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Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734975/how-consumers-are-affected-by-product-descriptions-in-online-shopping-event-related-potentials-evidence-of-the-attribute-framing-effect
#1
Jia Jin, Wuke Zhang, Mingliang Chen
Due to the limitations of the human ability to process information, e-consumers' decisions are likely to be influenced by various cognitive biases, such as the attribute framing effect. This effect has been well studied by numerous scholars; however, the associated underlying neural mechanisms with a critical temporal resolution have not been revealed. Thus, this study applies the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly examine the role of attribute framing in information processing and decision-making in online shopping...
July 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733199/robust-highly-customizable-and-economical-multi-channel-electrode-for-chronic-multi-unit-recording-in-behaving-animals
#2
Yukina Tateyama, Kei Oyama, Masaru Shiraishi, Toshio Iijima, Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui
Multi-unit recording has been one of the most widely used techniques to investigate the correlation between multiple neuronal activities and behavior. However, a common problem of currently used multi-channel electrodes is their physical weakness. In this study, we developed a novel multi-channel electrode with sufficient physical strength to penetrate a thickened dura mater. This electrode consists of low-cost materials and is easily fabricated, and it enables recording without removing dura mater, thereby reducing the risk of inflammation, infection, or brain herniation...
July 18, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728913/considerations-in-repetitive-activation-of-light-sensitive-ion-channels-for-long-term-studies-channel-rhodopsin-in-the-drosophila-model
#3
Jake Higgins, Christina Hermanns, Cole Malloy, Robin L Cooper
Optogenetics is a technique used in various animal models and holds a potential for therapeutic possibilities in mammals. There are technical issues with the use of light sensitive ion channels: reproducible effects over time, controlling where the non-native proteins are targeted within the cell and changes in the biophysical properties of the cells they are expressed in. We used a variant of channel rhodopsin (ChR2-XXL) and targeted expression in neurons of larval Drosophila to investigate the acute and chronic activation, with light pulses, of the channels on synaptic function...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728912/electric-stimulation-of-the-right-temporo-parietal-junction-induces-a-task-specific-effect-in-deceptive-behaviors
#4
Yasuki Noguchi, Rei Oizumi
How the brain generates a lie is an important and unsolved issue in neuroscience. Previous studies indicated that mentalizing, the ability to understand and manipulate the mental states of others, plays a critical role in successful deception. Accordingly, recent neuroimaging studies reported deception-related activity in the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), a brain region closely related to the mentalizing ability. Detailed functions of rTPJ in deception, however, remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated a causal relationship between rTPJ and deception using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS)...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728911/effects-of-riluzole-on-spinal-seizure-like-activity-in-the-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-of-newborn-rat
#5
Shih Tien Lin, Masayuki Ohbayashi, Toshinori Yamamoto, Hiroshi Onimaru, Mari Kogo
Riluzole blocks persistent Na(+) current, inhibits generation of neuronal bursts and decreases glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In previous studies of respiratory activity, riluzole suppressed inspiratory-related burst generation activity in rat slice or en bloc preparations. We examined riluzole's effects on inspiratory burst generation and drug-induced seizure-like activity in newborn rat en bloc preparations. Medulla-spinal cord preparations from postnatal day 0-3 Wistar rats were isolated under deep isoflurane anesthesia and were superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid equilibrated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, pH 7...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711711/three-dimensional-kinematic-and-kinetic-analysis-of-quadrupedal-walking-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#6
Hikaru Shimada, Ryogo Kanai, Takahiro Kondo, Kimika Yoshino-Saito, Akito Uchida, Masaya Nakamura, Junichi Ushiba, Hideyuki Okano, Naomichi Ogihara
The common marmoset has recently gained a great deal of attention as an experimental primate model for biological science and medical research. To use the common marmoset for development of novel treatments and rehabilitation for locomotor disorders, it is crucial to understand fundamental baseline characteristics of locomotion in this species. Therefore, in the present study we performed kinematic and kinetic analyses of quadrupedal locomotion in this animal. A total of 14 common marmosets walking quadrupedally along a walkway were analyzed using synchronized high-speed cameras, with two force platforms set in the walkway...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711710/comparison-of-the-role-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-in-developmental-refinement-of-neuronal-connectivity-between-the-cerebellum-and-the-sensory-thalamus
#7
REVIEW
Madoka Narushima
Developmental refinement of neuronal connectivity is crucial for proper brain function. In the early phase of development, input fibers arrive at their target areas guided by specific molecular cues and form abundant immature synapses. Then, functionally important synapses are preserved and strengthened by neural activity while unnecessary synapses are eliminated. Afferent synapses in the sensory thalamus, such as from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus, and climbing fiber (CF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the cerebellum are valuable models for studying this developmental refinement of synaptic connectivity because only a limited number of input fibers innervate a given postsynaptic thalamocortical (TC) neuron or PC...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705587/diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-the-level-of-oxidized-dj-1-protein
#8
Yuko Yamagishi, Kazumasa Saigoh, Yoshiro Saito, Ikuko Ogawa, Yoshiyuki Mitsui, Yukihiro Hamada, Makoto Samukawa, Hidekazu Suzuki, Motoi Kuwahara, Makito Hirano, Noriko Noguchi, Susumu Kusunoki
Parkinson's disease (PD) is difficult to distinguish from progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA); in addition, biomarker studies in PD mostly focused on those found in the cerebrospinal fluid, and there are few reports of simple biomarkers identified by blood analysis. Previously, the DJ-1 gene was identified as a causative gene of familial PD. Oxidized DJ-1 protein (oxDJ-1) levels were reported to increase in the blood of patients with unmedicated PD. Therefore, we determined the levels of oxDJ-1 in the erythrocytes of patients with PD, PSP, and MSA using ELISA...
