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Neuroscience Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916471/the-pyk2-mcu-pathway-in-the-rat-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#1
Kun Zhang, Jiajia Yan, Liang Wang, Xinying Tian, Tong Zhang, Li Guo, Bin Li, Wang Wang, Xiaoyun Liu
Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by Ca(2+) overload plays an important role in ischemia-induced brain damage. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), located on the mitochondrial inner membrane, is the major channel responsible for mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Activated proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) can directly phosphorylate MCU, which enhances mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in cardiomyocytes. It has been suggested that the Pyk2/MCU pathway may be a novel therapeutic target in stress-induced cellular apoptosis...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916470/receptive-field-properties-of-cat-perigeniculate-neurons-correlate-with-excitatory-and-inhibitory-connectivity-to-lgn-relay-neurons
#2
Hironobu Osaki, Tomoyuki Naito, Shogo Soma, Hiromichi Sato
The cat perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) is a visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus that consists of GABAergic neurons. It receives excitatory axon-collateral input from relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to which it provides inhibitory input. Thus, it is usually argued that the PGN works as feedback inhibition to the LGN. At the single neuron level, however, this circuit can also provide lateral inhibition. Which inhibition dominates in the visual circuit of the thalamus has yet to be well characterized...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916469/activity-changes-in-the-left-superior-temporal-sulcus-reflect-the-effects-of-childcare-training-on-young-female-students-perceptions-of-infants-negative-facial-expressions
#3
Ayahito Ito, Katsuko Niwano, Motoko Tanabe, Yosuke Sato, Toshikatsu Fujii
In many developed countries, the number of infants who experience non-parent childcare is increasing, and the role of preschool teachers is becoming more important. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of childcare training on students who are studying to become preschool teachers. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how childcare training affects brain responses to infants' facial expressions among young females studying to become preschool teachers...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870605/the-roles-of-cortical-astrocytes-in-chronic-pain-and-other-brain-pathologies
#4
REVIEW
Kei Eto, Sun Kwang Kim, Ikuko Takeda, Junichi Nabekura
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain. Several decades ago, they were considered to be only support cells in the central nervous system. Recent studies using advanced technologies have clarified that astrocytes play more active roles in regulating neuronal function and remodeling synaptic structures by releasing molecules called gliotransmitters. In addition to various physiological functions, astrocytes are activated under disease conditions, such as chronic pain, releasing molecules that in turn cause reorganization of the central nervous system microstructure and disrupt behavior in pathological conditions...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870604/astrocytes-in-the-spinal-dorsal-horn-and-chronic-itch
#5
REVIEW
Makoto Tsuda
Chronic itch is a hallmark symptom of inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. Existing treatment for chronic itch is largely ineffective. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the neuronal basis for itch sensation in the peripheral and central nervous systems, the mechanisms underlying how itch turns into a pathological chronic state remain poorly understood. Recent studies have uncovered the causal role of astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn using mouse models of chronic itch, including atopic dermatitis...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865754/prolonged-sleep-deprivation-decreases-cell-proliferation-and-immature-newborn-neurons-in-both-dorsal-and-ventral-hippocampus-of-male-rats
#6
Yusuke Murata, Ayana Oka, Ayaka Iseki, Masayoshi Mori, Kenji Ohe, Kazunori Mine, Munechika Enjoji
Previous studies have indicated that sleep deprivation negatively affects hippocampal neurogenesis, which may explain the reason for the relation between sleep loss and depression. Increasing evidence indicates that the hippocampus is anatomically and functionally segregated along a dorsolateral (cognitive function)/ventromedial (control for mood and stress response) axis. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate regional differences in the adverse effects of sleep deprivation on hippocampal neurogenesis...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865755/the-relationship-between-the-superior-frontal-cortex-and-alpha-oscillation-in-a-flanker-task-simultaneous-recording-of-electroencephalogram-eeg-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs
#7
Kota Suzuki, Yasuko Okumura, Yosuke Kita, Yuhei Oi, Haruo Shinoda, Masumi Inagaki
Activity in the alpha band of the electroencephalogram (EEG) reflects functional inhibition of the cerebral cortex. The superior frontal cortex (SFC) is known to control alpha activity. Based on this relationship between SFC and alpha, we hypothesized that SFC controlled alpha mediates proactive control over interference. In this study, we examined the relationship between SFC and alpha in the flanker task by simultaneously recording EEG and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Forty participants performed a flanker task with occasional (compatible 75%, incompatible 25%) and successive (incompatible 100%) conditions...
