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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696504/green-tea-polyphenols-require-the-mitochondrial-iron-transporter-mitoferrin-for-lifespan-extension-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Terry E Lopez, Hoang M Pham, Benjamin V Nguyen, Yerazik Tahmasian, Shannon Ramsden, Volkan Coskun, Samuel E Schriner, Mahtab Jafari
Green tea has been found to increase the lifespan of various experimental animal models including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. High in polyphenolic content, green tea has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in part by its ability to bind free iron, a micronutrient that is both essential for and toxic to all living organisms. Due to green tea's iron-binding properties, we questioned whether green tea acts to increase the lifespan of the fruit fly by modulating iron regulators, specifically, mitoferrin, a mitochondrial iron transporter, and transferrin, found in the hemolymph of flies...
December 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592842/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-two-14-3-3-proteins-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-an-important-arboviruses-vector
#2
Abel Trujillo-Ocampo, Febe Elena Cázares-Raga, Antonio Celestino-Montes, Leticia Cortés-Martínez, Mario H Rodríguez, Fidel de la Cruz Hernández-Hernández
The 14-3-3 proteins are evolutionarily conserved acidic proteins that form a family with several isoforms in many cell types of plants and animals. In invertebrates, including dipteran and lepidopteran insects, only two isoforms have been reported. 14-3-3 proteins are scaffold molecules that form homo- or heterodimeric complexes, acting as molecular adaptors mediating phosphorylation-dependent interactions with signaling molecules involved in immunity, cell differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer...
November 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558456/bmdredd-regulates-the-apoptosis-coordinating-with-bmdaxx-bmcide-b-bmfadd-and-bmcreb-in-bmn-cells
#3
Rui-Ting Chen, Peng Jiao, Yan Lu, Hu-Hu Xin, Deng-Pan Zhang, Mei-Xian Wang, Shuang Liang, Yun-Gen Miao
The apoptosis mechanisms in mammals were investigated relatively clearly. However, little is known about how apoptosis is achieved at a molecular level in silkworm cells. We cloned a caspase homologous gene named BmDredd (where Bm is Bombyx mori and Dredd is death-related ced-3/Nedd2-like caspase) in BmN cells from the ovary of Bm and analyzed its biological information. We constructed the N-terminal, C-terminal, and overexpression vector of BmDredd, respectively. Our results showed that the transcriptional expression level of BmDredd was increased in the apoptotic BmN cells...
November 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447944/molecular-characterization-of-two-acetylcholinesterase-genes-from-the-rice-leaffolder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-lepidoptera-pyralidae
#4
Dong-Ming Wang, Bang-Xian Zhang, Xiao-Ming Liu, Xiang-Jun Rao, Shi-Guang Li, Mao-Ye Li, Su Liu
In this study, two full-length cDNA sequences (Cmace1 and Cmace2) encoding putative acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) were cloned and characterized from the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, an important lepidopteran rice pest in Asia. Cmace1 encodes a CmAChE1 consisting of 689 amino acid residues, while Cmace2 encodes a 639 amino acids CmAChE2. The two CmAChEs both have N-terminal signal peptides and conserved motifs including the catalytic triad, choline-binding sites, oxianion hole, acyl pocket, peripheral anionic subsite, and the characteristic FGESAG motif and conserved 14 aromatic amino acids...
November 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447828/the-secretion-of-digestive-enzymes-and-caecal-size-are-determined-by-dietary-protein-in-the-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#5
Joseph Woodring, Sandy Weidlich
In Gryllus bimaculatus, the size of the caecum decreases in the latter half of each instar to a stable minimal size with a steady minimal rate of digestive enzyme secretion until feeding resumes after ecdysis. The higher the percent protein in the newly ingested food, the faster and larger the caecum grows, and as a consequent the higher the secretion rate of trypsin and amylase. When hard boiled eggs (40% protein) are eaten the caecum is 2× larger, the trypsin secretion is almost 3× greater, and amylase 2...
November 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406847/gender-influences-differentiation-of-chitin-among-body-parts
#6
Murat Kaya, Esra Bulut, Muhammad Mujtaba, Karolis Sivickis, Idris Sargin, Bahar Akyuz, Sevil Erdogan
Earlier reports have established that chitin isolates from each body part of an insect cuticle can exhibit diverse physicochemical properties. But it is still unknown if the gender of the insect can influence characteristics of chitin isolates from different body parts. The present study addresses this question. As a result, important physicochemical differences in the chitin samples from different body parts of Melolontha sp. were recorded on the basis of sex. The chitin samples were extracted from eight different body parts (antennae, head, eyes, thorax, abdomen, elytra, hindwings, and legs) of female and male...
October 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406683/suppressing-a-peroxidase-gene-reduces-survival-in-the-wheat-aphid-sitobion-avenae
#7
Fei Deng, Qiankun He, Zhangwu Zhao
Peroxidases (POXs) make up a large superfamily of enzymes that act in a wide range of biological mechanisms, including maintaining appropriate redox balances within cells, among other actions. In this study, we cloned a sequence that encodes a POX protein, SaPOX, from wheat aphids, Sitobion avenae. Amino acid sequence alignment showed the SaPOX sequence was conserved with POXs from other insect species. SaPOX mRNA accumulations were present in all nymphal and adult stages, at higher levels during the first and second instar, and lower during later stages in the life cycle...