July 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687229/the-phosphodiesterase-10a-selective-inhibitor-tak-063-induces-c-fos-expression-in-both-direct-and-indirect-pathway-medium-spiny-neurons-and-sub-regions-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-rats
#9
Atsushi Nakatani, Sayuri Nakamura, Haruhide Kimura
TAK-063, a selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor, produces potent antipsychotic-like and pro-cognitive effects in rodents via balanced activation of striatal direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Brain activity modulation by TAK-063 has been characterized using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography in animals, revealing modulation of activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) where there is little or no PDE10A expression. To understand the specific brain regions and cells affected by TAK-063 in rats, we assessed neural activation in the striatal complex and PFC using immunofluorescence staining to measure c-Fos expression...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668502/bdnf-as-a-possible-modulator-of-eeg-oscillatory-response-at-the-parietal-cortex-during-visuo-tactile-integration-processes-using-a-rubber-hand
#10
Ryosuke Hiramoto, Noriaki Kanayama, Takashi Nakao, Tomoya Matsumoto, Hirona Konishi, Satoru Sakurai, Go Okada, Yasumasa Okamoto, Shigeto Yamawaki
Multisensory integration of visuo-tactile information presented on the body or a dummy body has a strong impact on body image. Previous research shows that alteration of body image induced by visuo-tactile integration is closely related to the activation of the parietal cortex, a sensory association area. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the parietal area of macaque monkeys is thought to modulate the activation of the parietal cortex and alter the extension of body image during tool-use learning...
June 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668501/a-potential-contribution-of-tenascin-x-to-blood-vessel-formation-in-peripheral-nerves
#11
Hiromichi Sakai, Shigefumi Yokota, Naoyo Kajitani, Tsunao Yoneyama, Kohei Kawakami, Yukihiko Yasui, Ken-Ichi Matsumoto
Tenascin-X (TNX), an extracellular matrix protein, is abundantly expressed in peripheral nerves. However, the physiological role of TNX in peripheral nerves remains unknown. In this study, we found that actin levels in sciatic nerves of TNX-deficient mice were markedly decreased. Since actin was highly expressed in endothelial cells in wild-type sciatic nerves, we assessed morphological alterations of blood vessels in TNX-null sciatic nerves. The density of blood vessels was significantly decreased and the size of blood vessels was larger than those in wild-type sciatic nerves...
June 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668500/toll-like-receptor-4-p38-mapk-signaling-in-the-dorsal-horn-contributes-to-p2x4-receptor-activation-and-bdnf-over-secretion-in-cancer-induced-bone-pain
#12
Xiao-Wen Meng, Jian-Ling Gao, Jian-Ling Zuo, Li-Na Wang, Si-Lan Liu, Xiao-Hong Jin, Ming Yao, Michael Namaka
Our previous research suggested that the P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) expression in microglia was involved in the activation of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in the dorsal horn in the rat model of cancer induced bone pain (CIBP). In this study, we focused on whether TLR4- mitogen-activated protein kinases, p38 (p38 MAPK) contributes to P2X4R activation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) over-secretion in CIBP. In in vitro experiment, the results showed that BDNF expression evoked by ATP stimulation was dependent on TLR4-p38...
