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Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339103/comparative-review-of-adult-midbrain-and-striatum-neurogenesis-with-classical-neurogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Parisa Farzanehfar
Parkinson's Disease (PD) motor symptoms are caused by loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the midbrain. Dopamine cell replacement therapy (DA CRT), either by cell transplantation or endogenous repair, has been a potential treatment to replace dead cells and improve PD motor symptoms. Adult midbrain and striatum have been studied for many years to find evidence of neurogenesis. Although the literature is controversial, recent research has revived the possibility of neurogenesis here...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317247/development-of-stereotaxic-recording-system-for-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#2
Masahiro Wakabayashi, Daisuke Koketsu, Hideki Kondo, Shigeki Sato, Kiichi Ohara, Zlata Polyakova, Satomi Chiken, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Atsushi Nambu
The common marmoset has been proposed as a potential alternative to macaque monkey as a primate model for neuroscience and medical research. Here, we have newly developed a stereotaxic neuronal recording system for awake marmosets under the head-fixed condition by modifying that for macaque monkeys. Using this system, we recorded neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex of awake marmosets and successfully identified the primary motor cortex by intracortical microstimulation. Neuronal activities of deep brain structures, such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum, in awake marmosets were also successfully recorded referring to magnetic resonance images...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317246/presynaptic-calcium-channels
#3
REVIEW
Sumiko Mochida
At the presynaptic terminal, neuronal firing activity induces membrane depolarization and subsequent Ca2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels triggers neurotransmitter release from the active zone. Presynaptic Ca2+ channels form a large signaling complex, which targets synaptic vesicles to Ca2+ channels for efficient release and mediates Ca2+ channel regulation. The presynaptic CaV2 channel family (comprising CaV2.1, CaV2.2 and CaV2.3 isoforms) encode the pore-forming α1 subunit. The cytoplasmic regions are the target of regulatory proteins for channel modulation...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288690/mifepristone-reduces-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation-and-restores-weight-loss-in-rats-subjected-to-dietary-restriction-and-methylphenidate-administration
#4
Rami Bou Khalil, Viviane Smayra, Youakim Saliba, Joelle Hajal, Jules-Joël Bakhos, Lama Souaiby, Sami Richa, Jean Tamraz, Nassim Farès
This study evaluates the efficacy of mifepristone on weight restoration in rats subjected to dietary restriction and methylphenidate administration. 25 female rats aged between 9 and 12 months were divided into 2 groups: 5 controls (exposed only to dietary restriction) and 20 rats that were administered 5 mg/kg/d of methylphenidate before meal exposure, for 36 days. Among rats who responded to methylphenidate (weight loss of 15-25%) weeks after its administration, a group of 6 rats continued to receive only methylphenidate ("Met" group), and another group received 10 mg/kg/d of mifepristone in addition to methylphenidate for 18 days ("Met+Mif" group; n = 6)...
December 27, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288689/skin-derived-precursor-schwann-cell-generated-acellular-matrix-modified-chitosan-silk-scaffolds-for-bridging-rat-sciatic-nerve-gap
#5
Changlai Zhu, Jing Huang, Chengbin Xue, Yaxian Wang, Shengran Wang, Shuangxi Bao, Ruyue Chen, Yuan Li, Yun Gu
Extracellular/acellular matrix has been attracted much research interests for its unique biological characteristics, and ACM modified neural scaffolds shows the remarkable role of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, skin-derived precursors pre-differentiated into Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) were used as parent cells to generate acellular(ACM) for constructing a ACM-modified neural scaffold. SKP-SCs were co-cultured with chitosan nerve guidance conduits (NGC) and silk fibroin filamentous fillers, followed by decellularization to stimulate ACM deposition...
December 27, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287912/corrigendum-to-projections-from-the-lowest-lumbar-and-sacral-caudal-segments-to-the-cerebellar-cortex-in-the-rat-an-anterograde-tracing-study-neurosci-res-114-january-2017-43-54
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275163/cast-its-molecular-structure-and-phosphorylation-dependent-regulation-of-presynaptic-plasticity
#7
REVIEW
Shun Hamada, Toshihisa Ohtsuka
Our brain functions rely on sophisticated communication between synapses in the nervous system. Most synapses utilize a specialized submembranous structure, the so-called 'active zone', for the efficient transmission of chemical signals. The presynaptic active zone plays pivotal roles in the precise regulation of neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminals in a temporally and spatially coordinated manner. During the last two decades, several active zone-specific proteins have been isolated and characterized, including Bassoon, Piccolo/Aczonin, RIM, Munc13-1, ELKS, and CAST...
