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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762531/purification-and-characterization-of-trypsin-produced-by-gut-bacteria-from-anticarsia-gemmatalis
#1
Franciny Martins Pilon, Camila da Rocha Silva, Liliane Evangelista Visôtto, Rafael de Almeida Barros, Neilier Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Wellington Garcia Campos, Maria Goreti de Almeida Oliveira
Purification of active trypsin in the digestive process of insects is essential for the development of potent protease inhibitors (PIs) as an emerging pest control technology and research into insect adaptations to dietary PIs. An important aspect is the presence of proteolytic microorganisms, which contribute to host nutrition. Here, we purified trypsins produced by bacteria Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, and Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from the midgut of Anticarsia gemmatalis...
August 1, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730731/induction-of-stress-and-immune-associated-genes-in-the-indian-meal-moth-plodia-interpunctella-against-envenomation-by-the-ectoparasitoid-bracon-hebetor
#2
Tahir Shafeeq, Zain UlAbdin, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee
Envenomation is an important process in parasitism by parasitic wasps; it suppresses the immune and development of host insects. However, the molecular mechanisms of host responses to envenomation are not yet clear. This study aimed to determine the transcription-level responses of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella against envenomation of the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR was used to determine the transcriptional changes of 13 selected genes, which are associated with development, metabolism, stress, or immunity, in the feeding and wandering fifth instar larvae over a 4-day period after envenomation...
July 21, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707374/localization-and-functional-analysis-of-the-insect-specific-rabx4-in-the-brain-of-bombyx-mori
#3
Tomohide Uno, Masayuki Furutani, Katsuhiko Sakamoto, Yuichi Uno, Kengo Kanamaru, Akira Mizoguchi, Susumu Hiragaki, Makio Takeda
Rab proteins are small monomeric GTPases/GTP-binding proteins, which form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily. The different Rab GTPases are localized to the cytosolic face of specific intracellular membranes, where they function as regulators of distinct steps in membrane trafficking. RabX4 is an insect-specific Rab protein that has no close homolog in vertebrates. There is little information about insect-specific Rab proteins. RabX4 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. Antibodies against Bombyx mori RabX4 were produced in rabbits for western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry...
July 14, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695569/in-vitro-evidence-for-the-participation-of-drosophila-melanogaster-sperm-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosaminidases-in-the-interactions-with-glycans-carrying-terminal-n-acetylglucosamine-residues-on-the-egg-s-envelopes
#4
Jari Intra, Concetta Veltri, Daniela De Caro, Maria Elisa Perotti, Maria Enrica Pasini
Fertilization is a complex and multiphasic process, consisting of several steps, where egg-coating envelope's glycoproteins and sperm surface receptors play a critical role. Sperm-associated β-N-acetylglucosaminidases, also known as hexosaminidases, have been identified in a variety of organisms. Previously, two isoforms of hexosaminidases, named here DmHEXA and DmHEXB, were found as intrinsic proteins in the sperm plasma membrane of Drosophila melanogaster. In the present work, we carried out different approaches using solid-phase assays in order to analyze the oligosaccharide recognition ability of D...
July 10, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660745/prolidase-is-a-critical-enzyme-for-complete-gliadin-digestion-in-tenebrio-molitor-larvae
#5
Valeriia F Tereshchenkova, Irina A Goptar, Dmitry P Zhuzhikov, Mikhail A Belozersky, Yakov E Dunaevsky, Brenda Oppert, Irina Yu Filippova, Elena N Elpidina
Prolidase is a proline-specific metallopeptidase that cleaves imidodipeptides with C-terminal Pro residue. Prolidase was purified and characterized from the Tenebrio molitor larval midgut. The enzyme was localized in the soluble fraction of posterior midgut tissues, corresponding to a predicted cytoplasmic localization of prolidase according to the structure of the mRNA transcript. Expression of genes encoding prolidase and the major digestive proline-specific peptidase (PSP)-dipeptidyl peptidase 4-were similar...
June 29, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660700/inga-laurina-trypsin-inhibitor-ilti-obstructs-spodoptera-frugiperda-trypsins-expressed-during-adaptive-mechanisms-against-plant-protease-inhibitors
#6
Suzy Wider Machado, Caio Fernando Ramalho de Oliveira, Neide Graciano Zério, José Roberto Postali Parra, Maria Lígia Rodrigues Macedo
Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are elements of a common plant defense mechanism induced in response to herbivores. The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, a highly polyphagous lepidopteran pest, responds to various PIs in its diet by expressing genes encoding trypsins. This raises the question of whether the PI-induced trypsins are also inhibited by other PIs, which we posed as the hypothesis that Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) inhibits PI-induced trypsins in S. frugiperda. In the process of testing our hypothesis, we compared its properties with those of selected PIs, soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), Inga vera trypsin inhibitor (IVTI), Adenanthera pavonina trypsin inhibitor (ApTI), and Entada acaciifolia trypsin inhibitor (EATI)...
