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National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24042237/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-a-nondecolorized-corrected-whole-leaf-extract-of-aloe-barbadensis-miller-aloe-vera-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-drinking-water-study
#1
M D Boudreau, F A Beland, J A Nichols, M Pogribna
BACKGROUND: Extracts from the leaves of the Aloe vera plant (Aloe barbadensis Miller) have long been used as herbal remedies and are also now promoted as a dietary supplement, in liquid tonics, powders or tablets, as a laxative and to prevent a variety of illnesses. We studied the effects of Aloe vera extract on rats and mice to identify potential toxic or cancer-related hazards. METHODS: We gave solutions of nondecolorized extracts of Aloe vera leaves in the drinking water to groups of rats and mice for 2 years...
August 2013: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23652021/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-ginkgo-biloba-extract-cas-no-90045-36-6-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-n-mice-gavage-studies
#2
(no author information available yet)
Ginkgo biloba extract has been used primarily as a medicinal agent in the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular dysfunction. Ginkgo biloba extract was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute because of its widespread use as an herbal supplement to promote mental function and the limited availability of toxicity and carcinogenicity data. Furthermore, one of the major ingredients in Ginkgo biloba extract, quercetin, is a known mutagen. The Ginkgo biloba extract used in the current studies was procured from a supplier known to provide material to United States companies and contained 31...
March 2013: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23518671/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-pyrogallol-cas-no-87-66-1-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-n-mice-dermal-studies
#3
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: The current main commercial use of pyrogallol is the production of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. In analytical chemistry, pyrogallol is used as a complexing agent, reducing agent, and, in alkaline solution, as an indicator of gaseous oxygen. Pyrogallol was nominated for testing by private individuals based on its frequent occurrence in natural and manufactured products, including hair dyes, and the apparent lack of carcinogenicity data. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice were administered pyrogallol (99% pure) dermally for 3 months or 2 years...
February 2013: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23385634/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-mixtures-of-3-azido-3-deoxythymidine-azt-lamivudine-3tc-nevirapine-nvp-and-nelfinavir-mesylate-nfv-cas-nos-30516-87-1-134678-17-4-129618-40-2-159989-65-8-in-b6c3f1-mice-transplacental-exposure-studies
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral drugs are used to treat patients positive for the human immunovirus HIV-1, and increasingly treatments include a combination of such drugs. The noninfected children of women who are pregnant and receiving such treatment may also be exposed to the drugs by transplacental exposure. We studied the long-term effects of such transplacental exposure in mice by exposing pregnant mice to combinations of four such antiretroviral drugs for seven days and then observing their pups for two years following birth...
January 2013: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23385646/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-trimethylolpropane-triacrylate-technical-grade-casrn-15625-89-5-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-n-mice-dermal-studies
#5
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) is used as an ingredient in a wide variety of coatings, resins, photosensitive materials, and superabsorbent baby diapers. We studied the effects of TMPTA on male and female rats and mice to identify potential toxic or cancer-related hazards. METHODS: We applied solutions containing TMPTA in acetone on the backs of male and female rats and mice. Groups of 50 male and female rats and mice received 0.3, 1, or 3 milligrams of TMPTA per kilogram of body weight five days per week for two years...
December 2012: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23027199/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-n-n-dimethyl-p-toluidine-cas-no-99-97-8-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-n-mice-gavage-studies
#6
(no author information available yet)
N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine was nominated for toxicology and carcinogenesis studies by the National Cancer Institute based on the potential for human exposure through its use in dental materials and bone cements and the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity data. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice were administered N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (greater than 99% pure) in corn oil by gavage for 3 months or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, mouse peripheral blood, and mouse and rat liver...