December 21, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275162/vesicle-release-site-organization-at-synaptic-active-zones
#8
REVIEW
Alexander M Walter, Mathias A Böhme, Stephan J Sigrist
Information transfer between nerve cells (neurons) forms the basis of behavior, emotion, and survival. Signal transduction from one neuron to another occurs at synapses, and relies on both electrical and chemical signal propagation. At chemical synapses, incoming electrical action potentials trigger the release of chemical neurotransmitters that are sensed by the connected cell and here reconverted to an electrical signal. The presynaptic conversion of an electrical to a chemical signal is an energy demanding, highly regulated process that relies on a complex, evolutionarily conserved molecular machinery...
December 21, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258853/drosophila-active-zones-from-molecules-to-behaviour
#9
REVIEW
Nadine Ehmann, David Owald, Robert J Kittel
In a constantly changing environment, neuronal circuits need to be updated and adjusted to elicit directed actions. Synaptic plasticity plays an important role in modulating such globally and locally acting networks. The active zone (AZ) is a protein-rich compartment of chemical synapses, where precisely orchestrated molecular interactions control synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion with the presynaptic membrane. The subsequent release of neurotransmitter substances onto postsynaptic receptor fields forms the basis of neuronal communication...
December 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258852/loss-of-inhibition-in-ipsilateral-somatosensory-areas-following-altered-afferent-nerve-signaling-from-the-hand
#10
Anders Björkman, Andreas Weibull
Cutaneous stimulation of the hand results in increased neural activity in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in humans, whereas an inhibition of neurons is seen in the ipsilateral S1. The aim of this study was to assess changes in neural activity in the S1 bilaterally, with a focus on the ipsilateral hemisphere, following altered afferent nerve signaling from the hand. Three cohorts, all with altered afferent nerve signaling from the hand, participated in the study. There were: 18 patients with traumatic median nerve injury, 10 patients with vibration induced neuropathy and 11 healthy subjects who had their dominant hand and wrist immobilized for 72 hours...
December 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246683/optogenetic-activation-of-granule-cells-in-the-dorsal-dentate-gyrus-enhances-dopaminergic-neurotransmission-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#11
Laurent Tritschler, Mazen A Kheirbek, Yannick Le Dantec, Indira Mendez-David, Jean-Philippe Guilloux, Charlène Faye, Julie Doan, Thu-Ha Pham, René Hen, Denis J David, Alain M Gardier
The dentate gyrus (DG) has distinct roles along its dorso-ventral axis. In the mouse, we recently demonstrated that dorsal DG (dDG) stimulation enhances exploratory behavior (Kheirbek et al., 2013). Dopamine (DA) release in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc), which belongs to the reward system, could be a key target of dDG mediating this motivation-related behavior. Here, an optogenetic stimulation of either ventral (vDG) or dDG granule cells was coupled with NAcc DA release monitoring using in vivo microdialysis...
December 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225140/reactive-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-double-edged-sword
#12
REVIEW
Heejung Chun, C Justin Lee
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic and fatal disease, in which neuronal damage at its late stage cannot be easily reversed. Because AD progression is caused by multiple factors including diverse cellular processes, studies on AD pathogenesis at the molecular and cellular level are challenging. Based on the lessons from unsuccessful neuron-focused research for an AD cure, non-cell autonomous mechanisms including brain inflammation and reactive astrocytes have recently been in the spotlight as potential therapeutic targets for AD...
December 7, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225139/astrocytes-and-ischemic-tolerance
#13
REVIEW
Yuri Hirayama, Schuichi Koizumi
A mild non-lethal ischemic episode can induce resistance to a subsequent severe ischemic injury in the brain. This phenomenon is termed ischemic tolerance or ischemic preconditioning, and is an endogenous mechanism that can provide robust neuroprotection. Because of its neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia or stroke, ischemic tolerance has been widely studied. However, almost all studies have been performed from the viewpoint of neurons. Accumulating evidence suggests that glial cells have various roles in regulation of brain function, including modulation of synaptic transmission, neuronal excitation, and neuronal structure...
