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Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902923/kisspeptin-expression-is-decreased-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-hypothyroid-female-rats-with-irregular-estrus-cycles
#1
Yuji Tomori, Ken Takumi, Norio Iijima, Shinro Takai, Hitoshi Ozawa
Insufficiency of thyroid hormones inhibits gonadotropin release and results in dysregulation of reproductive function, although the precise mechanism of this disrupted gonadotropin secretion remains unclear. Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that strongly stimulates gonadotropin secretion and plays an important role in reproductive function. To examine the involvement of kisspeptin in the dysregulation of gonadotropin secretion in hypothyroidism, we investigated Kiss1 mRNA expression and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of female rats treated with propylthiouracil (PTU)...
November 27, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888072/movement-related-cortical-magnetic-fields-associated-with-self-paced-tongue-protrusion-in-humans
#2
Hitoshi Maezawa, Hidetoshi Oguma, Yoshiyuki Hirai, Kazunari Hisadome, Hideaki Shiraishi, Makoto Funahashi
Sophisticated tongue movements are coordinated finely via cortical control. We elucidated the cortical processes associated with voluntary tongue movement. Movement-related cortical fields were investigated during self-paced repetitive tongue protrusion. Surface tongue electromyograms were recorded to determine movement onset. To identify the location of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), tongue somatosensory evoked fields were measured. The readiness fields (RFs) over both hemispheres began prior to movement onset and culminated in the motor fields (MFs) around movement onset...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888071/cell-type-specific-expression-of-foxp2-in-the-ferret-and-mouse-retina
#3
Chihiro Sato, Lena Iwai-Takekoshi, Yoshie Ichikawa, Hiroshi Kawasaki
Although the anatomical and physiological properties of subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have been extensively investigated, their molecular properties are still unclear. Here, we examined the expression patterns of FoxP2 in the retina of ferrets and mice. We found that FoxP2 was expressed in small subsets of neurons in the adult ferret retina. FoxP2-positive neurons in the ganglion cell layer were divided into two groups. Large FoxP2-positive neurons expressed Brn3a and were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin subunit B injected into the optic nerve, indicating that they are RGCs...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884699/cell-adhesion-molecules-and-sleep
#4
REVIEW
Emma Kate O'Callaghan, Maria Neus Ballester Roig, Valérie Mongrain
Cell adhesion molecules (CAM) play essential roles in the central nervous system, where some families are involved in synaptic development and function. These synaptic adhesion molecules (SAMs) are involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, and the formation of neuronal networks. Recent findings from studies examining the consequences of sleep loss suggest that these molecules are candidates to act in sleep regulation. This review highlights the experimental data that lead to the identification of SAMs as potential sleep regulators, and discusses results supporting that specific SAMs are involved in different aspects of sleep regulation...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884698/alteration-of-the-brain-morphology-and-the-response-to-the-acute-stress-in-the-recombinant-mouse-lines-with-different-predisposition-to-catalepsy
#5
E A Kulikova, D V Bazovkina, Y V Antonov, A E Akulov, A V Kulikov, E M Kondaurova
Catalepsy is an inability to correct an externally imposed awkward posture; it is associated with schizophrenia and depression in human. We created new recombinant B6.CBA-D13Mit76C and B6.CBA-D13Mit76B mouse lines on the C57Bl/6 genome, carrying the 102.73-110.56 Mbp fragment of chromosome 13 derived from the catalepsy-prone CBA strain and catalepsy-resistant C57BL/6 strain, respectively. We compared the behavior and brain morphology (11.7T BioSpec 117/16 USR tomograph, Germany) in these lines. The effects of acute emotional stress on corticosterone's level in the blood and mRNA expression of Bdnf and Arc genes in the brain were investigated...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876581/valley-of-death-a-proposal-to-build-a-translational-bridge-for-the-next-generation
#6
REVIEW
Nao J Gamo, Michelle R Birknow, Danielle Sullivan, Mari A Kondo, Yasue Horiuchi, Takeshi Sakurai, Barbara S Slusher, Akira Sawa
There is a great need for novel drug discovery for major mental illnesses, but multiple levels of challenges exist in both academia and industry, spanning from scientific understanding and institutional infrastructure to business risk and feasibility. The "valley of death," the large gap between basic scientific research and translation to novel therapeutics, underscores the need to restructure education and academic research to cultivate the fertile interface between academia and industry. In this opinion piece, we propose strategies to educate young trainees in the process of drug discovery and development, and prepare them for careers across this spectrum...
November 19, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871905/the-behavioural-and-neuroprotective-outcomes-when-670nm-and-810nm-near-infrared-light-are-applied-together-in-mptp-treated-mice
#7
Florian Reinhart, Nabil El Massri, Napoleon Torres, Claude Chabrol, Jenny Molet, Daniel M Johnstone, Jonathan Stone, Alim-Louis Benabid, John Mitrofanis, Cécile Moro
We have shown previously that when applied separately, 670nm and 810nm near infrared light (NIr) reduces behavioural deficits and offers neuroprotection in a MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Here, we explored the beneficial outcomes when these NIr wavelengths were applied both together, either concurrently (at the same time) or sequentially (one after the other). Mice received MPTP injections (total of 50mg/kg) and had extracranial application of 670nm and/or 810nm NIr...
