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Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526554/the-roles-of-orexins-in-sleep-wake-regulation
#1
REVIEW
Michihiro Mieda
Orexin A and orexin B are hypothalamic neuropeptides initially identified as endogenous ligands for two orphan G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). A deficiency of orexin signaling results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy-cataplexy in humans, dogs, and rodents, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Multiple approaches, including molecular genetic, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and neuroanatomical studies have suggested that orexins play critical roles in the maintenance of wakefulness by regulating the function of monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons that are implicated in the regulation of wakefulness...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526553/hypothalamic-regulation-of-the-sleep-wake-cycle
#2
REVIEW
Daisuke Ono, Akihiro Yamanaka
Sleep is one of the most important physiological functions in mammals. It is regulated by not only homeostatic regulation but also circadian clock. Several neuropeptide-producing neurons located in the hypothalamus are implicated in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness. Among them, orexin/hypocretin-producing neurons (orexin neurons) are a crucial component for maintenance of wakefulness, because lack of orexin function results in narcolepsy, which is a sleep disorder. Recent findings have identified substances that excite or inhibit neural activity of orexin neurons...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522336/geldanamycin-inhibits-fas-signaling-pathway-and-protects-neurons-against-ischemia
#3
Xiao-Hui Yin, Yan-Ling Han, Ying Zhuang, Jing-Zhi Yan, Chong Li
The inhibitor of Heat shock proteins 90, geldanamycin (GA), has been reported neuroprotective against both global and focal brain ischemia. To understand the mechanisms underlies the neuroprotection effect of GA, we investigated the relationship between GA pretreatment and Fas signaling pathway in rat global brain ischemia/reperfusion model in the present study. Results showed that GA attenuated neuron loss significantly in hippocampal CA1 region. Upon GA pretreatment, Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 (MLK3) expression and activation and FasL expression was decreased, the assembly of death-inducing signaling complex and activation of downstream apoptosis-associating proteins were inhibited along with neuroprotection...
May 15, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506629/hippocampal-information-processing-across-sleep-wake-cycles
#4
REVIEW
Kenji Mizuseki, Hiroyuki Miyawaki
According to a two-stage memory consolidation model, during waking theta states, afferent activity from the neocortex to the hippocampus induces transient synaptic modification in the hippocampus, where the information is deposited as a labile form of memory trace. During subsequent sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs), the newly acquired hippocampal information is transferred to the neocortex and stored as a long-lasting memory trace. Consistent with this hypothesis, waking theta states and SPW-Rs distinctly control information flow in the hippocampal-entorhinal loop...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501499/sleep-in-vertebrate-and-invertebrate-animals-and-insights-into-the-function-and-evolution-of-sleep
#5
REVIEW
Shinichi Miyazaki, Chih-Yao Liu, Yu Hayashi
Many mammalian species, including humans, spend a substantial fraction of their life sleeping. Sleep deprivation in rats ultimately leads to death, indicating the essential role of sleep. Exactly why sleep is so essential, however, remains largely unknown. From an evolutionary point of view, almost all animal species that have been investigated exhibit sleep or sleep-like states, suggesting that sleep may benefit survival. In certain mammalian and avian species, sleep can be further divided into at least two stages, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501498/the-role-of-sleep-in-the-plasticity-of-the-olfactory-system
#6
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamaguchi
The central olfactory system mediates a variety of odor-guided behaviors crucial for maintenance of animal life. The olfactory neural circuit must be highly plastic to ensure that it responds appropriately to changing odor circumstances. Recent studies have revealed that the processing of odor information changes drastically during waking and sleep and that neural activity during sleep plays pivotal roles in the structural reorganization and functional plasticity of the olfactory system. While olfactory information from the external world is efficiently transferred to the olfactory cortex (OC) via the olfactory bulb (OB) during waking, this information flow is attenuated during slow-wave sleep: during slow-wave sleep, the OC neurons exhibit synchronous discharges without odor input under the entrainment of sharp waves in the local field potential recording...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499835/reactive-oxygen-species-generation-increases-in-cerebral-cortex-slices-after-the-transiently-enhanced-metabolic-activity
#7
Toru Sasaki, Takuji Awaji, Kazuyoshi Shimada, Haruyo Sasaki
Under certain conditions such as hypoxia-reoxygenation, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases following hypoxia caused by a decreased oxygen supply. As another hypoxic condition, an excess neural activity status including epileptic seizure induces a decrease in tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2) caused by enhanced oxygen utilization; however, whether ROS generation increases following the hypoxic status induced by transiently enhanced energy metabolism in brain tissue currently remains unknown...
