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Neuroscience Research

Jinshan Shi, Ke Jiang, Zhaoduan Li
Neuropathic pain perplexes a large population of patients with various diseases. Inflammation plays a key role in the physiopathology of neuropathic pain. Anti-inflammatory can be a promising strategy to treat neuropathic pain. We generated a chronic constriction injury rat model to mimic neuropathic pain by ligating the left ischiadic nerves of rats. Then we performed intrathecal injection of miR-145 mimics to treat these rats for seven consecutive days. Pain behavior tests including mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were analyzed...
November 18, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Yasuyuki Ito, Atsuko Honda, Michihiro Igarashi
Neuronal development is composed of the complex steps which involve many signaling proteins. On the other hand, there are many proteins highly expressed in the differentiated neurons at developmental stages, but of which physiological functions are not precisely known so far. Glycoprotein 6a (GPM6a) currently belongs to such proteins. This protein has four-transmembrane domains and is a member of proteolipid protein family. Recently, we demonstrated that GPM6a is highly concentrated in lipid rafts of the developing neuron with its palmitoylation, and that this molecule is involved in rapid determination of the neuronal polarity, in response to laminin, an extracellular matrix protein (Honda et al...
November 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Saori Watanabe-Matsumoto, Yasuhiro Moriwaki, Takashi Okuda, Shinji Ohara, Koji Yamanaka, Yoichiro Abe, Masato Yasui, Hidemi Misawa
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and is involved in the water balance in the cellular environment. Previous studies have reported that AQP4 expression is upregulated in rat models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal disease that affects motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In this study, we report that astrocytic AQP4 overexpression is evident during the course of disease in the spinal cord of an ALS mouse model, as well as in tissue from patients with ALS...
November 15, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Hiroaki Tanaka, Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yohei Okada
The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) of the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) during imaginary muscle contraction (Contract-I) and relaxation (Relax-I) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twenty-nine healthy adults completed two experiments. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle were induced by TMS over the left M1 and measured with or without TMS over the right cerebellum during Contract-I (first experiment) and Relax-I (second experiment) of the right FDI, and these were compared to the findings in a no-imagery (No-I) condition...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Yui Murakami, Shinya Sakai, Kenta Takeda, Daisuke Sawamura, Kazuki Yoshida, Takamichi Hirose, Chisa Ikeda, Hiroki Mani, Toru Yamamoto, Ayahito Ito
Previous findings have revealed abnormal visual attention or processing of faces among individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC). However, little attention has been paid to the relationship between autistic traits and neural mechanisms associated with representing facial values. Using fMRI, we investigated the patterns of brain activity in the vmPFC and VS in response to faces of elderly males, elderly females, young males, and young females. During fMRI, subjects with a relatively high autism quotient (high group) and those with a relatively low autism quotient (low group) were presented with a face and asked to rate its pleasantness...
November 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Takeshi Nishio, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Isaku Kanno
In general, axonal regeneration is very limited after transection of adult rat spinal cord. We previously demonstrated that regenerative axons reached the lesion site within 6hours of sharp transection with a thin scalpel. However, they failed to grow across the lesion site, where injured axon fragments (axon-glial complex, AGC) were accumulated. Considering a possible role of these axon fragments as physicochemical barriers, we examined the effects of prompt elimination of the barriers on axonal growth beyond the lesion site...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Jisha Tian, Rui Chen, Lan Hu, Linglei Zhang, Jiaou Chen, Yungang Cao, Xiaoling Guo, Longqing Wang, Zhao Han
Astrocytes play a pivotal role in neuronal survival in the setting of post-ischemic brain inflammation, but the astrocyte-derived mediators of ischemic brain injury remain to be defined. 2-(2-Benzofu-ranyl)-2-imidazoline (2-BFI) is a newly discovered ligand for high-affinity imidazoline I2 receptors (I2Rs) mainly located on the mitochondrial outer membrane in astrocytes. We previously reported that in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, 2-BFI limits infarct volume, reduces neurological impairment scores, and inhibits neuronal apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra...
