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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094878/characterization-of-cellulose-degrading-bacteria-from-the-larval-gut-of-the-white-grub-beetle-lepidiota-mansueta-coleoptera-scarabaeidae
#1
Gautam Handique, Amrita Phukan, Badal Bhattacharyya, Abu Adil Lutful Haque Baruah, Syed Wasifur Rahman, Rajen Baruah
The goal of this study is to identify and characterize the cellulose degrading microorganisms in the larval gut of the white grub beetle, Lepidiota mansueta. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated and tested for cellulolytic activity using soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degrading assays. Of these strains, five (FGB1, FB2, MB1, MB2, and HB1) degrade cellulose. Cellulolytic activity was determined based on formation of clear zone and cellulolytic index on CMC plate media. The highest cellulolytic index (2...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094453/down-regulation-of-a-chitin-synthase-a-gene-by-rna-interference-enhances-pathogenicity-of-beauveria-bassiana-anu1-against-spodoptera-exigua-h%C3%A3-bner
#2
Jung-Bok Lee, Hyun Soo Kim, Youngjin Park
Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzymatic component, which is required for chitin formation in the cuticles and cuticular linings of other tissues in insects. CHSs have been divided into two classes, classes A and B, based on their amino acid sequence similarities and functions. Class A CHS (CHS-A) is specifically expressed in the epidermis and related ectodermal cells such as tracheal cells, while class B CHS (CHS-B) is expressed in gut epithelial cells that produce peritrophic matrices. In this study, we cloned the CHS-A gene from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (SeCHS-A)...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094452/the-dipteran-parasitoid-exorista-bombycis-induces-pro-and-anti-oxidative-reactions-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-enzymatic-and-genetic-analysis
#3
Pooja Makwana, Appukuttan Nair R Pradeep, Shambhavi P Hungund, Kangayam M Ponnuvel, Kanika Trivedy
Hymenopteran parasitoids inject various factors including polydnaviruses along with their eggs into their host insects that suppress host immunity reactions to the eggs and larvae. Less is known about the mechanisms evolved in dipteran parasitoids that suppress host immunity. Here we report that the dipteran, Exorista bombycis, parasitization leads to pro-oxidative reactions and activation of anti-oxidative enzymes in the silkworm Bombyx mori larva. We recorded increased activity of oxidase, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin peroxidase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and peroxidases in the hemolymph plasma, hemocytes, and fat body collected from B...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019702/alkaline-serine-proteases-from-helicoverpa-armigera-potential-candidates-for-industrial-applications
#4
Shaik Mohammad Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma
We characterized trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like serine alkaline proteases from cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, for their probable potential application as additives in various bio-formulations. Purification was achieved by using hydroxylapatite, DEAE sephadex and CM sephadex columns, which resulted in increased enzyme activity by 13.76- and 14.05-fold for trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. Michaelis-Menten constants (Km ) for substrates of trypsin and chymotrypsin, BApNA and SAAPFpNA, were found to be 1...
December 26, 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008655/characterization-and-functional-study-of-a-cecropin-like-peptide-from-the-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#5
Shao-Liang Fang, Lei Wang, Qi Fang, Chen Chen, Xiao-San Zhao, Cen Qian, Guo-Qing Wei, Bao-Jian Zhu, Chao-Liang Liu
In present study, a Cecropin-like peptide from Antheraea pernyi (ApCec) was cloned and characterized. The full-length ApCec cDNA encoded a protein with 64 amino acids including a putative 22-amino-acid signal peptide, a 4-amino-acid propeptide, and a 38-amino-acid mature peptide. ApCec gene was highly expressed in Malpighian tubules of A. pernyi after induction for 24 h by Escherichia coli in PBS. Pro-ApCec (including propeptide and mature peptide) and M-ApCec (just mature peptide) were synthesized chemically and analyzed by HPLC and mass spectroscopy...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000948/the-expression-patterns-of-the-clock-genes-period-and-timeless-are-affected-by-photoperiod-in-the-mediterranean-corn-stalk-borer-sesamia-nonagrioides
#6
Dimitrios Kontogiannatos, Theodoros Gkouvitsas, Anna Kourti
To obtain clues to the link between the molecular mechanism of circadian and photoperiod clocks, we cloned two circadian clock genes, period (per) and timeless (tim) from the moth Sesamia nonagrioides, which undergoes facultative diapause controlled by photoperiod. Sequence analysis revealed a high degree of conservation among the compared insects fοr both genes. We also investigated the expression patterns of per and tim in brains of larvae growing under 16L:8D (long days), constant darkness (DD) and 10L:14D (short days) conditions by qPCR assays...
December 21, 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042896/identification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-expressed-in-antennae-of-holotrichia-parallela-motschulsky-and-their-possible-roles-in-olfactory-regulation
#7
Shang Wang, Jian-Kun Yi, Shuang Yang, Yan Liu, Ju-Hong Zhang, Jing-Hui Xi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play posttranscriptional, regulatory roles in various biological processes. However, there has been limited investigation into the potential function of miRNAs in olfaction. The coleopteran Holotrichia parallela is an economically important pest, and miRNAs have been identified in only one coleopteran (Tribolium castaneum). Therefore, this study was conducted to identify miRNAs expressed in the antennae of H. parallela and obtain insights into their possible roles in olfaction...