September 2012: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23001333/photocarcinogenesis-study-of-retinoic-acid-and-retinyl-palmitate-cas-nos-302-79-4-all-trans-retinoic-acid-and-79-81-2-all-trans-retinyl-palmitate-in-skh-1-mice-simulated-solar-light-and-topical-application-study
#7
(no author information available yet)
Topical retinoids, compounds that are metabolites, analogues, or derivatives of retinol and possess biological vitamin A activity, are among the most used adjunctive agents for the mitigation of fine wrinkles, mottled hyperpigmentation, and tactile roughness of photodamaged and chronically aged skin. Retinoic acid (RA) is the most active biological form of vitamin A and remains the medical treatment of choice for photoaged skin. Retinyl palmitate (RP) is the major storage form of vitamin A in the skin and, because RP is also the most stable of available vitamin A esters, it is readily incorporated into the oil phase of cosmetic creams or lotions...
July 2012: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22906972/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-acrylamide-casrn-79-06-1-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-feed-and-drinking-water-studies
#8
(no author information available yet)
Acrylamide, a water-soluble α,β-unsaturated amide, is a contaminant in baked and fried starchy foods, including french fries, potato chips, and bread, as a result of Maillard reactions involving asparagine and reducing sugars. Additional sources of acrylamide exposure include cigarettes, laboratory procedures involving polyacrylamide gels, and various occupations (e.g, monomer production and polymerization processes). Acrylamide is carcinogenic in experimental animals. To obtain data for developing quantitative risk assessments for dietary exposures to acrylamide, the Food and Drug Administration nominated acrylamide for an in-depth toxicological evaluation by the National Toxicology Program...
July 2012: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22837102/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-study-of-styrene-acrylonitrile-trimer-in-f344-n-rats-perinatal-and-postnatal-feed-studies
#9
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: Styrene-acrylonitrile trimer (SAN Trimer) is a mixture of isomers formed by the condensation of two moles of acrylonitrile and one mole of styrene and has a molecular weight of 210. The mixture is composed of two structural forms: 4-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-a-methyl-1-naphthaleneacetonitrile (THNA, CAS No. 57964-39-3) and 4-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenepropionitrile (THNP, CAS No. 57964-40-6). The THNA form consists of four stereoisomers. [Structure:see text]. The THNP form consists of two stereoisomers...
July 2012: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22692228/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-methyl-trans-styryl-ketone-cas-no-1896-62-4-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-feed-and-dermal-studies
#10
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: Methyl trans-styryl ketone is used as a synthetic flavoring agent and a fragrance additive in food and personal care products. Methyl trans-styryl ketone was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute due to widespread human exposure as a flavoring and fragrance additive, positive results in the Ames/Salmonella assay and the mouse lymphoma L5178Y/tk+/- assay, and as a representative of the α,β-unsaturated ketone chemical class. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice received methyl trans-styryl ketone (98...
May 2012: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22441424/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-kava-kava-extract-cas-no-9000-38-8-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-gavage-studies
#11
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: Kava beverages, made from dried roots of the shrub Piper methysticum, have been used ceremonially and socially in the South Pacific and in Europe since the 1700s. The drink is reported to have pleasant mild psychoactive effects, similar to alcoholic beverages. In the United States, kava kava is an herbal product used extensively as an alternative to anti-anxiety drugs such as Xanax and Valium. It has also been reported as being used to help children with hyperactivity and as a skin-conditioning agent in cosmetics...
March 2012: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22127327/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-alpha-beta-thujone-cas-no-76231-76-0-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-gavage-studies
#12
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: α,β-Thujone is a component of the essential oils of some plants including wormwood, sage, and cedar. It is used in herbal medicines, food and flavoring, and notably as the principal ingredient of the liqueur absinthe. We studied the effects of α,β-thujone on male and female rats and mice to identify potential toxic or cancer-related hazards. METHOD: We deposited solutions containing α,β-thujone in methylcellulose through a tube directly into the stomach to groups of 50 male and female rats and mice five days per week for two years...
November 2011: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22127322/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-diethylamine-cas-no-109-89-7-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-inhalation-studies
#13
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: Diethylamine is used mainly as a chemical intermediate to produce the corrosion inhibitor N,N-diethylethanolamine and a lesser amount is used to produce pesticides and insect repellants and in rubber processing. Diethylamine was nominated for study by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences based upon its high production volume and ubiquitous natural occurrence in trace amounts and because of the lack of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity data on the chemical...
