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Aquatic Toxicology

Tamsyn M Uren Webster, Tim D Williams, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Anke Lange, Ceri Lewis, Janice A Shears, Charles R Tyler, Eduarda M Santos
Some fish populations inhabiting contaminated environments show evidence of increased chemical tolerance, however the mechanisms contributing to this tolerance, and whether this is heritable, are poorly understood. We investigated the responses of two populations of wild three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) with different histories of contaminant exposure to an oestrogen and copper, two widespread aquatic pollutants. Male stickleback originating from two sites, the River Aire, with a history of complex pollution discharges, and Siblyback Lake, with a history of metal contamination, were depurated and then exposed to copper (46μg/L) and the synthetic oestrogen ethinyloestradiol (22ng/L)...
December 31, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Chang-Bum Jeong, Duck-Hyun Kim, Hye-Min Kang, Young Hwan Lee, Hui-Su Kim, Il-Chan Kim, Jae-Seong Lee
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is one of the largest gene families and is highly conserved in all domains. The ABC proteins play roles in several biological processes, including multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR), by functioning as transporters in the cellular membrane. They also mediate the cellular efflux of a wide range of substrates against concentration gradients. In this study, 37 ABC genes belonging to eight distinct subfamilies were identified in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana and annotated based on a phylogenetic analysis...
December 30, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Lianguo Chen, Doris W T Au, Chenyan Hu, Weipeng Zhang, Bingsheng Zhou, Lin Cai, John P Giesy, Pei-Yuan Qian
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been promoted as an effective chemopreventive and antifouling additive. However, the concurrent risks or side effects of DIM are not fully understood, especially on tissues responsive to estrogen. Therefore, this study employed marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a test model to evaluate relative safety and explore mechanisms of toxic action of DIM on development and function of gonad after chronic (28days) aqueous exposure to relatively low doses (0μg/L or 8.5μg/L). Integration of comprehensive toxicogenomic analysis at the transcriptome and proteome levels with apical endpoints, such as production of eggs and swimming performance of larvae, elucidated the molecular linkage in gonad from bottom up along the reproductive adverse outcome pathway...
December 30, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
M Hudspith, Amanda Reichelt-Brushett, Peter L Harrison
Significant amounts of trace metals have been released into both nearshore and deep sea environments in recent years, resulting in increased concentrations that can be toxic to marine organisms. Trace metals can negatively affect external fertilization processes in marine broadcast spawners and may cause a reduction in fertilization success at elevated concentrations. Due to its sensitivity and ecological importance, fertilization success has been widely used as a toxicity endpoint in ecotoxicological testing, which is an important method of evaluating the toxicity of contaminants for management planning...
December 28, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Yang Liu, Lan Wang, Benben Pan, Chao Wang, Shuang Bao, Xiangping Nie
Diclofenac (DCF), as a widely used drug, has been detected in various environmental media such as municipal wastewater effluent. However, there is little information on the effects of DCF on freshwater invertebrates potentially exposing to its residues in surface water. In the present study, we investigated the toxic effects of DCF on the physiological parameters (e.g., survival, growth rate, and reproduction) of a crustacean, Daphnia magna, via a 21-d chronic toxicity test, and we also evaluated the effects of DCF on the expression of the genes related to the detoxification metabolism, growth, development and reproduction (e...
December 26, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Erin S McCallum, Sherry N N Du, Maryam Vaseghi-Shanjani, Jasmine A Choi, Theresa R Warriner, Tamanna Sultana, Graham R Scott, Sigal Balshine
Treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are a significant source of anthropogenic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, in the aquatic environment. Although our understanding of how wastewater effluent impacts fish reproduction is growing, we know very little about how effluent affects non-reproductive physiology and behaviours associated with fitness (such as aggression and activity). To better understand how fish cope with chronic exposure to wastewater effluent in the wild, we caged round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) for three weeks at different distances from a wastewater outflow...
December 23, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Frauke Seemann, Chang-Bum Jeong, Ge Zhang, Miles Teng Wan, Baosheng Guo, Drew Ryan Peterson, Jae-Seong Lee, Doris Wai-Ting Au
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at an environmentally relevant concentration (1μg/L) has previously been shown to affect bone development in a transgenerational manner in F3 medaka (Oryzias latipes) larvae (17dph). Here, we provide novel histomorphometric data demonstrating that the impaired bone formation at an early life stage is not recoverable and can result in a persistent transgenerational impairment of bone metabolism in F3 adult fish. A decrease in bone thickness and the occurrence of microcracks in ancestrally BaP-treated adult male fish (F3) were revealed by MicroCt measurement and histopathological analysis...