January 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696504/green-tea-polyphenols-require-the-mitochondrial-iron-transporter-mitoferrin-for-lifespan-extension-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Terry E Lopez, Hoang M Pham, Benjamin V Nguyen, Yerazik Tahmasian, Shannon Ramsden, Volkan Coskun, Samuel E Schriner, Mahtab Jafari
Green tea has been found to increase the lifespan of various experimental animal models including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. High in polyphenolic content, green tea has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in part by its ability to bind free iron, a micronutrient that is both essential for and toxic to all living organisms. Due to green tea's iron-binding properties, we questioned whether green tea acts to increase the lifespan of the fruit fly by modulating iron regulators, specifically, mitoferrin, a mitochondrial iron transporter, and transferrin, found in the hemolymph of flies...
December 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588824/ingestion-of-the-anti-bacterial-agent-gemifloxacin-mesylate-leads-to-increased-gst-activity-and-peroxidation-products-in-hemolymph-of-galleria-mellonella-l-lepidoptera-pyralidae
#9
Meltem Erdem, Ceyhun Küçük, Ender Büyükgüzel, Kemal Büyükgüzel
Gemifloxacin mesylate (GEM) is a synthetic, fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial antibiotic that has a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria. GEM inhibits DNA synthesis by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activities. Recent research into insect nutrition and mass-rearing programs, in which antibiotics are incorporated into the culture media to maintain diet quality, raised a question of whether clinical antibiotics influence the health or biological performance of the insects that ingest these compounds...
December 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509382/dietary-silver-nanoparticles-reduce-fitness-in-a-beneficial-but-not-pest-insect-species
#10
Zahra Afrasiabi, Holly J R Popham, David Stanley, Dhananjay Suresh, Kristen Finley, Jonelle Campbell, Raghuraman Kannan, Anandhi Upendran
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have antimicrobial and insecticidal properties and they have been considered for their potential use as insecticides. While they do, indeed, kill some insects, two broader issues have not been considered in a critical way. First, reports of insect-lethal AgNPs are often based on simplistic methods that yield nanoparticles of nonuniform shapes and sizes, leaving questions about the precise treatments test insects experienced. Second, we do not know how AgNPs influence beneficial insects...
December 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501306/nonsulfated-sulfakinin-changes-metabolic-parameters-of-insect-fat-body-mitochondria
#11
Malgorzata Slocinska, Nina Antos-Krzeminska, Grzegorz Rosinski, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
We investigated the effect of neuropeptide, the nonsulfated sulfakinin (SK) Zopat-SK-1 (pETSDDYGHLRFa) on the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the Zophobas atratus larval fat body. Mitochondria were isolated from beetle fat bodies 2 and 24 h after hormone injection. The administration of 20 pmol of Zopat-SK-1 to feeding larvae led to decreased mitochondrial oxidative activities in larval fat body. Diminished activities of citrate synthase and the cytochrome pathway, that is, nonphosphorylating and phosphorylating respiration during succinate oxidation, were observed...
December 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592842/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-two-14-3-3-proteins-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-an-important-arboviruses-vector
#12
Abel Trujillo-Ocampo, Febe Elena Cázares-Raga, Antonio Celestino-Montes, Leticia Cortés-Martínez, Mario H Rodríguez, Fidel de la Cruz Hernández-Hernández
The 14-3-3 proteins are evolutionarily conserved acidic proteins that form a family with several isoforms in many cell types of plants and animals. In invertebrates, including dipteran and lepidopteran insects, only two isoforms have been reported. 14-3-3 proteins are scaffold molecules that form homo- or heterodimeric complexes, acting as molecular adaptors mediating phosphorylation-dependent interactions with signaling molecules involved in immunity, cell differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer...
November 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558456/bmdredd-regulates-the-apoptosis-coordinating-with-bmdaxx-bmcide-b-bmfadd-and-bmcreb-in-bmn-cells
#13
Rui-Ting Chen, Peng Jiao, Yan Lu, Hu-Hu Xin, Deng-Pan Zhang, Mei-Xian Wang, Shuang Liang, Yun-Gen Miao
The apoptosis mechanisms in mammals were investigated relatively clearly. However, little is known about how apoptosis is achieved at a molecular level in silkworm cells. We cloned a caspase homologous gene named BmDredd (where Bm is Bombyx mori and Dredd is death-related ced-3/Nedd2-like caspase) in BmN cells from the ovary of Bm and analyzed its biological information. We constructed the N-terminal, C-terminal, and overexpression vector of BmDredd, respectively. Our results showed that the transcriptional expression level of BmDredd was increased in the apoptotic BmN cells...