May 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499834/n-stearoyltyrosine-protects-primary-cortical-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-apoptosis-through-inhibiting-anandamide-inactivation-system
#8
Heng-Jing Cui, Sha Liu, Rui Yang, Guo-Hui Fu, Yang Lu
N-stearoylthrosine (NST), a synthesized anandamide (AEA) analogue, plays a neuroprotective role in neurodegenerative diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoids systems (ECS) are involved in the neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic injury. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal injury elevated the levels of endocannabinoids and activated ECS. This research was conducted to investigate the neuroprotective effect of NST against OGD-induced neuronal injury in cultured primary cortical neurons and the potential mechanism involved...
May 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483587/driving-and-regulating-temporal-association-learning-coordinated-by-entorhinal-hippocampal-network
#9
REVIEW
Takashi Kitamura
Episodic memories shape future behaviour and by aiding adaptive behaviour, are therefore important for survival in nature. Entorhinal cortex (EC)-hippocampal (HPC) networks have a crucial role in the formation of episodic memory, which consists of associations of space, objects, individuals and time. Neural circuits have been identified in the EC-HPC networks that provide spatial, contextual and object information. However, the specific neural circuits that allow animals to associate two temporally segregated events, called temporal association learning, are still nebulous...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483586/what-can-tiny-mushrooms-in-fruit-flies-tell-us-about-learning-and-memory
#10
REVIEW
Toshihide Hige
Nervous systems have evolved to translate external stimuli into appropriate behavioral responses. In an ever-changing environment, flexible adjustment of behavioral choice by experience-dependent learning is essential for the animal's survival. Associative learning is a simple form of learning that is widely observed from worms to humans. To understand the whole process of learning, we need to know how sensory information is represented and transformed in the brain, how it is changed by experience, and how the changes are reflected on motor output...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479130/increased-brain-activation-during-motor-imagery-suggests-central-abnormality-in-neonatal-brachial-plexus-palsy
#11
Galia V Anguelova, Serge Rombouts, J Gert van Dijk, Pieter F Buur, Martijn J A Malessy
Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy (NBPP) may lead to permanent impairment of arm function. As NBPP occurs when central motor programs develop, these may be ill-formed. We studied elbow flexion and motor imagery with fMRI to search for abnormal motor programming. We compared the cortical activity of adults with conservatively treated NBPP to that of healthy individuals stratified for hand dominance, using fMRI BOLD tasks of elbow flexion and motor imagery of flexion. Additionally, resting-state networks and regional gray matter volume were studied...
May 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477977/brain-networks-of-social-action-outcome-contingency-the-role-of-the-ventral-striatum-in-integrating-signals-from-the-sensory-cortex-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Motofumi Sumiya, Takahiko Koike, Shuntaro Okazaki, Ryo Kitada, Norihiro Sadato
Social interactions can be facilitated by action-outcome contingency, in which self-actions result in relevant responses from others. Research has indicated that the striatal reward system plays a role in generating action-outcome contingency signals. However, the neural mechanisms wherein signals regarding self-action and others' responses are integrated to generate the contingency signal remain poorly understood. We conducted a functional MRI study to test the hypothesis that brain activity representing the self modulates connectivity between the striatal reward system and sensory regions involved in the processing of others' responses...
May 3, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476463/prefrontal-hippocampal-interactions-for-spatial-navigation
#13
REVIEW
Hiroshi T Ito
Animals have the ability to navigate to a desired location by making use of information about environmental landmarks and their own movements. While decades of neuroscience research have identified neurons in the hippocampus and parahippocampal structures that represent an animal's position in space, it is still largely unclear how an animal can choose the next movement direction to reach a desired goal. As the goal destination is typically located somewhere outside of the range of sensory perception, the animal is required to rely on the internal metric of space to estimate the direction and distance of the destination to plan a next action...
