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Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114912/silencing-pyruvate-kinase-nlpyk-leads-to-reduced-fecundity-in-brown-planthoppers-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-hemiptera-delphacidae
#1
Lin-Quan Ge, Bo Huang, Xin Li, Hao-Tian Gu, Sui Zheng, Ze Zhou, Hong Miao, Jin-Cai Wu
Pyruvate kinase (PYK) operates in the glycolytic pathway, responsible for regulating the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The previous work indicates PYK acts in development of Drosophila embryos and in embryonic muscle growth, from which it may be inferred that PYK acts in insect fecundity. More to the point, as a central enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, PYK acts in many energy-spending functions in most organisms. On the background findings that triazophos (TZP) stimulates fecundity via increase activities of several genes in brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens, we investigated the combined influence of TZP and silencing a N...
November 7, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086997/carbonic-anhydrase-ii-confers-resistance-to-deltamethrin-in-culex-pipiens-pallens
#2
Wenyun Ye, Cheng Zhang, Na Xu, Yan Sun, Lei Ma, Bo Shen, Dan Zhou, Changliang Zhu
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metabolic enzymes that regulate the physiological equilibrium in a variety of organisms. In this study, we investigated the function of CA II in Culex pipiens pallens using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and double-stranded RNA injection. CA II transcripts were more abundant in the deltamethrin-susceptible strain than the deltamethrin-resistant strain. The activities of metabolic enzymes increased when the CA II expression was silenced. These findings suggest CA II regulates deltamethrin resistance by altering metabolic enzyme activity, and could serve as a potential genetic marker for monitoring deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024237/sterol-content-in-the-artificial-diet-of-mythimna-separata-affects-the-metabolomics-of-arma-chinensis-fallou-as-determined-by-proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#3
Yi Guo, Chen-Xi Liu, Li-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Qing Wang, Hong-Yin Chen
Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests' natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990217/identification-of-three-prophenoloxidase-activating-factors-ppafs-from-an-invasive-beetle-octodonta-nipae-maulik-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-and-their-roles-in-the-prophenoloxidase-activation
#4
HuaJian Zhang, BaoZhen Tang, YaPing Lin, ZhiMing Chen, XiaFang Zhang, TianLiang Ji, XiaoMei Zhang, YouMing Hou
A typical characteristic of the insect innate immune system is the activation of the serine protease cascade in the hemolymph. As being the terminal component of the extracellular serine protease cascade in the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system, proPO-activating factors (PPAFs) activated by the upstream cascade may generate active phenoloxidase, which then induces downstream melanization. In the present study, we reported three PPAFs from the nipa palm hispid beetle Octodonta nipae (Maulik) (designated as OnPPAF1, OnPPAF2, OnPPAF3)...
October 8, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024043/proteomic-analysis-of-the-venom-of-the-predatory-ant-pachycondyla-striata-hymenoptera-formicidae
#5
Pollyanna Pereira Santos, Patricia Dias Games, Dihego Oliveira Azevedo, Edvaldo Barros, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, José Eduardo Serrão
The ants use their venom for predation, defense, and communication. The venom of these insects is rich in peptides and proteins, and compared with other animal venoms, ant venoms remain poorly explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein content of the venom in the Ponerinae ant Pachycondyla striata. Venom samples were collected by manual gland reservoir dissection, and samples were submitted to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and separation by ion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry using tanden matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-quadrupole with time-of-flight (ESI-Q/TOF) mass spectrometry for obtaining amino acid sequence...
November 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940716/inhibition-of-translation-initiation-factor-eif4a-is-required-for-apoptosis-mediated-by-microplitis-bicoloratus-bracovirus
#6
Shu-Mei Dong, Ji-Hui Cui, Wei Zhang, Xue-Wen Zhang, Tian-Chao Kou, Qiu-Chen Cai, Sha Xu, Shan You, Dong-Shuai Yu, Lei Ding, Jian-Hua Lai, Ming Li, Kai-Jun Luo
Apoptotic hemocytes induced by Microplitis bicoloratus parasitism have been reported, and M. bicoloratus bracovirus (MbBV) is known to be the apoptosis inducer. However, the mechanism how MbBV regulates apoptosis remains unclear. eIF4A, one of translation initiation factors, was found from a Spodoptera litura transcriptome, the expression of which in the parasitized hemocytes of S. litura was inhibited in RT-qPCR analysis. The western blot also illustrated eIF4A at 6-day post-parasitization was inhibited in hemocytes...
November 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925517/differences-in-protein-expression-among-five-species-of-stream-stonefly-plecoptera-along-a-latitudinal-gradient-in-japan
#7
Maribet Gamboa, Maria Claret Tsuchiya, Suguru Matsumoto, Hisato Iwata, Kozo Watanabe
Proteome variation among natural populations along an environmental gradient may provide insights into how the biological functions of species are related to their local adaptation. We investigated protein expression in five stream stonefly species from four geographic regions along a latitudinal gradient in Japan with varying climatic conditions. The extracted proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization of time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF), yielding 446 proteins...
