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Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624436/zonisamide-inhibits-monoamine-oxidase-and-enhances-motor-performance-and-social-activity
#1
Maiko T Uemura, Takeshi Asano, Rie Hikawa, Hodaka Yamakado, Ryosuke Takahashi
Zonisamide (ZNS) is an effective drug for not only motor symptoms but also non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. However, the actions of ZNS as an anti-Parkinsonian drug are not well understood. To clarify the actions of ZNS in vivo, we administered ZNS to mice and examined the effects on neurotransmitter metabolism and behaviors, focusing on motor and non-motor symptoms. Administration of ZNS decreased dopamine (DA) turnover in various brain regions, including the striatum. In behavioral tests, ZNS enhanced locomotor activity and novelty seeking in the open field test, light-dark transition test, and the social interaction test...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606723/changes-in-cortical-excitability-during-paired-associative-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-and-healthy-subjects
#2
Aleksandra Kačar, Sladjan D Milanović, Saša R Filipović, Miloš R Ljubisavljević
Paired associative stimulation (PAS) combines repetitive peripheral nerve stimulation with motor cortex (M1) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to induce plastic-like changes of cortical excitability. While much attention has been dedicated to post-PAS effects little is known about processes during PAS. We compared the time-course of changes in M1 excitability during standard facilitatory PAS intervention among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), known to have diminished post-PAS response, and healthy subjects...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602996/visual-discrimination-and-reversal-learning-in-aged-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#3
Emily L Munger, Atsushi Takemoto, Mary Ann Raghanti, Katsuki Nakamura
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have been suggested as a new model for analysis of age-related changes and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effects of age on learning and memory processes are not well defined within this species. Therefore, we employed visual discrimination and reversal learning tasks to evaluate learning and memory in four aged common marmosets relative to a younger cohort. We found that aged marmosets commit significantly more errors in initial stages of visual discrimination and more perseverative errors in reversal learning, indicating prefrontal dysfunction...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587858/rebamipide-reduces-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-a%C3%AE-42-production-and-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-43-lowered-cell-viability-in-cultured-sh-sy5y-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#4
Kenta Fukui, Kazuma Yachi, Hidemi Yoshida, Kunikazu Tanji, Tomoh Matsumiya, Ryo Hayakari, Kazushi Tsuruga, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tadaatsu Imaizumi
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, Aβ 1-42 (Aβ42) and Aβ43, in particular, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rebamipide (REB), a gastrointestinal protective drug, can cross the blood-brain barrier after oral administration; however, the effects of REB on neuronal cells have not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of REB on Aβ43-induced cytotoxicity (monomers, 10μM) in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577979/effects-of-multicomponent-training-of-cognitive-control-on-cognitive-function-and-brain-activation-in-older-adults
#5
Hoyoung Kim, Jeanyung Chey, Sanghun Lee
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in cognitive functions and brain activation after multicomponent training of cognitive control in non-demented older adults, utilizing neuropsychological tests and fMRI. We developed and implemented a computerized Multicomponent Training of Cognitive Control (MTCC), characterized by task variability and adaptive procedures, in order to maximize training effects in cognitive control and transfer to other cognitive domains. Twenty-seven community-dwelling adults, aged 64-77 years, without any history of neurological or psychiatric problems, participated in this study (14 in the training group and 13 in the control group)...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577978/social-memory-engram-in-the-hippocampus
#6
REVIEW
Teruhiro Okuyama
Social memory is one of the crucial components of episodic memories. Gregarious animals living in societies utilize social memory to exhibit the appropriate social behaviors such as aggression, avoidance, cooperative behavior, and even mating behavior. However, the neural mechanisms underlying social memory in the hippocampus remains mysterious. Here, I review some evidence from work done in rodents and primates on the brain region(s) and circuits encoding and/or retrieving social memory, as well as a storage for social memory (i...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577977/zonisamide-ameliorates-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia-and-reduces-expression-of-striatal-genes-in-parkinson-model-rats
#7
Mitsuaki Oki, Satoshi Kaneko, Satoshi Morise, Norihiro Takenouchi, Takanori Hashizume, Ayako Tsuge, Masataka Nakamura, Reika Wate, Hirofumi Kusaka
To investigate the difference in results according to the mode of levodopa administration and the effect of zonisamide (ZNS), we analyzed the mRNA expression of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic receptors in the striatum of Parkinson model rats in relation to the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Unilateral Parkinson model rats were subdivided into 4 groups and treated as follows: no medication (group N), continuous levodopa infusion (group C), intermittent levodopa injection (group I), and intermittent levodopa and ZNS injection (group Z)...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526553/hypothalamic-regulation-of-the-sleep-wake-cycle
#8
REVIEW
Daisuke Ono, Akihiro Yamanaka
