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Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193532/age-dependent-atypicalities-in-body-and-face-sensitive-activation-of-the-eba-and-ffa-in-individuals-with-asd
#1
Yuko Okamoto, Hirotaka Kosaka, Ryo Kitada, Ayumi Seki, Hiroki C Tanabe, Masamichi J Hayashi, Takanori Kochiyama, Daisuke N Saito, Hisakazu T Yanaka, Toshio Munesue, Makoto Ishitobi, Masao Omori, Yuji Wada, Hidehiko Okazawa, Tatsuya Koeda, Norihiro Sadato
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficuly in recognizing bodies and faces, which are more pronounced in children than adults. If such difficulties originate from dysfunction of the extrastriate body area (EBA) and the fusiform face area (FFA), activation in these regions might be more atypical in children than in adults. We preformed functional magnetic resonance imaging while children and adults with ASD and age-matched typically developed (TD) individuals observed face, body, car, and scene...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193531/mutation-of-a-putative-map-kinase-consensus-site-regulates-ncam-endocytosis-and-ncam-dependent-neurite-outgrowth
#2
Tobias Goschzik, Harold Cremer, Vinayaga S Gnanapragassam, Rüdiger Horstkorte, Kaya Bork, Simone Diestel
The cytoplasmic domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM contains several putative serine/threonine phosphorylation sites whose functions are largely unknown. Human NCAM140 (NCAM140) possesses a potential MAP kinase phosphorylation site at threonine (T) 803. The aim of this study was to analyze a possible phosphorylation of NCAM140 by MAP kinases and to identify the functional role of T803. We found that NCAM140 is phosphorylated by the MAP kinase ERK2 in vitro. Exchange of T803 to aspartic acid (D) which mimics constitutive phosphorylation at the respective position resulted in increased endocytosis compared to NCAM140 in neuroblastoma cells and primary neurons...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193530/calcium-binding-protein-secretagogin-characterizes-novel-groups-of-interneurons-in-the-rat-striatum
#3
Toshio Kosaka, Seiko Yasuda, Katsuko Kosaka
In the rat striatum numerous secretagogin (SCGN) positive neurons were scattered. They were heterogeneous in their morphological and chemical properties. We examined the colocalization of SCGN with known four interneuron markers, parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT). 60-70% of SCGN positive striatal neurons contained either PV or CR or ChAT, but none contained NOS. On the other hand the remaining 30-40% expressed none of these markers, most of which were GAD positive...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159649/field-evoked-potentials-in-the-globus-pallidus-of-non-human-primates
#4
Ian A Prescott, Robert A Marino, Ron Levy
Stimulation-induced field evoked potentials (fEPs) have been described in the basal ganglia output nuclei of patients with Parkinson's disease and dystonia. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether fEPs were inducible in the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the globus pallidus in normal non-human primates (NHPs). Microelectrode recording and stimulation was performed in the GPe and GPi of 2 healthy NHPs. Stimulus response curves of the fEP response to changing pulse width and amplitude examined strength-duration relationships and allowed for calculation of fEP chronaxie in the GPe and GPi...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153523/systemic-administration-of-the-dietary-constituent-resveratrol-inhibits-the-nociceptive-jaw-opening-reflex-in-rats-via-the-endogenous-opioid-system
#5
Shyota Kokuba, Shiori Takehana, Katsuo Oshima, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, under in vivo conditions, systemic administration of resveratrol could attenuate the rat nociceptive jaw-opening reflex (JOR) via the endogenous opioid system. The JOR evoked by electrical stimulation of the tongue was recorded as digastric muscle electromyograms (dEMG) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. The amplitude of the dEMG increased significantly in proportion to the intensity of electrical stimulation (from 1× to 5 × threshold for the JOR)...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153522/cdk5-inhibitors-prevent-astroglial-apoptosis-and-reactive-astrogliosis-by-regulating-pka-and-drp1-phosphorylations-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#6
Hye-Won Hyun, Su-Ji Min, Ji-Eun Kim
Status epilepticus (SE) results in the unique pattern of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)-mediated mitochondrial dynamics, which is associated with astroglial apoptosis and reactive astrogliosis in the regional-specific pattern representing the differential astroglial properties. However, less defined are the epiphenomena/upstream effecters for DRP1 phosphorylation in this process. Since cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is involved in reactive astrogliosis, CDK5 is one of the possible upstream regulators for DRP1 phosphorylation...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111220/prophylactic-active-immunization-with-a-novel-epitope-vaccine-improves-cognitive-ability-by-decreasing-amyloid-plaques-and-neuroinflammation-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#7
Li Ding, Yuan Meng, Hui-Yi Zhang, Wen-Chao Yin, Yi Yan, Yun-Peng Cao
Both amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) deposition and neuroinflammation are considered to be early events that play pivotal roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and its associated cognitive impairment. Prophylactic anti-Aβ active immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for AD, if the Aβ-specific autoimmune responses to self T cell epitopes of Aβ can be avoided. This can be achieved by the use of antigen, which contains the B cell epitope of Aβ and excludes the Aβ-specific T cell epitope. In this study, we developed a novel peptide epitope vaccine, Aβ3-10-KLH, by coupling the B cell epitope Aβ3-10 to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as the carrier protein, and subcutaneously injected it into 2...
