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Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology

V Pinchi, M Focardi, F Pradella, R Grifoni, M Palandri, G A Norelli
The migratory flows to Europe from the African countries, Asia and Middle East, have hugely intensified in the recent years. In 2016, more than 98,000 out of a total of 260,000 migrants across the Mediterranean Sea arrived in Italy and in May 2017, the trend of arrivals is: Italy +576%; Greece -39% compared to previous years. Some migrants die before touching the sole of the European continent, during the crossing, often afforded with ships, made available by unscrupulous smugglers or criminal organizations, which are unsuitable for this type of transportation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
J G Dietrichkeit Pereira, T S Frontanilla Recalde, P Barreto Costa, V Jacometti, L Vigorito Magalhães, R H Alves Da Silva
BACKGROUND: Forensic Odontology is a topic present in the majority of Dental Schools in Brazil, and due to this reality, some universities develop activities related to undergraduate and graduate students, from the Dentistry course until the Ph.D. degree. AIM: To present the education experience related to Forensic Odontology at School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto (USP - University of São Paulo), showing the strategies and activities in the different degrees (Dental course, Forensic Odontology Specialization Program, Specific Professional Training, Master, and Ph...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
F Pradella, V Pinchi, M Focardi, R Grifoni, M Palandri, G A Norelli
The migrants arrived to the Italian coasts in 2016 were 181.436, 18% more than the previous year and 6% more than the highest number ever since. An "unaccompanied minor" (UAM) is a third-country national or a stateless person under eighteen years of age, who arrives on the territory of the Member State unaccompanied by an adult responsible for him/her whether by law or by the practice of the Member State concerned, and for as long as he or she is not effectively taken into the care of such a person; it includes a minor who is left unaccompanied after he/she entered the territory of the Member States...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
J De Tobel, I Phlypo, S Fieuws, C Politis, K L Verstraete, P W Thevissen
BACKGROUND: The development of third molars can be evaluated with medical imaging to estimate age in subadults. The appearance of third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differs greatly from that on radiographs. Therefore a specific staging technique is necessary to classify third molar development on MRI and to apply it for age estimation. AIM: To develop a specific staging technique to register third molar development on MRI and to evaluate its performance for age estimation in subadults...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
S I Kvaal, M Haugen
BACKGROUND: For children with disputed date of birth, age assessments based on skeletal and dental development are recommended. AIM: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare and contrast the results of age assessments from these two methods performed on unaccompanied asylum seeking children in Norway. In addition the aim of the analysis was to see if the skeletal age assessment from hand-wrist was operator sensitive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age assessments performed from January 2010 to December 2014 were analysed...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
H M Liversidge, K Peariasamy, M O Folayan, A O Adeniyi, P I Ngom, Y Mikami, Y Shimada, K Kuroe, I F Tvete, S I Kvaal
BACKGROUND: The nature of differences in the timing of tooth formation between ethnic groups is important when estimating age. AIM: To calculate age of transition of the mandibular third (M3) molar tooth stages from archived dental radiographs from sub-Saharan Africa, Malaysia, Japan and two groups from London UK (Whites and Bangladeshi). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The number of radiographs was 4555 (2028 males, 2527 females) with an age range 10-25 years...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
V S Lucas, F McDonald, M Andiappan, G Roberts
BACKGROUND: Gradual obliteration of the Periodontal Ligament Visibility (PLV) of lower third molars indicates increasing age. This is used to help determine whether or not an age disputed subject is above or below the 18 year threshold. AIM: The main focus was to determine, in test subjects of known age, whether the PLV system used 'blind' is able to reliably indicate whether the subject was a child (age < 18 years) or adult (age > 18). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 250 normal subjects in the age range 16 to 26 years, from the archives of Guy's Hospital in London, UK, were used to validate the system of PLV...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
M A Chaudhary, H M Liversidge
BACKGROUND: Visibility of the periodontal ligament of mandibular third molars (M3) has been suggested as a method to estimate age. AIM: To assess the accuracy of this method and compare the visibility of the periodontal ligament in the left M3 with the right M3. The sample was archived panoramic dental radiographs of 163 individuals (75 males, 88 females, age 16-53 years) with mature M3's. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reliability was assessed using Kappa...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
B Gelbrich, M Fischer, A Stellzig-Eisenhauer, G Gelbrich
BACKGROUND: The ability of cervical vertebrae (CV) staging to contribute in forensic age estimation is being discussed controversially. The large variability of CV geometries in the end stage of development might be the reason for not reaching a performance competitive to hand or third molar methods. Here we study the geometry of adult CV and demonstrate that the description of their "typical" appearance is often not met. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lateral cephalograms from clinical routine of 320 subjects aged 20 years or above (median 24 years, 52% female) were evaluated...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
A L Rezende Machado, T U Dezem, A T Bruni, R H Alves da Silva
BACKGROUND: Forensic Dentistry has an important role in the human identification cases and, among the analyses that can be performed, age estimation has an important value in establishing an anthropological profile. Modern technology invests for new mechanisms of age estimation: software apps, based on special algorithms, because there is not interference based on personal knowledge, cultural and personal experiences for facial recognition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research evaluated the use of two different apps: "How Old Do I Look? - Age Camera" and "How Old Am I? - Age Camera, Do You Look Like in Selfie Face Pic?", for age estimation analysis in a sample of 100 people (50 females and 50 males)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
J De Tobel, P Radesh, D Vandermeulen, P W Thevissen