Sleep is one of the most important physiological functions in mammals. It is regulated by not only homeostatic regulation but also circadian clock. Several neuropeptide-producing neurons located in the hypothalamus are implicated in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness. Among them, orexin/hypocretin-producing neurons (orexin neurons) are a crucial component for maintenance of wakefulness, because lack of orexin function results in narcolepsy, which is a sleep disorder. Recent findings have identified substances that excite or inhibit neural activity of orexin neurons...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526554/the-roles-of-orexins-in-sleep-wake-regulation
#9
REVIEW
Michihiro Mieda
Orexin A and orexin B are hypothalamic neuropeptides initially identified as endogenous ligands for two orphan G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). A deficiency of orexin signaling results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy-cataplexy in humans, dogs, and rodents, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Multiple approaches, including molecular genetic, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and neuroanatomical studies have suggested that orexins play critical roles in the maintenance of wakefulness by regulating the function of monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons that are implicated in the regulation of wakefulness...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522336/geldanamycin-inhibits-fas-signaling-pathway-and-protects-neurons-against-ischemia
#10
Xiao-Hui Yin, Yan-Ling Han, Ying Zhuang, Jing-Zhi Yan, Chong Li
The inhibitor of Heat shock proteins 90, geldanamycin (GA), has been reported neuroprotective against both global and focal brain ischemia. To understand the mechanisms underlies the neuroprotection effect of GA, we investigated the relationship between GA pretreatment and Fas signaling pathway in rat global brain ischemia/reperfusion model in the present study. Results showed that GA attenuated neuron loss significantly in hippocampal CA1 region. Upon GA pretreatment, Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 (MLK3) expression and activation and FasL expression was decreased, the assembly of death-inducing signaling complex and activation of downstream apoptosis-associating proteins were inhibited along with neuroprotection...
May 15, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506629/hippocampal-information-processing-across-sleep-wake-cycles
#11
REVIEW
Kenji Mizuseki, Hiroyuki Miyawaki
According to a two-stage memory consolidation model, during waking theta states, afferent activity from the neocortex to the hippocampus induces transient synaptic modification in the hippocampus, where the information is deposited as a labile form of memory trace. During subsequent sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs), the newly acquired hippocampal information is transferred to the neocortex and stored as a long-lasting memory trace. Consistent with this hypothesis, waking theta states and SPW-Rs distinctly control information flow in the hippocampal-entorhinal loop...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501499/sleep-in-vertebrate-and-invertebrate-animals-and-insights-into-the-function-and-evolution-of-sleep
#12
REVIEW
Shinichi Miyazaki, Chih-Yao Liu, Yu Hayashi
Many mammalian species, including humans, spend a substantial fraction of their life sleeping. Sleep deprivation in rats ultimately leads to death, indicating the essential role of sleep. Exactly why sleep is so essential, however, remains largely unknown. From an evolutionary point of view, almost all animal species that have been investigated exhibit sleep or sleep-like states, suggesting that sleep may benefit survival. In certain mammalian and avian species, sleep can be further divided into at least two stages, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501498/the-role-of-sleep-in-the-plasticity-of-the-olfactory-system
#13
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamaguchi
The central olfactory system mediates a variety of odor-guided behaviors crucial for maintenance of animal life. The olfactory neural circuit must be highly plastic to ensure that it responds appropriately to changing odor circumstances. Recent studies have revealed that the processing of odor information changes drastically during waking and sleep and that neural activity during sleep plays pivotal roles in the structural reorganization and functional plasticity of the olfactory system. While olfactory information from the external world is efficiently transferred to the olfactory cortex (OC) via the olfactory bulb (OB) during waking, this information flow is attenuated during slow-wave sleep: during slow-wave sleep, the OC neurons exhibit synchronous discharges without odor input under the entrainment of sharp waves in the local field potential recording...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499835/increase-of-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-in-cerebral-cortex-slices-after-the-transiently-enhanced-metabolic-activity
#14
Toru Sasaki, Takuji Awaji, Kazuyoshi Shimada, Haruyo Sasaki
Under certain conditions such as hypoxia-reoxygenation, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases following hypoxia caused by a decreased oxygen supply. As another hypoxic condition, an excess neural activity status including epileptic seizure induces a decrease in tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2) caused by enhanced oxygen utilization; however, whether ROS generation increases following the hypoxic status induced by transiently enhanced energy metabolism in brain tissue currently remains unknown...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499834/n-stearoyltyrosine-protects-primary-cortical-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-apoptosis-through-inhibiting-anandamide-inactivation-system
#15
Heng-Jing Cui, Sha Liu, Rui Yang, Guo-Hui Fu, Yang Lu
N-stearoylthrosine (NST), a synthesized anandamide (AEA) analogue, plays a neuroprotective role in neurodegenerative diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoids systems (ECS) are involved in the neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic injury. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal injury elevated the levels of endocannabinoids and activated ECS. This research was conducted to investigate the neuroprotective effect of NST against OGD-induced neuronal injury in cultured primary cortical neurons and the potential mechanism involved...
