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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

Zhaorigetu Hubhachen, Robin D Madden, Jack W Dillwith
Total fatty acids in the pea aphid reared at low temperatures increased significantly compared to that at high rearing temperatures. This change is reflected in a large increase of myristic acid, which occurs exclusively in triacylglycerols. When aphids were moved from 25°C to a lower rearing temperature at 10°C, saturated fatty acids accumulated over time, reaching a maximum at 16th day. When aphids were moved to 4°C, a temperature below the developmental threshold, those aphids did not accumulate saturated fatty acids...
July 12, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Chengjun Li, Yaoyao Lu, Shangshang Ma, Peng Lü, Bin Li, Keping Chen
Crinkled is associated with embryonic denticle formation and auditory organ development in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the functions of Crinkled have not been fully investigated. Additionally, the genes that participate in the Crinkled pathway are unknown. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that crinkled exhibits a one-to-one orthologous relationship in insects. In Tribolium castaneum, the crinkled gene is 6,498 bp in length and consists of six exons. Crinkled expression peaked during two phases in Tribolium: late embryonic and pupal stages...
July 9, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Hui-Ju Gao, Yong-Liang Sun, Gui-Zhen Song, Bin Su, Meng-Meng Zhang, Chun-Jiu Ren, Yan-Wen Wang
Imidacloprid, a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide, is toxic to silkworm (Bombyx mori). To explore whether N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has an effect on preventing silkworm (B. mori) from toxification caused by imidacloprid, we fed the fifth-instar larvae with mulberry leaves dipped in 200 mg/L NAC solution before exposing in imidacloprid, and investigated the silkworm growth, survival rate, feed efficiency, cocoon quality, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in midgut. The results showed that addition of NAC could significantly increase body weight, survival rate, and feed efficiency of imidacloprid poisoned silkworm larvae (P < 0...
July 5, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Longhai Liu, Xiaoran Qian, Mengling Chao, Yijiao Zhao, Junyi Huang, Taichu Wang, Fan Sun, Erjun Ling, Hongsheng Song
Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental metal factor that can be potentially associated with pathological changes leading to neurotoxicity. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important economic insect and has also been used as a model organism in various research areas. However, the toxicity of Al on silkworm physiology has not been reported. Here, we comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of Al on the silkworm, focusing on its effects on viability and development, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and the expression of presenilin and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in BmE cells and silkworm larvae...
July 5, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jinming Zhou, Xia Chen, Jing Yan, Keke You, Zhineng Yuan, Qiang Zhou, Kai Lu
Energy homeostasis is an essential characteristic of all organisms, requiring fluctuation in energy accumulation, mobilization, and exchange with the external environment. In insects, energy mobilization is under control of the lipase brummer (bmm), which regulates nutritional status by hydrolyzing the ester bonds in triacylglycerol (TAG). In the present study, we investigated the role of bmm in the lipid mobilization and starvation resistance in the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens), which is economically one of the most important rice pests in Asia...
June 28, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Yanxue Yu, Ping Zhou, Junhua Zhang, Chao Zheng, Jian Zhang, Naizhong Chen
Lepidopterans are known to have different pheromone-binding proteins with differential expression patterns that facilitate specific signal transduction of semiochemicals. Two PBPs of the Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were reported to express in both females and males, but their physiological functions were unknown. Results showed that LdisPBP1 and LdisPBP2 were expressed in the sensilla trichodea of males and the s. trichodea and s. basiconica of females. When LdisPBP1 gene was targeted by RNA interference (RNAi) in males, the expression of LdisPBP1 and LdisPBP2 decreased by 69 and 76%, respectively, and when LdisPBP2 gene was targeted by RNAi, they decreased by 60 and 42%, respectively...
June 21, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Ye Cao, Qing Yang, Xiao-Hui Tu, Shi-Guang Li, Su Liu
In insects, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX) plays an important role in protecting against oxidative damage. However, studies on the molecular characteristics of TPXs in the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis, are limited. In this work, a cDNA sequence (CsTpx3) encoding a TPX was identified from C. suppressalis. The deduced CsTPX3 protein shares high sequence identity and two positionally conserved cysteines with orthologs from other insect species, and was classified as a typical 2-Cys TPX. CsTpx3 was expressed most highly during the fifth-instar larval stage, and transcripts were most abundant in the midgut...
June 5, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Wei Zhang, Meng-Wei Liu, Ming Li, Wei Xiao, Xue-Wen Zhang, Hao-Juan He, Ya-Bin Chen, Lei Ding, Kai-Jun Luo
Little is known about how mammalian cells respond to the expression of innexins (Inxs), which are known to mediate cell-to-cell communication that causes apoptosis in the cells of the insect Spodoptera litura. The mammalian expression system, p3xFLAG tag protein, containing the CMV promoter, allowed us to construct two C-terminally elongated innexins (Cte-Inxs), SpliInx2 (Inx2-FLAG), and SpliInx3 (Inx3-FLAG), which were predicted to have the same secondary topological structures as the native SpliInx2 and SpliInx3...
June 3, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Manabu Ote, Daisuke Yamamoto
Wolbachia is an endosymbiont prevalent in arthropods. To maximize its transmission thorough the female germline, Wolbachia induces in infected hosts male-to-female transformation, male killing, parthenogenesis, and cytoplasmic incompatibility, depending on the host species and Wolbachia strain involved. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these host manipulations by Wolbachia remain largely unknown. The Wolbachia strain wMel, an inhabitant of Drosophila melanogaster, impairs host oogenesis only when transplanted into a heterologous host, for example, Drosophila simulans...