August 30, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859972/increased-oxytocin-monomeric-red-fluorescent-protein-1-fluorescent-intensity-with-urocortin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system-of-aged-transgenic-rats
#8
Shigeo Ohno, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Hiroaki Fujihara, Nobuhiro Fujiki, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Hiromichi Ueno, Satomi Sonoda, Motoko Ohno, Yuichi Umezu, Akinori Hamamura, Satoru Saeki, Yoichi Ueta
To visualize oxytocin in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, we generated a transgenic rat that expresses the oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene. In the present study, we examined the age-related changes of oxytocin-mRFP1 fluorescent intensity in the posterior pituitary (PP), the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of transgenic rats. The mRFP1 fluorescent intensities were significantly increased in the PP, the SON and the PVN of 12-, 18- and 24-month-old transgenic rats in comparison with 3-month-old transgenic rats...
August 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842245/silencing-of-fus-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus-brain-via-stereotaxic-injection-of-an-adeno-associated-virus-encoding-shrna
#9
Kuniyuki Endo, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Yoshito Masamizu, Yusuke Fujioka, Akiya Watakabe, Tetsuo Yamamori, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Atsushi Nambu, Haruo Okado, Masahisa Katsuno, Hirohisa Watanabe, Masanori Matsuzaki, Gen Sobue
Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is an RNA binding protein that is involved in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To establish the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a model for FTLD, we generated a stereotaxic injection-based marmoset model of FUS-silencing. We designed shRNAs against the marmoset FUS gene and generated an AAV9 virus encoding the most effective shRNA against FUS (shFUS). The AAV encoding shFUS (AAV-shFUS) was introduced into the frontal cortex of young adult marmosets, whereas AAV encoding a control shRNA was injected into the contralateral side...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842243/the-differential-effects-of-unihemispheric-and-bihemispheric-tdcs-over-the-inferior-frontal-gyrus-on-proactive-control
#10
Jorge Leite, Óscar F Gonçalves, Patrícia Pereira, Niranjan Khadka, Marom Bikson, Felipe Fregni, Sandra Carvalho
This study examined the effects of bihemispheric and unihemispheric transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on proactive control. Sixteen participants were randomized to receive (i) bihemispheric tDCS, with a 35cm(2) anodal electrode of the right IFG and a 35cm(2) cathode electrode of left IFG or (ii) unihemispheric tDCS, with a 35cm(2) anodal electrode of the right IFG and a 100cm(2) electrode of the left IFG or (iii) sham tDCS, while performing a prepotent inhibition task...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842244/substance-p-receptor-in-the-rat-indusium-griseum-during-postnatal-development
#11
Paolo Barbaresi
The presence of substance P (SP) receptor (Neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R) in the indusium griseum (IG) and anterior hippocampal continuation (AHC) during postnatal development was studied by immunocytochemistry (ICC). NK1R-immunopositive neurons (NK1RIP-n) first appeared in both areas on postnatal day (P) 5. From P5 onward, their distribution pattern was adult-like. In sagittal sections NK1RIP-n formed a narrow strip of neurons and dendrites that were located over the corpus callosum (cc); in coronal sections they were found in a roughly triangular area at the base of the cingulate cortex (Cg) on the dorsal surface of the cc...
August 22, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807642/alterations-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-developing-brain-of-rats-with-epilepsy-changes-in-lc3-p62-beclin-1-and-bcl-2-levels
#12
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin, Jing Zhang, Manman Niu, Jiong Qin
Current studies have indicated that apoptotic and autophagic signaling pathways are triggered by epileptic seizures, but the precise roles of these processes in epilepsy-induced neuronal loss remain unclear. Identifying a concrete molecular mechanism may help researchers develop relevant epilepsy therapies that are more effective than existing treatments. Autophagy is a type of conserved degradation that contributes to cellular homeostasis. The involved signaling pathways allow us to observe alterations in autophagy and apoptosis during epileptic seizures over time...
