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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

Cheng-Yen Lu, Jiantai Timothy Qiu, Chin-Yuan Hsu
Trophocytes and oenocytes of queen honey bees are used in studies of cellular longevity, but their cellular energy metabolism with age is poorly understood. In this study, the molecules involved in cellular energy metabolism were evaluated in the trophocytes and oenocytes of young and old queen bees. The findings indicated that there were no significant differences between young and old queen bees in β-oxidation, glycolysis, and protein synthesis. These results indicate that the cellular energy metabolism of trophocytes and oenocytes in old queen bees is similar to young queen bees and suggests that maintaining cellular energy metabolism in a young status may be associated with the longevity of queen bees...
May 2, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Bin Xue, Fan-Chi Li, Jiang-Hai Tian, Jin-Xin Li, Xiao-Yu Cheng, Jia-Huan Hu, Jing-Sheng Hu, Bing Li
Various nanoparticles, such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and titanium nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are increasingly used in industrial processes. Because they are released into the environment, research into their influence on the biosphere is necessary. Among its other effects, dietary TiO2 NPs promotes silk protein synthesis in silkworms, which prompted our hypothesis that TiO2 NPs influence protein kinase B (Akt)/Target of rapamycin (Tor) signaling pathway (Akt/Tor) signaling in their silk glands. The Akt/Tor signaling pathway is a principle connector integrating cellular reactions to growth factors, metabolites, nutrients, protein synthesis, and stress...
April 30, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Manabu Ote, Daisuke Yamamoto
The toxic manipulator of oogenesis (TomO) protein has been identified in the wMel strain of Wolbachia that symbioses with the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, as a protein that affects host reproduction. TomO protects germ stem cells (GSCs) from degeneration, which otherwise occurs in ovaries of host females that are mutant for the gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). We isolated the TomO homologs from wPip, a Wolbachia strain from the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. One of the homologs, TomOw Pip 1, exerted the GSC rescue activity in fly Sxl mutants when lacking its hydrophobic stretches...
April 27, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Heather G Marco, Ottilie K H Katali, Gerd Gäde
The dorsal heart of the Indian stick insect, Carausius morosus, is responsible for the anterograde flow of hemolymph to the aorta and into the body cavity. The contraction frequency of the insect heart is known to be influenced by several substances of neural source. Here, a semi-exposed heart assay was employed to study the effect of an aminergic substance (octopamine) and three neuropeptides (C. morosus hypertrehalosemic hormone [Carmo-HrTH], crustacean cardioactive peptide [CCAP], and proctolin) on heart contraction...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Qing-Ting Huang, Hai-Hao Ma, Xi-Le Deng, Hang Zhu, Jia Liu, Yong Zhou, Xiao-Mao Zhou
The β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (OA2B2) belongs to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. It regulates important physiological functions in insects, thus is potentially a good target for insecticides. In this study, the putative open reading frame sequence of the Pxoa2b2 gene in Plutella xylostella was cloned. Orthologous sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree analysis, and protein sequence analysis all showed that the cloned receptor belongs to the OA2B2 protein family. PxOA2B2 was transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jing Zhou, Nai-Nai Fang, Ya Zheng, Kai-Yu Liu, Bin Mao, Li-Na Kong, Ya Chen, Hui Ai
Lectins and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely distributed in various insects and play crucial roles in primary host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Two AMPs (cecropin and attacin) have been identified and characterized in the larvae of housefly. In this study, two novel C-type lectins (CTLs) were obtained from Musca domestica, while their agglutinating and antiviral properties were evaluated. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of four immune genes (MdCTL1, MdCTL2, Cecropin, and Attacin) from M...
April 20, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Marziyeh Badinloo, Elizabeth Nguyen, Winston Suh, Faisal Alzahrani, Jovelyn Castellanos, Vladimir I Klichko, William C Orr, Svetlana N Radyuk
The innate immune response tends to become hyperactive and proinflammatory in older organisms. We investigated connections between activity of the immune-related genes and aging using the Drosophila model. A hallmark of Drosophila immunity is the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMP), whose expression is triggered via activation of the Toll and Imd immune pathways and regulated by NF-ĸB-like transcription factors, Dif/Dorsal and Relish. It was previously shown that overexpression of the upstream component of the immune pathways shortens lifespan via activation of the Relish-dependent immune response...
