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Neuroscience Research

Sho Ichinohe, Toshiyuki Ishii, Hiroshi Takahashi, Makoto Kaneda
ATP activates P2X receptors and acts as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system. We have previously reported that P2X receptors modulate the firing rate of retinal ganglion cells. Since many subtypes of P2X receptors are distributed in the mouse retina, it is likely that the modulatory effects of P2X receptor-mediated signaling can occur at multiple synaptic levels in the retina. In this study, we investigated whether P2X receptors expressed between the photoreceptor layer and the inner nuclear layer in the mouse retina were physiologically functional, by electroretinography (ERG)...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Matsuo Matsushita
The crossed spinocerebellar tracts originate from neurons in the basolateral part of lamina V, the sacral nuclei of Stilling and the ventrolateral part of the ventral horn of the L6 to caudal segments. The present study examined their projection areas in the cerebellar cortex by using anterograde labeling of mossy fiber terminals with biotinylated dextran in the rat. Labeled terminals were distributed bilaterally in lobules I-V of the anterior lobe. They were most abundant in the apical parts of the lateral vermis and the intermediate region of lobules Ib and IIa, and the rostral side of lobule IIb...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Ryan B Griggs, Leonid M Yermakov, Keiichiro Susuki
Communication in the central nervous system (CNS) occurs through initiation and propagation of action potentials at excitable domains along axons. Action potentials generated at the axon initial segment (AIS) are regenerated at nodes of Ranvier through the process of saltatory conduction. Proper formation and maintenance of the molecular structure at the AIS and nodes are required for sustaining conduction fidelity. In myelinated CNS axons, paranodal junctions between the axolemma and myelinating oligodendrocytes delineate nodes of Ranvier and regulate the distribution and localization of specialized functional elements, such as voltage-gated sodium channels and mitochondria...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Yuko Fukata, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuri Miyazaki, Masaki Fukata
Physiological functioning of the brain requires fine-tuned synaptic transmission, and its dysfunction causes various brain disorders such as autism, dementia, and epilepsy. It is therefore extremely important to identify and characterize key regulators of synaptic function. In particular, disease-related synaptic proteins, such as autism-related neurexin-neuroligin and psychiatric disorder-related NMDA receptor, have attracted considerable attention. Recent basic and clinical research has highlighted critical roles of a ligand-receptor complex, LGI1-ADAM22, in synaptic transmission and brain function, as mutations in the LGI1 gene cause autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy and autoantibodies to LGI1 cause limbic encephalitis which is characterized by memory loss and seizures...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Antonio Arjona Valladares, Jaime Gómez González, Carlos M Gómez
The present study tries to analyze the neural basis of the so-called "Inter-trial Validity-Invalidity Effects" by means of Event-Related Potentials. The N1, P2, P3a and P3b components were examined. The aim is to show the sequential effects on Event-Related Potentials by analyzing the effect of previous trial condition (n-1) in the processing of current trial target (n). Event-Related Potentials results indicate that the N1 and P2 components show higher negativity in valid trials preceded by invalid trials with respect to valid trials preceded by valid trials, elicited by the so-called "Processing Negativity"...
October 3, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Yuko Yoshimura, Chihiro Ishikawa, Haruki Kasegai, Tomoyuki Masuda, Masaaki Yoshikawa, Takashi Shiga
The possible interactions between serotonergic and glutamatergic systems during neural development and under the pathogenesis of depression remain unclear. We now investigated roles of 5-HT1A receptor in the mRNA expression of AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) using primary culture of cerebral cortex of mouse embryos. Neurons at embryonic day 18 were cultured for 3days or 14days and then treated with 5-HT1A receptor agonist (8-OH-DPAT) for 3h or 24h. In neurons cultured for 3 days, 8-OH-DPAT treatment for both 3h and 24h increased the mRNA levels of BDNF and GluR1, but not GluR2...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Yusuke Naito, Alfred Kihoon Lee, Hideto Takahashi
Tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) receptors have been extensively studied for their roles in kinase-dependent signaling cascades in nervous system development. Synapse organization is coordinated by trans-synaptic interactions of various cell adhesion proteins, a representative example of which is the neurexin-neuroligin complex. Recently, a novel role for TrkC as a synapse organizing protein has been established. Post-synaptic TrkC binds to pre-synaptic type-IIa receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTPσ)...