December 7, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221909/maintaining-the-active-zone-demand-supply-and-disposal-of-core-active-zone-proteins
#14
REVIEW
Noam E Ziv
Chemical synapses are sites of cell-cell contact specialized for transmission of signals between neurons and their respective targets. Neurotransmission occurs through the secretion of neurotransmitters at specialized presynaptic membrane regions known as Active Zones (AZs). AZ composition and function are now characterized quite well. Much less is known, however, on the manners by which these unique specializations are maintained for weeks, months, and presumably years. Here we focus on core AZ components that make up the Cytoskeleton associated with the AZ (CAZ) - their lifetimes, their supply and their disposal...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221908/how-to-maintain-active-zone-integrity-during-high-frequency-transmission
#15
REVIEW
Niklas Byczkowicz, Andreas Ritzau-Jost, Igor Delvendahl, Stefan Hallermann
In the central nervous system, the frequency at which reliable synaptic transmission can be maintained varies strongly between different types of synapses. Several pre- and postsynaptic processes must interact to enable high-frequency synaptic transmission. One of the mechanistically most challenging issues arises during repetitive neurotransmitter release, when synaptic vesicles fuse in rapid sequence with the presynaptic plasma membrane within the active zone (AZ), potentially interfering with the structural integrity of the AZ itself...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221907/coupling-of-exocytosis-and-endocytosis-at-the-presynaptic-active-zone
#16
REVIEW
Tanja Maritzen, Volker Haucke
Brain function depends on the ability of neurons to communicate with each other via the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitter-containing synaptic vesicles (SVs) at specialized presynaptic release sites termed active zones (AZs). The presynaptic AZ comprises an assembly of large multidomain proteins that link the machinery for vesicle fusion to sites of voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry. Following SV fusion at AZ release sites SV membranes are retrieved by compensatory endocytosis, and SVs are reformed. Recent data suggest that Ca2+-triggered SV exocytosis at AZs and endocytic retrieval of SVs may be functionally and physically linked...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221906/presynaptic-active-zones-of-mammalian-neuromuscular-junctions-nanoarchitecture-and-selective-impairments-in-aging
#17
REVIEW
Yomna Badawi, Hiroshi Nishimune
Neurotransmitter release occurs at active zones, which are specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane. A dense collection of proteins at the active zone provides a platform for molecular interactions that promote recruitment, docking, and priming of synaptic vesicles. At mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), muscle-derived laminin β2 interacts with presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels to organize active zones. The molecular architecture of presynaptic active zones has been revealed using super-resolution microscopy techniques that combine nanoscale resolution and multiple molecular identification...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221905/neurexins-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Enas Kasem, Taiga Kurihara, Katsuhiko Tabuchi
Neurexins are a family of presynaptic single-pass transmembrane proteins that act as synaptic organizers in mammals. The neurexins consist of three genes (NRXN1, NRXN2, and NRXN3), each of which produces a longer α- and shorter β-form. Genomic alterations in NRXN genes have been identified in a wide variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia, intellectual disability (ID), and addiction. Remarkably, a bi-allelic deficiency of NRXN1 was recently linked to Pitt-Hopkins syndrome...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203265/a-low-blood-copper-concentration-is-a-co-morbidity-burden-factor-in-parkinson-s-disease-development
#19
Ekaterina Y Ilyechova, Iren V Miliukhina, Iurii A Orlov, Zamira M Muruzheva, Ludmila V Puchkova, Marina N Karpenko
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are often characterized by copper dyshomeostasis, which is responsible for ROS formation and fibrillogenesis. However, the relationships between copper metabolism and PD development are unclear. In this study in 50 patients with PD (pPD) and 50 age-matched healthy individuals, the serum total copper concentration, oxidase activity, ceruloplasmin and SOD3 protein concentrations were measured; and amount of copper atoms per ceruloplasmin molecule was calculated. These parameters were lower in pPD relatively to healthy volunteers...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203264/identification-of-genes-regulating-gabaergic-interneuron-maturation
#20
Keita Fukumoto, Kota Tamada, Tsuyoshi Toya, Tasuku Nishino, Yuchio Yanagawa, Toru Takumi
During embryonic development, GABAergic interneurons, a main inhibitory component in the cerebral cortex, migrate tangentially from the ganglionic eminence (GE) to cerebral cortex. After reaching the cerebral cortex, they start to extend their neurites for constructing local neuronal circuits around the neonatal stage. Aberrations in migration or neurite outgrowth are implicated in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism. Previous studies revealed that in the early phase of cortical development the neural population migrates tangentially from the GE in the telencephalon and several genes have been characterized as regulators of migration and specification of GABAergic interneurons...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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