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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

Su Liu, Yu-Xing Zhang, Wen-Long Wang, Ye Cao, Shuai Li, Bang-Xian Zhang, Shi-Guang Li
The small white butterfly, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is an important pest on Brassicaceae plants, causing heavy crop loss each year. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the detoxification of various xenobiotic compounds, including insecticides. However, little is known about the role of CYP genes in P. rapae. In this study, we identified 63 CYP genes in P. rapae, and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, exon-intron structures and genomic locations. Moreover, our insecticide-response transcription profiling showed that LD5 doses of lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorantraniliprole, and abamectin significantly increased expression of five (CYP4M59, CYP6AE119, CYP6AE120, CYP6AE121, and CYP6BD18), three (CYP4AU1, CYP6AE120, and CYP6AW1), and five (CYP4L40, CYP4AU1, CYP6AE119, CYP6AW1, and CYP6BD19) CYP genes, respectively; and LD20 doses of the three pesticides significantly upregulated six (CYP4M59, CYP6AE119, CYP6AE120, CYP6AE121, CYP4AU1, and CYP6BD18), six (CYP4G168, CYP4L40, CYP4AU1, CYP6AE120, CYP6AW1, and CYP6BD19), and five (CYP4L40, CYP4AU1, CYP6AB108, CYP6AE119, and CYP6BD19) genes, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Purushottam R Lomate, Bryony C Bonning
Management of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive, agricultural pest in the United States, has presented significant challenges. This polyphagous insect uses both extra-oral and gut-based digestion thwarting protein- or nucleotide-based control strategies. The objective of this study was to biochemically characterize the digestive enzymes (proteases and nucleases) from the saliva, salivary gland and the gut of H. halys. Enzyme profiles for the two tissues and saliva radically differ: The pH optimum for proteases in the gut was six, with cysteine proteases predominant...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Yasuyuki Arakane, Qing Yang, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Jianzhen Zhang, Wenqing Zhang, Bernard Moussian
This microreview stems from the Second Symposium on Insect Molecular Toxicology and Chitin Metabolism held at Shanxi University in Taiyuan, China (June 27 to 30, 2017) at the institute for Applied Biology headed by Professor Enbo Ma and Professor Jianzhen Zhang.
February 25, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jing Zhang, Deye Luo, Peng Wu, Haozhe Li, Hongyu Zhang, Weiwei Zheng
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in insects are essential for mating and oviposition host selection. How these OBPs respond to different hosts at the mRNA level and their effects on behavior remain poorly characterized. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive agricultural pest with an extremely broad host range and high fecundity. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis transcriptome, six OBPs that were differentially expressed during three different physiological adult stages were identified...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jia-Huan Hu, Xiao-Yu Cheng, Jin-Xin Li, Bin Xue, Jiang-Hai Tian, Jing-Sheng Hu, Bing Li
Bombyx mori is an economic insect of the Lepidoptera. Its posterior silk gland (PSG) is an important organ for fibroin synthesis. In order to study the occurrence of apoptosis in PSG and the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway during spinning period, changes in morphology of silk gland, expressions of fibroin components Fib-H, Fib-L and P25 and Akt, TOR2, P70S6K and S6 in PI3K/Akt pathway, expressions of apoptosis related genes caspase-3, caspase-9 and activity of caspase-3 were explored. The results showed that the morphology of silk gland dramatically degenerated; transcription of Fib-H, Fib-L, and P25 gradually declined with time; and Fib-L protein level reduced by 0...
February 5, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Li-Fang Li, Zhi-Wen Xu, Nai-Yong Liu, Guo-Xing Wu, Xue-Min Ren, Jia-Ying Zhu
Venom is a prominently maternal virulent factor utilized by parasitoids to overcome hosts immune defense. With respect to roles of this toxic mixture involved in manipulating hosts immunity, great interest has been mostly restricted to Ichneumonoidea parasitoids associated with polydnavirus (PDV), of which venom is usually considered as a helper component to enhance the role of PDV, and limited Chalcidoidea species. In contrast, little information is available in other parasitoids, especially ectoparasitic species not carrying PDV...
