński
The physiological processes that occur during the aging of insects are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to describe the changes in contractile activity and hemodynamic parameters of the heart that take place as the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor, ages. The frequency of heart contractions in beetles that had just undergone metamorphosis (median 24.7 beats/min) was significantly lower than the frequency of heart contractions in older beetles. In 56% of beetles that were < 1 week of age, a pattern of contractile activity with alternating periods of higher and lower contraction frequency was detected, suggesting that some posteclosion developmental processes occur during the first week of adulthood...
September 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709078/titanium-nanoparticles-influence-the-akt-tor-signal-pathway-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-silk-gland
#18
Bin Xue, Fan-Chi Li, Jiang-Hai Tian, Jin-Xin Li, Xiao-Yu Cheng, Jia-Huan Hu, Jing-Sheng Hu, Bing Li
Various nanoparticles, such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and titanium nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are increasingly used in industrial processes. Because they are released into the environment, research into their influence on the biosphere is necessary. Among its other effects, dietary TiO2 NPs promotes silk protein synthesis in silkworms, which prompted our hypothesis that TiO2 NPs influence protein kinase B (Akt)/Target of rapamycin (Tor) signaling pathway (Akt/Tor) signaling in their silk glands. The Akt/Tor signaling pathway is a principle connector integrating cellular reactions to growth factors, metabolites, nutrients, protein synthesis, and stress...
September 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989242/editorial-note
#19
EDITORIAL
Yonggyun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722061/cellular-energy-metabolism-maintains-young-status-in-old-queen-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#20
Cheng-Yen Lu, Jiantai Timothy Qiu, Chin-Yuan Hsu
Trophocytes and oenocytes of queen honey bees are used in studies of cellular longevity, but their cellular energy metabolism with age is poorly understood. In this study, the molecules involved in cellular energy metabolism were evaluated in the trophocytes and oenocytes of young and old queen bees. The findings indicated that there were no significant differences between young and old queen bees in β-oxidation, glycolysis, and protein synthesis. These results indicate that the cellular energy metabolism of trophocytes and oenocytes in old queen bees is similar to young queen bees and suggests that maintaining cellular energy metabolism in a young status may be associated with the longevity of queen bees...
August 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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