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Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19633453/effect-of-melatonin-captopril-spironolactone-and-simvastatin-on-blood-pressure-and-left-ventricular-remodelling-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
Fedor Simko, Olga Pechanova, Vaclav Pelouch, Kristina Krajcirovicova, Martina Mullerova, Kristina Bednarova, Michaela Adamcova, Ludovit Paulis
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin was shown to reduce blood pressure, oxidative load and to increase nitric oxide bioavailability predisposing melatonin to have antiremodelling potential. DESIGN: The aim of this study was to show whether melatonin can reverse left ventricular remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to compare this potential protective effect with captopril, spironolactone, or simvastatin. METHODS: Six groups of 3-month old rats (eight per group) were treated for 5 weeks: control untreated Wistar rats, control SHR, SHR plus melatonin (10 mg/kg per 24 h), SHR plus captopril (100 mg/kg per 24 h), SHR plus spironolactone (200 mg/kg per 24 h) and SHR plus simvastatin (10 mg/kg per 24 h)...
August 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19633452/hypertension-and-kidney-alterations-in-rat-offspring-from-low-protein-pregnancies
#2
Veronica C Villar-Martini, Jorge J Carvalho, Mario F Neves, Marcia B Aguila, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda
OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight contributes to the early onset of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate early and late glomerular structural alterations in both sexes of Wistar rat offspring from dams submitted to severe low protein intake during gestation. METHODS: Offspring from dams fed normal protein (19% of protein) or low protein (5% of protein) were studied at days 0, 10, 90 and 180 of age. RESULTS: Inner cortical structure showed immature (comma-shaped and S-shaped forms) and mature corpuscles in different proportions in low protein offspring (less maturity) and normal protein offspring (more maturity)...
August 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19633451/comparison-of-the-effects-of-indapamide-and-captopril-on-the-development-of-spontaneous-hypertension
#3
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Stanislava Vranková, Lydia Jendekova, Ludovit Paulis, Martina Sladkova, Fedor Simko, Olga Pechanova
OBJECTIVES: The effects of indapamide, a thiazide-like diuretic, and captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, on spontaneous hypertension and the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), nitric oxide generation and oxidant status were investigated. METHODS: Six-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with indapamide (1 mg/kg per day) or captopril (10 mg/kg per day) or a combination of indapamide plus captopril. After the 6-week treatment, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, the expression of NOS isoform proteins, conjugated dienes concentration and relaxation responses of the femoral artery were analyzed...
August 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19633450/the-protective-effect-of-irbesartan-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet-is-associated-with-modification-of-leptin-adiponectin-imbalance
#4
Natalia de las Heras, Beatriz Martín-Fernández, Maria Miana, Sandra Ballesteros, Maria Pilar Oubiña, Antonio J López-Farré, Victoria Cachofeiro, Vicente Lahera
OBJECTIVE: It has been shown that the renin-angiotensin system participates in the development of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to show whether the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, exerts a protective effect against metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided into three groups: (1) rats fed a standard diet for 7 weeks were used as a control group; (2) rats fed a HFD (33...
August 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19633449/chronic-antioxidant-therapy-fails-to-ameliorate-hypertension-potential-mechanisms-behind
#5
REVIEW
Olga Pechanova, Fedor Simko
Hypertension in association with oxidative stress belongs to the most discussed topics within the literature on cardiovascular diseases. It is generally believed that elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in hypertension, but clinical studies on chronic antioxidant therapy of hypertension fail to confirm this hypothesis. This discrepancy may be partly determined by the different effects of short and long-lasting treatment with antioxidants or scavengers. Elevated ROS production in hypertension need not be only harmful...
August 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19633448/endothelial-dysfunction-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-focus-on-methodological-aspects
#6
REVIEW
Iveta Bernatova, M Victoria Conde, Jana Kopincova, M Carmen González, Angelika Puzserova, Silvia M Arribas
Despite the apparent consensus on the existence of endothelial dysfunction in conduit and resistance arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a commonly employed experimental model of hypertension, there are a number of reports showing that endothelium-dependent vasodilatory responses are similar, or even increased, in SHR compared with their normotensive counterparts. The present paper aims to discuss the rationale for these apparent discrepancies, including the effect of age, type of artery and methodological aspects...
