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Aquatic Toxicology

Chiara Martino, Caterina Costa, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Demian Koop, Rosaria Scudiero, Maria Byrne
Chelates of Gadolinium (Gd), a lanthanide metal, are employed as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and are released into the aquatic environment where they are an emerging contaminant. We studied the effects of environmentally relevant Gd concentrations on the development of two phylogenetically and geographically distant sea urchin species: the Mediterranean Paracentrotus lividus and the Australian Heliocidaris tuberculata. We found a general delay of embryo development at 24h post-fertilization, and a strong inhibition of skeleton growth at 48h...
November 11, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Lalit K Pandey, Yogesh Chandra Sharma, Jihae Park, Soyeon Choi, Hojun Lee, Jie Lyu, Taejun Han
The aims of this study were to assess the biodiversity of periphytic diatom assemblages in fresh, brackish and marine waterbodies of Korea, and to assess the effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors on parameters such as the quantity and biovolume of lipid bodies and deformations of diatoms as early warning measures of anthropogenic impact. Diatom samples were collected from 31 sites (14 freshwater, 10 brackish and 7 marine), which included less impacted (upstream) and impacted (downstream) sites in each water type...
November 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Hye-Min Kang, Chang-Bum Jeong, Min-Sub Kim, Jin-Sol Lee, Jiaying Zhou, Young Hwan Lee, Duck-Hyun Kim, Eunyoung Moon, Hee-Seok Kweon, Su-Jae Lee, Jae-Seong Lee
Autophagy is a 'self-eating' system that regulates the degradation of cellular components and is involved in various biological processes including survival and development. However, despite its crucial role in organisms, the regulatory mechanism of autophagy remains largely unclear, particularly in invertebrates. In this study, conserved autophagy in the rotifer Brachionus koreanus in response to cadmium (Cd) exposure was verified by measuring acidic vesicle organelles using acridine orange (AO) and neutral red (NR) staining, and by detecting LC3 I/II on Western blot and immunofluorescence...
November 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Hanyan Chen, Pingping Wang, Zhongkun Du, Guowei Wang, Shixiang Gao
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP) is an additive flame retardant of high production volume, and frequently detected in biota and environment. However, knowledge on its potential risk and toxicological mechanism still remains limited. In this study, DNA damage, transcriptomic responses and biochemical changes in the liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio) induced by TDCPP were investigated. Zebrafish was exposed to 45.81μg/L (1/100 (96h-LC50)) and 229.05μg/L (1/20 (96h-LC50)) TDCPP for 7 d. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and GSH contents, in addition to antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver changed significantly, and the mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress were alerted in a dose-dependent and/or sex-dependent manner after exposure to TDCPP...
November 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Miguel Barbosa, Núrya Inocentes, Amadeu M V M Soares, Miguel Oliveira
Increased variability in water temperature is predicted to impose disproportionally greater fitness costs than mean increase in temperature. Additionally, water contaminants are currently a major source of human-induced stress likely to produce fitness costs. Global change models forecast an increase in these two human-induced stressors. Yet, in spite the growing interest in understanding how organisms respond to global change, the joint fitness effects of water pollution and increased variability in temperature remain unclear...
November 7, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Jiebo Lin, Caihong Wang, Jinfeng Liu, Randy A Dahlgren, Weiming Ai, Aibing Zeng, Xuedong Wang, Huili Wang
Triclosan (TCS) exposure has widely adverse biological effects such as influencing biological reproduction and endocrine disorders. While some studies have addressed TCS-induced expression changes of miRNAs and their related down-stream target genes, no data are available concerning how TCS impairs miRNA expression leading us to study up-stream regulating mechanisms. Four miRNAs (miR-125b, miR-205, miR-142a and miR-203a) showed differential expression between TCS-exposure treatments and the control group; their functions mainly involved fatty acid synthesis and metabolism...