June 29, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643953/the-entomopathogenic-fungus-nomuraea-rileyi-impairs-cellular-immunity-of-its-host-helicoverpa-armigera
#7
Ke Zhong, Zhan-Chi Liu, Jia-Lin Wang, Xu-Sheng Liu
In this study, we investigated the effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi on Helicoverpa armigera cellular immune responses. Nomuraea rileyi infection had no effect on total hemocyte count (THC), but impaired hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis, nodulation, and encapsulation responses. Nomuraea rileyi infection led to a significant reduction in hemocyte spreading. An in vitro assay revealed that plasma from N. rileyi infected H. armigera larvae suppressed the spreading ability of hemocytes from naïve larvae...
June 23, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631341/evaluation-of-flubendiamide-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-metabolic-changes-in-helicoverpa-armigera-hubner
#8
Bharat Nareshkumar, Shaik Mohammad Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma, Senigala K Jayalakshmi, Kuruba Sreeramulu
Phthalic acid diamide insecticides are the most effective insecticides used against most of the lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera, a polyphagous pest posing threat to several crops worldwide. The present studies were undertaken to understand different target sites and their interaction with insect ryanodine receptors (RyR). Bioassays indicated that flubendiamide inhibited the larval growth in dose-dependent manner with LD50 value of 0.72 μM, and at 0.8 μM larval growth decreased by about 88%...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631312/the-flow-and-fate-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-field-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#9
Joseph Woodring
The flow of enzymes, the ratio of bound to unbound enzymes, and their inactivation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was studied. The digestive enzymes are forced forward into the crop by caecal contraction and then they are mixed with freshly chewed food and saliva, forming a crop-chyme. This chyme is blended by crop peristalsis, and periodic opening of the preproventricular valve (PPV) allows posterior movement into the proventriculus and further into the midgut. The contraction of the crop is modulated by Grybi-AST and Grybi-SK peptides, which are partially secreted by the caecal endocrine cells...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620971/the-adipokinetic-hormone-of-the-coleopteran-suborder-adephaga-structure-function-and-comparison-of-distribution-in-other-insects
#10
Gerd Gäde, Heather G Marco
The aim of the current study is to identify the adipokinetic hormone(s) (AKHs) of a basal suborder of the species-rich Coleoptera, the Adephaga, and possibly learn more about the ancestral AKH of beetles. Moreover, we wanted to compare the ancestral AKH with AKHs of more advanced beetles, of which a number are pest insects. This would allow us to assess whether AKH mimetics would be suitable as insecticides, that is, be harmful to the pest species but not to the beneficial species. Nine species of the Adephaga were investigated and all synthesize only one octapeptide in the corpus cardiacum, as revealed by Edman degradation sequencing techniques or by mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618068/molecular-cloning-and-analysis-of-a-c-type-lectin-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#11
Toufeeq Shahzad, Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiang-Jun Rao
C-type lectins (CTLs) play a variety of roles in plants and animals. They are involved in animal development, pathogen recognition, and the activation of immune responses. CTLs carry one or more non-catalytic carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) to bind specific carbohydrates reversibly. Here, we report the molecular cloning and functional analysis of a single-CRD CTL, named C-type lectin-S2 (BmCTL-S2) from the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). The ORF of CTL-S2 is 666 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 221 amino acids...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618004/silencing-of-a-lipase-maturation-factor-2-like-gene-by-wheat-mediated-rnai-reduces-the-survivability-and-reproductive-capacity-of-the-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae
#12
Lanjie Xu, Qiling Hou, Yanjie Zhao, Lihua Lu, Baoyun Li, Zhongfu Ni, Rongqi Liang
Lipase maturation factor (LMF) family proteins are required for the maturation and transport of active lipoprotein lipases. However, the specific roles of LMF2 remain unknown. In this study, a grain aphid lmf2-like gene fragment was cloned and was highly similar in sequence to a homologous gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. An RNAi vector was constructed with this fragment and used for wheat transformation. The expression of the lmf2-like gene in aphid, as well as the growth and reproduction of the aphids, was analyzed after feeding on the transgenic wheat...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585706/delivery-of-dsrna-through-topical-feeding-for-rna-interference-in-the-citrus-sap-piercing-sucking-hemipteran-diaphorina-citri
#13
Nabil Killiny, Abdelaziz Kishk
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful means to study functional genomics in insects. The delivery of dsRNA is a challenging step in the development of RNAi assay. Here, we describe a new delivery method to increase the effectiveness of RNAi in the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Bromophenol blue droplets were topically applied to fifth instar nymphs and adults on the ventral side of the thorax between the three pairs of legs. In addition to video recordings that showed sucking of the bromophenol blue by the stylets, dissected guts turned blue indicating that the uptake was through feeding...
