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Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology

T Solheim
Quality assurance or quality control is a term and concept coming from the industry. Here it is most important. All products must have a minimum quality and variation in size, for example, must be kept within certain strict limits. There must be a system to control this. May be not every single product is controlled, but spot tests must be taken. Measures must be taken to improve the quality if it is not good enough. This concept has been transferred to medicine, odontology, and consequently also to forensic odontology...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
V Pinchi, G Vitale, F Pradella, L Farese, M Focardi
When the age of an individual is unknown, age assessment refers to the procedures through which authorities try to establish the chronological age of an individual. Dental evidence demonstrated to be very effective in estimating age and dental mineralization is largely deemed a process scarcely influenced by major diseases and nutritional or environmental factors which can affect child growth. This research aims to understand the possible influence of genetic syndromes on dental maturation of affected individuals...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
H Alvarez-Solarte, V Sierra-Alzate, J Sánchez-Garzón, P Botero-Mariaca
PURPOSE: To determine differences between open bite and normal vertical overbite regarding distribution, size and clinical appearance of palatal rugae, depth and length of the palate, intercanine and intermolar widths and arch perimeter. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 264 superior models were studied with a 3D analysis system. A total of 132 individuals with AOB and 132 individuals with normal vertical overbite were evaluated, chosen from public schools with ages between 8 and 16 years...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
D Bhuptani, S Kumar, M Vats, R Sagav
Saliva is one of the most commonly encountered biological fluids found at the crime scene. Forensic science including forensic odontology is focused on the positive identification of individuals. The salivary protein profiling can help in personalization by the changes associated with age throughout life and gender. These changes also seem to vary with the dietary habits, environmental factors and geographical areas. Thus, the aim of present study is to estimate these changes in salivary total protein concentration and profiling in individuals of Gujarat, India...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
M B Bjørk, S I Kvaal
Computer Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may be useful tools in assessment of age of an individual. This article presents a review of published studies using CT or MRI in dental age estimation. They were published between July 2004 and September 2017 investigating different types of teeth, methods and formulae for age estimation. Twenty-seven articles were included. The different studies show good results, and it seems that a combination of different types of teeth, methods (depending on the degree of root formation) and cooperation between different disciplines in the same study gives a higher accuracy...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
S Hegde, A Patodia, U Dixit
BACKGROUND: The Demirjian method has been the most widely tested method for the estimation of the dental age of children and adolescents. However, only three studies have compared Demirjian's original and revised seven-tooth methods, four-tooth method and alternate four-tooth method, none of them conducted on an Indian population. AIM: The present study aimed to compare the applicability of the original and revised seven-tooth and four-tooth and alternate four-tooth standards for age estimation of 1200 Indian children aged 5-15 years old...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
V Pinchi, M Focardi, F Pradella, R Grifoni, M Palandri, G A Norelli
The migratory flows to Europe from the African countries, Asia and Middle East, have hugely intensified in the recent years. In 2016, more than 98,000 out of a total of 260,000 migrants across the Mediterranean Sea arrived in Italy and in May 2017, the trend of arrivals is: Italy +576%; Greece -39% compared to previous years. Some migrants die before touching the sole of the European continent, during the crossing, often afforded with ships, made available by unscrupulous smugglers or criminal organizations, which are unsuitable for this type of transportation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
J G Dietrichkeit Pereira, T S Frontanilla Recalde, P Barreto Costa, V Jacometti, L Vigorito Magalhães, R H Alves Da Silva
BACKGROUND: Forensic Odontology is a topic present in the majority of Dental Schools in Brazil, and due to this reality, some universities develop activities related to undergraduate and graduate students, from the Dentistry course until the Ph.D. degree. AIM: To present the education experience related to Forensic Odontology at School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto (USP - University of São Paulo), showing the strategies and activities in the different degrees (Dental course, Forensic Odontology Specialization Program, Specific Professional Training, Master, and Ph...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
F Pradella, V Pinchi, M Focardi, R Grifoni, M Palandri, G A Norelli
The migrants arrived to the Italian coasts in 2016 were 181.436, 18% more than the previous year and 6% more than the highest number ever since. An "unaccompanied minor" (UAM) is a third-country national or a stateless person under eighteen years of age, who arrives on the territory of the Member State unaccompanied by an adult responsible for him/her whether by law or by the practice of the Member State concerned, and for as long as he or she is not effectively taken into the care of such a person; it includes a minor who is left unaccompanied after he/she entered the territory of the Member States...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
J De Tobel, I Phlypo, S Fieuws, C Politis, K L Verstraete, P W Thevissen
BACKGROUND: The development of third molars can be evaluated with medical imaging to estimate age in subadults. The appearance of third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differs greatly from that on radiographs. Therefore a specific staging technique is necessary to classify third molar development on MRI and to apply it for age estimation. AIM: To develop a specific staging technique to register third molar development on MRI and to evaluate its performance for age estimation in subadults...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
S I Kvaal, M Haugen