May 30, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Joanna Pacholska-Bogalska, Monika Szymczak, Paweł Marciniak, Karolina Walkowiak-Nowicka, Grzegorz Rosiński
The physiological processes that occur during the aging of insects are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to describe the changes in contractile activity and hemodynamic parameters of the heart that take place as the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor, ages. The frequency of heart contractions in beetles that had just undergone metamorphosis (median 24.7 beats/min) was significantly lower than the frequency of heart contractions in older beetles. In 56% of beetles that were < 1 week of age, a pattern of contractile activity with alternating periods of higher and lower contraction frequency was detected, suggesting that some posteclosion developmental processes occur during the first week of adulthood...
May 30, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Cheng-Yen Lu, Jiantai Timothy Qiu, Chin-Yuan Hsu
Trophocytes and oenocytes of queen honey bees are used in studies of cellular longevity, but their cellular energy metabolism with age is poorly understood. In this study, the molecules involved in cellular energy metabolism were evaluated in the trophocytes and oenocytes of young and old queen bees. The findings indicated that there were no significant differences between young and old queen bees in β-oxidation, glycolysis, and protein synthesis. These results indicate that the cellular energy metabolism of trophocytes and oenocytes in old queen bees is similar to young queen bees and suggests that maintaining cellular energy metabolism in a young status may be associated with the longevity of queen bees...
May 2, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Bin Xue, Fan-Chi Li, Jiang-Hai Tian, Jin-Xin Li, Xiao-Yu Cheng, Jia-Huan Hu, Jing-Sheng Hu, Bing Li
Various nanoparticles, such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and titanium nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are increasingly used in industrial processes. Because they are released into the environment, research into their influence on the biosphere is necessary. Among its other effects, dietary TiO2 NPs promotes silk protein synthesis in silkworms, which prompted our hypothesis that TiO2 NPs influence protein kinase B (Akt)/Target of rapamycin (Tor) signaling pathway (Akt/Tor) signaling in their silk glands. The Akt/Tor signaling pathway is a principle connector integrating cellular reactions to growth factors, metabolites, nutrients, protein synthesis, and stress...
April 30, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Heather G Marco, Ottilie K H Katali, Gerd Gäde
The dorsal heart of the Indian stick insect, Carausius morosus, is responsible for the anterograde flow of hemolymph to the aorta and into the body cavity. The contraction frequency of the insect heart is known to be influenced by several substances of neural source. Here, a semi-exposed heart assay was employed to study the effect of an aminergic substance (octopamine) and three neuropeptides (C. morosus hypertrehalosemic hormone [Carmo-HrTH], crustacean cardioactive peptide [CCAP], and proctolin) on heart contraction...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Qing-Ting Huang, Hai-Hao Ma, Xi-Le Deng, Hang Zhu, Jia Liu, Yong Zhou, Xiao-Mao Zhou
The β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (OA2B2) belongs to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. It regulates important physiological functions in insects, thus is potentially a good target for insecticides. In this study, the putative open reading frame sequence of the Pxoa2b2 gene in Plutella xylostella was cloned. Orthologous sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree analysis, and protein sequence analysis all showed that the cloned receptor belongs to the OA2B2 protein family. PxOA2B2 was transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Yonggyun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
David Stanley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Manabu Ote, Daisuke Yamamoto
The toxic manipulator of oogenesis (TomO) protein has been identified in the wMel strain of Wolbachia that symbioses with the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, as a protein that affects host reproduction. TomO protects germ stem cells (GSCs) from degeneration, which otherwise occurs in ovaries of host females that are mutant for the gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). We isolated the TomO homologs from wPip, a Wolbachia strain from the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. One of the homologs, TomOw Pip 1, exerted the GSC rescue activity in fly Sxl mutants when lacking its hydrophobic stretches...
July 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jing Zhou, Nai-Nai Fang, Ya Zheng, Kai-Yu Liu, Bin Mao, Li-Na Kong, Ya Chen, Hui Ai
Lectins and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely distributed in various insects and play crucial roles in primary host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Two AMPs (cecropin and attacin) have been identified and characterized in the larvae of housefly. In this study, two novel C-type lectins (CTLs) were obtained from Musca domestica, while their agglutinating and antiviral properties were evaluated. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of four immune genes (MdCTL1, MdCTL2, Cecropin, and Attacin) from M...
July 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Natalia N Perrella, Felipe J Fuzita, Rodrigo Moreti, Peter D E M Verhaert, Adriana R Lopes
l-fucose is a constituent of glycoconjugates in different organisms. Fucosidases catalyze the removal of fucose residues, and have been correlated to different physiological and pathological processes, such as fertilization, cancer, fucosidosis, and digestion in molluscs and ticks. An α-l-fucosidase sequence was identified from the transcriptome and proteome from the midgut diverticula of the synanthropic spider Nephilingis cruentata. In this article, we describe the isolation of this α-l-fucosidase and the characterization of its activity using substrates and inhibitors demonstrating different specificities among fucosidases...
July 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Huaixiang Zhou, Xusheng Cheng, Xiaoyuan Xu, Tianlong Jiang, Haimeng Zhou, Qing Sheng, Zuoming Nie
Alpha-tubulin N-acetyltransferase 1 (ATAT1) is an acetyltransferase specific to α-tubulin and performs important functions in many cellular processes. Bombyx mori is an economic insect and also known as a model lepidoptera insect. In this study, we cloned a B. mori ATAT1 gene (BmATAT1) (Gen Bank accession number: XP_004932777.1). BmATAT1 contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,065 bp encoding 355 amino acids (aa). Expression profiling of BmATAT1 protein showed that the expression levels of BmATAT1 at different developmental stages and different tissues in fifth-instar larvae differ...
July 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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