November 6, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Spencer R Saraf, Amy Frenkel, Matthew J Harke, Jennifer G Jankowiak, Christopher J Gobler, Anne E McElroy
Freshwater cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) caused by algae in the genus Microcystis have been increasing in frequency and severity in recent decades. Microcystis blooms threaten aquatic organisms through effects associated with the rapid increase of biomass and the production of the hepatotoxin microcystin (MC) by toxic strains. Among fish, effects of blooms are likely to be more severe for early life stages, and physiological impacts on this life stage could significantly impact recruitment and fish populations...
November 2, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
N Urien, A Farfarana, E Uher, L C Fechner, A Chaumot, O Geffard, J D Lebrun
Kinetic parameters (uptake from solution and elimination rate constants) of Cu, Ni and Pb bioaccumulation were determined from two Gammarus pulex and three Gammarus fossrum wild populations collected from reference sites throughout France in order to assess the inter-species and the natural inter-population variability of metal bioaccumulation kinetics in that sentinel organism. For that, each population was independently exposed for seven days to either 2.5μgL(-1) Cu (39.3nM), 40μgL(-1) Ni (681nM) or 10μgL(-1) Pb (48...
November 2, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Nicole K McRae, Sally Gaw, Chris N Glover
The freshwater fish Galaxias maculatus (inanga) is a widespread Southern hemisphere species, but despite its habitation of lowland near-coastal waters with a high potential for cadmium contamination, nothing is known regarding its sensitivity to this toxic trace metal. Acute (96h) exposures were therefore performed to determine sublethal responses of inanga to waterborne cadmium at a regulatory trigger value (nominally 0.2μgL(-1); measured 1μgL(-1)), an environmental level (measured at 2.5μgL(-1)), and an effect level (measured at 10μgL(-1))...
October 31, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Qingwei Lin, Biyun Liu, Fenli Min, Yi Zhang, Jianmin Ma, Feng He, Lei Zeng, Zhigang Dai, Zhenbin Wu
Aluminate flocculants are employed widely in water treatment for precipitating suspended solids and emergency treatment of algal blooms in eutrophic lake, but the residual aluminum (Al) may have phytotoxic effects on aquatic organisms after entering aquatic ecosystems. To elucidate the potential impacts of Al on turion germination and early growth in Potamogeton crispus, we conducted a mesocosm experiment using five Al concentrations (0 (control group), 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.5mg/L) in alum solutions. The results showed that the germination of turions and the early growth of P...
October 31, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Lizanne Janssens, Robby Stoks
Pesticides are causing strong decreases in aquatic biodiversity at concentrations assumed safe by legislation. One reason for the failing risk assessment may be strong differences in the toxicity of the active ingredient of pesticides and their commercial formulations. Sublethal effects, especially those on behaviour, have been largely ignored in this context, yet can be equally important as lethal effects at the population and ecosystem levels. Here, we compared the toxicity of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate on survival, but also on ecologically relevant sublethal traits (life history, behaviour and physiology) in damselfly larvae...
October 31, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Laura R Tessier, Tristan A F Long, Michael P Wilkie
Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are controlled in the Great Lakes using the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which is applied to streams infested with larval lamprey. However, lamprey that survive treatments (residuals) remain a challenge because they may subsequently undergo metamorphosis into parasitic juvenile animals that migrate downstream to the Great Lakes, where they feed on important sport and commercial fishes. The goal of this study was to determine if body size and life stage could potentially influence sea lamprey tolerance to TFM by influencing patterns of TFM uptake and elimination...
October 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Subham Dasgupta, Sarah Choyke, P Lee Ferguson, Anne E McElroy
Large-scale use of dispersants to remediate oil spills has raised concerns about their toxicity to marine organisms. Of particular concern is oxidative stress and resulting membrane damage due to exposure to surfactants in dispersant mixtures. We investigated the potential of the dispersant Corexit 9500(®) and one of its major components, the anionic surfactant dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), to induce oxidative stress in larval sheepshead minnows after 24 and 96h exposures, at two sublethal concentrations, the lesser being environmentally realistic for each compound...
