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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643953/the-entomopathogenic-fungus-nomuraea-rileyi-impairs-cellular-immunity-of-its-host-helicoverpa-armigera
#1
Ke Zhong, Zhan-Chi Liu, Jia-Lin Wang, Xu-Sheng Liu
In this study, we investigated the effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi on Helicoverpa armigera cellular immune responses. Nomuraea rileyi infection had no effect on total hemocyte count (THC), but impaired hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis, nodulation, and encapsulation responses. Nomuraea rileyi infection led to a significant reduction in hemocyte spreading. An in vitro assay revealed that plasma from N. rileyi infected H. armigera larvae suppressed the spreading ability of hemocytes from naïve larvae...
June 23, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635136/knockdown-of-tor-causing-ovarian-diapause-in-a-genetically-stable-brachypterous-strain-of-nilaparvata-lugens
#2
Fangzhou Liu, Kaiyin Li, Wanlun Cai, Jing Zhao, Yulan Zou, Hongxia Hua
Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most damaging pests of rice crops. BPH is a migratory insect with a delayed ovarian development in migrants classified as reproductive diapause. The molecular mechanism of reproductive diapause remains unclear, although we suspect it might be regulated by one or more nutrient signaling pathways. The target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway regulates cell growth in response to nutritional information, which raised a hypothesis that TOR mediates BPH reproductive diapause...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631341/evaluation-of-flubendiamide-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-metabolic-changes-in-helicoverpa-armigera-hubner
#3
Bharat Nareshkumar, Shaik Mohammad Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma, Senigala K Jayalakshmi, Kuruba Sreeramulu
Phthalic acid diamide insecticides are the most effective insecticides used against most of the lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera, a polyphagous pest posing threat to several crops worldwide. The present studies were undertaken to understand different target sites and their interaction with insect ryanodine receptors (RyR). Bioassays indicated that flubendiamide inhibited the larval growth in dose-dependent manner with LD50 value of 0.72 μM, and at 0.8 μM larval growth decreased by about 88%...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631312/the-flow-and-fate-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-field-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#4
Joseph Woodring
The flow of enzymes, the ratio of bound to unbound enzymes, and their inactivation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was studied. The digestive enzymes are forced forward into the crop by caecal contraction and then they are mixed with freshly chewed food and saliva, forming a crop-chyme. This chyme is blended by crop peristalsis, and periodic opening of the preproventricular valve (PPV) allows posterior movement into the proventriculus and further into the midgut. The contraction of the crop is modulated by Grybi-AST and Grybi-SK peptides, which are partially secreted by the caecal endocrine cells...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620971/the-adipokinetic-hormone-of-the-coleopteran-suborder-adephaga-structure-function-and-comparison-of-distribution-in-other-insects
#5
Gerd Gäde, Heather G Marco
The aim of the current study is to identify the adipokinetic hormone(s) (AKHs) of a basal suborder of the species-rich Coleoptera, the Adephaga, and possibly learn more about the ancestral AKH of beetles. Moreover, we wanted to compare the ancestral AKH with AKHs of more advanced beetles, of which a number are pest insects. This would allow us to assess whether AKH mimetics would be suitable as insecticides, that is, be harmful to the pest species but not to the beneficial species. Nine species of the Adephaga were investigated and all synthesize only one octapeptide in the corpus cardiacum, as revealed by Edman degradation sequencing techniques or by mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618068/molecular-cloning-and-analysis-of-a-c-type-lectin-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#6
Toufeeq Shahzad, Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiang-Jun Rao
C-type lectins (CTLs) play a variety of roles in plants and animals. They are involved in animal development, pathogen recognition, and the activation of immune responses. CTLs carry one or more non-catalytic carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) to bind specific carbohydrates reversibly. Here, we report the molecular cloning and functional analysis of a single-CRD CTL, named C-type lectin-S2 (BmCTL-S2) from the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). The ORF of CTL-S2 is 666 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 221 amino acids...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618004/silencing-of-a-lipase-maturation-factor-2-like-gene-by-wheat-mediated-rnai-reduces-the-survivability-and-reproductive-capacity-of-the-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae
#7
Lanjie Xu, Qiling Hou, Yanjie Zhao, Lihua Lu, Baoyun Li, Zhongfu Ni, Rongqi Liang
Lipase maturation factor (LMF) family proteins are required for the maturation and transport of active lipoprotein lipases. However, the specific roles of LMF2 remain unknown. In this study, a grain aphid lmf2-like gene fragment was cloned and was highly similar in sequence to a homologous gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. An RNAi vector was constructed with this fragment and used for wheat transformation. The expression of the lmf2-like gene in aphid, as well as the growth and reproduction of the aphids, was analyzed after feeding on the transgenic wheat...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585706/delivery-of-dsrna-through-topical-feeding-for-rna-interference-in-the-citrus-sap-piercing-sucking-hemipteran-diaphorina-citri
#8
Nabil Killiny, Abdelaziz Kishk
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful means to study functional genomics in insects. The delivery of dsRNA is a challenging step in the development of RNAi assay. Here, we describe a new delivery method to increase the effectiveness of RNAi in the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Bromophenol blue droplets were topically applied to fifth instar nymphs and adults on the ventral side of the thorax between the three pairs of legs. In addition to video recordings that showed sucking of the bromophenol blue by the stylets, dissected guts turned blue indicating that the uptake was through feeding...
