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Neuroscience Research

Yuta Senzai
Anatomical observations, theoretical work and lesioning experiments have supported the idea that the CA3 in the hippocampus is important for encoding, storage and retrieval of memory while the dentate gyrus (DG) is important for the pattern separation of the incoming inputs from the entorhinal cortex. Study of the presumed function of the dentate gyrus in pattern separation has been hampered by the lack of reliable methods to identify different excitatory cell types in the DG. Recent papers have identified different cell types in the DG, in awake behaving animals, with more reliable methods...
November 5, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama
Neuronal circuits are intensively shaped depending on experiences received during developmental critical periods. How neuronal circuits are sculpted can even affect the later development of higher cognitive functions, such as vocal communication skills. Here, we propose songbirds that learn to sing from early auditory experiences as a model for understanding the neuronal mechanisms underlying the development of multistep vocal learning. By applying the principal concepts of neuronal mechanisms for regulating the timing of critical periods, which have been well investigated by using experience-dependent mammalian cortical plasticity, we review our current understanding of the underlying neuronal mechanism of the song-learning critical period...
November 3, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Hongsun Park, Haruko Miyazaki, Tomoyuki Yamanaka, Nobuyuki Nukina
Huntington Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in the exon1 of HTT. The mutant HTT affects the transcriptional profile of neurons by disrupting the activities of transcriptional machinery and alters expression of many genes. In this study, we identified dysregulated non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in medium spiny neurons of 4-week-old HD model mouse. Also, we observed the intracellular localizations of Abhd11os and Neat1 ncRNAs by ViewRNA ISH, which could provide more precise detection, suggesting that it is a useful method to investigate the expression changes of genes with low expression levels...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Hiromasa Takemura, Franco Pestilli, Kevin S Weiner
Comparative neuroanatomy studies improve understanding of brain structure and function and provide insight regarding brain development, evolution, and also what features of the brain are uniquely human. With modern methods such as diffusion MRI (dMRI) and quantitative MRI (qMRI), we are able to measure structural features of the brain with the same methods across human and non-human primates. In this review article, we discuss how recent dMRI measurements of vertical occipital connections in humans and macaques can be compared with previous findings from invasive anatomical studies that examined connectivity, including relatively forgotten classic strychnine neuronography studies...
October 30, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Yuki Tanimoto, Koutarou D Kimura
Animals process sensory information from the environment to make behavioral decisions. Although environmental information may be ambiguous or gradually changing, animals can still choose one behavioral option among several through perceptual decision-making. Perceptual decision-making has been intensively studied in primates and rodents, and neural activity that accumulates sensory information has been shown to be crucial. However, it remains unclear how the accumulating neural activity is generated, and whether such activity is a conserved decision-making strategy across the animal kingdom...
October 30, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Kentaro K Ishii, Kazushige Touhara
Reproduction is essential for any animal species. Reproductive behaviors, or sexual behaviors, are largely shaped by external sensory cues exchanged during sexual interaction. In many animals, including rodents, olfactory cues play a critical role in regulating sexual behavior. What exactly these olfactory cues are and how they impact animal behavior have been a central question in the field. Over the past few decades, many studies have dedicated to identifying an active compound that elicits sexual behavior from crude olfactory components...
October 30, 2018: Neuroscience Research
M Pardo, Y Cheng, Y H Sitbon, J A Lowell, S F Grieco, R J Worthen, S Desse, A Barreda-Diaz
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent evidence highlights the role of IGF2 in the brain, sustained by data showing its alterations as a common feature across a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies emphasize the potential role of IGF2 in psychiatric and neurological conditions as well as in memory impairments, targeting IGF2 as a pro-cognitive agent. New research on animal models supports that upcoming investigations should explore IGF2's strong promising role as a memory enhancer...