January 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077288/micro-endoscopic-system-for-functional-assessment-of-neural-circuits-in-deep-brain-regions-simultaneous-optical-and-electrical-recordings-of-auditory-responses-in-mouse-s-inferior-colliculus
#8
Hidetaka Yashiro, Ichiro Nakahara, Kazuo Funabiki, Hiroshi Riquimaroux
In vivo Ca(2+) imaging is a powerful method for the functional assessment of neural circuits. Although multi-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy has been widely used, observation of circuits in deep brain regions remains challenging. Recently, observing these deep regions has become possible via an endoscope consisting of an optical fiber bundle or gradient-index lens. We have designed a micro-endoscope system that enables simultaneous optical recording of fluorescence and electrical recording of neural activity...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063977/enteric-glial-reactivity-to-systemic-lps-administration-changes-in-gfap-and-s100b-protein
#9
Raphaela da Cunha Franceschi, Patrícia Nardin, Clivia Valle Machado, Lucas Silva Tortorelli, Malcon Andrei Martinez-Pereira, Carolline Zanotto, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves, Denise Maria Zancan
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is used to induce inflammation and promotes nervous system activation. Different regions of the brain present heterogeneous glial responses; thus, in order to verify whether systemic LPS-induced inflammation affects the enteric glia differently across the intestinal segments, we evaluated the expressions of two glial activity markers, GFAP and S100B protein, in different intestine segments, at 1h, 24h and 7days after acute systemic LPS administration (0.25 or 2.5mg kg-1) in rats. Histological inflammatory analysis indicated that the cecum was most affected when compared to the duodenum and proximal colon at the highest doses of LPS...
January 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017600/ulk1-protects-against-ethanol-induced-neuronal-stress-and-cognition-related-behavioral-deficits
#10
Akiko Sumitomo, Keisho Ueta, Sayaka Mauchi, Kazuko Hirai, Kouta Horike, Takatoshi Hikida, Takeshi Sakurai, Akira Sawa, Toshifumi Tomoda
Alcoholism is a psychiatric condition that develops through neuroadaptations in response to neuronal stresses caused by chronic ethanol intake. Neurons can adapt to ethanol-induced metabolic changes by activating cellular protective mechanisms, including autophagy. Here we show that expression of Ulk1, a gene critical to the regulation of autophagy, was affected in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure. Consequently, overall levels of Ulk1 activity in the PFC were downregulated, leading to accumulation of p62, a protein that serves as a target for autophagic degradation...
December 23, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965136/activity-dependent-proteolytic-cleavage-of-cell-adhesion-molecules-regulates-excitatory-synaptic-development-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Sivapratha Nagappan-Chettiar, Erin M Johnson-Venkatesh, Hisashi Umemori
Activity-dependent remodeling of neuronal connections is critical to nervous system development and function. These processes rely on the ability of synapses to detect neuronal activity and translate it into the appropriate molecular signals. One way to convert neuronal activity into downstream signaling is the proteolytic cleavage of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Here we review studies demonstrating the mechanisms by which proteolytic processing of CAMs direct the structural and functional remodeling of excitatory glutamatergic synapses during development and plasticity...
December 10, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939902/cilostazol-protects-against-microvascular-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
Yuko Tsukamoto, Eiichiro Nagata, Naoto Fukuyama, Yoshiko Itoh, Hiroko Yuzawa, Saori Kohara, Mie Shimizu, Yoko Takahari, Shunya Takizawa
Cilostazol, a pluripotent phosphodiesterase III-specific inhibitor with anti-platelet and vasculogenic effects, is useful for preventing recurrent brain vascular events, particularly in stroke patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is unclear whether cilostazol affects autoregulatory responses in small cerebral arteries. Thus, we investigated the effect of cilostazol on diabetic brain vasculopathy in a model of type II DM using male OLETF rats. OLETF rats were treated with either cilostazol (CG) or vehicle (VG) and subjected to microangiography with monochromatic synchrotron radiation to investigate middle cerebral artery (MCA) vasoreactivity following an injection of acetylcholine (Ach)...