February 5, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jinxu Liao, Chen Zhang, Wenjuan Ru, Dan Wang, Wenping Zhang
Previous study showed that exogenously applied recombinant thymosin from Bombyx mori (BmTHY) reduces B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) proliferation in silkworm. Which stands to reason that BmTHY in B. mori is crucial for the defense against BmNPV. However, little is known about the effect of endogenously overexpressed or repressed BmTHY on B. mori resistance to virus infection. To study this issue, we constructed an overexpression and inhibited expression systems of BmTHY in BmN cells. The viral titer and the analysis from the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that overexpression of BmTHY decreased the copies of BmNPV gene gp41, which goes over to inhibit the proliferation of BmNPV in BmN cells, while the inhibited expression of BmTHY significantly enhanced viral proliferation in infected BmN cells...
January 29, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Lei Zhang, Joseph A Ringbauer, Cynthia L Goodman, Tamra Reall, Xing-Fu Jiang, David Stanley
Insect immunity includes a surveillance system that detects and signals infections, coupled with hemocytic and humoral immune functions. These functions are signaled and coordinated by several biochemicals, including biogenic amines, insect cytokines, peptides, and prostaglandins (PGs). The actions of these mediators are coordinated within cells by various forms of cross-talk among the signaling systems and they result in effective reactions to infection. While this is well understood, we lack information on how immune-mediated recovery influences subsequent juvenile development in surviving insects...
January 29, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Ze-Wei Ren, Ji-Chong Zhuo, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Dun Wang
Hox genes encode transcriptional regulatory proteins that control axial patterning in all bilaterians. The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a destructive insect pest of rice plants in Asian countries. During analysis of the N. lugens transcriptome, we identified a Hox3-like gene (NlHox3) that was highly and specifically expressed in the embryonic stage. We performed functional analysis on the gene to identify its roles in embryonic development and its potential use as a target in RNA interference (RNAi) based pest control...
January 25, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Meng-Yi Zhang, Dong Wei, Ran Li, Hong-Ting Jia, Yu-Wei Liu, Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
In insects, glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of glutamine, has been reported to be associated with embryonic development, heat shock response, and fecundity regulation. However, little is known about the influence of GS on postembryonic development. In this study, we demonstrate that blocking the activity of GS in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) with use of a GS-specific inhibitor (L-methionine S-sulfoximine), led to a significant delay in larval development, pupal weight loss, and inhibition of pupation...
January 23, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Yong Zhang, Jia Fan, Frédéric Francis, Julian Chen
Laccase 1 (Lac1), a polyphenol oxidase, has been proposed to be involved in insect iron metabolism and immunity responses. However, little information is available on the roles of Lac 1 in insect-plant interactions. The grain aphid Sitobion avenae is one of the most destructive pests of cereal, directly drawing phloem sap and transmitting viruses. In the present study, we first cloned the open reading frame (ORF) of Lac 1 from S. avenae, and the putative protein sequence was predicted to have a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domain...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Yan-Hong Hu, Xiao-Ming Chen, Pu Yang, Wei-Feng Ding
Ericerus pela Chavannes (Hemiptera: Coccoidae) is an economically important scale insect because the second instar males secrete a harvestable wax-like substance. In this study, we report the molecular cloning of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene (EpFAR) of E. pela. We predicted a 520-aa protein with the FAR family features from the deduced amino acid sequence. The EpFAR mRNA was expressed in five tested tissues, testis, alimentary canal, fat body, Malpighian tubules, and mostly in cuticle. The EpFAR protein was localized by immunofluorescence only in the wax glands and testis...
December 26, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jingmin Guan, Jie Zhang, Shenglei Yuan, Bing Yang, Kevin D Clark, Erjun Ling, Wuren Huang
Signal peptidase complexes (SPCs) are conserved from bacteria to human beings, and are typically composed of four to five subunits. There are four genes encoding SPC proteins in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. To understand their importance to insect development, double-stranded RNA for each SPC gene was injected into red flour beetles at the early larval and adult stages. Knockdown of all four signal peptidase genes was lethal to larvae. Moreover, larvae had difficulty with old cuticle ecdysis. Knockdown of TcSPC12 alone did not affect pupal or adult development...