September 30, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Randy Hunter, Uttam Ojha, Sunil Bhurtel, Guoying Bing, Dong-Young Choi
Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic inflammation plays a role in the progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration that occurs in Parkinson's disease. It has been hypothesized that inflammation mediates neuronal damage via exacerbation of a vicious cycle of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induces microglial activation and inflammation driven dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In order to test the hypothesis that LPS-induced inflammatory response might damage mitochondrial structure and function leading to nigral dopaminergic neuron loss, we injected LPS or saline into the striatum of rats...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Xueshan Cao, Katsuhiko Tabuchi
Neurexins and neuroligins are two distinct families of single-pass transmembrane proteins localized at pre- and postsynapses, respectively. They trans-synaptically interact with each other and induce synapse formation and maturation. Common variants and rare mutations, including copy number variations, short deletions, and single or small nucleotide changes in neurexin and neuroligin genes have been linked to the neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In this review, we summarize the structure and basic synaptic function of neurexins and neuroligins, followed by behaviors and synaptic phenotypes of knock-in and knock-out mouse of these family genes...
September 21, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Diego Milani, Jane L Cross, Ryan S Anderton, David J Blacker, Neville W Knuckey, Bruno P Meloni
We examined the efficacy of R18 in a transient MCAO model and compared its effectiveness to the well-characterized neuroprotective NA-1 peptide. R18 and NA-1 peptides were administered intravenously (30, 100, 300, 1000 nmol/kg), 60minutes after the onset of 90minutes of MCAO. Infarct volume, cerebral swelling and functional outcomes (neurological score, adhesive tape and rota-rod) were measured 24hours after MCAO. R18 reduced total infarct volume by 35.1% (p=0.008), 24.8% (p=0.059), 12.2% and 9.6% for the respective 1000 to 30 nmol/kg doses, while the corresponding doses of NA-1 reduced lesion volume by 26...
September 14, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Mehrangiz Khanmoradi, Ali Nasimi
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a role in cardiovascular regulation through vasopressin release and sympathetic system. The PVN contains angiotensin II (AngII) immunoreactive cells, fibers and AngII receptors. We have already shown that microinjection of AngII into PVN produced a pressor response concomitant with an increase in firing rate of some PVN neurons. This study was performed to find if PVN AngII plays a regulatory function during hypotension. Hypovolemic-hypotension was induced and the possible role of the PVN AngII in returning arterial pressure toward normal was assessed by monitoring cardiovascular response and single-unit activity of the PVN neurons...
September 13, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Kwansoo Kim, Jae-Hyun Kim, You-Hyang Song, Seung-Hee Lee
Cerebral cortex contains various types of GABAergic neurons exerting local inhibition. Although the number of GABAergic inhibitory neurons is much smaller than glutamatergic excitatory neurons, they show greater diversity in their morphological and physiological properties. Genetic markers for distinct sub-classes of GABAergic neurons have been identified, and technical advances achieved in the past few decades have brought about a demonstration of a unique function of each sub-class of GABAergic neurons in the cortex...
September 12, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Akiko Hayashi-Takagi
Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 0.7%. Despite its relatively low prevalence, the onset of schizophrenia usually occurs early in life, resulting in a severe lifelong disability for patients and increasing the economic and care burden on their families. This makes schizophrenia one of the most catastrophic mental illnesses. Although the etiology of schizophrenia remains poorly understood, clinical, genetic, and pharmacological studies have indicated that its pathophysiology involves synaptic disturbances...
September 12, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Takamasa Mizuno, Yu Aramaki
Joint flexibility depends on both mechanical and neural factors. However, the contribution of neural factors is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that the sensorimotor cortex is involved in joint flexibility, we investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the Cz modifies ankle and wrist flexibility in healthy human participants. In eight male participants, range of motion of the left ankle and wrist were measured during a passive-dorsiflexion test. We also assessed passive torque, which represents involuntary resistance to dorsiflexion at the ankle...