April 10, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Natalia N Perrella, Felipe J Fuzita, Rodrigo Moreti, Peter D E M Verhaert, Adriana R Lopes
l-fucose is a constituent of glycoconjugates in different organisms. Fucosidases catalyze the removal of fucose residues, and have been correlated to different physiological and pathological processes, such as fertilization, cancer, fucosidosis, and digestion in molluscs and ticks. An α-l-fucosidase sequence was identified from the transcriptome and proteome from the midgut diverticula of the synanthropic spider Nephilingis cruentata. In this article, we describe the isolation of this α-l-fucosidase and the characterization of its activity using substrates and inhibitors demonstrating different specificities among fucosidases...
March 30, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Zhanchun Wang, Tianyu Li, Hejia Ni, Guoyue Wang, Xinxin Liu, Yingxue Cao, Wenbin Li, Fanli Meng
The soybean pod borer [SPB; Leguminivora glycinivorella (Mats.) Obraztsov] is a major soybean pest in northeastern Asia. A useful method for addressing this problem is the generation of transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that target essential insect genes. In this study, we confirmed that 18S ribosomal RNA is critical for SPB development. Downregulated Spb18S expression induced by dsRNA injection increased larval mortality rates and resulted in early pupation. We also assessed whether Spb18S is silenced in SPB larvae fed on transgenic soybean expressing Spb18S dsRNA...
March 30, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Ekaterina V Grizanova, Alexandra D Semenova, Denis A Komarov, Ekaterina A Chertkova, Irina A Slepneva, Ivan M Dubovskiy
The lipid peroxidation process in hemocytes, activities of phenoloxidase and key enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase) and nonenzymatic antioxidants (thiols, ascorbate) in hemolymph of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were studied during the encapsulation process of nylon implants. It has been established that as soon as 15 min after piercing a cuticle with the implant, a capsule is formed on its surface. Active melanization of the capsule has been shown to last for 4 h...
March 23, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Genhong Wang, Yanfei Chen, Xiaoying Zhang, Bingchuan Bai, Hao Yan, Daoyuan Qin, Qingyou Xia
The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the world's most economically important insect. Surveying variations in gene expression among multiple tissue/organ samples will provide clues for gene function assignments and will be helpful for identifying genes related to economic traits or specific cellular processes. To ensure their accuracy, commonly used gene expression quantification methods require a set of stable reference genes for data normalization. In this study, 24 candidate reference genes were assessed in 10 tissue/organ samples of day 3 fifth-instar B...
March 23, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Kai Wu, Fang Han, Yi Yuan, Yining Liu, Erjun Ling, Qian Wang, Wuren Huang
Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO) induces melanization around pathogens. Before melanization, PPO is cleaved into phenoloxidase (PO) by serine proteases. Insect PPO can also be activated by exogenous proteases secreted by pathogens as well as by other compounds, such as ethanol and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). However, the effect of these activators on the activity of PO is unclear. In this study, the insect endogenous serine protease AMM1, α-chymotrypsin, and ethanol were used to activate recombinant Drosophila PPO1 (rPPO1), and the PO activity differed depending on the activator applied...
March 23, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Huaixiang Zhou, Xusheng Cheng, Xiaoyuan Xu, Tianlong Jiang, Haimeng Zhou, Qing Sheng, Zuoming Nie
Alpha-tubulin N-acetyltransferase 1 (ATAT1) is an acetyltransferase specific to α-tubulin and performs important functions in many cellular processes. Bombyx mori is an economic insect and also known as a model lepidoptera insect. In this study, we cloned a B. mori ATAT1 gene (BmATAT1) (Gen Bank accession number: XP_004932777.1). BmATAT1 contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,065 bp encoding 355 amino acids (aa). Expression profiling of BmATAT1 protein showed that the expression levels of BmATAT1 at different developmental stages and different tissues in fifth-instar larvae differ...