November 18, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866932/oxytocin-attenuates-aversive-response-to-nicotine-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#8
Hyunchan Lee, Minji Jang, Jihyun Noh
Initial tobacco use is initiated with rewarding and aversive properties of nicotine and aversive response to nicotine plays a critical role in nicotine dependency. Decrease of nicotine aversion increases the nicotine use that causes behavioral and neuronal changes of animals. Oxytocin influences drug abuse and reciprocally affect vulnerability to drug use. To assess the effect of oxytocin on initial nicotine aversion and anxiety, we examined voluntary oral nicotine intake and anxiety-like behavior following oxytocin treatment in adolescent rats...
November 17, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856235/infection-and-inflammation-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#9
Teppei Tanaka, Taro Matsuda, Lindsay N Hayes, Shuojia Yang, Katrina Rodriguez, Emily G Severance, Robert H Yolken, Akira Sawa, William Eaton
The present study investigated the relationship between exposure to infectious agents and inflammation markers in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BP), and controls without a psychiatric disorder. We measured plasma levels of antibodies and innate immune markers and correlated them with clinical symptoms and cognitive function. In both SZ and BP, we found an increase in soluble CD14, and in BP an increase in C-reactive protein, IgM class antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV), and IgG class antibodies against herpes simplex virus 2...
November 14, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845167/synapse-organization-and-modulation-via-c1q-family-proteins-and-their-receptors-in-the-central-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
Keiko Matsuda
Several C1q family members, related to the C1q complement component are highly and predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. Cbln1, which belongs to the Cbln subfamily of C1q proteins, is released from cerebellar granule cells and plays a crucial role in the formation and function of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. This is achieved by formation of a trans-synaptic tripartite complex which is composed of one unit of the Cbln1 hexamer, monomeric neurexin (NRX) containing a splice site 4 insertion at presynaptic terminals and the postsynaptic GluD2 dimers...
November 11, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826051/effect-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-on-motoneurons-and-muscle-spindles-in-rats
#11
Ken Muramatsu, Masatoshi Niwa, Toru Tamaki, Masako Ikutomo, Yujiro Masu, Tatsuya Hasegawa, Satoshi Shimo, Sei-Ichi Sasaki
This study examined the alterations in the number and size of motoneurons innervating the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and biceps femoris (BF) motor nuclei in diabetic rats (12 or 22 weeks after injection of streptozotocin) and age-matched controls using retrograde labeling technique. Additionally, morphological alterations of muscle spindles in BF and MG muscles were tested. Significantly fewer labeled MG motoneurons were found in 12- and 22-week diabetic rats as compared with age-matched control animals. In contrast, the number of BF motoneurons was preserved in each group...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810425/role-of-lrrtms-in-synapse-development-and-plasticity
#12
REVIEW
Reiko T Roppongi, Benyamin Karimi, Tabrez J Siddiqui
Leucine-rich-repeat transmembrane neuronal proteins (LRRTMs) are a family of four synapse organizing proteins critical for the development and function of excitatory synapses. The genes encoding LRRTMs and their binding partners, neurexins and HSPGs, are strongly associated with multiple psychiatric disorders. Here, we review the literature covering their structural features, expression patterns in the developing and adult brains, evolutionary origins, and discovery as synaptogenic proteins. We also discuss their role in the development and plasticity of excitatory synapses as well as their disease associations...
October 31, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794442/electrophysiological-evidence-for-women-superiority-on-unfamiliar-face-processing
#13
Tianyi Sun, Lin Li, Yuanli Xu, Li Zheng, Weidong Zhang, Fanzhi Anita Zhou, Xiuyan Guo
Previous research has reported that women superiority on face recognition tasks, taking sex difference in accuracy rates as major evidence. By appropriately modifying experimental tasks and examining reaction time as behavioral measure, it was possible to explore which stage of face processing contributes to womens' superiority. We used a modified delayed matching-to-sample task to investigate the time course characteristics of face recognition by ERP, for both men and women. In each trial, participants matched successively presented faces to samples (target faces) by key pressing...
October 26, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773835/levodopa-induced-morphologic-changes-of-prefrontal-pyramidal-tract-type-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Haruo Nishijima, Tatsuya Ueno, Shinya Ueno, Fumiaki Mori, Yasuo Miki, Masahiko Tomiyama
Long-term administration of levodopa for Parkinson's disease is associated with various motor and non-motor complications. We examined the dendritic spine morphology of pyramidal tract-type neurons in the prefrontal cortex in a rat model of Parkinson's disease chronically treated with levodopa. Dendritic spines showed decreased density and increased average volume after dopamine denervation and levodopa treatment. These morphologic alterations suggest that the prefrontal neurons may maladaptively respond to excitatory input, which might be one of the mechanisms underlying various levodopa-induced complications in patients with Parkinson's disease...