October 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Amy Godfrey, Blair Hooser, Ahmed Abdelmoneim, Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freemanc, Maria S Sepúlveda
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter thyroid function and adversely affect growth and development. Halogenated compounds, such as perfluorinated chemicals commonly used in food packaging, and brominated flame retardants used in a broad range of products from clothing to electronics, can act as thyroid disruptors. Due to the adverse effects of these compounds, there is a need for the development of safer next generation chemicals. The objective of this study was to test the thyroid disruption potential of old use and next generation halogenated chemicals...
October 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Bice Avallone, Raimondo Cerciello, Patrizia Cretì, Carmela Pizzoleo, Rosaria Scudiero, Monica Tizzano, Raffaele Panzuto, Palma Simoniello, Maria Rosa Montinari, Chiara M Motta
The effects of an exposure to cadmium chloride 0.47μM for 150days were studied in kidneys of juveniles Sparus aurata by a multidisciplinary approach so to correlate uptake and detoxification potential to changes in brush border and glycocalyx sugar composition. Results demonstrated that cadmium concentration in kidney significantly increased from day 30 reaching a plateau on day 120 while metallothioneins reached a peak on day 90 and by day 120 were already decreasing to control values. Cytological damage was extensive on day 90, clearly detectable at both structural and ultrastructural levels, in tubular cells and brush-border...
October 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Mirna Velki, Henriette Meyer-Alert, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert
The zebrafish as a test organism enables the investigation of effects on a wide range of biological levels from molecular level to the whole-organism level. The use of fish embryos represents an attractive model for studies aimed at understanding toxic mechanisms and the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. In the present study, a zebrafish (Danio rerio) in vivo model was employed in order to assess the effects of two commonly used pesticides, the insecticide diazinon and the herbicide diuron, on zebrafish early life stages...
October 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Kevin V Brix, Margaret S Tellis, Anne Crémazy, Chris M Wood
Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs) for individual metals improve our ability to regulate metals in the aquatic environment by considering the effects of water quality parameters (ionic composition, pH, DOC) on metal bioavailability. However, in natural aquatic systems, organisms are often simultaneously exposed to multiple metals and these interactions are not currently considered in BLMs or most environmental regulations. Recently, several different mixture BLMs (mBLMs) have been developed to begin assessing this issue...
October 27, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Jérémie D Lebrun, Emmanuelle Uher, Lise C Fechner
Metals are usually present as mixtures at low concentrations in aquatic ecosystems. However, the toxicity and sub-lethal effects of metal mixtures on organisms are still poorly addressed in environmental risk assessment. Here we investigated the biochemical and behavioural responses of Gammarus fossarum to Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn tested individually or in mixture (M2X) at concentrations twice the levels of environmental quality standards (EQSs) from the European Water Framework Directive. The same metal mixture was also tested with concentrations equivalent to EQSs (M1X), thus in a regulatory context, as EQSs are proposed to protect aquatic biota...
October 27, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Peipei Liu, Jingjing Miao, Ying Song, Luqing Pan, Pengfei Yin
The reported adverse effects of Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners on gonadogenesis in fish may also occur in marine bivalves especially the burrowing species such as manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. In this study, clams were exposed to BDE-47 for 25days at 0, 0.1 and 1μg/L. By using the water temperature control method, gonadal maturation from resting to ripe stage were observed successively in both the control and the treatment groups during 25days. The results showed that exposure to BDE-47 at concentration below 1μg/L did not delay the gonadogenesis process of the clam R...
October 26, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
V Iswarya, Vineet Sharma, N Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are the most risk assessed nanoparticles in the aquatic environment due to their increased usage in the various sectors from electronics to consumer products. The natural aquatic system also comprises of numerous toxicants like antibiotics, whose impact on the toxicity of nanoparticles are less assessed. Hence, it is essential to determine the effect of other toxicants on the TiO2 NP toxicity. In the current study, the impact of antibiotic (tetracycline, TC) on the toxic effect of TiO2 NPs was studied on a freshwater alga, Scenedesmus obliquus...
October 26, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
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