December 23, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Robert J Miller, Erik B Muller, Bryan Cole, Tyronne Martin, Roger Nisbet, Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser, Tayler A Jarvis, Arturo A Keller, Gary Cherr, Hunter S Lenihan
High Throughput Screening (HTS) using in vitro assessments at the subcellular level has great promise for screening new chemicals and emerging contaminants to identify high-risk candidates, but their linkage to ecological impacts has seldom been evaluated. We tested whether a battery of subcellular HTS tests could be used to accurately predict population-level effects of engineered metal nanoparticles (ENPs) on marine phytoplankton, important primary producers that support oceanic food webs. To overcome well-known difficulties of estimating ecologically meaningful toxicity parameters, we used novel Dynamic Energy Budget and Toxicodynamic (DEBtox) modeling techniques to evaluate impacts of ENPs on population growth rates...
December 23, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Flávia Lucena Zacchi, Daína de Lima, Fabrício Flores-Nunes, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Karim Hahn Lüchmann, Carlos Henrique Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Márcia Caruso Bícego, Satie Taniguchi, Silvio Tarou Sasaki, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Euryhaline animals from estuaries, such as the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, show physiological mechanisms of adaptation to tolerate salinity changes. These ecosystems receive constant input of xenobiotics from urban areas, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene (PHE). In order to understand the influence of salinity on the molecular responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were acclimatized to different salinities (35, 25 and 10) for 15days and then exposed to 100μgL(-1) PHE for 24h and 96h...
December 21, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
M Bhuvaneshwari, Deepak Kumar, Rajdeep Roy, Susiddharthak Chakraborty, Abhinav Parashar, Anita Mukherjee, N Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee
The impact of bio-remediation agent nZVI on environment is still inadequately understood, especially on aquatic food web. The study presented here has therefore considered both chemical (CS) and biological (BS) synthetic origins of nZVI and their effects on both algae and daphnia. The study is unique in its attempt to explore the possibility of trophic transfer from algae to its immediate higher niche (daphnia as the model). An equal weightage of the effects of both CS and BS nZVI on algae and daphnia has been explored here; hence it allows us to compare the capping of nZVI on toxicity...
December 21, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Yunyun Zhuang, Feifei Yang, Donghui Xu, Hongju Chen, Huan Zhang, Guangxing Liu
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of toxic and carcinogenic pollutants that can adversely affect the development, growth and reproduction of marine organisms including copepods. However, knowledge on the molecular mechanisms regulating the response to PAH exposure in marine planktonic copepods is limited. In this study, we investigated the survival and gene expression of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus poplesia upon exposure to two PAHs, 1, 2-dimethylnaphthalene (1, 2-NAPH) and pyrene...
December 16, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Maurizio Lazzari, Simone Bettini, Liliana Milani, Maria Gabriella Maurizii, Valeria Franceschini
The peripheral olfactory system of fish is in direct contact with the external aqueous environment, so dissolved contaminants can easily impair sensory functions and cause neurobehavioral injuries. The olfactory epithelium of fish is arranged in lamellae forming a rosette in the olfactory cavity and contains three main types of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs): ciliated (cOSNs) and microvillous olfactory sensory neurons (mOSNs), common to all vertebrates, and a third minor group of olfactory neurons, crypt cells, absent in tetrapods...
December 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Li-Zhen Zhu, Su-Zhen Qi, Fang-Jie Cao, Xi-Yan Mu, Yang Yang, Chengju Wang
The herbicide Quizalofop-P-ethyl (QpE) exerts toxic effects in fish, but limited information is currently available on its effects on the endocrine system. In the current study, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to different concentrations (0, 2, 20, 200μg/L) of QpE for 30days. In males, QpE exposure significantly increased plasma estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) levels, concomitant with up-regulation of hepatic esr1 and vtg gene expression. In females, plasma sex hormone levels and VTG concentrations were not altered significantly, but an increased expression of hepatic esr1 in addition to decreased expression of hepatic vtg, esr2a and esr2b was observed...