December 19, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jinming Zhou, Jing Yan, Keke You, Xia Chen, Zhineng Yuan, Qiang Zhou, Kai Lu
The brummer (bmm) genes encode the lipid storage droplet-associated triacylglycerols (TAG) lipases, which belong to the Brummer/Nutrin subfamily. These enzymes hydrolyze the ester bonds in TAG in lipid metabolism and act in insect energy homeostasis. Exposure to some agricultural chemicals leads to increased fecundity, which necessarily involves lipid metabolism, in some planthopper species. However, the biological roles of bmm in planthopper lipid storage and mobilization have not been investigated. Here, the open reading frame (ORF) of bmm (Nlbmm) was cloned and sequenced from the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens)...
March 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Masasuke Ryuda, Miku Tabuchi, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Takashi Matsumura, Masanori Ochiai, Yoichi Hayakawa
Recovery from weight loss after stress is important for all organisms, although the recovery mechanisms are not fully understood. We are working to clarify these mechanisms. Here, we recorded enhanced feeding activity of Drosophila melanogaster larvae from 2 to 4 h after heat stress at 35°C for 1 h. During the post-stress period, expression levels of sweet taste gustatory receptor genes (Grs), Gr5a, Gr43a, Gr64a, and Gr64f, were elevated, whereas bitter taste Grs, Gr66a, and Gr33a, were decreased in expression and expression of a non-typical taste receptor Gr, Gr68a, was unchanged...
March 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Fu-Chyun Chu, William Klobasa, Nathaniel Grubbs, Marcé D Lorenzen
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive pest that primarily attacks fresh, soft-skinned fruit. Although others have reported successful integration of marked piggyBac elements into the D. suzukii genome, with a very respectable transgenesis rate of ∼16%, here we take this work a step further by creating D. suzukii jumpstarter strains. These were generated through integration of a fluorescent-marked Minos element carrying a heat shock protein 70-driven piggyBac transposase gene. We demonstrate that there is a dramatic increase in transformation rates when germline transformation is performed in a transposase-expressing background...
March 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Tomoyuki Takada, Taiyo Sasaki, Ryoichi Sato, Shingo Kikuta, Maki N Inoue
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers contribute to the maintenance of colonies in various ways. The primary functions of workers are divided into two types depending on age: young workers (nurses) primarily engage in such behaviors as cleaning and food handling within the hive, whereas older workers (foragers) acquire floral nutrients beyond the colony. Concomitant with this age-dependent change in activity, physiological changes occur in the tissues and organs of workers. Nurses supply younger larvae with honey containing high levels of glucose and supply older larvae with honey containing high levels of fructose...
February 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Hanhong Lan, Xiaojing Hong, Ranran Huang, Xin Lin, Qinghuang Li, Kaihui Li, Tao Zhou
The green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps, is a major rice pest in Southeast Asia and Southern China. Novel control strategies must be explored to control the rice pest. Behavior or fitness regulation of insect by modulating the Troponin C (TnC) may be a novel strategy in the comprehensive management of the insect pest. However, characterizations and functions of TnC, especially regarding effect of its RNA interference-mediated gene knockdown on the behavior or fitness of N. cincticeps remain unknown...
February 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Saima Kausar, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Cen Qian, Baojian Zhu, Jin Gao, Yu Sun, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Chaoliang Liu
Serine protease inhibitors play a key role in the immune system of invertebrates by controlling proteolytic cascades. Besides its importance, the knowledge on immune functions of serpins in most of insects is fragmentary. In the present study, we identified serpin-12 from Antheraea pernyi encoding a predicted 402 amino acid residue protein (Apserpin-12). We expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was used for the synthesis of rabbit anti-Apserpin-12 polyclonal antibodies and functional studies...
February 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiang-Jun Rao
Peptidoglycan (PGN) exists in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as a component of the cell wall. PGN is an important target to be recognized by the innate immune system of animals. PGN recognition proteins (PGRP) are responsible for recognizing PGNs. In Drosophila melanogaster, PGRP-LC and IMD (immune deficiency) are critical for activating the Imd pathway. Here, we report the cloning and analysis of PGRP-LC and IMD (PxPGRP-LC and PxIMD) from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), the insect pest of cruciferous vegetables...
February 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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