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Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343884/short-term-desensitization-of-fast-escape-behavior-associated-with-suppression-of-mauthner-cell-activity-in-larval-zebrafish
#1
Megumi Takahashi, Maya Inoue, Masashi Tanimoto, Tsunehiko Kohashi, Yoichi Oda
Escape is among the simplest animal behaviors employed to study the neural mechanisms underlying learning. Teleost fishes exhibit behavioral learning of fast escape initiated with a C-shaped body bend (C-start). C-starts are subdivided into short-latency (SLC) and long-latency (LLC) types in larval zebrafish. Whether these two can be separately modified, and the neural correlates of this modification, however, remains undetermined. We thus performed Ca(2+) imaging of Mauthner (M-) cells, a pair of giant hindbrain neurons constituting a core element of SLC circuit, during behavioral learning in larval zebrafish...
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322984/pain-related-evoked-potentials-after-intraepidermal-electrical-stimulation-to-a%C3%AE-and-c-fibers-in-patients-with-neuropathic-pain
#2
Shigeki Omori, Sagiri Isose, Sonoko Misawa, Keisuke Watanabe, Yukari Sekiguchi, Kazumoto Shibuya, Minako Beppu, Hiroshi Amino, Satoshi Kuwabara
Neuropathic pain can result from neuronal hyperexcitability and complex interactions of the nociceptive pathways. Intraepidermal electrical stimulation (IES) is a novel technique that can selectively activate Aδ and C fibers. To investigate patterns of changes in Aδ- and C-mediated brain responses in patients with neuropathic pain using IES, we recorded pain-related evoked potential (PREP) after IES of Aδ and C fibers in 20 patients with neuropathic pain and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers. We evaluated PREP latencies, amplitudes, and amplitude ratios of PREPs after C/Aδ-fiber stimulation...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322983/the-relationship-between-fear-extinction-and-resilience-to-drug-dependence-in-rats
#3
Masaharu Ueno, Kazuo Yamada, Yukio Ichitani
Some individuals recover quickly from stressful events, while others do not; this suggests that there are individual differences in stress resilience. Previous studies in rats have shown that an animal's ability to extinguish conditioned fear can predict their stress resilience. In the present study, we investigated whether rats who are resilient or vulnerable to fear conditioning would consistently show resilient or vulnerable behaviors in other behavioral tests. Male Wistar-Imamichi rats were subjected to a series of behavioral tests, including open field, conditioned place-preference (CPP), forced swim and auditory fear conditioning...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288866/distinct-response-properties-of-rat-prepositus-hypoglossi-nucleus-neurons-classified-on-the-basis-of-firing-patterns
#4
Yasuhiko Saito, Yuchio Yanagawa
Neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), which is involved in controlling horizontal gaze, show distinct firing patterns in response to depolarizing current pulses. Although the firing patterns are commonly used to classify neuron types, whether the classified PHN neurons show differences in voltage response properties when stimulated with various types of current inputs remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the response properties of PHN neurons to various current stimuli using whole-cell recordings in rat brainstem slices...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288865/retinal-npy-and-5-ht-inputs-to-the-aged-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-in-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#5
Rovena C G J Engelberth, Kayo D de Azevedo Silva, Felipe Porto Fiuza, Joacil Germano Soares, Miriam S M O Costa, Ruthnaldo R de Melo Lima, Expedito Silva do Nascimento, José R Dos Santos, José R L P Cavalcanti, Jeferson S Cavalcante
The circadian timing system (CTS) anticipates optimal physiological patterns in response to environmental fluctuations, such as light-dark cycle. Since age-related disruption of circadian synchronization is linked to several pathological conditions, we characterized alterations of neurochemical constituents and retinal projections to the major pacemaker of CTS, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), in adult and aged marmosets. We used intraocular injections of neural tracer Cholera toxin b (CTb) to report age-related reductions in CTb, neuropeptide Y and serotonin immunoreactivities...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284708/visual-experience-regulates-the-development-of-long-term-synaptic-modifications-induced-by-low-frequency-stimulation-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#6
Taketoshi Sugimura, Mariko Yamamoto, Kazumasa Yamada, Yukio Komatsu, Yumiko Yoshimura
Manipulation of visual experience can considerably modify visual responses of visual cortical neurons even in adulthood in the mouse, although the modification is less profound than that observed during the critical period. Our previous studies demonstrated that low-frequency (2Hz) stimulation for 15min applied to layer 4 induces T-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at excitatory synapses in layer 2/3 neurons of visual cortex during the critical period. In this study, we investigated whether low-frequency stimulation could induce synaptic plasticity in adult mice...
March 8, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267578/continuous-membrane-potential-fluctuations-in-motor-cortex-and-striatum-neurons-during-voluntary-forelimb-movements-and-pauses
#7
Satoshi Nonomura, Yoko Fujiwara-Tsukamoto, Takafumi Kajihara, Fumino Fujiyama, Yoshikazu Isomura
Theoretical simulations suggest that spike rate is regulated by varying both membrane potential and its fluctuation. We investigated whether membrane potential fluctuation functionally changes in motor cortex and striatum neurons during discrete forelimb movements and pauses, or at rest, using whole-cell recording in task-performing rats. Membrane potential fluctuation was diminished by task performance, but maintained overall in the alpha/beta and gamma bands during forelimb movements and pauses. By contrast, membrane potential itself was correlated with spike rate in task-related neurons...
