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Aquatic Toxicology

Chao Zhang, Mieke Jansen, Erik Smolders, Luc De Meester, Robby Stoks
Effects of stressors on body stoichiometry are important as these may cascade through food webs. Contamination and global warming are two key anthropogenic stressors, yet their effects on body stoichiometry have been rarely tested. Further, while thermal evolution may increase the ability to deal with warming, it is unknown how thermal evolution modifies the effect of contaminants under warming. Using resurrection ecology, we studied two Daphnia magna subpopulations (old/recent) of which the recent subpopulation evolved a higher heat tolerance...
July 7, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Sabrina Elisa Oliveira, Pauliane Melo Costa, Sara Batista Nascimento, Whocely Victor Castro, Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja Ribeiro, Hélio Batista Santos, Ralph Gruppi Thomé
Atrazine is a herbicide that is banned in Europe but remains widely used on different types of crops in several countries in the American continent. Atrazine is known to be an endocrine disruptor and its effects on gonads have been extensively reported, but the toxic action on other organs is poorly documented. In this paper, we investigated the toxicity of atrazine on the gills and spleens of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The median lethal concentration (LC50 ), capable of killing one-half of the test animals was calculated, and sublethal concentrations of atrazine were used in a semistatic and subchronic assay...
July 2, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Patrícia Anacleto, Carolina Camacho, Sara Cunha, José O Fernandes, Pedro Pousão Ferreira, Rui Rosa, António Marques, Mário Diniz
Pharmaceutical drugs, such as diclofenac (DCF), are frequently detected in the marine environment, and recent evidence has pointed out their toxicity to non-target marine biota. Concomitantly, altered environmental conditions associated with climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) can also affect the physiology of marine organisms. Yet, the underlying interactions between these environmental stressors (pharmaceutical exposure and climate change-related stressors) still require a deeper understanding...
June 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Kevin W Jackman, Nik Veldhoen, Rachel C Miliano, Bonnie J Robert, Linda Li, Azadeh Khojasteh, Xiaoyu Zheng, Tristan S M Zaborniak, Graham van Aggelen, Mary Lesperance, Wayne J Parker, Eric R Hall, Gregory G Pyle, Caren C Helbing
Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate vertebrate growth, development, and metabolism. Despite their importance, there is a need for effective detection of TH-disruption by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The frog olfactory system substantially remodels during TH-dependent metamorphosis and the objective of the present study is to examine olfactory system gene expression for TH biomarkers that can evaluate the biological effects of complex mixtures such as municipal wastewater. We first examine classic TH-response gene transcripts using reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in the olfactory epithelium (OE) and olfactory bulb (OB) of premetamorphic Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana tadpoles after 48 h exposure to biologically-relevant concentrations of the THs, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 ) and L-thyroxine (T4 ), or 17-beta estradiol (E2 ); a hormone that can crosstalk with THs...
June 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Sarah L Alderman, Feng Lin, Todd E Gillis, Anthony P Farrell, Christopher J Kennedy
The early life stages of Pacific salmon are at risk of environmental exposure to diluted bitumen (dilbit) as Canada's oil sands industry continues to expand. The toxicity and latent effects of dilbit exposure were assessed in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) exposed to water-soluble fractions of dilbit (WSFd) from fertilization to the swim-up stage, and then reared in clean water for 8 months. Mortality was significantly higher in WSFd-exposed embryos, with cumulative mortality up to 4.6-fold higher in exposed relative to unexposed embryos...
June 26, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Marta Vannoni, Veronique Creach, Jon Barry, Dave Sheahan
Chlorination is a widely used antifouling method for freshwater and marine applications. Chlorine added to seawater reacts to form oxidants that are toxic to biofouling organisms. Further, the oxidants that result are short-lived, but may nevertheless affect non-target species in waterbodies receiving the antifouling effluent. This study evaluated the toxicity of chlorinated seawater (e.g. following sodium hypochlorite addition) on two different species of marine benthic diatoms (Achnanthes spp., and Navicula pelliculosa), which are representative of microphytobenthos communities - an important component in coastal habitats that may be exposed to chlorinated seawater...
June 25, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Karl Fent, Patricia Franziska Siegenthaler, Andreas Alexandre Schmid
Steroid hormones in the aquatic environment may pose a risk to fish health. Here we evaluated effects of two different class steroids that frequently occur in the aquatic environment, the androgen androstenedione (A4) and the progestin 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP4). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to four concentrations of A4 and the positive control testosterone and to 17-OHP4, and transcriptional changes were determined at 96 h post fertilization (hpf) and 120 hpf. Transcriptional changes of 18 selected genes were assessed upon exposure to measured concentrations of 0...
June 22, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Prashant Kumar Singh, Wenjing Wang, Alok Kumar Shrivastava
Cyanobacteria are a natural inhabitant of paddy field and enhance the crop productivity in an eco-friendly manner. Cadmium (Cd) is a perilous trace metal element which not only limits the crop productivity but also inhibits the growth and nitrogen-fixing ability of these diazotrophs as well as the biodiversity of rice field semiaquatic agroecosystems. However, the impact of Cd toxicity in diazotrophic cyanobacteria is yet not adequately addressed. Therefore, in the present study, three diazotrophic cyanobacterial species, i...
