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Neuroscience Research

Shogo Tanabe, Toshihide Yamashita
The immune system is a major contributor to brain homeostasis and pathogenesis of neurological diseases. However, the role of B lymphocytes (cells) in the brain is poorly understood. In this review, we describe the functions of the different subtypes of B cells in brain development and neurological diseases. B cells are classified into several subtypes according their function and gene expression. B-1a cells, which participate in innate immunity by producing natural antibodies, are abundant in the developing brain, and mediate oligodendrocyte development...
July 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Yo Sasaki
Cellular metabolism maintains the life of cells, allowing energy production required for building cellular constituents and maintaining homeostasis under constantly changing external environments. Neuronal cells maintain their structure and function for the entire life of organisms and the loss of neurons, with limited neurogenesis in adults, directly causes loss of complexity in the neuronal networks. The nervous system organizes the neurons by placing cell bodies containing nuclei of similar types of neurons in discrete regions...
July 10, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Masaki Takeda
Memorizing events or objects and retrieving them from memory are essential for daily life. Historically, memory processing was studied in neuropsychology, in which patients provided us with insights into the brain mechanisms underlying memory. Psychological hypotheses about memory processing have been further investigated using neuroscience techniques, such as functional imaging and electrophysiology. In this article, I briefly summarize recent findings on multi-scale neural circuitry for memory at the scale of single neurons and cortical layers as well as inter-area and whole-brain interactions...
June 29, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Takenari Yamashita, Shin Kwak
TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) pathology in the motor neurons is the most reliable pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and motor neurons bearing TDP-43 pathology invariably exhibit failure in RNA editing at the GluA2 glutamine/arginine (Q/R) site due to down-regulation of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2). Conditional ADAR2 knockout (AR2) mice display ALS-like phenotype, including progressive motor dysfunction due to loss of motor neurons. Motor neurons devoid of ADAR2 express Q/R site-unedited GluA2, and AMPA receptors with unedited GluA2 in their subunit assembly are abnormally permeable to Ca2+ , which results in progressive neuronal death...
June 23, 2018: Neuroscience Research
S Hidaka, Y Kanai, S Takehana, Y Syoji, Y Kubota, N Uotsu, K Yui, Y Shimazu, M Takeda
Although a modulatory role has been reported for α-lipoic acid (LA) on T-type Ca2+ channels in the nervous system, the acute effects of LA in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute intravenous LA administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Jingwei Shang, Toru Yamashita, Yun Zhai, Yumiko Nakano, Ryuta Morihara, Xianghong Li, Feng Tian, Xia Liu, Yong Huang, Xiaowen Shi, Kota Sato, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Koji Abe
Cerebral neuroinflammation defines a novel pathway for progressing Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. We investigated immunohistological changes of neuroinflammation with nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-protein 3 (NLRP3), activated caspase-1 and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in a novel AD (APP23) mice with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) model from 4 months (M) of age, moreover, examined protective effect of galantamine. CCH strongly enhanced NLRP3, activated caspase-1 and IL-1β expressions in hippocampus and thalamus at age 12 M of AD mice...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Feifei Guo, Luo Xu, Shengli Gao, Xiangrong Sun, Nana Zhang, Yanling Gong
The most common side effects of the cancer chemotherapy drug cisplatin are nausea and vomiting. These effects are heavily influenced by orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides. We explored the effects of orexin-A on the cisplatin-treated rats and a possible mechanism for its effects on cisplatin-induced side effects. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the change of prepro-orexin mRNA in the hypothalamus following cisplatin treatment. The effect of orexin-A and cisplatin on the firing rate of arcuate nucleus neurons was recorded...
June 4, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Naoya Murao, Shuzo Matsubara, Taito Matsuda, Hirofumi Noguchi, Tetsuji Mutoh, Masahiro Mutoh, Haruhiko Koseki, Masakazu Namihira, Kinichi Nakashima
Adult neurogenesis is a process of generating new neurons from neural stem/precursor cells (NS/PCs) in restricted adult brain regions throughout life. It is now generally known that adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone participates in various higher brain functions, such as learning and memory formation, olfactory discrimination and repair after brain injury. However, the mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis remain to be fully understood. Here, we show that Nuclear protein 95 KDa (Np95, also known as UHRF1 or ICBP90), which is an essential protein for maintaining DNA methylation during cell division, is involved in multiple processes of adult neurogenesis...
May 31, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Tianxiang Huang, Lena H Nguyen, Tiffany V Lin, Xuan Gong, Longbo Zhang, Gi Bum Kim, Matthew R Sarkisian, Joshua J Breunig, Angelique Bordey
We combined translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) with in utero electroporation (IUE), called iTRAP to identify the molecular profile of specific neuronal populations during neonatal development without the need for viral approaches and FACS sorting. We electroporated a plasmid encoding EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein L10a at embryonic day (E) 14-15 to target layer 2-4 cortical neurons of the somatosensory cortex. At three postnatal (P) ages-P0, P7, and P14-when morphogenesis occurs and synapses are forming, TRAP and molecular profiling was performed from electroporated regions...
May 29, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Takuya Sasaki
The hippocampal network generates synchronized spikes of a large population of pyramidal neurons associated with sharp-wave ripples in local field potential signals. Ample evidence demonstrates that the synchronized spikes are created by sequential activation of hippocampal place cells that correspond to the animal's past or future trajectories and are hypothesized to play instrumental roles in mnemonic functions. However, not all place-cell spike sequences are precisely organized, and some sequences are composed of spikes from non-spatial cells, implying that not all hippocampal synchronized events directly replicate learned behavioral episodes...