March 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257798/the-use-of-an-optimized-chimeric-envelope-glycoprotein-enhances-the-efficiency-of-retrograde-gene-transfer-of-a-pseudotyped-lentiviral-vector-in-the-primate-brain
#8
Soshi Tanabe, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Hitomi Tsuge, Shiori Uezono, Kiyomi Nagaya, Maki Fijiwara, Shigeki Kato, Kazuto Kobayashi, Masahiko Takada
Lentiviral vectors have been used not only for various basic research experiments, but also for a wide range of gene therapy trials in animal models. The development of a pseudotyped lentiviral vector with the property of retrograde infection allows us to introduce foreign genes into neurons that are localized in regions innervating the site of vector injection. Here, we report the efficiency of retrograde gene transfer of a recently developed FuG-E pseudotyped lentiviral vector in the primate brain by comparing its transduction pattern with that of the parental FuG-C pseudotyped vector...
February 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215819/use-of-human-methylation-arrays-for-epigenome-research-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#9
Junko Ueda, Yui Murata, Miki Bundo, Arata Oh-Nishi, Hidetoshi Kassai, Tempei Ikegame, Zhilei Zhao, Seiichiro Jinde, Atsu Aiba, Tetsuya Suhara, Kiyoto Kasai, Tadafumi Kato, Kazuya Iwamoto
We examined the usefulness of commercially available DNA methylation arrays designed for the human genome (Illumina HumanMethylation450 and MethylationEPIC) for high-throughput epigenome analysis of the common marmoset, a nonhuman primate suitable for research on neuropsychiatric disorders. From among the probes on the methylation arrays, we selected those available for the common marmoset. DNA methylation data were obtained from genomic DNA extracted from the frontal cortex and blood samples of adult common marmosets as well as the frontal cortex of neonatal marmosets...
February 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215820/the-use-of-fish-models-to-study-human-neurological-disorders
#10
Hideaki Matsui
Small teleost fish including zebrafish and medaka have been used as animal models in basic science research due to the relative ease of handling and transparency during embryogenesis. Current advances in genetic engineering and progress in disease genetics allowed utilization of these fish to study neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of using fish for neuropsychiatric research using primarily our own studies as examples. We discuss how fish belong to a class of vertebrates, are feasible for imaging, and include diverse species with multiple research possibilities yet to be discovered...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212867/protective-effect-of-spermine-against-pentylenetetrazole-kindling-epilepsy-induced-comorbidities-in-mice
#11
Mandeep Kumar, Puneet Kumar
Nitric oxide (NO), an important intracellular signaling molecule is involved in modulation of neuronal transmission. The NO level increases during epileptic activity in animal models of epilepsy. However, its role in epileptic activity remains controversial. Spermine is an endogenous polyamine; possesses anti-oxidant property and has ability to modulate ion channels and NO synthase activity. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of NO pathway in the neuroprotective effect of spermine, in Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced kindling epilepsy in mice...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193532/age-dependent-atypicalities-in-body-and-face-sensitive-activation-of-the-eba-and-ffa-in-individuals-with-asd
#12
Yuko Okamoto, Hirotaka Kosaka, Ryo Kitada, Ayumi Seki, Hiroki C Tanabe, Masamichi J Hayashi, Takanori Kochiyama, Daisuke N Saito, Hisakazu T Yanaka, Toshio Munesue, Makoto Ishitobi, Masao Omori, Yuji Wada, Hidehiko Okazawa, Tatsuya Koeda, Norihiro Sadato
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficuly in recognizing bodies and faces, which are more pronounced in children than adults. If such difficulties originate from dysfunction of the extrastriate body area (EBA) and the fusiform face area (FFA), activation in these regions might be more atypical in children than in adults. We preformed functional magnetic resonance imaging while children and adults with ASD and age-matched typically developed (TD) individuals observed face, body, car, and scene...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193531/mutation-of-a-putative-map-kinase-consensus-site-regulates-ncam-endocytosis-and-ncam-dependent-neurite-outgrowth
#13
Tobias Goschzik, Harold Cremer, Vinayaga S Gnanapragassam, Rüdiger Horstkorte, Kaya Bork, Simone Diestel
The cytoplasmic domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM contains several putative serine/threonine phosphorylation sites whose functions are largely unknown. Human NCAM140 (NCAM140) possesses a potential MAP kinase phosphorylation site at threonine (T) 803. The aim of this study was to analyze a possible phosphorylation of NCAM140 by MAP kinases and to identify the functional role of T803. We found that NCAM140 is phosphorylated by the MAP kinase ERK2 in vitro. Exchange of T803 to aspartic acid (D) which mimics constitutive phosphorylation at the respective position resulted in increased endocytosis compared to NCAM140 in neuroblastoma cells and primary neurons...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193530/calcium-binding-protein-secretagogin-characterizes-novel-groups-of-interneurons-in-the-rat-striatum
#14
Toshio Kosaka, Seiko Yasuda, Katsuko Kosaka