November 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872705/heat-stress-hardening-of-oriental-armyworms-is-induced-by-a-transient-elevation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-during-sublethal-stress
#8
Takashi Matsumura, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Yoichi Hayakawa
Pre-exposure to mild heat stress enhances the thermotolerance of insects. Stress hardening is a beneficial physiological plasticity, but the mechanism underlying it remains elusive. Here we report that reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations were quickly and transiently elevated in the armyworms, Mythimna separata, by exposing them to 40°C, but not other tested temperatures. Larvae exposed to 40°C had subsequently elevated antioxidant activity and the highest survival of all tested heating conditions...
November 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872696/the-light-cycle-controls-the-hatching-rhythm-in-bombyx-mori-via-negative-feedback-loop-of-the-circadian-oscillator
#9
Hui Tao, Xue Li, Jian-Feng Qiu, Heng-Jiang Liu, Da-Yan Zhang, Feng Chu, Yanghu Sima, Shi-Qing Xu
Hatching behavior is a key target in silkworm (Bombyx mori) rearing, especially for the control of Lepidoptera pests. According to previous research, hatching rhythms appear to be controlled by a clock mechanism that restricts or "gates" hatching to a particular time. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Under 12-h light:12-h dark photoperiod (LD) conditions, the transcriptional levels of the chitinase5 (Cht5) and hatching enzyme-like (Hel) genes, as well as the enzymatic activities of their gene products, oscillated in time with ambient light cycles, as did the transcriptional levels of the cryptochrome 1, cryptochrome 2, period (per), and timeless genes, which are key components of the negative feedback loop of the circadian rhythm...
October 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833462/the-impact-of-pollen-consumption-on-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-digestive-physiology-and-carbohydrate-metabolism
#10
Vincent A Ricigliano, William Fitz, Duan C Copeland, Brendon M Mott, Patrick Maes, Amy S Floyd, Arnold Dockstader, Kirk E Anderson
Carbohydrate-active enzymes play an important role in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) due to its dietary specialization on plant-based nutrition. Secretory glycoside hydrolases (GHs) produced in worker head glands aid in the processing of floral nectar into honey and are expressed in accordance with age-based division of labor. Pollen utilization by the honey bee has been investigated in considerable detail, but little is known about the metabolic fate of indigestible carbohydrates and glycosides in pollen biomass...
October 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762531/purification-and-characterization-of-trypsin-produced-by-gut-bacteria-from-anticarsia-gemmatalis
#11
Franciny Martins Pilon, Camila da Rocha Silva, Liliane Evangelista Visôtto, Rafael de Almeida Barros, Neilier Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Wellington Garcia Campos, Maria Goreti de Almeida Oliveira
Purification of active trypsin in the digestive process of insects is essential for the development of potent protease inhibitors (PIs) as an emerging pest control technology and research into insect adaptations to dietary PIs. An important aspect is the presence of proteolytic microorganisms, which contribute to host nutrition. Here, we purified trypsins produced by bacteria Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, and Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from the midgut of Anticarsia gemmatalis...
October 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730731/induction-of-stress-and-immune-associated-genes-in-the-indian-meal-moth-plodia-interpunctella-against-envenomation-by-the-ectoparasitoid-bracon-hebetor
#12
Tahir Shafeeq, Zain UlAbdin, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee
Envenomation is an important process in parasitism by parasitic wasps; it suppresses the immune and development of host insects. However, the molecular mechanisms of host responses to envenomation are not yet clear. This study aimed to determine the transcription-level responses of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella against envenomation of the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR was used to determine the transcriptional changes of 13 selected genes, which are associated with development, metabolism, stress, or immunity, in the feeding and wandering fifth instar larvae over a 4-day period after envenomation...
October 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707374/localization-and-functional-analysis-of-the-insect-specific-rabx4-in-the-brain-of-bombyx-mori
#13
Tomohide Uno, Masayuki Furutani, Katsuhiko Sakamoto, Yuichi Uno, Kengo Kanamaru, Akira Mizoguchi, Susumu Hiragaki, Makio Takeda
Rab proteins are small monomeric GTPases/GTP-binding proteins, which form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily. The different Rab GTPases are localized to the cytosolic face of specific intracellular membranes, where they function as regulators of distinct steps in membrane trafficking. RabX4 is an insect-specific Rab protein that has no close homolog in vertebrates. There is little information about insect-specific Rab proteins. RabX4 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. Antibodies against Bombyx mori RabX4 were produced in rabbits for western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry...