August 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19633447/effect-of-rhythmic-melatonin-administration-on-clock-gene-expression-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-the-heart-of-hypertensive-tgr-mren2-27-rats
#7
Michal Zeman, Kristína Szántóová, Katarína Stebelová, Boris Mravec, Iveta Herichová
OBJECTIVES: Plasma melatonin concentrations in non-dipping patients show a blunted daily rhythm. Melatonin has a capacity to improve disturbances in biological rhythms. Hypertensive TGR(mRen2)27 (TGR) rats with an upregulated renin-angiotensin system and inverted blood pressure profile were used to elucidate whether melatonin is able to influence the control of blood pressure. DESIGN: Melatonin was administered in drinking water to normotensive Sprague-Dawley (SD) and hypertensive TGR rats during the dark phase of the light: dark cycle 12: 12 for 4 weeks...
August 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19633446/the-circadian-melatonin-rhythm-and-its-modulation-possible-impact-on-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Russel J Reiter, Dan-Xian Tan, Ahmet Korkmaz
In experimental rodents, surgical removal of the pineal gland, the major source of circulating melatonin, causes a gradual and sustained rise in blood pressure. Conversely, when melatonin is chronically administered to pinealectomized rodents the increment in blood pressure is ameliorated. In humans as well, the night time rise in endogenous circulating melatonin levels may be inversely related to the reduction in night time blood pressure. Among patients with hypertension, some exhibit a much greater reduction in blood pressure at night (the so-called 'extreme dippers' and 'dippers'), whereas others exhibit only a slight night time reduction in systolic and diastolic pressure ('non-dippers' and 'inverted dippers')...
August 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19633445/melatonin-prevents-fibrosis-but-not-hypertrophy-development-in-the-left-ventricle-of-ng-nitro-l-arginine-methyl-ester-hypertensive-rats
#9
Ludovit Paulis, Olga Pechanova, Josef Zicha, Kristina Krajcirovicova, Andrej Barta, Vaclav Pelouch, Michaela Adamcova, Fedor Simko
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin was shown to reduce blood pressure, enhance nitric oxide availability and scavenge free radicals. There is, however, a shortage of data with respect to the effect of melatonin on pathological left ventricular remodelling associated with haemodynamic overload. DESIGN: We investigated whether melatonin was able to prevent left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and fibrosis associated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension...
August 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19633444/recent-trends-in-hypertension-treatment-perspectives-from-animal-studies
#10
Fedor Simko, Olga Pechanova
Several newer areas of hypertension research are presented in this supplement. First, the benefits of melatonin in the treatment of experimental hypertension including its cardioprotective effects are introduced. Second, the possible role of melatonin in the non-dipping blood pressure pattern is described. Third, two hypotheses discuss the potential reasons for the ineffectivness of antioxidants in hypertension treatment, and difficulties associated with interpretations of experimental findings in the model of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)...
August 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19587555/achieving-blood-pressure-goals-should-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-become-first-line-treatment-in-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Michael Weber
The benefits of blood pressure control on the risks of major cardiovascular events are well established. In clinical trials conducted in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) telmisartan has been shown to provide reduction of blood pressure throughout the 24-h dosing interval. Clinical trials have also demonstrated that ARBs are effective agents in reducing the risk of cardiovascular mortality, stroke, heart failure and new-onset atrial fibrillation. Recently, the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) study established that telmisartan reduces morbidity and mortality in a broad cross-section of patients at high risk for heart and vascular events, to an extent similar to that of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril...
July 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19587554/cardiovascular-protection-a-breakthrough-for-high-risk-patients
#12
Roberto Ferrari
Angiotensin II has diverse effects on cardiovascular structure and function, and hence drugs that inhibit the formation or activity of this peptide have attained a central position in the prevention of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The recent ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) has shown that, in patients with vascular disease or patients with diabetes who were at high risk of cardiovascular events, the angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan is noninferior to the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in preventing such events, despite the ONTARGET patients receiving better background preventive therapy than those enrolled in the earlier Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study...