October 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Tomomi Shimogori, Ayumi Abe, Yasuhiro Go, Tsutomu Hashikawa, Noriyuki Kishi, Satomi S Kikuchi, Yoshiaki Kita, Kimie Niimi, Hirozumi Nishibe, Misako Okuno, Kanako Saga, Miyano Sakurai, Masae Sato, Tsuna Serizawa, Sachie Suzuki, Eiki Takahashi, Mami Tanaka, Shoji Tatsumoto, Mitsuhiro Toki, Mami U, Yan Wang, Karl J Windak, Haruhiko Yamagishi, Keiko Yamashita, Tomoko Yoda, Aya C Yoshida, Chihiro Yoshida, Takuro Yoshimoto, Hideyuki Okano
Interest in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a primate model animal has grown recently, in part due to the successful demonstration of transgenic marmosets. However, there is some debate as to the suitability of marmosets, compared to more widely used animal models, such as the macaque monkey and mouse. Especially, the usage of marmoset for animal models of human cognition and mental disorders, is still yet to be fully explored. To examine the prospects of the marmoset model for neuroscience research, the Marmoset Gene Atlas (https://gene-atlas...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Hiromu Monai, Hajime Hirase
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to be effective in treating mood disorders such as major depressive disorder, however, its detailed mechanism of action is not fully understood. Human and animal experiments have demonstrated that tDCS promotes brain plasticity and have suggested that this consequence may underlie its therapeutic benefits. Nonetheless, the specific neurobiological underpinnings of tDCS-induced brain plasticity have only recently begun to be investigated. While brain plasticity occurs in synapses formed by neurons, astrocytes, a major glial cell type, have recently been shown to support synaptic plasticity via intracellular Ca(2+) signaling...
October 25, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Yoshiaki Yamaguchi
Almost all organisms on Earth have an internal biological clock, known as the circadian clock. This clock system drives robust oscillations in metabolism, physiology, and behavior, such as hormone secretions, blood pressure, and sleep/wake cycles, with a period of approximately 24h. In mammals, circadian rhythms are generated by a timing system comprised of a master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus, which orchestrates the clocks in the peripheral tissues. Jet lag, caused by an abrupt change of environmental light-dark cycles, induces a temporal misalignment of the output signal from SCN...
October 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Simone Sulpizio, Kaori Kuroda, Matteo Dalsasso, Tetsuya Asakawa, Marc H Bornstein, Hirokazu Doi, Gianluca Esposito, Kazuyuki Shinohara
The aim of the present work was a cross-linguistic generalization of Inoue et al.'s (2011) algorithm for discriminating infant- (IDS) vs. adult-directed speech (ADS). IDS is the way in which mothers communicate with infants; it is a universal communicative property, with some cross-linguistic differences. Inoue et al. (2011) implemented a machine algorithm that, by using a mel-frequency cepstral coefficient and a hidden Markov model, discriminated IDS from ADS in Japanese. We applied the original algorithm to two other languages that are very different from Japanese - Italian and German - and then tested the algorithm on Italian and German databases of IDS and ADS...
October 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Shamsher Singh, Puneet Kumar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurological disorder caused by selective dopaminergic neuronal loss. Quercetin (QC) in combination with piperine (bioenhancer) acts as potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective against 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Rats were injected 6-OHDA (8μg/2μl, saline) unilaterally, intranigrally once into right SNpc. Pre-treatment with QC (25 and 50mg/kg, p.o.) alone and combination of QC (25mg/kg, p.o.) with piperine (2.5mg/kg, p.o.) were given for 14days starting from 8th day of 6-OHDA infusion...
October 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Zohreh Abbasi, Fatemeh Behnam-Rassouli, Mohammad Mahdi Ghahramani Seno, Masoud Fereidoni
The early postnatal period is a critical period of hippocampus development, which is highly dependent on insulin receptor (IR) signaling and very important in cognitive function. The present study was conducted in order to present a model of neonatal transient brain insulin system dysfunction through finding an appropriate dose of injection of streptozotocin (STZ) during the neonatal period. Sixty male Wistar rat pups were divided into 4 groups of 15 and received intracerebroventricular saline or STZ (icv-STZ) (15, 20 and 25μg/kg) on postnatal day 7...