May 26, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Ryosuke Morinaga, Nobuaki Nakamuta, Yoshio Yamamoto
The ventral respiratory column (VRC) generates rhythmical respiration and is divided into four compartments: the Bötzinger complex (BC), pre-Bötzinger complex (PBC), rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG), and caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG). Serotonergic nerve fibers are densely distributed in the rostral to caudal VRC and serotonin would be one of the important modulators for the respiratory control in the VRC. In the present study, to elucidate detailed distribution of serotonergic neurons in raphe nuclei projecting to the various rostrocaudal levels of VRC, we performed combination of retrograde tracing technique by cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) with immunohistochemistry for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2)...
May 24, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Masanori Ishiguro, Suguru Kobayashi, Kiyoji Matsuyama, Takashi Nagamine
Propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol) is one of the most popular intravenous anesthetic agents. In this study, we compared the effects of propofol on inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) induced by single and paired electrical stimulations in CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1-PCs) and dentate gyrus granule cells (DG-GCs) in rat hippocampal slices using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. In the absence of propofol, the amplitude of evoked IPSC by single stimulation and decay time constants were stable in both CA1-PCs and DG-GCs for 30 min...
May 17, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Yiping Ding, Jinhong Qian, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Yan Kong, Zhuan Xu, Gang Chen
Inhibition of Janus kinases 2-Signal transducers and activators of transcription3 (JAK2-STAT3) pathway has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory actions. SC99, a novel specific inhibitor targeting JAK2-STAT3 pathway, has been verified to negatively modulate platelet activation and aggregation in vitro. In current study, a middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) model was established in Sprague Dawley rats and primary cultured microglia was exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD/R) in vitro...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue
Neuroimmune communication, the connection between the autonomic regulatory pathway and immune cells, has been implicated in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The role of afferents (vagal afferent and somatic sensory nerves) and efferents (autonomic nervous and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems) in the inflammatory reflex has been well studied; however, the central pathway remains unknown. C1 neurons include both catecholaminergic and glutamatergic neurons, which are located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Taihei Ninomiya, Atsushi Noritake, Markus Ullsperger, Masaki Isoda
Action is a key channel for interacting with the outer world. As such, the ability to monitor actions and their consequences - regardless as to whether they are self-generated or other-generated - is of crucial importance for adaptive behavior. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has long been studied as a critical node for performance monitoring in nonsocial contexts. Accumulating evidence suggests that the MFC is involved in a wide range of functions necessary for one's own performance monitoring, including error detection, and monitoring and resolving response conflicts...
April 27, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Hongwei Guo, Deyu Xia, Shaohua Liao, Bing Niu, Jigang Tang, Huaiqiang Hu, Hairong Qian, Bingzhen Cao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is primarily characterized by the production and deposit of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) in β-amyloid plaques (APs). On this basis, we investigated whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a growth factor with important neuroprotective activity, may provide a therapeutic opportunity for treating AD. We initially found that the expression and production of VEGF was downregulated in the brains of Tg2576 mice during the course of AD development and progression. Restoring VEGF in the brains of Tg2576 mice antagonized the production and deposit of Aβ in Tg2576 mice...
April 24, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Takeshi Nishio, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Isaku Kanno
In general, axonal regeneration is very limited after transection of adult rat spinal cord. We previously demonstrated that regenerative axons reached the lesion site within 6h of sharp transection with a thin scalpel. However, they failed to grow across the lesion site, where injured axon fragments (axon-glial complex, AGC) were accumulated. Considering a possible role of these axon fragments as physicochemical barriers, we examined the effects of prompt elimination of the barriers on axonal growth beyond the lesion site...
June 2018: Neuroscience Research
Shoko Kasuga, Natsumi Momose, Junichi Ushiyama, Junichi Ushiba
Beta-band corticomuscular coherence (CMC) observed between the sensorimotor cortex activity and contracting muscle is declaratively described as a neurophysiological reflection of sensorimotor binding. However, much remains unknown about the functional meaning of 'sensorimotor binding.' The efficacy of information binding in the sensorimotor system is assumed to be influenced by the gain of the feedback controller, which is regulated through a process that may in part be implemented in the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1)...
June 2018: Neuroscience Research
Nicolas Burg, Stefan Bittner, Erik Ellwardt
Epigenetic regulators are increasingly recognized as relevant modulators in the immune and nervous system. The class of sirtuins consists of NAD+ -dependent histone deacetylases that regulate transcription. Sirtuin family member Sirt1 has already been shown to influence the disease course in an animal model of autoimmune neuroinflammation (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). A role of Sirt7, a related epigenetic regulator, on immune system regulation has been proposed before, as these mice are more susceptible to develop inflammatory cardiomyopathy...
June 2018: Neuroscience Research
Kun Zhang, Jiajia Yan, Liang Wang, Xinying Tian, Tong Zhang, Li Guo, Bin Li, Wang Wang, Xiaoyun Liu
Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by Ca2+ overload plays an important role in ischemia-induced brain damage. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), located on the mitochondrial inner membrane, is the major channel responsible for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Activated proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) can directly phosphorylate MCU, which enhances mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in cardiomyocytes. It has been suggested that the Pyk2/MCU pathway may be a novel therapeutic target in stress-induced cellular apoptosis...
June 2018: Neuroscience Research
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