October 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402326/expression-and-effects-of-mutant-bombyx-mori-acetylcholinestrase1-in-bmn-cells
#8
Bin-Bin Wang, Yi Xie, Fan-Chi Li, Min Ni, Kai-Zun Xu, Jiang-Hai Tian, Jing-Sheng Hu, Bin Xue, Wei-De Shen, Bing Li
The main mechanism of toxicity of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides is their irreversible binding and inhibition of acetylcholinestrase (AChE), encoded by ace1 (acetylcholinestrase gene 1), leading to eventual death of insects. Mutations in AChE may significantly reduce insects susceptibility to these pesticides. Bombyx mori is an important beneficial insect, and no OP- or CB-resistant strains have been generated. In this study, wild-type ace1 (wace1) and mutant ace1 (mace1) were introduced into BmN cells, confirmed by screening and identification...
October 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357470/fluid-and-ion-secretion-by-malpighian-tubules-of-larval-chironomids-chironomus-riparius-effects-of-rearing-salinity-transport-inhibitors-and-serotonin
#9
Melika Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Phuong Bui, Andrew Donini
Larvae of Chironomus riparius respond to ion-poor and brackish water (IPW, BW) conditions by activating ion uptake mechanisms in the anal papillae and reducing ion absorption at the rectum, respectively. The role that the Malpighian tubules play in ion and osmoregulation under these conditions is not known in this species. This study examines rates of fluid secretion and major cation composition of secreted fluid from tubules of C. riparius reared in IPW, freshwater (FW) and BW. Fluid secretion of tubules from FW and BW larvae was similar but tubules from IPW larvae secrete fluid at higher rates, are more sensitive to serotonin stimulation, and the secreted fluid contains less Na(+) ...
October 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588824/ingestion-of-the-anti-bacterial-agent-gemifloxacin-mesylate-leads-to-increased-gst-activity-and-peroxidation-products-in-hemolymph-of-galleria-mellonella-l-lepidoptera-pyralidae
#10
Meltem Erdem, Ceyhun Küçük, Ender Büyükgüzel, Kemal Büyükgüzel
Gemifloxacin mesylate (GEM) is a synthetic, fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial antibiotic that has a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria. GEM inhibits DNA synthesis by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activities. Recent research into insect nutrition and mass-rearing programs, in which antibiotics are incorporated into the culture media to maintain diet quality, raised a question of whether clinical antibiotics influence the health or biological performance of the insects that ingest these compounds...
September 2, 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357353/characterization-of-nicotine-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-in-the-cockroach-periplaneta-americana-mushroom-bodies-reveals-a-strong-expression-of-%C3%AE-1-subunit-involvement-in-nicotine-induced-currents
#11
Emiliane Taillebois, Steeve H Thany
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels expressed in many insect structures, such as mushroom bodies, in which they play a central role. We have recently demonstrated using electrophysiological recordings that different native nicotinic receptors are expressed in cockroach mushroom bodies Kenyon cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that eight genes coding for cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits are expressed in the mushroom bodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments demonstrated that β1 subunit was the most expressed in the mushroom bodies...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312591/insecticide-resistance-in-the-ground-spider-pardosa-sumatrana-thorell-1890-araneae-lycosidae
#12
Hafiz Muhammad Tahir, Farva Khizar, Sajida Naseem, Rabia Yaqoob, Khizar Samiullah
Elevated levels of insecticides detoxifying enzymes, such as esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases, act in the resistance mechanisms in insects. In the present study, levels of these enzymes in the insecticide-resistant ground spider Pardosa sumatrana (Thorell, 1890) were compared with a susceptible population (control) of the same species. Standard protocols were used for biochemical estimation of enzymes. The results showed significantly higher levels of nonspecific esterases and monooxygenases in resistant spiders compared to controls...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306978/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-two-serine-proteases-and-their-potential-involvement-in-prophenoloxidase-activation-in-plutella-xylostella
#13
Gang Gao, Xiao-Xia Xu, Jing Yu, Lin-Miao Li, Wen-Yan Ju, Feng-Liang Jin, Shoaib Freed
The proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) is a humoral defense mechanism in insects and crustaceans. Phenoloxidase (PO) is produced as an inactive precursor namely, proPO and is activated via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO-activating proteinase. The current research reports two novel serine proteinase genes (PxSP1-768 bp and PxSP2-816 bp) from Plutella xylostella, encoding 255 and 271 amino acid residues, respectively. Tissue distribution analyses by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed the resultant genes to be primarily expressed in the hemocytes, while quantitative-RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay showed that transcription level of PxSP1 and PxSP2 increased significantly after injection of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160491/proteins-of-the-integumentary-system-of-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#14
André Fernando Ditondo Micas, Germano Aguiar Ferreira, Helen Julie Laure, José Cesar Rosa, Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi
The integument of insects and other arthropods is composed of an inner basal lamina coated by the epidermis, which secretes the bulk of the outer integument layer, the cuticle. The genome sequencing of several insect species has allowed predicting classes of proteins integrating the cuticle. However, only a small proportion of them, as well as other proteins in the integumentary system, have been validated. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 45 different proteins in a total of 112 selected gel spots derived from thoracic integument samples of developing honeybee workers, including 14 cuticular proteins (AmelCPR 3, AmelCPR 12, AmelCPR 16, AmelCPR 27, apidermin 2, apidermin 3, endocuticle structural glycoprotein SgAbd-8-like, LOC100577363, LOC408365, LOC413679, LOC725454, LOC100576916, LOC725838, and peritrophin 3-C analogous)...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509382/dietary-silver-nanoparticles-reduce-fitness-in-a-beneficial-but-not-pest-insect-species
#15
Zahra Afrasiabi, Holly J R Popham, David Stanley, Dhananjay Suresh, Kristen Finley, Jonelle Campbell, Raghuraman Kannan, Anandhi Upendran
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have antimicrobial and insecticidal properties and they have been considered for their potential use as insecticides. While they do, indeed, kill some insects, two broader issues have not been considered in a critical way. First, reports of insect-lethal AgNPs are often based on simplistic methods that yield nanoparticles of nonuniform shapes and sizes, leaving questions about the precise treatments test insects experienced. Second, we do not know how AgNPs influence beneficial insects...