October 20, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720754/physiological-contribution-of-p2x-receptors-in-postreceptoral-signal-processing-in-the-mouse-retina
#15
Sho Ichinohe, Toshiyuki Ishii, Hiroshi Takahashi, Makoto Kaneda
ATP activates P2X receptors and acts as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system. We have previously reported that P2X receptors modulate the firing rate of retinal ganglion cells. Since many subtypes of P2X receptors are distributed in the mouse retina, it is likely that the modulatory effects of P2X receptor-mediated signaling can occur at multiple synaptic levels in the retina. In this study, we investigated whether P2X receptors expressed between the photoreceptor layer and the inner nuclear layer in the mouse retina were physiologically functional, by electroretinography (ERG)...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718359/projections-from-the-lowest-lumbar-and-sacral-caudal-segments-to-the-cerebellar-cortex-in-the-rat-an-anterograde-tracing-study
#16
Matsuo Matsushita
The crossed spinocerebellar tracts originate from neurons in the basolateral part of lamina V, the sacral nuclei of Stilling and the ventrolateral part of the ventral horn of the L6 to caudal segments. The present study examined their projection areas in the cerebellar cortex by using anterograde labeling of mossy fiber terminals with biotinylated dextran in the rat. Labeled terminals were distributed bilaterally in lobules I-V of the anterior lobe. They were most abundant in the apical parts of the lateral vermis and the intermediate region of lobules Ib and IIa, and the rostral side of lobule IIb...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717670/formation-and-disruption-of-functional-domains-in-myelinated-cns-axons
#17
Ryan B Griggs, Leonid M Yermakov, Keiichiro Susuki
Communication in the central nervous system (CNS) occurs through initiation and propagation of action potentials at excitable domains along axons. Action potentials generated at the axon initial segment (AIS) are regenerated at nodes of Ranvier through the process of saltatory conduction. Proper formation and maintenance of the molecular structure at the AIS and nodes are required for sustaining conduction fidelity. In myelinated CNS axons, paranodal junctions between the axolemma and myelinating oligodendrocytes delineate nodes of Ranvier and regulate the distribution and localization of specialized functional elements, such as voltage-gated sodium channels and mitochondria...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717669/the-lgi1-adam22-protein-complex-in-synaptic-transmission-and-synaptic-disorders
#18
Yuko Fukata, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuri Miyazaki, Masaki Fukata
Physiological functioning of the brain requires fine-tuned synaptic transmission, and its dysfunction causes various brain disorders such as autism, dementia, and epilepsy. It is therefore extremely important to identify and characterize key regulators of synaptic function. In particular, disease-related synaptic proteins, such as autism-related neurexin-neuroligin and psychiatric disorder-related NMDA receptor, have attracted considerable attention. Recent basic and clinical research has highlighted critical roles of a ligand-receptor complex, LGI1-ADAM22, in synaptic transmission and brain function, as mutations in the LGI1 gene cause autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy and autoantibodies to LGI1 cause limbic encephalitis which is characterized by memory loss and seizures...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713025/event-related-potentials-changes-associated-with-the-processing-of-auditory-valid-and-invalid-targets-as-a-function-of-previous-trial-validity-in-a-posner-s-paradigm
#19
Antonio Arjona Valladares, Jaime Gómez González, Carlos M Gómez
The present study tries to analyze the neural basis of the so-called "Inter-trial Validity-Invalidity Effects" by means of Event-Related Potentials. The N1, P2, P3a and P3b components were examined. The aim is to show the sequential effects on Event-Related Potentials by analyzing the effect of previous trial condition (n-1) in the processing of current trial target (n). Event-Related Potentials results indicate that the N1 and P2 components show higher negativity in valid trials preceded by invalid trials with respect to valid trials preceded by valid trials, elicited by the so-called "Processing Negativity"...
October 3, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702575/roles-of-5-ht1a-receptor-in-the-expression-of-ampa-receptor-and-bdnf-in-developing-mouse-cortical-neurons
#20
Yuko Yoshimura, Chihiro Ishikawa, Haruki Kasegai, Tomoyuki Masuda, Masaaki Yoshikawa, Takashi Shiga
The possible interactions between serotonergic and glutamatergic systems during neural development and under the pathogenesis of depression remain unclear. We now investigated roles of 5-HT1A receptor in the mRNA expression of AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) using primary culture of cerebral cortex of mouse embryos. Neurons at embryonic day 18 were cultured for 3days or 14days and then treated with 5-HT1A receptor agonist (8-OH-DPAT) for 3h or 24h. In neurons cultured for 3 days, 8-OH-DPAT treatment for both 3h and 24h increased the mRNA levels of BDNF and GluR1, but not GluR2...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience Research
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