October 18, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Koji Yamanaka, Okiru Komine
Despite significant progress in understanding the molecular and genetic aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons, the precise and comprehensive pathomechanisms remain largely unknown. In addition to motor neuron involvement, recent studies using cellular and animal models of ALS indicate that there is a complex interplay between motor neurons and neighboring non-neuronal cells, such as astrocytes, in non-cell autonomous neurodegeneration...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Seiji Okada, Masamitsu Hara, Kazu Kobayakawa, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Yasuharu Nakashima
After traumatic injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), including spinal cord injury (SCI), astrocytes surrounding the lesion become reactive and typically undergo hypertrophy and process extension. These reactive astrocytes migrate centripetally to the lesion epicenter and aid in the tissue repair process, however, they eventually become scar-forming astrocytes and form a glial scar which produces axonal growth inhibitors and prevents axonal regeneration. This sequential phenotypic change has long been considered to be unidirectional and irreversible; thus glial scarring is one of the main causes of the limited regenerative capability of the CNS...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Robyn A Umans, Harald Sontheimer
Malignant gliomas are glial-derived, primary brain tumors that carry poor prognosis. Existing therapeutics are largely ineffective and dramatically affect quality of life. The standard of care details a taxing combination of surgical resection, radiation of the resection cavity, and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, with treatment extending life by only an average of months (Maher et al., 2001; Stupp et al., 2005). Despite scientific and technological advancement, surgery remains the most important treatment modality...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Peng Yang, Riki Kajiwara, Ayako Tonoki, Motoyuki Itoh
We designed an automated device to study active avoidance learning abilities of zebrafish. Open source tools were used for the device control, statistical computing, and graphic outputs of data. Using the system, we developed active avoidance tests to examine the effects of trial spacing and aging on learning. Seven-month-old fish showed stronger avoidance behavior as measured by color preference index with discrete spaced training as compared to successive spaced training. Fifteen-month-old fish showed a similar trend, but with reduced cognitive abilities compared with 7-month-old fish...
October 14, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Marina Tani, Yumie Ono, Miku Matsubara, Satoko Ohmatsu, Yoshihiro Yukawa, Masashi Kohno, Takanori Tominaga
Motor imagery (MI) is a mental practice that reproduces the visual- and/or kinesthetic-modality brain activations accompanying movement. It is a useful rehabilitation technique as the affected motor cortex can be stimulated in patients with stroke and hemiplegia. However, most patients with stroke have difficulty with MI owing to advanced age and/or higher-cognitive dysfunction, thus impairing their ability to internally simulate the action. We therefore investigated whether action observation (AO), an alternative form of motor stimulation that works via the mirror-neuron system, could facilitate motor cortical activity in such patients...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Shoko Kasuga, Natsumi Momose, Junichi Ushiyama, Junichi Ushiba
Beta-band corticomuscular coherence (CMC) observed between the sensorimotor cortex activity and contracting muscle is declaratively described as a neurophysiological reflection of sensorimotor binding. However, much remains unknown about the functional meaning of 'sensorimotor binding.' The efficacy of information binding in the sensorimotor system is assumed to be influenced by the gain of the feedback controller, which is regulated through a process that may in part be implemented in the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1)...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Ji-Eun Kim, Tae-Cheon Kang
Aberrant cell cycle re-entry promotes neuronal death in various neurological diseases. Thus, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) seem to be one of potential therapeutic targets to prevent neuronal loss. In the present study, we investigated the involvements of CDK4, CDK5 and p27(Kip1) (an endogenous CDK inhibitor) in status epilepticus (SE)-induced neuronal death. Following SE, CDK4 expression was increased in CA1 neurons, while CDK5 was decreased. Most of TUNEL-positive neurons showed CDK4 expression, but less CDK5 expression...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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