October 2011: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21921964/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-ginseng-cas-no-50647-08-0-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-gavage-studies
#14
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Ginseng is a perennial aromatic herb widely used in herbal remedies, dietary supplements, cosmetics, and as a food additive. Ginseng was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute based on significant human exposure through the uses described above and the lack of information on its toxicity. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were administered extracts of ginseng root by gavage for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes...
September 2011: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21921963/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-1-bromopropane-cas-no-106-94-5-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-inhalation-studies
#15
(no author information available yet)
In the early to mid 1990s, 1-bromopropane was used primarily as an intermediate in the production of pesticides, quaternary ammonium compounds, flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals in well-controlled, closed processes. In the mid to late 1990s, it was introduced as a less toxic replacement for methylene chloride in emissive applications such as vapor and immersion degreasing operations and critical cleaning of electronics and metals. 1-Bromopropane was also introduced as a nonflammable, nontoxic, fast-drying, and inexpensive solvent for adhesive resins, and has been marketed as a replacement for ozone depleting refrigerants...
August 2011: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21921962/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-pulegone-cas-no-89-82-7-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-gavage-studies
#16
(no author information available yet)
Several essential oils contain pulegone and are used for flavoring foods, drinks, and dental products, as fragrance agents, and in herbal medicines. Pulegone was nominated for study by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences based on the potential for human exposure and the absence of carcinogenicity data. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice received pulegone (approximately 96% pure) by gavage for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes...
August 2011: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21921961/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-bis-2-chloroethoxy-methane-cas-no-111-91-1-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-dermal-studies
#17
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane is used as a solvent and the starting agent in the production of fungicides and polysulfide polymers. Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane was nominated for study by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences because of its widespread use as a starting material to produce polysulfide elastomers, and because there were no 2-year carcinogenicity studies reported in the literature. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice received dermal applications of bis(2-chloroethoxy)-methane in ethanol (greater than 98% pure) for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years...
August 2011: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21685957/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-milk-thistle-extract-cas-no-84604-20-6-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-feed-studies
#18
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: Milk thistle extracts have been used as medicinal herbs in the treatment of liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis (liver inflammation), and gallbladder disorders. Treatment claims also include lowering cholesterol levels; reducing insulin resistance; reducing the growth of cancer cells in breast, cervical, and prostate gland cancers; and antiviral activity. Other reported uses of milk thistle in folk medicine include as a treatment for malarial fever, bronchitis, gallstones, jaundice, peritonitis, uterine congestion, varicose veins, and as a milk production stimulant for nursing mothers...
May 2011: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21685956/toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-tetralin-cas-no-119-64-2-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-inhalation-studies
#19
(no author information available yet)
Tetralin is used as an industrial solvent primarily for naphthalene, fats, resins, oils, and waxes; as a solvent and stabilizer for shoe polishes and floor waxes; as a solvent for pesticides, rubber, asphalt, and aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., anthracene); as a dye solvent carrier in the textile industry; as a substitute for turpentine in lacquers, paints, and varnishes; in paint thinners and as a paint remover; in alkali-resistant lacquers for cleaning printing ink from rollers and type; as a constituent of motor fuels and lubricants; for the removal of naphthalene in gas distribution systems; and as an insecticide for clothes moths...
April 2011: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21415873/ntp-technical-report-on-the-toxicology-and-carcinogenesis-studies-of-beta-myrcene-cas-no-123-35-3-in-f344-n-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-gavage-studies
#20
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: Beta-myrcene, an acyclic unsubstituted monoterpene, and the essential oils which contain it are used as intermediates in the production of terpene alcohols (geraniol, nerol, and linalool), which, in turn, serve as intermediates in the production of aroma and flavor chemicals. Thus beta-myrcene is used widely in cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and as a flavoring additive in food and beverages. Beta-myrcene is also the major constituent of hop and bay oils, which are used in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages...
December 2010: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
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