August 11, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803788/central-nervous-system-development-related-micrornas-levels-increase-in-the-serum-of-gestational-diabetic-women-during-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy
#13
M Lamadrid-Romero, K H Solís, M S Cruz-Reséndiz, J E Pérez, N F Díaz, H Flores-Herrera, G García-López, O Perichart, E Reyes-Muñoz, F Arenas-Huertero, P Eguía-Aguilar, A Molina-Hernández
MicroRNAs are heterochronic molecules important during brain development, which could be altered by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To explore these molecules in maternal serum, we performed an RT-qPCR analysis. Our results revealed the heterochronic character of some neural development-related microRNA in serum samples of pregnant women. In relation to the first trimester, higher levels of miR-183-5p, -200b-3p, and -125-5p in the second trimester, and higher levels of miR-137 in the third trimester, were found...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803787/expression-analyses-of-phactr1-phosphatase-and-actin-regulator-1-during-mouse-brain-development
#14
Hidenori Ito, Makoto Mizuno, Kei Noguchi, Rika Morishita, Ikuko Iwamoto, Akira Hara, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Phactr1 (Phosphatase and actin regulator 1) is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and considered to regulate various neuronal processes through the regulation of protein phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal organization. In this study, we prepared a specific antibody against Phactr1, anti-Phactr1, and carried out biochemical and morphological analyses of Phactr1 with mouse brain tissues. Western blotting analyses revealed that Phactr1 was expressed in a tissue-dependent profile in the young adult mouse and in a developmental stage-dependent manner in the mouse brain...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826905/molecular-membrane-dynamics-insights-into-synaptic-function-and-neuropathological-disease
#15
REVIEW
Hiroko Bannai
The fluid mosaic model states that molecules in the plasma membrane can freely undergo lateral diffusion; however, in neurons and glia, specific membrane molecules are concentrated in cellular microdomains to overcome the randomizing effects of free diffusion. This specialized distribution of membrane molecules is crucial for various cell functions; one example is the accumulation of neurotransmitter receptors at the postsynaptic neuronal membrane, which enables efficient synaptic transmission. Quantum dot-single particle tracking (QD-SPT) is a super-resolution imaging technique that uses semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots as fluorescent probes, and is a powerful tool for analyzing protein and lipid behavior in the plasma membrane...
August 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780056/chemokine-ligand-2-chemokine-receptor-2-signaling-in-the-trigeminal-ganglia-contributes-to-inflammatory-hyperalgesia-in-rats
#16
Mamoru Takeda, Masanori Nasu, Takuya Kanazawa, Masayuki Takahashi, Yoshihito Shimazu
This study investigated the functional significance of hyperalgesia in the CCL2/CCR2 signaling system in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons following inflammation. Inflammation was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the whisker pad of rats. The escape threshold from mechanical stimulation applied to the whisker pad 2days later was significantly lower in CFA-treated rats than in naïve rats. Fluorogold (FG) labeling was used to identify the TG neurons innervating the whisker pad. FG-labeled TG neurons were immunoreactive for CCL2/CCR2...
August 2, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774814/the-role-of-the-serotonergic-system-in-motor-control
#17
REVIEW
Takashi Kawashima
The serotonergic system in the vertebrate brain is implicated in various behaviors and diseases. Its involvement in motor control has been studied for over half a century, but efforts to build a unified model of its functions have been hampered due to the complexity of serotonergic neuromodulation. This review summarizes the anatomical structure of the serotonergic system, its afferent and efferent connections to other brain regions, and recent insights into the sensorimotor computations in the serotonergic system, and considers future research directions into the roles of serotonergic system in motor control...
July 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734975/how-consumers-are-affected-by-product-descriptions-in-online-shopping-event-related-potentials-evidence-of-the-attribute-framing-effect
#18
Jia Jin, Wuke Zhang, Mingliang Chen
Due to the limitations of the human ability to process information, e-consumers' decisions are likely to be influenced by various cognitive biases, such as the attribute framing effect. This effect has been well studied by numerous scholars; however, the associated underlying neural mechanisms with a critical temporal resolution have not been revealed. Thus, this study applies the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly examine the role of attribute framing in information processing and decision-making in online shopping...
July 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733199/robust-highly-customizable-and-economical-multi-channel-electrode-for-chronic-multi-unit-recording-in-behaving-animals
#19
Yukina Tateyama, Kei Oyama, Masaru Shiraishi, Toshio Iijima, Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui
Multi-unit recording has been one of the most widely used techniques to investigate the correlation between multiple neuronal activities and behavior. However, a common problem of currently used multi-channel electrodes is their physical weakness. In this study, we developed a novel multi-channel electrode with sufficient physical strength to penetrate a thickened dura mater. This electrode consists of low-cost materials and is easily fabricated, and it enables recording without removing dura mater, thereby reducing the risk of inflammation, infection, or brain herniation...
July 18, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728913/considerations-in-repetitive-activation-of-light-sensitive-ion-channels-for-long-term-studies-channel-rhodopsin-in-the-drosophila-model
#20
Jake Higgins, Christina Hermanns, Cole Malloy, Robin L Cooper
Optogenetics is a technique used in various animal models and holds a potential for therapeutic possibilities in mammals. There are technical issues with the use of light sensitive ion channels: reproducible effects over time, controlling where the non-native proteins are targeted within the cell and changes in the biophysical properties of the cells they are expressed in. We used a variant of channel rhodopsin (ChR2-XXL) and targeted expression in neurons of larval Drosophila to investigate the acute and chronic activation, with light pulses, of the channels on synaptic function...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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