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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

Jie Xu, James T F Wise, Lei Wang, Kortney Schumann, Zhuo Zhang, Xianglin Shi
It has been well established that environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metal causes cancer in several organs. Although the exact mechanism of heavy metal carcinogenesis remains elusive, metal-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential. ROS can play two roles in metal carcinogenesis; two stages in the process of metal carcinogenesis differ in the amounts of ROS activating a dual redox-mediated mechanism. In the early stage of metal carcinogenesis, ROS acts in an oncogenic role. However, in the late stage of metal carcinogenesis, ROS plays an antioncogenic role...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Theodore Lemuel Mathuram, Vilwanathan Ravikumar, Lisa M Reece, Changam Sheela Sasikumar, Kotturathu Mammen Cherian
This study aims to unravel the use of GSK-3 inhibitors as viable apoptotic inducers for teratocarcinoma-derived ovarian PA-1 cells. MTT assay was carried out to assess inhibitory concentrations of LiCl and TDG. AO/EB staining and Hoechst 33258 staining were employed to assess the damage. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ROS generation were assessed with IC50 concentrations of LiCl and TDG. Tumor-related genes (p53, p21, IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-2, Fas-L, Cox-2, and caspase-3) were assessed with 1/4 IC50, 1/2 IC50, IC50 concentrations by semi-quantitative RT- PCR...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Fangchao Zheng, Zhihua Sun, Jie Kan, Jiangxia Yin, Feng Du, Guoshuang Shen, Ziyi Wang, Dengfeng Ren, Xiaqing Bao, Jiuda Zhao
Purpose - We aimed to assess whether Helicobacter pylori infection influences prognosis in gastric cancer patients (GC). Methods - We systematically searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) Register from inception to June 1, 2017. Overall survival (mean OS) or disease-free survival (mean DFS) in GC patients were calculated using the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results - In total, 19 articles with 4,321 GC patients were enrolled. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with longer OS (HR 0...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Nurul Amzar, Mohammad Iqbal
Liver diseases still represents a major health burden worldwide. Moreover, medicinal plants have gained popularity in the treatment of several diseases, including liver disease. Clidemia hirta possesses many medicinal properties for healing several diseases and for health maintenance. However, the hepatoprotective effects and antioxidative potential of C. hirta have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the hepatoprotective and antioxidative potential of C. hirta against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injuries and oxidative damage in a murine model...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Yap Yenese, Chew Chian Wei, Jestin Chellian, Gaurav Gupta
Oral delivery of insulin is one of the most promising and anticipated areas in the treatment of diabetes, primarily because it may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetics who receive insulin regularly. Several problems have been reported regarding the subcutaneous delivery of insulin, ranging from cardiovascular complications to weight gain. One of the approaches to overcoming these issues is to administer insulin through the oral route. However, there are several challenges in developing an oral route for insulin delivery; insulin has extremely poor bioavailability and a low diffusion rate through the mucus layer...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Angélica Goldoni, Cláudia Regina Klauck, Julia Puffal, Patricia Grolli Ardenghi, Luciano Basso da Silva
In the last several decades, exposure to pesticides has become a concern to environmental and human health. Many pesticides are environmentally persistent and are characterized by varying degrees of toxicity and adverse effects, including DNA damage. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic potential of organophosphate pesticide fenthion in Wistar rats, as assessed by the comet assay. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a solution of fenthion at a concentration of 40 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally for 18 consecutive days...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Venugopal Vinod Prabhu, S Niranjali Devaraj
Lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide; it is the second most common cancer, comprising 1.69 million deaths worldwide per year. Among these, 85% of lung cancers are non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Metastasis is common in NSCLC patients and are responsible for most deaths. Kang-Ai 1 (KAI1), a tumor metastasis suppressor gene also known as Cluster of Differentiation 82 (CD82), is a member of the membrane tetraspanin protein family, which are capable of inhibiting the metastatic process in NSCLC...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Angom Ranjana Devi, Mahuya Sengupta, Yashmin Choudhury
The effect of smokeless tobacco (gutkha) was investigated by treating male and female Swiss Albino mice with an aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (AEST). AEST was administered at a dose of 25 mg kg-1 body weight per day for different time periods (6, 12, 16, and 24 weeks), and control animals were provided only drinking water without AEST for the same period. Control and AEST-treated mice were observed for different oxidative stress parameters, nitric oxide (NO) release, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release, and they were evaluated for alterations in tumor suppressor and DNA repair responses in the liver and spleen...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Yesim Ertan, Asuman Argon, Murat Özdemir, Banu Pınar Sarer Yürekli, Zafer Dökümcü, Özer Makay
Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal gland are extremely rare tumors. These tumors differ from their nononcocytic counterparts in some respects. The aim of this study was to review and discuss the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of as well as the prognosis for these rare tumors. In total, 16 cases diagnosed as adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms between January 2011 and December 2016 were included in the study. The demographic data, gross characteristics, histological data, and immunohistochemical data (Chromogranin-A, Synaptophysin, α-Inhibin, Melan-A, Ki67, PHH3) were reevaluated...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Catherine Christie, Steen J Madsen, Qian Peng, Henry Hirschberg
Macrophages (Ma) loaded with gold based nanoparticles, which convert near infrared light to heat, have been studied as targeted transport vectors for photothermal therapy (PTT) of tumors. The purpose of the experiments reported here was to compare the efficacy of gold-silica nanoshells (AuNS) and gold nanorods (AuNR) in macrophage mediated PTT. PTT efficacy was evaluated in hybrid glioma spheroids consisting of human glioma cells and either AuNS or AuNR loaded Ma, designated MaNS and MaNR respectivly. Spheroids were irradiated for 10 min...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Xiao Pudroma, Gongsang Duoji, Mantas Grigalavicius, Duan Jie, Asta Juzeniene
Cutaneous melanoma is a deadly skin cancer, resulting from malignant transformation of melanocytes. Long-wave ultraviolet radiation (315-400 nm) is able to damage DNA, cause mutations, and induce melanoma. However, the exact mechanisms of UVA-induced cutaneous melanoma remain a matter of debate. In this review, we give a brief characterization of the most important elements in the photobiology of UVA in melanomagenesis.