May 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483587/driving-and-regulating-temporal-association-learning-coordinated-by-entorhinal-hippocampal-network
#16
REVIEW
Takashi Kitamura
Episodic memories shape future behaviour and by aiding adaptive behaviour, are therefore important for survival in nature. Entorhinal cortex (EC)-hippocampal (HPC) networks have a crucial role in the formation of episodic memory, which consists of associations of space, objects, individuals and time. Neural circuits have been identified in the EC-HPC networks that provide spatial, contextual and object information. However, the specific neural circuits that allow animals to associate two temporally segregated events, called temporal association learning, are still nebulous...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483586/what-can-tiny-mushrooms-in-fruit-flies-tell-us-about-learning-and-memory
#17
REVIEW
Toshihide Hige
Nervous systems have evolved to translate external stimuli into appropriate behavioral responses. In an ever-changing environment, flexible adjustment of behavioral choice by experience-dependent learning is essential for the animal's survival. Associative learning is a simple form of learning that is widely observed from worms to humans. To understand the whole process of learning, we need to know how sensory information is represented and transformed in the brain, how it is changed by experience, and how the changes are reflected on motor output...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479130/increased-brain-activation-during-motor-imagery-suggests-central-abnormality-in-neonatal-brachial-plexus-palsy
#18
Galia V Anguelova, Serge Rombouts, J Gert van Dijk, Pieter F Buur, Martijn J A Malessy
Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy (NBPP) may lead to permanent impairment of arm function. As NBPP occurs when central motor programs develop, these may be ill-formed. We studied elbow flexion and motor imagery with fMRI to search for abnormal motor programming. We compared the cortical activity of adults with conservatively treated NBPP to that of healthy individuals stratified for hand dominance, using fMRI BOLD tasks of elbow flexion and motor imagery of flexion. Additionally, resting-state networks and regional gray matter volume were studied...
May 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477977/brain-networks-of-social-action-outcome-contingency-the-role-of-the-ventral-striatum-in-integrating-signals-from-the-sensory-cortex-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Motofumi Sumiya, Takahiko Koike, Shuntaro Okazaki, Ryo Kitada, Norihiro Sadato
Social interactions can be facilitated by action-outcome contingency, in which self-actions result in relevant responses from others. Research has indicated that the striatal reward system plays a role in generating action-outcome contingency signals. However, the neural mechanisms wherein signals regarding self-action and others' responses are integrated to generate the contingency signal remain poorly understood. We conducted a functional MRI study to test the hypothesis that brain activity representing the self modulates connectivity between the striatal reward system and sensory regions involved in the processing of others' responses...
May 3, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476463/prefrontal-hippocampal-interactions-for-spatial-navigation
#20
REVIEW
Hiroshi T Ito
Animals have the ability to navigate to a desired location by making use of information about environmental landmarks and their own movements. While decades of neuroscience research have identified neurons in the hippocampus and parahippocampal structures that represent an animal's position in space, it is still largely unclear how an animal can choose the next movement direction to reach a desired goal. As the goal destination is typically located somewhere outside of the range of sensory perception, the animal is required to rely on the internal metric of space to estimate the direction and distance of the destination to plan a next action...
May 2, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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