October 30, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Bok Eum Kang, Sungmoo Lee, Bradley J Baker
Genetically-Encoded Voltage Indicators (GEVIs) are capable of converting changes in membrane potential into an optical signal. Here, we focus on recent insights into the mechanism of ArcLight-type probes and the consequences of utilizing a pH-dependent Fluorescent Protein (FP). A negative charge on the exterior of the β-can of the FP combined with a pH-sensitive FP enables voltage-dependent conformational changes to affect the fluorescence of the probe. This hypothesis implies that interaction/dimerization of the FP creates a microenvironment for the probe that is altered via conformational changes...
October 17, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Raphael Fabricio de Souza, Silvia Regina Arruda de Moraes, Ricielle Lopes Augusto, Aristela de Freitas Zanona, Dihogo Matos, Felipe J Aidar, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade-da-Costa
The influence of physical exercise on brain antioxidant defense mechanisms has been studied. Nevertheless, the effect of training volume on the brain`s redox balance remains unclear. In this meta-analysis, we compared the effect of training volume on antioxidant enzymatic resource and lipid peroxidation on various brain regions. The activities of the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were also evaluated...
October 13, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Yusuke Seto, Mototsugu Eiraku
Humans have a large and gyrencephalic brain. The higher intellectual ability of humans is dependent on the proper development of the brain. Brain malformation is often associated with cognitive dysfunction. It is thus important to know how our brain grows during development. Several animal species have been used as models to understand the mechanisms of brain development, and have provided us with basic information in this regard. It has been revealed that mammalian brain development basically proceeds through a similar process by common mechanisms, including neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis...
October 13, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Chisato Wakabayashi, Hiroshi Kunugi
Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in schizophrenia; however, their pathophysiological roles in abnormal brain dysfunctions remain unclear. We evaluated the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits in the acoustic startle response. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a HFD for 3 weeks and then PPI was examined. HFD significantly induced PPI deficits and increased plasma IL-6, but not TNFα, levels. Interestingly, MR16-1 administration during the HFD period ameliorated PPI deficits...
October 13, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Lei Wang, Michael Chopp, Alexandra Szalad, XueRong Lu, Mei Lu, Talan Zhang, Zheng Gang Zhang
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and its receptor Tie2 regulate vascular function. Our previous study demonstrated that thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) ameliorates neurological function of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of Tβ4 on diabetic peripheral neuropathy have not been fully investigated. The present in vivo study investigated whether the Ang1/Tie2 signaling pathway is involved in Tβ4-improved neurovascular remodeling in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Diabetic BKS. Cg-m+/+Leprdb /J (db/db) mice at age 20 weeks were treated with Tβ4 and neutralizing antibody against mouse Tie2 for 4 consecutive weeks...
October 13, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Sandip Koley, Meir Rozenbaum, Mike Fainzilber, Marco Terenzio
Neurons convey signals over long distances, for example motor neurons and sensory neurons project axons up to a meter long in humans. To this end, a sophisticated network of long-range signaling mechanisms enables communication between neuronal processes and somata. These mechanisms are activated during axonal injury and have essential roles both for sensing the injury and regulating subsequent regeneration. Here we survey the role of one such mechanism, axonal translation, which contributes to both retrograde injury signaling and as a source of proteins for regenerating axons...
October 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Simon Thibault, François Hug, Thibault Deschamps
This study explored whether reduction of the maximal voluntary force of finger flexor muscles affects response inhibition processing while performing the flanker "inhibitory reaction time" task. Sixteen participants completed two experimental sessions: each consisted of either a fatiguing exercise (fatigue session) or a control task (control session) followed by a flanker task. When responding to 32 compatible and 32 incompatible trials, the participants were asked to respond to a right-facing arrow by pressing a button beneath their middle finger, and to a left-facing arrow by pressing a button beneath their index finger...