June 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624436/zonisamide-inhibits-monoamine-oxidase-and-enhances-motor-performance-and-social-activity
#13
Maiko T Uemura, Takeshi Asano, Rie Hikawa, Hodaka Yamakado, Ryosuke Takahashi
Zonisamide (ZNS) is an effective drug for not only motor symptoms but also non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. However, the actions of ZNS as an anti-Parkinsonian drug are not well understood. To clarify the actions of ZNS in vivo, we administered ZNS to mice and examined the effects on neurotransmitter metabolism and behaviors, focusing on motor and non-motor symptoms. Administration of ZNS decreased dopamine (DA) turnover in various brain regions, including the striatum. In behavioral tests, ZNS enhanced locomotor activity and novelty seeking in the open field test, light-dark transition test, and the social interaction test...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606723/changes-in-cortical-excitability-during-paired-associative-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-and-healthy-subjects
#14
Aleksandra Kačar, Sladjan D Milanović, Saša R Filipović, Miloš R Ljubisavljević
Paired associative stimulation (PAS) combines repetitive peripheral nerve stimulation with motor cortex (M1) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to induce plastic-like changes of cortical excitability. While much attention has been dedicated to post-PAS effects little is known about processes during PAS. We compared the time-course of changes in M1 excitability during standard facilitatory PAS intervention among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), known to have diminished post-PAS response, and healthy subjects...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602996/visual-discrimination-and-reversal-learning-in-aged-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#15
Emily L Munger, Atsushi Takemoto, Mary Ann Raghanti, Katsuki Nakamura
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have been suggested as a new model for analysis of age-related changes and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effects of age on learning and memory processes are not well defined within this species. Therefore, we employed visual discrimination and reversal learning tasks to evaluate learning and memory in four aged common marmosets relative to a younger cohort. We found that aged marmosets commit significantly more errors in initial stages of visual discrimination and more perseverative errors in reversal learning, indicating prefrontal dysfunction...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587858/rebamipide-reduces-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-a%C3%AE-42-production-and-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-43-lowered-cell-viability-in-cultured-sh-sy5y-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#16
Kenta Fukui, Kazuma Yachi, Hidemi Yoshida, Kunikazu Tanji, Tomoh Matsumiya, Ryo Hayakari, Kazushi Tsuruga, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tadaatsu Imaizumi
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, Aβ 1-42 (Aβ42) and Aβ43, in particular, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rebamipide (REB), a gastrointestinal protective drug, can cross the blood-brain barrier after oral administration; however, the effects of REB on neuronal cells have not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of REB on Aβ43-induced cytotoxicity (monomers, 10μM) in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577979/effects-of-multicomponent-training-of-cognitive-control-on-cognitive-function-and-brain-activation-in-older-adults
#17
Hoyoung Kim, Jeanyung Chey, Sanghun Lee
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in cognitive functions and brain activation after multicomponent training of cognitive control in non-demented older adults, utilizing neuropsychological tests and fMRI. We developed and implemented a computerized Multicomponent Training of Cognitive Control (MTCC), characterized by task variability and adaptive procedures, in order to maximize training effects in cognitive control and transfer to other cognitive domains. Twenty-seven community-dwelling adults, aged 64-77 years, without any history of neurological or psychiatric problems, participated in this study (14 in the training group and 13 in the control group)...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577978/social-memory-engram-in-the-hippocampus
#18
REVIEW
Teruhiro Okuyama
Social memory is one of the crucial components of episodic memories. Gregarious animals living in societies utilize social memory to exhibit the appropriate social behaviors such as aggression, avoidance, cooperative behavior, and even mating behavior. However, the neural mechanisms underlying social memory in the hippocampus remains mysterious. Here, I review some evidence from work done in rodents and primates on the brain region(s) and circuits encoding and/or retrieving social memory, as well as a storage for social memory (i...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577977/zonisamide-ameliorates-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia-and-reduces-expression-of-striatal-genes-in-parkinson-model-rats
#19
Mitsuaki Oki, Satoshi Kaneko, Satoshi Morise, Norihiro Takenouchi, Takanori Hashizume, Ayako Tsuge, Masataka Nakamura, Reika Wate, Hirofumi Kusaka
To investigate the difference in results according to the mode of levodopa administration and the effect of zonisamide (ZNS), we analyzed the mRNA expression of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic receptors in the striatum of Parkinson model rats in relation to the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Unilateral Parkinson model rats were subdivided into 4 groups and treated as follows: no medication (group N), continuous levodopa infusion (group C), intermittent levodopa injection (group I), and intermittent levodopa and ZNS injection (group Z)...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526554/the-roles-of-orexins-in-sleep-wake-regulation
#20
REVIEW
Michihiro Mieda
Orexin A and orexin B are hypothalamic neuropeptides initially identified as endogenous ligands for two orphan G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). A deficiency of orexin signaling results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy-cataplexy in humans, dogs, and rodents, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Multiple approaches, including molecular genetic, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and neuroanatomical studies have suggested that orexins play critical roles in the maintenance of wakefulness by regulating the function of monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons that are implicated in the regulation of wakefulness...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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