BACKGROUND: For children with disputed date of birth, age assessments based on skeletal and dental development are recommended. AIM: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare and contrast the results of age assessments from these two methods performed on unaccompanied asylum seeking children in Norway. In addition the aim of the analysis was to see if the skeletal age assessment from hand-wrist was operator sensitive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age assessments performed from January 2010 to December 2014 were analysed...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
H M Liversidge, K Peariasamy, M O Folayan, A O Adeniyi, P I Ngom, Y Mikami, Y Shimada, K Kuroe, I F Tvete, S I Kvaal
BACKGROUND: The nature of differences in the timing of tooth formation between ethnic groups is important when estimating age. AIM: To calculate age of transition of the mandibular third (M3) molar tooth stages from archived dental radiographs from sub-Saharan Africa, Malaysia, Japan and two groups from London UK (Whites and Bangladeshi). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The number of radiographs was 4555 (2028 males, 2527 females) with an age range 10-25 years...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
V S Lucas, F McDonald, M Andiappan, G Roberts
BACKGROUND: Gradual obliteration of the Periodontal Ligament Visibility (PLV) of lower third molars indicates increasing age. This is used to help determine whether or not an age disputed subject is above or below the 18 year threshold. AIM: The main focus was to determine, in test subjects of known age, whether the PLV system used 'blind' is able to reliably indicate whether the subject was a child (age < 18 years) or adult (age > 18). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 250 normal subjects in the age range 16 to 26 years, from the archives of Guy's Hospital in London, UK, were used to validate the system of PLV...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
M A Chaudhary, H M Liversidge
BACKGROUND: Visibility of the periodontal ligament of mandibular third molars (M3) has been suggested as a method to estimate age. AIM: To assess the accuracy of this method and compare the visibility of the periodontal ligament in the left M3 with the right M3. The sample was archived panoramic dental radiographs of 163 individuals (75 males, 88 females, age 16-53 years) with mature M3's. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reliability was assessed using Kappa...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
B Gelbrich, M Fischer, A Stellzig-Eisenhauer, G Gelbrich
BACKGROUND: The ability of cervical vertebrae (CV) staging to contribute in forensic age estimation is being discussed controversially. The large variability of CV geometries in the end stage of development might be the reason for not reaching a performance competitive to hand or third molar methods. Here we study the geometry of adult CV and demonstrate that the description of their "typical" appearance is often not met. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lateral cephalograms from clinical routine of 320 subjects aged 20 years or above (median 24 years, 52% female) were evaluated...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
A L Rezende Machado, T U Dezem, A T Bruni, R H Alves da Silva
BACKGROUND: Forensic Dentistry has an important role in the human identification cases and, among the analyses that can be performed, age estimation has an important value in establishing an anthropological profile. Modern technology invests for new mechanisms of age estimation: software apps, based on special algorithms, because there is not interference based on personal knowledge, cultural and personal experiences for facial recognition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research evaluated the use of two different apps: "How Old Do I Look? - Age Camera" and "How Old Am I? - Age Camera, Do You Look Like in Selfie Face Pic?", for age estimation analysis in a sample of 100 people (50 females and 50 males)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
J De Tobel, P Radesh, D Vandermeulen, P W Thevissen
BACKGROUND: Automated methods to evaluate growth of hand and wrist bones on radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging have been developed. They can be applied to estimate age in children and subadults. Automated methods require the software to (1) recognise the region of interest in the image(s), (2) evaluate the degree of development and (3) correlate this to the age of the subject based on a reference population. For age estimation based on third molars an automated method for step (1) has been presented for 3D magnetic resonance imaging and is currently being optimised (Unterpirker et al...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
E Shaheen, B Mowafy, C Politis, R Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Previous research proposed the use of the mandibular midline neurovascular canal structures as a forensic finger print. In their observer study, an average correct identification of 95% was reached which triggered this study. AIM: To present a semi-automatic computer recognition approach to replace the observers and to validate the accuracy of this newly proposed method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging data from Computer Tomography (CT) and Cone Beam Computer Tomography (CBCT) of mandibles scanned at two different moments were collected to simulate an AM and PM situation where the first scan presented AM and the second scan was used to simulate PM...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
M Ohtani, T Oshima, S Mimasaka
BACKGROUND: Forensic odontologists commonly incise the skin for post-mortem dental examinations when it is difficult to open the victim's mouth. However, it is prohibited by law to incise dead bodies without permission in Japan. Therefore, we attempted using extra-oral dental radiography, using a digital X-ray equipment with rechargeable batteries, to overcome this restriction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A phantom was placed in the prone position on a table, and three plain dental radiographs were used per case: "lateral oblique radiographs" for left and right posterior teeth and a "contact radiograph" for anterior teeth were taken using a flat panel X-ray detector and a hand-held X-ray generator...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
L Batista Sandre, M B Viandelli Mundim-Picoli, F Fortes Picoli, L G Rodrigues, J M Bueno, R Ferreira da Silva
BACKGROUND: The frontal bone is an anatomical structure of the skull separated by the metopic suture in the childhood. The scientific literature indicates that metopic suture consolidates with closure in the early stages of life. Metopism is the term used to describe a metopic suture that persists up to the adulthood. Persistent metopic suture is associated potentially with the agenesis of the frontal sinus. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of absent frontal sinuses in dry skulls with metopism...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
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