In the rat striatum numerous secretagogin (SCGN) positive neurons were scattered. They were heterogeneous in their morphological and chemical properties. We examined the colocalization of SCGN with known four interneuron markers, parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT). 60-70% of SCGN positive striatal neurons contained either PV or CR or ChAT, but none contained NOS. On the other hand the remaining 30-40% expressed none of these markers, most of which were GAD positive...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159649/field-evoked-potentials-in-the-globus-pallidus-of-non-human-primates
#15
Ian A Prescott, Robert A Marino, Ron Levy
Stimulation-induced field evoked potentials (fEPs) have been described in the basal ganglia output nuclei of patients with Parkinson's disease and dystonia. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether fEPs were inducible in the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the globus pallidus in normal non-human primates (NHPs). Microelectrode recording and stimulation was performed in the GPe and GPi of 2 healthy NHPs. Stimulus response curves of the fEP response to changing pulse width and amplitude examined strength-duration relationships and allowed for calculation of fEP chronaxie in the GPe and GPi...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153523/systemic-administration-of-the-dietary-constituent-resveratrol-inhibits-the-nociceptive-jaw-opening-reflex-in-rats-via-the-endogenous-opioid-system
#16
Shota Kokuba, Shiori Takehana, Katsuo Oshima, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, under in vivo conditions, systemic administration of resveratrol could attenuate the rat nociceptive jaw-opening reflex (JOR) via the endogenous opioid system. The JOR evoked by electrical stimulation of the tongue was recorded as digastric muscle electromyograms (dEMG) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. The amplitude of the dEMG increased significantly in proportion to the intensity of electrical stimulation (from 1× to 5 × threshold for the JOR)...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153522/cdk5-inhibitors-prevent-astroglial-apoptosis-and-reactive-astrogliosis-by-regulating-pka-and-drp1-phosphorylations-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#17
Hye-Won Hyun, Su-Ji Min, Ji-Eun Kim
Status epilepticus (SE) results in the unique pattern of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)-mediated mitochondrial dynamics, which is associated with astroglial apoptosis and reactive astrogliosis in the regional-specific pattern representing the differential astroglial properties. However, less defined are the epiphenomena/upstream effecters for DRP1 phosphorylation in this process. Since cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is involved in reactive astrogliosis, CDK5 is one of the possible upstream regulators for DRP1 phosphorylation...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111220/prophylactic-active-immunization-with-a-novel-epitope-vaccine-improves-cognitive-ability-by-decreasing-amyloid-plaques-and-neuroinflammation-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#18
Li Ding, Yuan Meng, Hui-Yi Zhang, Wen-Chao Yin, Yi Yan, Yun-Peng Cao
Both amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) deposition and neuroinflammation are considered to be early events that play pivotal roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and its associated cognitive impairment. Prophylactic anti-Aβ active immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for AD, if the Aβ-specific autoimmune responses to self T cell epitopes of Aβ can be avoided. This can be achieved by the use of antigen, which contains the B cell epitope of Aβ and excludes the Aβ-specific T cell epitope. In this study, we developed a novel peptide epitope vaccine, Aβ3-10-KLH, by coupling the B cell epitope Aβ3-10 to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as the carrier protein, and subcutaneously injected it into 2...
January 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077288/micro-endoscopic-system-for-functional-assessment-of-neural-circuits-in-deep-brain-regions-simultaneous-optical-and-electrical-recordings-of-auditory-responses-in-mouse-s-inferior-colliculus
#19
Hidetaka Yashiro, Ichiro Nakahara, Kazuo Funabiki, Hiroshi Riquimaroux
In vivo Ca(2+) imaging is a powerful method for the functional assessment of neural circuits. Although multi-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy has been widely used, observation of circuits in deep brain regions remains challenging. Recently, observing these deep regions has become possible via an endoscope consisting of an optical fiber bundle or gradient-index lens. We have designed a micro-endoscope system that enables simultaneous optical recording of fluorescence and electrical recording of neural activity...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063977/enteric-glial-reactivity-to-systemic-lps-administration-changes-in-gfap-and-s100b-protein
#20
Raphaela da Cunha Franceschi, Patrícia Nardin, Clivia Valle Machado, Lucas Silva Tortorelli, Malcon Andrei Martinez-Pereira, Caroline Zanotto, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, Denise Maria Zancan
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is used to induce inflammation and promotes nervous system activation. Different regions of the brain present heterogeneous glial responses; thus, in order to verify whether systemic LPS-induced inflammation affects the enteric glia differently across the intestinal segments, we evaluated the expressions of two glial activity markers, GFAP and S100B protein, in different intestine segments, at 1h, 24h and 7days after acute systemic LPS administration (0.25 or 2.5mgkg(-1)) in rats. Histological inflammatory analysis indicated that the cecum was most affected when compared to the duodenum and proximal colon at the highest doses of LPS...
January 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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