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Fangchao Zheng, Jiuda Zhao, Feng Du, Junhui Zhao, Guoshuang Shen, Fei Ma, Xinfu Ma, Li Dong, Wei Ma, Cunfang Shen, Shuyan Wang, Jinhua Ma, Yang Luo, Ziyi Wang, Binghe Xu
The aim of this study was to investigate topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2α) overexpression and its association with clinicopathological features and prognosis in gastric cancer (GC) patients. All selected GC patients at Affiliated Hospital of Qinghai University and Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, between December 2009 and December 2011, had formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. The patients received a telephone follow-up or in-/outpatient review, and their clinicopathological features and prognoses were analyzed...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Syed Suhail Andrabi, Suhel Parvez, Heena Tabassum
Progesterone (P4), a well-known neurosteroid, is produced by ovaries and placenta in females and by adrenal glands in both sexes. Progesterone is also synthesized by central nervous system (CNS) tissues to perform various vital neurological functions in the brain. Apart from performing crucial reproductive functions, it also plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis, regeneration, cognition, mood, inflammation, and myelination in the CNS. A substantial body of experimental evidence from animal models documents the neuroprotective role of P4 in various CNS injury models, including ischemic stroke...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Pinar Erkekoglu, Didem Oral, Ming-Wei Chao, Belmar Kocer-Gumusel
The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process. In HCC, progressive and morphologically distinct preneoplastic lesions/alterations associated with chronic liver injury, inflammation, hepatocellular degeneration/regeneration, necrosis, and small-cell dysplasia can be observed. The incidence of HCC exhibits regional and ethnic differences. Several cytotoxic and DNA-damaging chemicals are suggested to be the underlying causes of HCC-for example, acrylamide, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and dietary contaminants (aflatoxins, ochratoxins)...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Madhavan Nampoothiri, Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Nampurath Gopalan Kutty, Nandakumar Krishnadas, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao
Therapeutic intervention using drugs against Alzheimer disease is curative clinically. At present, there are no reports on the curative role of insulin in chronic models of dementia. We evaluated the curative role of insulin and its combination with glucose in dementia. We also investigated the impact of treatments on blood glucose to correlate with cognitive deficit. Further, we analyzed the interaction of treatments with the cholinergic system and oxidative stress in memory centers (i.e., hippocampus and frontal cortex)...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Venugopal Vinod Prabhu, Niranjali Devaraj
Lung cancer is responsible for 1.6 million deaths. Approximately 80%-85% of lung cancers are of the non-small-cell variety, which includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large-cell carcinoma. Knowing the stage of cancer progression is a requisite for determining which management approach-surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and/or immunotherapy-is optimal. Targeted therapeutic approaches with antiangiogenic monoclonal antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors are one option if tumors harbor oncogene mutations...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Pinar Erkekoglu, Didem Oral, Belmar Kocer-Gumusel, Ming-Wei Chao
The association between inflammation and cancer has long been recognized. Several studies have found that different types of tumors develop at sites of chronic inflammation. It is stated that over 15%-20% of malignancies worldwide can be related to infections caused by viruses, bacteria, and schistosomes. Inflammatory conditions are characterized by overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and overproduction of nitric oxide/reactive nitrogen species (ROSs/RNSs) in epithelial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) may also lead to cellular alterations and eventually to inflammation...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Vishwajeet Sonawane, Sri Pragnya Cheruku, Anoop Kishore, Pawan G Nayak, Nitesh Kumar, Rekha S Shenoy, Krishnadas Nandakumar
The present study was aimed at assessing the protective effect of insulin against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cognitive function for episodic memory was assessed by a novel object recognition task (NORT) in male Wistar rats. Oxidative stress markers-SOD, catalase, glutathione, and lipid peroxidation-in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were assessed using colorimetric methods. Doxorubicin treatment (2.5 mg/kg, i.p., every 5 days for 50 days) reduced recognition and discriminative indices in NORT with increased oxidative stress in the brain...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Gaurav Gupta, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Irene Satiko Kikuchi, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Kavita Pabreja, Mohit Agrawal, Yogendra Singh, Juhi Tiwari, Kamal Dua
Paracetamol (PCM) has an acceptable safety profile when used at prescribed doses. However, it is now understood that paracetamol can damage the kidneys when administered as an overdose. In addition, oxidative stress can play a major role in causing nephrotoxicity. This investigation studies the efficacy of moralbosteroid isolated from M. alba stem bark. Nephrotoxicity was induced with administration of paracetamol. Nephroprotection was studied using two doses of the extract. The experimental animals were divided into four groups (n = 6)...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Kunnathur Murugesan Sakthivel, Venugopal Vinod Prabhu
Cancer originates from uncontrolled cell division in any part of the body. The universal burden of cancer continues to increase, and its treatment remains ever more challenging. Among several cancers, lung cancer is the second most common, causing 1.6 million deaths worldwide per year. Approximately 85% of lung cancers are non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), which are considerably more difficult to treat than other cancers. Although various imaging, biopsy, and histopathological analyses are widely used, there are no effective or reliable biomarkers for detecting early lung carcinoma, particularly NSCLC...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
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