June 6, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557151/feeding-regulation-by-neuropeptide-y-on-asian-corn-borer-ostrinia-furnacalis
#9
Zhen Yue, Zhangwu Zhao
The Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis is a major agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide Y (npy) gene in O. furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from cDNA library, which contains an ORF of 273 bp by encoding 90 amino acid residues. The mature OfurNPY is composed of 29 amino acids with amidation in C-terminal. The spatiotemporal expression analysis showed that npy highest expression level was in the midgut of the fifth instar larvae (the gluttony period). When the expression of npy was knocked down by feeding or injecting dsNPY, larval food consumption, body size, and body weight were significantly inhibited compared to controls...
May 30, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557066/purification-and-functional-characterization-of-lectin-with-phenoloxidase-activity-from-the-hemolymph-of-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#10
Ganesh Arumugam, Bhuvaragavan Sreeramulu, Ramaraj Paulchamy, Sakthivel Thangavel, Janarthanan Sundaram
Lectins also identified as hemagglutinins are multivalent proteins and on account of their fine sugar-binding specificity play an important role in immune system of invertebrates. The present study was carried out on the hemolymph lectin of cockroach, Periplaneta americana with appropriate screening and purification to understand its molecular as well as functional nature. The lectin from the hemolymph was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. The approximate molecular weight of purified lectin was 340 kDa as determined by FPLC analysis...
May 30, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557004/identification-of-%C3%AE-chain-of-fo-f1-atpase-in-apoptotic-cell-population-induced-by-microplitis-bicoloratus-bracovirus-and-its-role-in-the-development-of-spodoptera-litura
#11
Tian-Chao Kou, Yue-Tong Liu, Ming Li, Yang Yang, Wei Zhang, Ji-Hui Cui, Xue-Wen Zhang, Shu-Mei Dong, Sha Xu, Shan You, Dong-Shuai Yu, Zun-Yu Pang, Kai-Jun Luo
Two physiological changes of Spodoptera litura parasitized by Microplitis bicoloratus are hemocyte-apoptosis and retarded immature development. β-Chain of Fo F1 -ATPase was found from a S. litura transcriptome. It belongs to a conserved P-loop NTPase superfamily, descending from a common ancestor of Lepidopteran clade. However, the characterization of β-chain of ATPase in apoptotic cells and its involvement in development remain unknown. Here, the ectopic expression and endogenous Fo F1 -ATPase β-chain occurred on S...
May 30, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449399/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-bombyx-mori-fat-body-tissue-following-dietary-restriction
#12
Ye Pan, Peng Lü, Qinyun Wang, Feifei Zhu, Chengjun Li, Yuanqing He, Keping Chen
Dietary restriction (DR) refers to a reduction in food intake to induce undernutrition but not malnutrition, which extends the lifespan of multiple species. Although there are invertebrate aging models, such as the Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, aging studies in Lepidoptera are few in number and the underlying life-extending molecular mechanisms are not clear. Research on a broader range of animals is necessary to support generalizations on mechanisms of aging and rates of aging. The aim of this study was to further investigate genes and pathways associated with DR in Bombyx mori...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449398/feeding-induced-phenol-production-in-capsicum-annuum-l-influences-spodoptera-litura-f-larval-growth-and-physiology
#13
Vijaya Movva, Usha Rani Pathipati
We studied the role of induced plant phenols as a defense response to insect herbivory. Phenolic compounds were induced in Capsicum annuum L., the source of many culinary peppers, after feeding by different stages of the insect pest, Spodoptera litura F. The phenols were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and effects produced by these phenols on larval development were studied. Vanillic acid was identified in plants challenged by second, fourth, and fifth instar larvae, but not in plants challenged by third instar nor unchallenged plants...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440594/identification-of-a-hypertrehalosemic-factor-in-spodoptera-exigua
#14
Youngjin Park, Yonggyun Kim
Trehalose is a major blood sugar in insects with a range of physiological functions, including an energy source and a cryoprotectant. Hemolymph trehalose concentrations are tightly regulated according to physiological conditions. An insulin-like peptide, SeILP1, downregulates hemolymph trehalose concentrations in Spodoptera exigua. Here, we identified a factor that upregulates hemolymph trehalose concentration in S. exigua. Hemolymph trehalose concentrations were significantly increased after immune challenge or under starvation in a time-dependent manner...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251694/knockdown-of-a-putative-argininosuccinate-lyase-gene-reduces-arginine-content-and-impairs-nymphal-development-in-nilaparvata-lugens
#15
San-Yue Yuan, Guo-Qing Li, Pin-Jun Wan, Qiang Fu, Feng-Xiang Lai, Li-Li Mu
