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Neuroscience Research

Xiuwen Jiang, Takao Imai, Tomoko Okumura, Yumi Ohta, Yasuhiro Osaki, Takashi Sato, Hidenori Inohara
This study was conducted to evaluate the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (lVOR) mediated by the saccule, and to investigate the relationship between the lVOR and the ability to distinguish the direction of centripetal acceleration during centric and eccentric rotation. Participants sat on a chair in darkness, with the right ear facing downwards, either directly above the center of rotation, or with their nose out, nose in, right shoulder out, or left shoulder out against the center of rotation (eccentric rotation)...
September 11, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Hironori Nakatani, Sera Muto, Yulri Nonaka, Tomoya Nakai, Tomomi Fujimura, Kazuo Okanoya
Admiration and respect are positive social emotions often experienced when recognizing excellent behavior in another person. Although both strongly rely on appraisal of behavior, admiration focuses on the admirable behavior of a person, while respect focuses on the person as a whole. The evaluation and interpretation of the social behavior of another person are dependent on semantic memory. Social semantic knowledge is represented in the anterior temporal lobe (ATL), and ATL activity is modulated by conceptual details of semantic knowledge...
September 9, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Yurika Numata-Uematsu, Shuji Wakatsuki, Seiichi Nagano, Megumi Shibata, Kazuhisa Sakai, Noritaka Ichinohe, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Toshio Ohshima, Naoya Yamashita, Yoshiro Goshima, Toshiyuki Araki
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurological disease characterized by the selective degeneration of motor neurons leading to paralysis and immobility. Missense mutations in the gene coding for the Cu2+ /Zn2+ superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) accounts for 15~20 % of familial ALS, and mice overexpressing ALS-linked SOD1 mutants have been frequently used as an animal model for ALS. Degeneration of motor neurons in ALS progresses in a manner called "dying back", in which the degeneration of synapses and axons precedes the loss of cell bodies...
September 4, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Fuminori Saitoh, Hiroko Hagiwara, Shuji Wakatsuki, Toshiyuki Araki
Pyridoxal, an active form of vitamin B6, is known to inhibit formation of advanced glycation end-products and protect tissues from diabetic complications. Here we identified that pyridoxal is a required component for establishing Schwann cell myelination in our Schwann cell-dorsal root ganglion neuron co-culture system. When the co-culture was maintained without pyridoxal, carboxymethylation of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) became detectable. Carboxymethylation decreased the affinity of CRMP2 to bind with microtubules, indicating that carboxymethylation affected CRMP2 function...
September 4, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Nobuhiko Ohno, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Myelin is a multilamellar cell membrane around axons and is essential for fast saltatory conduction and maintenance of axonal integrity and survival. Congenital and acquired abnormalities of myelin lead to neurological disorders involving degeneration and loss of axons and neurons, which are implicated in permanent neurological deficits and progressive neurological decline. As in other neurological disorders, neural degeneration and loss in myelin diseases are associated with multiple factors including aberrant inflammatory responses, oxidative stresses, and impaired axonal metabolism involving cationic sequestration and energy production...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroshi Kiyama
Over the last decade, mitochondrial dynamics beyond function during axon regeneration/degeneration have received attention. Axons have an effective delivery system of mitochondria shuttling between soma and axonal terminals, due to their polarized structure. The proper axonal transport of mitochondria, coordinated with mitochondrial fission/fusion and clearance, is vital for supplying high power energy in injured axons. Many researchers have studied mitochondrial dynamics using in vitro cultured cells with significant progress reported...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Naruhito Hironaga, Takahiro Kimura, Takako Mitsudo, Atsuko Gunji, Makoto Iwata
An important technical issue in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) usage is how accurately the specific brain areas activated by TMS are assessed. However, in practice, electric field induced in TMS is dispersed and therefore actual estimation is still difficult. As a preliminary step, the projection line which is perpendicular to the TMS stimulation coil beneath the center of the coil must be accurately estimated into the brain. Therefore, we have developed a new TMS-MRI co-registration procedure that employs a 3D laser-scanner system that is very useful for general hand-manipulated TMS, and which easily estimates the TMS projection point onto the brain...
August 28, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Hiroka Sabu, Tomoyo Morita, Hideyuki Takahashi, Eiichi Naito, Minoru Asada
Interpersonal rhythmic interaction is one of the fundamental behaviors that allow humans to socially interact with others. In this study, we provide novel neuroimaging evidence that being followed by other agents in such an interaction is pleasant for humans. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the brain activity of 17 participants while they performed a virtual drum-hitting task, in one of the following conditions: a) alternating with a virtual agent that would always copy their hitting pace, or b) alternating with a virtual agent that would randomly hit the drum...
August 25, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Si Wei Wang, Bo Xu Ren, Feng Qian, Xue Zhi Luo, Xi Tang, Xiao Chun Peng, Jiang Rong Huang, Feng Ru Tang
The radioprotective effect of herb epimedium (or yin yang huo) extract (5 g/kg, oral administration daily for 4 weeks) on neurogenesis and cognition after acute radiation exposure with 5.5 Gy was evaluated in Balb/c mice by behavioral tests and immunohistochemical study. The results indicated that epimedium extract could improve animal weight loss, locomotor activity and spatial learning and memory which are similar to pre-irradiation intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) of amifostine phosphate, a well- known radioprotective drug...
August 23, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Suguru Takagi, Akinao Nose
Invertebrate species have significantly contributed to neuroscience owing to the accessibility they provide to cellular- and molecular-level understanding of brain functions. Somatotopic action selection is one of the key features of animal behavior, and studying this process in invertebrates is potentially a sweet spot in understanding the general relationship between neuronal morphology, circuit structure, and animal behavior. In this review, we introduce circuit architectures that realize somatotopic action selection, from simple reflexes to patterned motor outputs, in different invertebrate species...