May 2, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457959/differential-motor-cortex-excitability-during-observation-of-normal-and-abnormal-goal-directed-movement-patterns
#14
Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Hua-Hsuan Sun, Jia-Qi Weng, Yi-Jhan Tseng
Beta (∼20-Hz) activity induced by median nerve stimulation has been reported to be located in the primary motor cortex (M1) and associated with various movement-related tasks. It has been evident that the ∼20-Hz activity was suppressed more in the observation of goal-directed than non-goal-directed tool use. However, it remains unclear whether this rhythmic activity is further modulated by the observation of normal and abnormal goal-directed hand movements. We recorded neuromagnetic responses in 19 right-handed healthy adults while they kept relaxed (Rest), manipulated a small cube (Act), observed videotapes with normal (Normal) or abnormal (Abnormal) hand actions...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450153/epidural-focal-brain-cooling-abolishes-neocortical-seizures-in-cats-and-non-human-primates
#15
Takao Inoue, Masami Fujii, Hiroyuki Kida, Toshitaka Yamakawa, Yuichi Maruta, Tatsuji Tokiwa, Yeting He, Sadahiro Nomura, Yuji Owada, Takeshi Yamakawa, Michiyasu Suzuki
Focal brain cooling (FBC) is under investigation in preclinical trials of intractable epilepsy (IE), including status epilepticus (SE). This method has been studied in rodents as a possible treatment for epileptic disorders, but more evidence from large animal studies is required. To provide evidence that FBC is a safe and effective therapy for IE, we investigated if FBC using a titanium cooling plate can reduce or terminate focal neocortical seizures without having a significant impact on brain tissue. Two cats and two macaque monkeys were chronically implanted with an epidural FBC device over the somatosensory and motor cortex...
April 24, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450152/early-deprivation-increases-high-leaning-behavior-a-novel-anxiety-like-behavior-in-the-open-field-test-in-rats
#16
Hiroshi Kuniishi, Satoshi Ichisaka, Miki Yamamoto, Natsuko Ikubo, Sae Matsuda, Eri Futora, Riho Harada, Kohei Ishihara, Yoshio Hata
The open field test is one of the most popular ethological tests to assess anxiety-like behavior in rodents. In the present study, we examined the effect of early deprivation (ED), a model of early life stress, on anxiety-like behavior in rats. In ED animals, we failed to find significant changes in the time spent in the center or thigmotaxis area of the open field, the common indexes of anxiety-like behavior. However, we found a significant increase in high-leaning behavior in which animals lean against the wall standing on their hindlimbs while touching the wall with their forepaws at a high position...
April 24, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438481/genes-and-neural-circuits-for-sleep-of-the-fruit-fly
#17
REVIEW
Jun Tomita, Gosuke Ban, Kazuhiko Kume
Sleep is a universal physiological state evolutionarily conserved among species, but the molecular basis for its regulation is still largely unknown. Due to its electroencephalogram criteria, sleep has long been investigated and described mostly in mammalian species. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a genetic model organism for studying sleep. The Drosophila sleep is behaviorally defined, and is tightly regulated by circadian and homeostatic processes, like mammals. Genetic analyses using Drosophila have successfully identified a number of conserved regulatory mechanisms underlying sleep between flies and mammals...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434992/promising-techniques-to-illuminate-neuromodulatory-control-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-sleeping-and-waking-states
#18
REVIEW
Takeshi Kanda, Kaoru Ohyama, Hiroki Muramoto, Nami Kitajima, Hiroshi Sekiya
Sleep, a common event in daily life, has clear benefits for brain function, but what goes on in the brain when we sleep remains unclear. Sleep was long regarded as a silent state of the brain because the brain seemingly lacks interaction with the surroundings during sleep. Since the discovery of electrical activities in the brain at rest, electrophysiological methods have revealed novel concepts in sleep research. During sleep, the brain generates oscillatory activities that represent characteristic states of sleep...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434991/the-control-of-sleep-and-wakefulness-by-mesolimbic-dopamine-systems
#19
REVIEW
Yo Oishi, Michael Lazarus
The mesolimbic dopamine pathway between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in motivational behaviors. Recent findings indicate that the VTA and NAc are also involved in sleep/wake regulation - the topic of this review. First, we present an overview of the growing evidence from rodent studies revealing a wake-regulatory role of VTA dopamine neurons. We also discuss brain areas and their neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that may regulate the activity of wake-promoting VTA dopamine neurons...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434990/role-of-circadian-rhythm-and-rem-sleep-for-memory-consolidation
#20
REVIEW
Zhengui Xia, Dan Storm
Although sleep is strongly implicated in memory consolidation, the molecular basis for the role of sleep in memory is not known. It has been established that the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory depends on the activation of the Erk1,2 MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway which activates de novo CRE-mediated transcription and translation, two processes required for memory consolidation pathway. The activation of MAPK during memory formation and its nuclear translocation both depend upon cAMP signals generated by the calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, type 1 and type 8 (AC1 and AC8)...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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