BACKGROUND: Automated methods to evaluate growth of hand and wrist bones on radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging have been developed. They can be applied to estimate age in children and subadults. Automated methods require the software to (1) recognise the region of interest in the image(s), (2) evaluate the degree of development and (3) correlate this to the age of the subject based on a reference population. For age estimation based on third molars an automated method for step (1) has been presented for 3D magnetic resonance imaging and is currently being optimised (Unterpirker et al...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
E Shaheen, B Mowafy, C Politis, R Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Previous research proposed the use of the mandibular midline neurovascular canal structures as a forensic finger print. In their observer study, an average correct identification of 95% was reached which triggered this study. AIM: To present a semi-automatic computer recognition approach to replace the observers and to validate the accuracy of this newly proposed method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging data from Computer Tomography (CT) and Cone Beam Computer Tomography (CBCT) of mandibles scanned at two different moments were collected to simulate an AM and PM situation where the first scan presented AM and the second scan was used to simulate PM...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
M Ohtani, T Oshima, S Mimasaka
BACKGROUND: Forensic odontologists commonly incise the skin for post-mortem dental examinations when it is difficult to open the victim's mouth. However, it is prohibited by law to incise dead bodies without permission in Japan. Therefore, we attempted using extra-oral dental radiography, using a digital X-ray equipment with rechargeable batteries, to overcome this restriction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A phantom was placed in the prone position on a table, and three plain dental radiographs were used per case: "lateral oblique radiographs" for left and right posterior teeth and a "contact radiograph" for anterior teeth were taken using a flat panel X-ray detector and a hand-held X-ray generator...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
L Batista Sandre, M B Viandelli Mundim-Picoli, F Fortes Picoli, L G Rodrigues, J M Bueno, R Ferreira da Silva
BACKGROUND: The frontal bone is an anatomical structure of the skull separated by the metopic suture in the childhood. The scientific literature indicates that metopic suture consolidates with closure in the early stages of life. Metopism is the term used to describe a metopic suture that persists up to the adulthood. Persistent metopic suture is associated potentially with the agenesis of the frontal sinus. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of absent frontal sinuses in dry skulls with metopism...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
C Capitaneanu, G Willems, P Thevissen
BACKGROUND: In human identification sex estimation plays an important role in the search for ante-mortem data. AIM: To systematically review studies describing and testing/validating methods of odontological sex estimation. The set research question was: What odontological sex estimation method is the most accurate? MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search until November 29th 2016 was performed in 5 databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO, LILACS and Grey literature...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
M Saadeh, J G Ghafari, R V Haddad, F Ayoub
BACKGROUND: The associations between the length and morphological shape-related characteristics of palatal rugae have not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the possible association among various geometric configurations of the palatal rugae in an adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The maxillary dental casts of 217 non-growing subjects (95 males, 122 females, mean age 25.5±7.6 years) were scanned (laser scanning system Perceptron ScanWorks® V5) and digitized for linear measurements...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
M Saadeh, J G Ghafari, R V Haddad, F Ayoub
BACKGROUND: The use of the palatal rugae in forensic odontology is based on their unique and individual characteristics. Few studies have assessed the palatal rugae in Mediterranean populations and none in the Lebanese population. OBJECTIVE: Assess the shape and other morphological features of the palatal rugae in a Lebanese adult population, and compare them with reported similar features in other populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rugae characteristics were assessed on the maxillary dental casts of 217 non-growing subjects (95 males, 122 females, age 25...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
Ma Saadeh, J G Ghafari, R V Haddad, F Ayoub
While abundant research has been conducted on palatal rugae (PR), the literature pertaining to the sex dimorphism of the palatal rugae and their use for sex prediction is inconclusive. Moreover, palatal rugae have been classified into categories based on length, shape, direction and unification but accurate rugal morphometric linear and angular measurements have not yet been reported. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to -1- assess the dimensions and bilateral symmetry of the first three palatal rugae in an adult population and -2- explore sex dimorphism and the ability to predict sex from palatal rugae measurements...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
T Radhika, J Nadeem, R Arthi, S Nithya
BACKGROUND: The practice of medicine in India has undergone considerable change affecting delivery of health in both positive and negative directions. As a result, there was a growing feeling that medical treatment should be made accountable and this led to doctors and dentists becoming subject to the process of law. Patients have become more aware of their right to compensation and as a consequence doctors and dentists should be knowledgeable about the laws that govern them. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the awareness about Medico legal aspects and Consumer Protection Act [CPA] among Dental professionals...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
V Pinchi, V Bartolini, E Bertol, M Focardi, F Mari, U Ricci, S Vanin, G A Norelli
The article presents a case of multiple casualties following a textile factory fire. The incident required a full DVI team similar to large mass-disaster because of the specific operational aspects and identification difficulties. The autopsy results were consistent with death by fire and the toxicological investigations revealed carbon monoxide poisoning in four cases (HbCO% ranging between 88,05 and 95,77), two deaths by cyanide intoxication (with concentrations between 5,17 and 8,85 mcg/ml), and in one case there was a synergistic effect of the two substances (carbon monoxide and cyanide)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
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