July 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19587553/preventing-stroke-the-profess-ontarget-and-transcend-trial-programs
#13
REVIEW
Hans-Christoph Diener
Renin-angiotensin system blockers have been shown to reduce stroke risk, partly independent of their blood pressure-lowering effect. The PReventiOn regimen For Effectively avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial, ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) and Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in aCE-iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND) recently showed potential benefits of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, telmisartan, in reducing secondary strokes...
July 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19587552/defining-blood-pressure-goals-is-it-enough-to-manage-total-cardiovascular-risk
#14
REVIEW
Giuseppe Mancia
It is well established that lowering blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension is associated with cardiovascular protection. Therefore, BP goals have been defined by international hypertension guidelines (<140/90 mmHg; <130/80 mmHg for patients with type 2 diabetes). However, the relationship of BP with prognosis is complex, and controlling office BP may not be enough to optimally manage total cardiovascular risk. It is becoming clear that out-of-office BP measurements have important prognostic value...
July 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19587551/clinical-evidence-from-ontarget-the-value-of-an-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blocker-and-an-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor
#15
Peter Sleight
The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study established the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril, versus placebo, for prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) was later conducted in similar high-risk patients using multifactorial treatment to control hypertension, platelet aggregation, and dyslipidemia, while comparing ramipril, telmisartan, or their combination, without placebo. In ONTARGET, the first angiotensin II receptor blocker-based study to be performed in a broader population of patients without congestive heart failure and/or left ventricular hypertrophy/dysfunction, telmisartan provided cardiovascular protection that was noninferior to ramipril...
July 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19587550/effects-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-on-diabetic-nephropathy
#16
Rigas Kalaitzidis, George L Bakris
Impaired kidney function increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Coexistence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes increases the risk of kidney damage, hypertension being an independent risk factor for kidney disease progression. Angiotensin II, through its inflammatory, proliferative, and thrombotic effects, adversely affects renal perfusion and increases oxidative stress, thus playing a pivotal role in kidney disease progression. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve markers of kidney disease and slow kidney disease progression in diabetic and nondiabetic patients; this kidney protection may be in addition to their antihypertensive activity in those with advanced proteinuric nephropathy...
July 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19587549/introduction-reducing-cardiovascular-risk-ontarget-a-new-standard-in-cardiovascular-protection
#17
Giuseppe Mancia, Thomas Unger, Alberto Zanchetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19506449/2007-esh-esc-guidelines-for-the-management-of-hypertension-from-theory-to-practice-global-cardiovascular-risk-concept
#18
REVIEW
Massimo Volpe, Giuliano Tocci
Clinical evaluation of cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension is evolving from independently assessing well-known, traditional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, smoking) towards an integrated, multidisciplinary clinical approach, aimed at determining the global (or total) cardiovascular risk profile in each individual patient for planning early and effective strategies for cardiovascular prevention. A paradigmatic example is provided by hypertension, in which new clinical behaviour implies a shift from focusing only on high blood pressure levels towards a more integrated approach, aimed at identifying and reducing global cardiovascular risk, as is highlighted in the European Guidelines...
June 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19506448/application-of-hypertension-guidelines-in-clinical-practice-implementation-of-the-2007-esh-esc-european-practice-guidelines-in-spain
#19
Alejandro de la Sierra, Jose Luis Zamorano, Luis M Ruilope
Clinical practice guidelines on the management of hypertension such as the 2007 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines were developed with the objective of allowing a greater number of patients with high blood pressure to be detected and effectively treated. The acceptance of hypertension guidelines and their implementation in clinical practice by 'front-line' physicians continues to be less than optimal for a variety of reasons, however, including the gap between academic guideline writers and those whose task it is to implement the guidelines, the physicians' own attitudes and knowledge, the characteristics of the guideline itself, patient-related factors, and external barriers such as a lack of adequate resources...
June 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19506447/the-changing-face-of-hypertension-treatment-treatment-strategies-from-the-2007-esh-esc-hypertension-guidelines
#20
REVIEW
Bryan Williams
Hypertension is one of the most important causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and its treatment is a major focus of primary and secondary disease prevention strategies. The treatment of hypertension continues to evolve and the need for guidance on the use of newer screening tools, techniques for blood pressure measurement and different classes of drug therapies led to the first European guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension being issued in 2003 by the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)...
June 2009: Journal of Hypertension. Supplement: Official Journal of the International Society of Hypertension
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