December 8, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939912/effects-of-mastication-on-human-somatosensory-processing-a-study-using-somatosensory-evoked-potentials
#13
Hiroki Nakata, Mai Aoki, Kiwako Sakamoto
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of mastication on somatosensory processing using somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs). Fourteen healthy subjects received a median nerve stimulation at the right wrist under two conditions: Mastication and Control. SEPs were recorded in five sessions for approximately seven minutes: Pre, Post 1, 2, 3, and 4. Subjects were asked to chew gum for five minutes after one session in Mastication. Control included the same five sessions. The amplitudes and latencies of P14, N20, P25, N35, P45, and N60 components at C3', frontal N30 component at Fz, and P100 and N140 components at Pz were analyzed...
December 7, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902923/kisspeptin-expression-is-decreased-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-hypothyroid-female-rats-with-irregular-estrus-cycles
#14
Yuji Tomori, Ken Takumi, Norio Iijima, Shinro Takai, Hitoshi Ozawa
Insufficiency of thyroid hormones inhibits gonadotropin release and results in dysregulation of reproductive function, although the precise mechanism of this disrupted gonadotropin secretion remains unclear. Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that strongly stimulates gonadotropin secretion and plays an important role in reproductive function. To examine the involvement of kisspeptin in the dysregulation of gonadotropin secretion in hypothyroidism, we investigated Kiss1 mRNA expression and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of female rats treated with propylthiouracil (PTU)...
November 27, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888072/movement-related-cortical-magnetic-fields-associated-with-self-paced-tongue-protrusion-in-humans
#15
Hitoshi Maezawa, Hidetoshi Oguma, Yoshiyuki Hirai, Kazunari Hisadome, Hideaki Shiraishi, Makoto Funahashi
Sophisticated tongue movements are coordinated finely via cortical control. We elucidated the cortical processes associated with voluntary tongue movement. Movement-related cortical fields were investigated during self-paced repetitive tongue protrusion. Surface tongue electromyograms were recorded to determine movement onset. To identify the location of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), tongue somatosensory evoked fields were measured. The readiness fields (RFs) over both hemispheres began prior to movement onset and culminated in the motor fields (MFs) around movement onset...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888071/cell-type-specific-expression-of-foxp2-in-the-ferret-and-mouse-retina
#16
Chihiro Sato, Lena Iwai-Takekoshi, Yoshie Ichikawa, Hiroshi Kawasaki
Although the anatomical and physiological properties of subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have been extensively investigated, their molecular properties are still unclear. Here, we examined the expression patterns of FoxP2 in the retina of ferrets and mice. We found that FoxP2 was expressed in small subsets of neurons in the adult ferret retina. FoxP2-positive neurons in the ganglion cell layer were divided into two groups. Large FoxP2-positive neurons expressed Brn3a and were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin subunit B injected into the optic nerve, indicating that they are RGCs...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110646/editorial-announcement-welcome-to-the-new-journey-of-neuroscience-research
#17
EDITORIAL
Hiroyuki Kamiguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527266/temporal-impulse-response-function-of-the-visual-system-estimated-from-ocular-following-responses-in-humans
#18
Yusuke Ohnishi, Kenji Kawano, Kenichiro Miura
Early visual processing functions as a set of spatiotemporal image filters. Our ability to sense changes in retinal images is determined by these filters along the temporal axis. In this study, we developed a paradigm to identify the kernel of the temporal filters based on ocular following responses (OFRs) to two-frame apparent motion stimuli. We first conducted two experiments to acquire fundamental data. In the first experiment, in which a quarter wavelength step of a sinusoidal grating was presented with various inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs), we found that OFRs were reversed by the ISI, which is consistent with previous findings...
December 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521454/sodium-sensing-in-the-subfornical-organ-and-body-fluid-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Takeshi Y Hiyama, Masaharu Noda
The brain monitors conditions of body fluids and levels of circulating neuroactive factors to maintain the systemic homeostasis. Unlike most regions in the brain, circumventricular organs (CVOs) lack the blood-brain barrier, and serve as the sensing center. Among the CVOs, the subfornical organ (SFO) is the sensing site of Na(+) levels in body fluids to control water and salt intake. The SFO harbors neuronal cell bodies with a variety of hormone receptors and innervates many brain loci. In addition, the SFO harbors specialized glial cells (astrocytes and ependymal cells) expressing Nax, a Na(+)-level-sensitive sodium channel...
December 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515402/methylene-blue-improves-sensorimotor-phenotype-and-decreases-anxiety-in-parallel-with-activating-brain-mitochondria-biogenesis-in-mid-age-mice
#20
Artem P Gureev, Mikhail Yu Syromyatnikov, Tatyana M Gorbacheva, Anatoly A Starkov, Vasily N Popov
Age-related brain dysfunctions are associated with mitochondria malfunctions and increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Recently, a mitochondria-targeting drug methylene blue has been drawing considerable interest as a potential treatment for ND. We found that aged mice manifested a decrease in physical endurance, spontaneous locomotor activity, and exploration concomitant with an increase in anxiety-related behavior, as compared to adult mice. Treating mice for 60 days with MB slowed down these changes...
December 2016: Neuroscience Research
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