August 10, 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501306/nonsulfated-sulfakinin-changes-metabolic-parameters-of-insect-fat-body-mitochondria
#16
Malgorzata Slocinska, Nina Antos-Krzeminska, Grzegorz Rosinski, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
We investigated the effect of neuropeptide, the nonsulfated sulfakinin (SK) Zopat-SK-1 (pETSDDYGHLRFa) on the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the Zophobas atratus larval fat body. Mitochondria were isolated from beetle fat bodies 2 and 24 h after hormone injection. The administration of 20 pmol of Zopat-SK-1 to feeding larvae led to decreased mitochondrial oxidative activities in larval fat body. Diminished activities of citrate synthase and the cytochrome pathway, that is, nonphosphorylating and phosphorylating respiration during succinate oxidation, were observed...
August 8, 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396371/differential-proteome-analysis-of-the-male-and-female-antennae-from-holotrichia-parallela
#17
Ju-Hong Zhang, Shang Wang, Shuang Yang, Jiankun Yi, Yan Liu, Jing-Hui Xi
To understand the olfactory mechanisms of Holotrichia parallela antennae in detecting volatile compounds in the environment, protein profiles of H. parallela antennae were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analyses. Approximately 1,100 protein spots in silver staining gel were detected. Quantitative image analysis revealed that in total 47 protein spots showed significant changes in different genders of adult antennae. Thirty-five differentially expressed proteins were identified by Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) tandem mass spectrometer, among which 65...
August 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226059/molecular-characterization-of-autophagy-related-gene-5-from-spodoptera-exigua-and-expression-analysis-under-various-stress-conditions
#18
Kai-Yu Liu, Yu-Qian Xia, Jing Zhou, Zu-Wen Chen, Dandan Lu, Ning-Zhao Zhang, Xu-Sheng Liu, Hui Ai, Li-Lin Zhou
Autophagy is not only involved in development, but also has been proved to attend immune response against invading pathogens. Autophagy protein 5 (ATG5) is an important autophagic protein, which plays a crucial role in autophagosome elongation. Although ATG5 has been well studied in mammal, yeast, and Drosophila, little is known about ATG5 in lepidopteran insects. We cloned putative SeAtg5 gene from Spodoptera exigua larvae by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method, and its characteristics and the influences of multiple exogenous factors on its expression levels were then investigated...
August 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087161/characterization-and-expression-profiles-of-five-possible-cytochrome-p450-genes-from-liposcelis-entomophila-enderlein-psocoptera-liposcelididae
#19
Ting Li, Yan Liu, Dan-Dan Wei, Feng Shang, Guy Smagghe, Wei Dou, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
In this study, the cDNAs of five cytochromes P450 genes (named CYP345P1, CYP358B1, CYP4FD2, CYP4CD2, and CYP6JN1) contained open reading frames from 1,500 to 1,554 nucleotides that encoded 499 to 517 amino acids were cloned from the psocid Liposcelis entomophila. They are characterized by predicted molecular weights from 57.67 to 59.64 kDa and theoretical isoelectric points of 5.57-9.07. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed these five genes were expressed at all tested developmental stages and higher expressions were observed in adults...
August 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030662/identification-and-hormone-induction-of-putative-chitin-synthase-genes-and-splice-variants-in-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-say
#20
Ji-Feng Shi, Li-Li Mu, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Chitin synthase (ChS) plays a critical role in chitin synthesis and excretion. In this study, two ChS genes (LdChSA and LdChSB) were identified in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. LdChSA contains two splicing variants, LdChSAa and LdChSAb. Within the first, second, and third larval instars, the mRNA levels of LdChSAa, LdChSAb, and LdChSB coincide with the peaks of circulating 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). In vitro culture of midguts and an in vivo bioassay revealed that 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide stimulated the expression of the three LdChSs...
August 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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