October 11, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Yuki Kurauchi, Yuko Yoshimaru, Yuto Kajiwara, Taishi Yamada, Keigo Matsuda, Akinori Hisatsune, Takahiro Seki, Hiroshi Katsuki
Hyperactivity and impulsivity are common symptoms in several psychiatric disorders. Although dysfunction of Na+ , K+ -ATPase has been reported to be associated with the psychiatric disorders, it is not clear whether inhibition of Na+ , K+ -ATPase causes behavioral effects, including hyperactivity and impulsivity, in mice. Here, we evaluated the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+ , K+ -ATPase, on hyperactivity and impulsivity in mice. At seven days after icv injection, ouabain-injected mice displayed the increase in the distance traveled in the open field arena in the open field test and the increase in the number of head-dipping behavior in the cliff avoidance test...
October 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Yuriko Tatsumi, Naoto Matsumoto, Noriko Iibe, Natsumi Watanabe, Tomohiro Torii, Kazunori Sango, Keiichi Homma, Yuki Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Junji Yamauchi
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is composed of a heterogeneous group of hereditary peripheral neuropathies. The peripheral nervous system primarily comprises two types of cells: neuronal cells and myelinating glial Schwann cells. CMT2 N is an autosomal dominant disease and its responsible gene encodes alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS), which is a family of cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. CMT2 N is associated with the mutation, including a missense mutation, which is known to decrease the enzymatic activity of AARS, but whether and how its mutation affects AARS localization and neuronal process formation remains to be understood...
September 24, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Chiaki Kobayashi, Kazuki Okamoto, Yasuhiro Mochizuki, Hidetoshi Urakubo, Kenta Funayama, Tomoe Ishikawa, Tetsuhiko Kashima, Ayako Ouchi, Agnieszka F Szymanska, Shin Ishii, Yuji Ikegaya
The effect of excitatory synaptic input on the excitation of the cell body is believed to vary depending on where and when the synaptic activation occurs in dendritic trees and the spatiotemporal modulation by inhibitory synaptic input. However, few studies have examined how individual synaptic inputs influence the excitability of the cell body in spontaneously active neuronal networks mainly because of the lack of an appropriate method. We developed a calcium imaging technique that monitors synaptic inputs to hundreds of spines from a single neuron with millisecond resolution in combination with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of somatic excitation...
September 20, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Li-Foong Yoong, Yun-Jin Pai, Adrian W Moore
Neurons connect through dendrite arbors to receive inputs from their appropriate partners. The branching pattern, size, and input distribution in the arbor determine neuron function. Complex nervous system activity depends on creating and wiring a wide diversity of neuron types, each with a characteristic arbor organization. Here we discuss how, by tracking arbor differentiation in vivo, a mature dendrite arbor pattern is derived from the compound outcome of a series of different stages of arbor elaboration...
September 20, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Joo-Yeong Jeon, Eun-Shil Lee, Eun-Bee Park, Chang-Jin Jeon
The purpose of this study was to identify tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive (TH+) cells in the sparrow retina using immunocytochemistry and quantitative analysis. All TH+ cells were conventional amacrine cells. Based on dendritic morphology, at least two types were observed. The first type had a single thick primary process that descended from the cell body and many densely beaded processes in substrata (s) 1, less beaded processes in s3, and spiny processes in s4/5 of the inner plexiform layer. The dendrites of the second type appeared similar in each layer, but it displayed several primary processes that spread laterally away from the soma before descending to the inner plexiform layer...
September 20, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Shumaia Parvin, Renoma Takeda, Yu Sugiura, Makiko Neyazaki, Terukazu Nogi, Yukio Sasaki
Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a causative gene (FMR1) product of Fragile X syndrome (FXS), is an RNA-binding protein to regulate local protein synthesis in dendrites for postsynaptic functions. However, involvement of FMRP in local protein synthesis in axons for presynaptic functions remains unclear. Here we investigated role of FMRP in local translation of the active zone protein Munc18-1 during presynapse formation. We found that leucine-rich repeat transmembrane neuronal 2 (LRRTM2)-conjugated beads, which promotes synchronized presynapse formation, induced simultaneous accumulation of FMRP and Munc18-1 in presynapses of axons of mouse cortical neurons in neuronal cell aggregate culture...
September 19, 2018: Neuroscience Research
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