Nilaparvata lugens is a typical phloem feeder. Rice phloem is high in simple sugars and very low in essential amino acids. Nilaparvata lugens harbors an ascomycete Entomomyces delphacidicola that hypothetically biosynthesizes several amino acids to meet the nutrition requirement of the planthopper. Among these amino acids, here, we focused on arginine biosynthesis. A complete cDNA of an E. delphacidicola gene, arginine-succinate lyase, EdArg4, the last step in arginine biosynthesis, was obtained. RNAi-mediated suppression of EdArg4 reduced arginine content in the hemolymph, and decreased the expression of several arginine biosynthesis genes...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370316/functional-analysis-of-two-polygalacturonase-genes-in-apolygus-lucorum-associated-with-eliciting-plant-injury-using-rna-interference
#16
Wanna Zhang, Bing Liu, Yanhui Lu, Gemei Liang
Salivary enzymes of many piercing-sucking insects lead to host plant injury. The salivary enzymes, polygalacturonase (PGs), act in insect feeding. PG family genes have been cloned from the mirid bug Apolygus lucorum, a pest of cotton and other host crops in China. We investigated the function of two PG genes that are highly expressed in A. lucorum nymphs (PG3-4) and adults (PG3-5), using siRNA injection-based RNA interference (RNAi). Accumulation of mRNA encoding both genes and their cognate proteins was significantly reduced (>60%) in experimental compared control green fluorescent protein (GFP) siRNA-treated mirids at 48 h post injection...
April 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346717/characterization-of-two-novel-antimicrobial-peptides-from-the-cuticular-extracts-of-the-ant-trichomyrmex-criniceps-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae
#17
Nagachaitanya Bhagavathula, Venkateshwarlu Meedidoddi, Simon Bourque, Reshmy Vimaladevi, Santoshkumar Kesavakurup, Dayanandan Selvadurai, Sameer Shrivastava, Chandrashekara Krishnappa
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from cuticular extracts of worker ants of Trichomyrmex criniceps (Mayr, Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were isolated and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Eight peptides ranging in mass from 804.42 to 1541.04 Da were characterized using a combination of analytical and bioinformatics approach. All the eight peptides were novel with no similarity to any of the AMPs archived in the Antimicrobial Peptide Database. Two of the eight novel peptides, the smallest and the largest by mass were named Crinicepsin-1 and Crinicepsin-2 and were chemically synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis...
April 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321909/characterization-of-candidate-odorant-binding-proteins-and-chemosensory-proteins-in-the-tea-geometrid-ectropis-obliqua-prout-lepidoptera-geometridae
#18
Liang Sun, Teng-Fei Mao, Yu-Xing Zhang, Jian-Jian Wu, Jia-He Bai, Ya-Nan Zhang, Xing-Chuan Jiang, Kun-Shan Yin, Yu-Yuan Guo, Yong-Jun Zhang, Qiang Xiao
Insects rely heavily on their sophisticated chemosensory systems to locate host plants and find conspecific mates. Although the molecular mechanisms of odorant recognition in many Lepidoptera species have been well explored, limited information has been reported on the geometrid moth Ectropis obliqua Prout, an economically important pest of tea plants. In the current study, we first attempted to identify and characterize the putative olfactory carrier proteins, including odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs)...
April 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266058/chemicals-isolated-from-justicia-adhatoda-linn-reduce-fitness-of-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-l
#19
Annamalai Thanigaivel, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Edward-Sam Edwin, Athirstam Ponsankar, Selvaraj Selin-Rani, Venkatraman Pradeepa, Muthiah Chellappandian, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Ahmed Abdel-Megeed, Raman Narayanan, Kadarkarai Murugan
Extracts from Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae) strongly reduced the fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. The methanolic extracts inhibited several enzymes responsible for protecting insects from oxidative and other damage, including glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450, and α- and β-esterases. They increased repellency (maximum repellency at 100 ppm) in host-seeking adult females using the "arm-in cage assay." Histopathological examination showed the extracts led to serious midgut cell damage...
April 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225562/the-adipokinetic-hormone-of-mantodea-in-comparison-to-other-dictyoptera
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Gerd Gäde, Heather G Marco
Six species of the order Mantodea (praying mantises) are investigated for the presence and sequence of putative adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The selected species span a wide evolutionary range of various families and subfamilies of the clade Mantodea. The corpora cardiaca of the different species are dissected, methanolic extracts prepared, peptides separated by liquid chromatography, and AKHs detected and sequenced by ion trap mass spectrometry. All six species investigated contain an octapeptide with the primary structure pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide, which is code-named Emppe-AKH and had been found earlier in three other species of Mantodea...
March 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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