August 18, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Ai-Ping Yu, Yan-Qun Qiu, Jie Li, Yun-Dong Shen, Xiao-Min Wang, Meng Cong, Qian-Ru He, Qing-Zhong Chen, Fei Ding, Yu-Dong Gu, Jian-Guang Xu, Su Jiang, Wen-Dong Xu
Electrical stimulation could enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regenerative effects of implanted electrodes with different contacts in resected sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve resection and microsurgical repair models were established and randomly divided into four groups (point contact, 1/4 circle contact; whole-circle contact; no electrodes as control). Electrical stimulation was performed and electrophysiological, morphological and histological exams (of the sciatic nerve and muscle) were conducted at 4 and 10 weeks post-implantation...
August 17, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Hiroshi Makino
Cognitive control of the brain flexibly maps incoming sensory information onto execution of actions appropriate for the current goal. Learning is a process that enables the brain to estimate current states of the world by extracting its spatiotemporal structure and generate goal-directed motor outputs through selective association of events or movement refinement. Accumulating evidence suggests that top-down control from higher-order brain areas modulates downstream neural activity and changes local computations that are critical for the execution of learned behavior...
August 17, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Takuma Kitanishi, Kenji Mizuseki
The hippocampal formation, which comprises the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus, and subiculum, is crucial for learning, memory, and spatial navigation. Historically, most studies have focused on the hippocampus proper and dentate gyrus; however, recent evidence has highlighted the substantial contribution of the subiculum to interregional communication and behavioral performance. Moreover, various network oscillations in the subiculum appear to be crucial for cognitive functions. The subiculum shows complicated spatial representation during exploratory behavior, suggesting that the subiculum does not simply relay hippocampal information to the target regions but it functions as a unique computational unit...
August 16, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Vladislav Myrov, Alexey Sedov, Ekaterina Salova, Alexey Tomskiy, Elena Belova
The analysis of neuronal activity in human brain is a complicated task as it meets several limitations, including small sample sizes, dependent variables in the dataset and the short duration of recordings that entangles the analysis procedure. Here, we present the comparative research of neuronal activity in subthalamic nucleus (STN) of 8 Parkinsonian patients undergoing DBS surgery in awake state and under propofol anaesthesia using different statistical approaches. We studied 25 parameters of single unit activity and performed a direct comparison of the parameters between the groups to characterise the changes in STN activity under anaesthesia...
August 16, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Shuko Takeda
The number of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been increasing exponentially side by side with aging societies worldwide. Symptoms of AD worsen over time due to progressive neurodegeneration, requiring institutional care at the later stage and resulting in a heavy burden on patients, caregivers, and the public-health system. AD neuropathology is characterized by cerebral accumulation and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau proteins. For decades, Aβ has been a leading target in the therapeutic development for AD, and many drug candidates have been tested in clinical trials; however, most medications have failed to slow the progression of the disease...
August 16, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Matthieu Hein, Jean-Pol Lanquart, Gwénolé Loas, Philippe Hubain, Paul Linkowski
Sleep plays an important role in cognitive functioning. However, few studies have investigated the sleep network organization. The aim of our study was to empirically investigate the presence and the stability with age of a small-world network organization during REM and slow-wave sleep using the effective connectivity measured by the Granger causality. Polysomnographic data from 30 healthy men recruited prospectively were analysed. To obtain the 19 × 19 connectivity matrix of all possible pairwise combinations of electrodes by the Granger causality method from our EEG data, we used the Toolbox MVGC multivariate Granger causality...
August 16, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Tang Li, Haiyun Wang, Jinxin Wang, Yimeng Chen, Chenyi Yang, Mingshu Zhao, Guolin Wang, Zhuo Yang
Chemokines related neuroinflammation and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) mediated nociceptive transmission are pivotal determinants in the pathogenesis of opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), but little is known about specific mechanism and treatment. Chemokine CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4 is implicated in different pathological pain, moreover, neurotoxicity of CXCL12 is associated with NMDAR activation. Recent studies recapitulate the anti-nociception of Annexin 1 (ANXA1) in inflammatory pain. This study examined whether ANXA1 prevented remifentanil-caused OIH through modulating CXCL12 and NMDAR pathway in rats...
August 15, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Toshiyuki Araki, Shuji Wakatsuki
ZNRF1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase constitutively expressed in almost all neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems during development and in adulthood. From this expression profile, the role of ZNRF1 is assumed to be common to many different types of neurons. We have analyzed the roles of ZNRF1-dependent degradation of target proteins in neurons. In mature neurons, ZNRF1 is activated in response to different types of stress that cause neuronal/axonal degeneration, and degrade AKT to activate GSK3B...
August 14, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Charlotte Héricé, Amisha Patel, Shuzo Sakata
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep or paradoxical sleep is an elusive behavioral state. Since its discovery in the 1950s, our knowledge of the neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides underlying REM sleep regulation has continually evolved in parallel with the development of novel technologies. Although the pons was initially discovered to be responsible for REM sleep, it has since been revealed that many components in the hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla also contribute to REM sleep. In this review, we first provide an up-to-date overview of REM sleep-regulating circuits in the brainstem and hypothalamus by summarizing experimental evidence from neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and gain- and loss-of-function studies...
August 14, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Tsukasa Kamigaki
Executive control supports our ability to behave flexibly in accordance with a given situation. In order to fully understand how cortical circuits achieve this task, we need to determine the intrinsic physiological and connection profiles of neuron types and analyze their functional roles during behavior. This article introduces current knowledge regarding neuron type classification in the cortex and reviews our understanding of how each neuron type is incorporated in the functional cortical circuit to implement executive control...
August 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
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