November 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447944/molecular-characterization-of-two-acetylcholinesterase-genes-from-the-rice-leaffolder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-lepidoptera-pyralidae
#14
Dong-Ming Wang, Bang-Xian Zhang, Xiao-Ming Liu, Xiang-Jun Rao, Shi-Guang Li, Mao-Ye Li, Su Liu
In this study, two full-length cDNA sequences (Cmace1 and Cmace2) encoding putative acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) were cloned and characterized from the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, an important lepidopteran rice pest in Asia. Cmace1 encodes a CmAChE1 consisting of 689 amino acid residues, while Cmace2 encodes a 639 amino acids CmAChE2. The two CmAChEs both have N-terminal signal peptides and conserved motifs including the catalytic triad, choline-binding sites, oxianion hole, acyl pocket, peripheral anionic subsite, and the characteristic FGESAG motif and conserved 14 aromatic amino acids...
November 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447828/the-secretion-of-digestive-enzymes-and-caecal-size-are-determined-by-dietary-protein-in-the-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#15
Joseph Woodring, Sandy Weidlich
In Gryllus bimaculatus, the size of the caecum decreases in the latter half of each instar to a stable minimal size with a steady minimal rate of digestive enzyme secretion until feeding resumes after ecdysis. The higher the percent protein in the newly ingested food, the faster and larger the caecum grows, and as a consequent the higher the secretion rate of trypsin and amylase. When hard boiled eggs (40% protein) are eaten the caecum is 2× larger, the trypsin secretion is almost 3× greater, and amylase 2...
November 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406847/gender-influences-differentiation-of-chitin-among-body-parts
#16
Murat Kaya, Esra Bulut, Muhammad Mujtaba, Karolis Sivickis, Idris Sargin, Bahar Akyuz, Sevil Erdogan
Earlier reports have established that chitin isolates from each body part of an insect cuticle can exhibit diverse physicochemical properties. But it is still unknown if the gender of the insect can influence characteristics of chitin isolates from different body parts. The present study addresses this question. As a result, important physicochemical differences in the chitin samples from different body parts of Melolontha sp. were recorded on the basis of sex. The chitin samples were extracted from eight different body parts (antennae, head, eyes, thorax, abdomen, elytra, hindwings, and legs) of female and male...
October 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406683/suppressing-a-peroxidase-gene-reduces-survival-in-the-wheat-aphid-sitobion-avenae
#17
Fei Deng, Qiankun He, Zhangwu Zhao
Peroxidases (POXs) make up a large superfamily of enzymes that act in a wide range of biological mechanisms, including maintaining appropriate redox balances within cells, among other actions. In this study, we cloned a sequence that encodes a POX protein, SaPOX, from wheat aphids, Sitobion avenae. Amino acid sequence alignment showed the SaPOX sequence was conserved with POXs from other insect species. SaPOX mRNA accumulations were present in all nymphal and adult stages, at higher levels during the first and second instar, and lower during later stages in the life cycle...
October 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402326/expression-and-effects-of-mutant-bombyx-mori-acetylcholinestrase1-in-bmn-cells
#18
Bin-Bin Wang, Yi Xie, Fan-Chi Li, Min Ni, Kai-Zun Xu, Jiang-Hai Tian, Jing-Sheng Hu, Bin Xue, Wei-De Shen, Bing Li
The main mechanism of toxicity of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides is their irreversible binding and inhibition of acetylcholinestrase (AChE), encoded by ace1 (acetylcholinestrase gene 1), leading to eventual death of insects. Mutations in AChE may significantly reduce insects susceptibility to these pesticides. Bombyx mori is an important beneficial insect, and no OP- or CB-resistant strains have been generated. In this study, wild-type ace1 (wace1) and mutant ace1 (mace1) were introduced into BmN cells, confirmed by screening and identification...
October 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357470/fluid-and-ion-secretion-by-malpighian-tubules-of-larval-chironomids-chironomus-riparius-effects-of-rearing-salinity-transport-inhibitors-and-serotonin
#19
Melika Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Phuong Bui, Andrew Donini
Larvae of Chironomus riparius respond to ion-poor and brackish water (IPW, BW) conditions by activating ion uptake mechanisms in the anal papillae and reducing ion absorption at the rectum, respectively. The role that the Malpighian tubules play in ion and osmoregulation under these conditions is not known in this species. This study examines rates of fluid secretion and major cation composition of secreted fluid from tubules of C. riparius reared in IPW, freshwater (FW) and BW. Fluid secretion of tubules from FW and BW larvae was similar but tubules from IPW larvae secrete fluid at higher rates, are more sensitive to serotonin stimulation, and the secreted fluid contains less Na(+) ...
October 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357353/characterization-of-nicotine-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-in-the-cockroach-periplaneta-americana-mushroom-bodies-reveals-a-strong-expression-of-%C3%AE-1-subunit-involvement-in-nicotine-induced-currents
#20
Emiliane Taillebois, Steeve H Thany
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels expressed in many insect structures, such as mushroom bodies, in which they play a central role. We have recently demonstrated using electrophysiological recordings that different native nicotinic receptors are expressed in cockroach mushroom bodies Kenyon cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that eight genes coding for cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits are expressed in the mushroom bodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments demonstrated that β1 subunit was the most expressed in the mushroom bodies...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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