December 12, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Tongyu Li, Erchao Li, Yantong Suo, Zhixin Xu, Yongyi Jia, Jian G Qin, Liqiao Chen, Zhimin Gu
The toxicity and poisoning mechanisms of sulfide were studied in Litopenaeus vannamei from the perspective of energy metabolism and metabolomics. The lethal concentrations of sulfide in L. vannamei (LC50) at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h were determined. Sulfide at a concentration of 0, 1/10 (425.5μg/L), and 1/5 (851μg/L) of the LC50 at 96h was used to test the metabolic responses of L. vannamei for 21days. The chronic exposure of shrimp to a higher sulfide concentration of 851μg/L decreased shrimp survival but did not affect weight gain or the hepatopancreas index...
December 12, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Yihong Zheng, Ze Li, Ming Tao, Jiancheng Li, Zhangli Hu
Algae are at a low trophic level and play a crucial role in aquatic food webs. They can uptake and accumulate the trace element selenium (Se), which can be either essential or toxic to algal growth depending on the dosage and species. Se toxicity and algae resistance varied across different organisms. In order to investigate the effects of Se on the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, an important industrial resource for natural astaxanthin, the algal growth rate, chlorophyll content, and fluorescence parameters were derived from experimental treatment with different concentrations of selenite...
December 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Minna Saaristo, Alisha McLennan, Christopher P Johnstone, Bradley O Clarke, Bob B M Wong
Chemical pollution from pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognised as a major threat to aquatic communities. One compound of great concern is fluoxetine, which is one of the most widely prescribed psychoactive drugs in the world and frequently detected in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 28-d fluoxetine exposure at two environmentally relevant levels (measured concentrations: 4ng/L and 16ng/L) on anti-predator behaviour in wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata). This was achieved by subjecting fluoxetine-exposed and unexposed guppies to a simulated bird strike and recording their subsequent behavioural responses...
December 10, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Benjamin Schreiber, Marius Petrenz, Julian Monka, Bořek Drozd, Henner Hollert, Ralf Schulz
Selection of appropriate test species is a critical issue when assessing effects of environmental contamination on fish because the ecological relevance of commonly used test species might be restricted due to their exotic origin. In the present study, a European freshwater fish with frequent occurrence in agricultural areas is suggested as a potential alternative: the European weatherfish (Misgurnus fossilis). Its suitability for acute embryo toxicity tests (FET) was investigated with regard to practical implementation, sensitivity to contaminants and tolerance against environmental conditions of concern...
December 9, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Kewin Gombeau, Jean-Paul Bourdineaud, Jean-Luc Ravanat, Olivier Armant, Virginie Camilleri, Isabelle Cavalie, Magali Floriani, Christelle Adam-Guillermin
This study investigated the effects of adult zebrafish exposure to a nominal concentration of 20μgL(-1) of depleted uranium (DU) for six days upon DNA methylation, gene expression and the appearance of histopathological damage in their progeny. In the embryos at the 2-8 cell stage, the parental exposure induced significant DU accumulation, with levels seven times higher than those measured in the control embryos, but in larvae 96h post-fertilisation (hpf), uranium concentration had already returned to a level identical to that of the control larvae...
December 8, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Tom M Nolte, Nanna B Hartmann, J Mieke Kleijn, Jørgen Garnæs, Dik van de Meent, A Jan Hendriks, Anders Baun
To investigate processes possibly underlying accumulation and ecological effects of plastic nano-particles we have characterized their interaction with the cell wall of green algae. More specifically, we have investigated the influence of particle surface functionality and water hardness (Ca(2+) concentration) on particle adsorption to algae cell walls. Polystyrene nanoparticles with different functional groups (non-functionalized, -COOH and -NH2) as well as coated (starch and PEG) gold nanoparticles were applied in these studies...
December 8, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Tânia Gomes, Li Xie, Dag Brede, Ole-Christian Lind, Knut Asbjørn Solhaug, Brit Salbu, Knut Erik Tollefsen
The aquatic environment is continuously exposed to ionizing radiation from both natural and anthropogenic sources, making the characterization of ecological and health risks associated with radiation of large importance. Microalgae represent the main source of biomass production in the aquatic ecosystem, thus becoming a highly relevant biological model to assess the impacts of gamma radiation. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma radiation on microalgal species, making environmental radioprotection of this group of species challenging...
December 5, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
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