June 6, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557151/feeding-regulation-by-neuropeptide-y-on-asian-corn-borer-ostrinia-furnacalis
#14
Zhen Yue, Zhangwu Zhao
The Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis is a major agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide Y (npy) gene in O. furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from cDNA library, which contains an ORF of 273 bp by encoding 90 amino acid residues. The mature OfurNPY is composed of 29 amino acids with amidation in C-terminal. The spatiotemporal expression analysis showed that npy highest expression level was in the midgut of the fifth instar larvae (the gluttony period). When the expression of npy was knocked down by feeding or injecting dsNPY, larval food consumption, body size, and body weight were significantly inhibited compared to controls...
May 30, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557066/purification-and-functional-characterization-of-lectin-with-phenoloxidase-activity-from-the-hemolymph-of-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#15
Ganesh Arumugam, Bhuvaragavan Sreeramulu, Ramaraj Paulchamy, Sakthivel Thangavel, Janarthanan Sundaram
Lectins also identified as hemagglutinins are multivalent proteins and on account of their fine sugar-binding specificity play an important role in immune system of invertebrates. The present study was carried out on the hemolymph lectin of cockroach, Periplaneta americana with appropriate screening and purification to understand its molecular as well as functional nature. The lectin from the hemolymph was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. The approximate molecular weight of purified lectin was 340 kDa as determined by FPLC analysis...
May 30, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557004/identification-of-%C3%AE-chain-of-fo-f1-atpase-in-apoptotic-cell-population-induced-by-microplitis-bicoloratus-bracovirus-and-its-role-in-the-development-of-spodoptera-litura
#16
Tian-Chao Kou, Yue-Tong Liu, Ming Li, Yang Yang, Wei Zhang, Ji-Hui Cui, Xue-Wen Zhang, Shu-Mei Dong, Sha Xu, Shan You, Dong-Shuai Yu, Zun-Yu Pang, Kai-Jun Luo
Two physiological changes of Spodoptera litura parasitized by Microplitis bicoloratus are hemocyte-apoptosis and retarded immature development. β-Chain of Fo F1 -ATPase was found from a S. litura transcriptome. It belongs to a conserved P-loop NTPase superfamily, descending from a common ancestor of Lepidopteran clade. However, the characterization of β-chain of ATPase in apoptotic cells and its involvement in development remain unknown. Here, the ectopic expression and endogenous Fo F1 -ATPase β-chain occurred on S...
May 30, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635136/knockdown-of-tor-causing-ovarian-diapause-in-a-genetically-stable-brachypterous-strain-of-nilaparvata-lugens
#17
Fangzhou Liu, Kaiyin Li, Wanlun Cai, Jing Zhao, Yulan Zou, Hongxia Hua
Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most damaging pests of rice crops. BPH is a migratory insect with a delayed ovarian development in migrants classified as reproductive diapause. The molecular mechanism of reproductive diapause remains unclear, although we suspect it might be regulated by one or more nutrient signaling pathways. The target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway regulates cell growth in response to nutritional information, which raised a hypothesis that TOR mediates BPH reproductive diapause...
August 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634987/dietary-tio2-particles-modulate-expression-of-hormone-related-genes-in-bombyx-mori
#18
Guofang Shi, Pengfei Zhan, Weiming Jin, JianMing Fei, Lihua Zhao
Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically beneficial insect. Its growth and development are regulated by endogenous hormones. In the present study, we found that feeding titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) caused a significant increase of body size. TiO2 NP stimulated the transcription of several genes, including the insulin-related hormone bombyxin, PI3K/Akt/TOR (where PI3K is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and TOR is target of rapamycin), and the adenosine 5'-monophosphateactivated protein kinase (AMPK)/target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways...
August 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449399/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-bombyx-mori-fat-body-tissue-following-dietary-restriction
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ye Pan, Peng Lü, Qinyun Wang, Feifei Zhu, Chengjun Li, Yuanqing He, Keping Chen
Dietary restriction (DR) refers to a reduction in food intake to induce undernutrition but not malnutrition, which extends the lifespan of multiple species. Although there are invertebrate aging models, such as the Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, aging studies in Lepidoptera are few in number and the underlying life-extending molecular mechanisms are not clear. Research on a broader range of animals is necessary to support generalizations on mechanisms of aging and rates of aging. The aim of this study was to further investigate genes and pathways associated with DR in Bombyx mori...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449398/feeding-induced-phenol-production-in-capsicum-annuum-l-influences-spodoptera-litura-f-larval-growth-and-physiology
#20
Vijaya Movva, Usha Rani Pathipati
We studied the role of induced plant phenols as a defense response to insect herbivory. Phenolic compounds were induced in Capsicum annuum L., the source of many culinary peppers, after feeding by different stages of the insect pest, Spodoptera litura F. The phenols were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and effects produced by these phenols on larval development were studied. Vanillic acid was identified in plants challenged by second, fourth, and fifth instar larvae, but not in plants challenged by third instar nor unchallenged plants...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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