March 22, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Purushottam R Lomate, Bryony C Bonning
Management of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive, agricultural pest in the United States, has presented significant challenges. This polyphagous insect uses both extra-oral and gut-based digestion thwarting protein- or nucleotide-based control strategies. The objective of this study was to biochemically characterize the digestive enzymes (proteases and nucleases) from the saliva, salivary gland and the gut of H. halys. Enzyme profiles for the two tissues and saliva radically differ: The pH optimum for proteases in the gut was six, with cysteine proteases predominant...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiu-Lin Chen, Li Su, Bo-Liao Li, Guang-Wei Li, Jun-Xiang Wu
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) act in recognizing odor molecules and their most well-studied functions are transporting odors across the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptor neurons within the insect antennal sensillum. The adults of Grapholita molesta highly depend on olfactory cues in locating host plants and selecting oviposition sites, in which OBPs play an important role in perceiving and recognizing host plant volatiles. Exploring the physiological function of OBPs could facilitate our understanding of their importance in insects' chemical communication...
June 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Yasuyuki Arakane, Qing Yang, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Jianzhen Zhang, Wenqing Zhang, Bernard Moussian
This microreview stems from the Second Symposium on Insect Molecular Toxicology and Chitin Metabolism held at Shanxi University in Taiyuan, China (June 27 to 30, 2017) at the institute for Applied Biology headed by Professor Enbo Ma and Professor Jianzhen Zhang.
June 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Su Liu, Yu-Xing Zhang, Wen-Long Wang, Ye Cao, Shuai Li, Bang-Xian Zhang, Shi-Guang Li
The small white butterfly, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is an important pest on Brassicaceae plants, causing heavy crop loss each year. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the detoxification of various xenobiotic compounds, including insecticides. However, little is known about the role of CYP genes in P. rapae. In this study, we identified 63 CYP genes in P. rapae, and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, exon-intron structures and genomic locations. Moreover, our insecticide-response transcription profiling showed that LD5 doses of lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorantraniliprole, and abamectin significantly increased expression of five (CYP4M59, CYP6AE119, CYP6AE120, CYP6AE121, and CYP6BD18), three (CYP4AU1, CYP6AE120, and CYP6AW1), and five (CYP4L40, CYP4AU1, CYP6AE119, CYP6AW1, and CYP6BD19) CYP genes, respectively; and LD20 doses of the three pesticides significantly upregulated six (CYP4M59, CYP6AE119, CYP6AE120, CYP6AE121, CYP4AU1, and CYP6BD18), six (CYP4G168, CYP4L40, CYP4AU1, CYP6AE120, CYP6AW1, and CYP6BD19), and five (CYP4L40, CYP4AU1, CYP6AB108, CYP6AE119, and CYP6BD19) genes, respectively...
May 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jing Zhang, Deye Luo, Peng Wu, Haozhe Li, Hongyu Zhang, Weiwei Zheng
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in insects are essential for mating and oviposition host selection. How these OBPs respond to different hosts at the mRNA level and their effects on behavior remain poorly characterized. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive agricultural pest with an extremely broad host range and high fecundity. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis transcriptome, six OBPs that were differentially expressed during three different physiological adult stages were identified...
May 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jia-Huan Hu, Xiao-Yu Cheng, Jin-Xin Li, Bin Xue, Jiang-Hai Tian, Jing-Sheng Hu, Bing Li
Bombyx mori is an economic insect of the Lepidoptera. Its posterior silk gland (PSG) is an important organ for fibroin synthesis. In order to study the occurrence of apoptosis in PSG and the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway during spinning period, changes in morphology of silk gland, expressions of fibroin components Fib-H, Fib-L and P25 and Akt, TOR2, P70S6K and S6 in PI3K/Akt pathway, expressions of apoptosis related genes caspase-3, caspase-9 and activity of caspase-3 were explored. The results showed that the morphology of silk gland dramatically degenerated; transcription of Fib-H, Fib-L, and P25 gradually declined with time; and Fib-L protein level reduced by 0...
May 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jinxu Liao, Chen Zhang, Wenjuan Ru, Dan Wang, Wenping Zhang
Previous study showed that exogenously applied recombinant thymosin from Bombyx mori (BmTHY) reduces B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) proliferation in silkworm. Which stands to reason that BmTHY in B. mori is crucial for the defense against BmNPV. However, little is known about the effect of endogenously overexpressed or repressed BmTHY on B. mori resistance to virus infection. To study this issue, we constructed an overexpression and inhibited expression systems of BmTHY in BmN cells. The viral titer and the analysis from the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that overexpression of BmTHY decreased the copies of BmNPV gene gp41, which goes over to inhibit the proliferation of BmNPV in BmN cells, while the inhibited expression of BmTHY significantly enhanced viral proliferation in infected BmN cells...
May 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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