September 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695569/in-vitro-evidence-for-the-participation-of-drosophila-melanogaster-sperm-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosaminidases-in-the-interactions-with-glycans-carrying-terminal-n-acetylglucosamine-residues-on-the-egg-s-envelopes
#14
Jari Intra, Concetta Veltri, Daniela De Caro, Maria Elisa Perotti, Maria Enrica Pasini
Fertilization is a complex and multiphasic process, consisting of several steps, where egg-coating envelope's glycoproteins and sperm surface receptors play a critical role. Sperm-associated β-N-acetylglucosaminidases, also known as hexosaminidases, have been identified in a variety of organisms. Previously, two isoforms of hexosaminidases, named here DmHEXA and DmHEXB, were found as intrinsic proteins in the sperm plasma membrane of Drosophila melanogaster. In the present work, we carried out different approaches using solid-phase assays in order to analyze the oligosaccharide recognition ability of D...
September 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643953/the-entomopathogenic-fungus-nomuraea-rileyi-impairs-cellular-immunity-of-its-host-helicoverpa-armigera
#15
Ke Zhong, Zhan-Chi Liu, Jia-Lin Wang, Xu-Sheng Liu
In this study, we investigated the effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi on Helicoverpa armigera cellular immune responses. Nomuraea rileyi infection had no effect on total hemocyte count (THC), but impaired hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis, nodulation, and encapsulation responses. Nomuraea rileyi infection led to a significant reduction in hemocyte spreading. An in vitro assay revealed that plasma from N. rileyi infected H. armigera larvae suppressed the spreading ability of hemocytes from naïve larvae...
September 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631341/evaluation-of-flubendiamide-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-metabolic-changes-in-helicoverpa-armigera-hubner
#16
Bharat Nareshkumar, Shaik Mohammad Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma, Senigala K Jayalakshmi, Kuruba Sreeramulu
Phthalic acid diamide insecticides are the most effective insecticides used against most of the lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera, a polyphagous pest posing threat to several crops worldwide. The present studies were undertaken to understand different target sites and their interaction with insect ryanodine receptors (RyR). Bioassays indicated that flubendiamide inhibited the larval growth in dose-dependent manner with LD50 value of 0.72 μM, and at 0.8 μM larval growth decreased by about 88%...
September 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660745/prolidase-is-a-critical-enzyme-for-complete-gliadin-digestion-in-tenebrio-molitor-larvae
#17
Valeriia F Tereshchenkova, Irina A Goptar, Dmitry P Zhuzhikov, Mikhail A Belozersky, Yakov E Dunaevsky, Brenda Oppert, Irina Yu Filippova, Elena N Elpidina
Prolidase is a proline-specific metallopeptidase that cleaves imidodipeptides with C-terminal Pro residue. Prolidase was purified and characterized from the Tenebrio molitor larval midgut. The enzyme was localized in the soluble fraction of posterior midgut tissues, corresponding to a predicted cytoplasmic localization of prolidase according to the structure of the mRNA transcript. Expression of genes encoding prolidase and the major digestive proline-specific peptidase (PSP)-dipeptidyl peptidase 4-were similar...
August 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660700/inga-laurina-trypsin-inhibitor-ilti-obstructs-spodoptera-frugiperda-trypsins-expressed-during-adaptive-mechanisms-against-plant-protease-inhibitors
#18
Suzy Wider Machado, Caio Fernando Ramalho de Oliveira, Neide Graciano Zério, José Roberto Postali Parra, Maria Lígia Rodrigues Macedo
Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are elements of a common plant defense mechanism induced in response to herbivores. The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, a highly polyphagous lepidopteran pest, responds to various PIs in its diet by expressing genes encoding trypsins. This raises the question of whether the PI-induced trypsins are also inhibited by other PIs, which we posed as the hypothesis that Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) inhibits PI-induced trypsins in S. frugiperda. In the process of testing our hypothesis, we compared its properties with those of selected PIs, soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), Inga vera trypsin inhibitor (IVTI), Adenanthera pavonina trypsin inhibitor (ApTI), and Entada acaciifolia trypsin inhibitor (EATI)...
August 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635136/knockdown-of-tor-causing-ovarian-diapause-in-a-genetically-stable-brachypterous-strain-of-nilaparvata-lugens
#19
Fangzhou Liu, Kaiyin Li, Wanlun Cai, Jing Zhao, Yulan Zou, Hongxia Hua
Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most damaging pests of rice crops. BPH is a migratory insect with a delayed ovarian development in migrants classified as reproductive diapause. The molecular mechanism of reproductive diapause remains unclear, although we suspect it might be regulated by one or more nutrient signaling pathways. The target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway regulates cell growth in response to nutritional information, which raised a hypothesis that TOR mediates BPH reproductive diapause...
August 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634987/dietary-tio2-particles-modulate-expression-of-hormone-related-genes-in-bombyx-mori
#20
Guofang Shi, Pengfei Zhan, Weiming Jin, JianMing Fei, Lihua Zhao
Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically beneficial insect. Its growth and development are regulated by endogenous hormones. In the present study, we found that feeding titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) caused a significant increase of body size. TiO2 NP stimulated the transcription of several genes, including the insulin-related hormone bombyxin, PI3K/Akt/TOR (where PI3K is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and TOR is target of rapamycin), and the adenosine 5'-monophosphateactivated protein kinase (AMPK)/target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways...
August 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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