August 26, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Pau Gonzalez, Francisco Javier Rodríguez
Despite the essential functions of astrocytes and the emerging relevance of the Wnt family of proteins in the CNS under physiological and pathological conditions, the astroglial expression of this family of proteins and its potential modulatory role on astroglial activation is almost unknown. Thus, we have evaluated the expression of all Wnt ligands, receptors and regulators, and the activation state of Wnt-related signaling pathways in non-activated and differentially activated astroglial cultures. We found that numerous Wnt ligands, receptors and regulators were expressed in non-activated astrocytes, while the Wnt-dependent pathways were constitutively active...
August 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Katsuhiro Shinozaki, Mitsuhiro Nito, Shinji Kobayashi, Masahiro Hayashi, Takuji Miyasaka, Wataru Hashizume, Masaomi Shindo, Akira Naito
Spinal reflex arcs mediated by low-threshold (group I) afferents from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs modulate motoneuron excitabilities to coordinate smooth movements. In this study, the reflex arcs between the brachioradialis (BR) and extensor carpi radialis muscles (ECR) were examined in nine healthy human subjects using a post-stimulus time-histogram method. Electrical conditioning stimuli (ES) to the radial nerve branches innervating BR (BR nerve) and ECR (ECR nerve) with the intensity just below the motor threshold were delivered and firings of the ECR and BR motor units were recorded in 6 and 7 of the nine subjects, respectively...
August 20, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Yusuke Ohnishi, Kenji Kawano, Kenichiro Miura
Early visual processing functions as a set of spatiotemporal image filters. Our ability to sense changes in retinal images is determined by these filters along the temporal axis. In this study, we developed a paradigm to identify the kernel of the temporal filters based on ocular following responses (OFRs) to two-frame apparent motion stimuli. We first conducted two experiments to acquire fundamental data. In the first experiment, in which a quarter wavelength step of a sinusoidal grating was presented with various inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs), we found that OFRs were reversed by the ISI, which is consistent with previous findings...
August 12, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Takeshi Y Hiyama, Masaharu Noda
The brain monitors conditions of body fluids and levels of circulating neuroactive factors to maintain the systemic homeostasis. Unlike most regions in the brain, circumventricular organs (CVOs) lack the blood-brain barrier, and serve as the sensing center. Among the CVOs, the subfornical organ (SFO) is the sensing site of Na(+) levels in body fluids to control water and salt intake. The SFO harbors neuronal cell bodies with a variety of hormone receptors and innervates many brain loci. In addition, the SFO harbors specialized glial cells (astrocytes and ependymal cells) expressing Nax, a Na(+)-level-sensitive sodium channel...
August 10, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Artem P Gureev, Mikhail Yu Syromyatnikov, Tatyana M Gorbacheva, Anatoly A Starkov, Vasily N Popov
Age-related brain dysfunctions are frequently associated with deregulation of mitochondria functions and increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Recently, a mitochondria-targeting drug methylene blue has been drawing considerable interest as a potential treatment for ND. We have compared the effect of MB treatment on the behavior, brain mitochondria reactive oxygen species generation, and gene expression in adult and aged mice. Aged mice manifested a decrease in physical endurance, spontaneous locomotor activity, and exploration concomitant with an increase in anxiety-related behavior, as compared to adult mice...
August 8, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Munehisa Shinozaki, Akio Iwanami, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Shouichi Tashiro, Kazuya Kitamura, Shinsuke Shibata, Hiroshi Fujita, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano
There are more than 50 times the number of chronic-phase spinal cord injury (SCI) patients than there are acute patients, and over half of all SCI patients are severely disabled. However, research focusing on chronic severe contusional SCI remains very rare. Here, we evaluated whether chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC), a degradative enzyme directed against chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), and treadmill rehabilitation could exert synergistic therapeutic actions against chronic severe contusional SCI. First, we induced severe contusional SCI in adult rats, and administered C-ABC intrathecally at 6 weeks post-injury for a period of one week...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience Research
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