June 19, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Paulo Reis, Ruth Pereira, F P Carvalho, J Oliveira, M Malta, Sónia Mendo, Joana Lourenço
Assessing the impact of uranium mining industry on aquatic ecosystems near mining areas is critical to ensure the long-term health and sustainability of ecosystem services. As so, a transgenerational study with Daphnia magna has been conducted to perceive to what extent intermittent discharges of uranium mine effluents into watercourses may impact the DNA integrity and life history traits of cladocerans. Organisms were exposed for 48 h to a 2% dilution of an uranium mine effluent (UME) and to a corresponding dose of waterborne uranium (WU) that, according to our preliminary studies, induces significant DNA damage in daphnids...
June 19, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Alessia Giannetto, Tiziana Cappello, Sabrina Oliva, Vincenzo Parrino, Giuseppe De Marco, Salvatore Fasulo, Angela Mauceri, Maria Maisano
Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used in various industrial applications, i.e. semiconductor devices, batteries, solar energy converter, gas sensor, microelectronics, heat transfer fluids, and have been recently recognized as emerging pollutants of increasing concern for human and marine environmental health. Therefore, the toxicity of CuO NPs needs to be thoroughly understood. In this study, we evaluated the potential role of oxidative stress in CuO NP toxicity by exploring the molecular response of Arbacia lixula embryos to three CuO NP concentrations (0...
June 14, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Wu Chao, Yuhui Zhang, Lihong Chai, Hongyuan Wang
Endochondral ossification, the process by which most of the bone is formed, is regulated by many specific groups of molecules and extracellular matrix components. Hind limb of Bufo gargarizans is a model to study endochondral ossification during metamorphosis. Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 ) from G3 to G42. The development of hind limb of B. gargarizans was observed using the double staining methodology. The transcriptome of hind limb of B...
June 10, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Michel A Defo, Louis Bernatchez, Peter G C Campbell, Patrice Couture
The objective of this study was to determine if temporal variations in tissue metal concentrations are related to biomarkers of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress responses in juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). To this end, kidney metal (Cd, Cu and Zn) concentrations were measured in fish sampled in spring and fall 2012 in four lakes representing a wide range of water and sediment metal contamination in the Rouyn-Noranda (Quebec) region. Lakes Opasatica and Hélène were considered as reference lakes while lakes Dufault and Marlon were metal-contaminated...
June 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Yi Liu, Muhammad Junaid, Yan Wang, Yu-Mei Tang, Wan-Ping Bian, Wen-Xu Xiong, Hai-Yang Huang, Chun-Di Chen, De-Sheng Pei
Tetracycline hydrochloride (TH), indomethacin (IM), and bezafibrate (BF) belong to the three different important classes of pharmaceuticals, which are well known for their toxicity and environmental concerns. However, studies are still elusive to highlight the mechanistic toxicity of these pharmaceuticals and rank them using both, the toxicity prediction and confirmation approaches. Therefore, we employed the next generation toxicity testing in 21st century (TOX21) tools and estimated the in vitro/vivo toxic endpoints of mentioned pharmaceuticals, and then confirmed them using in vitro/vivo assays...
June 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Reyna Cristina Colli-Dula, Xiefan Fang, David Moraga-Amador, Nacira Albornoz-Abud, Roberto Zamora-Bustillos, Ana Conesa, Omar Zapata-Perez, Diego Moreno, Emanuel Hernandez-Nuñez
Despite a wide number of toxicological studies that describe benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) effects, the metabolic mechanisms that underlie these effects in fish are largely unknown. Of great concern is the presence of BaP in aquatic systems, especially those in close proximity to human activity leading to consumption of potentially contaminated foods. BaP is a known carcinogen and it has been reported to have adverse effects on the survival, development and reproduction of fish. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a low dose of BaP can alter genes and key metabolic pathways in the liver and testis in male adult tilapia, and whether these could be associated with biological endpoints disruption...
June 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Fekadu Yadetie, Xiaokang Zhang, Eileen Marie Hanna, Libe Aranguren-Abadía, Marta Eide, Nello Blaser, Morten Brun, Inge Jonassen, Anders Goksøyr, Odd André Karlsen
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) pathway, and endocrine disruptors acting through the estrogen receptor pathway are among environmental pollutants of major concern. In this work, we exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) to BaP (10 nM and 1000 nM), ethynylestradiol (EE2) (10 nM and 1000 nM), and equimolar mixtures of BaP and EE2 (10 nM and 1000 nM) for 48 h, and performed RNA-Seq based transcriptome mapping followed by systematic bioinformatics analyses...
June 7, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Li Wencheng, Kichul Cho, Yasuhiro Yamasaki, Satoshi Takeshita, Kiju Hwang, Daekyung Kim, Tatsuya Oda
The dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama is highly toxic to bivalves. However, significant toxicity to finfish species has not been reported. We previously found that H. circularisquama has light-dependent haemolytic agents. Purification and chemical structural analyses revealed that the haemolytic agent H2-a is a porphyrin derivative, which exhibits light-dependent cytotoxicity toward tumour cells. To clarify the biological activity of H2-a further, its antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated in this study...
June 7, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Gabrielle do Amaral E Silva Müller, Karim Hahn Lüchmann, Guilherme Razzera, Guilherme Toledo-Silva, Maria João Bebianno, Maria Risoleta Freire Marques, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Diesel fuel water-accommodated fraction (diesel-WAF) is a complex mixture of organic compounds that may cause harmful effects to marine invertebrates. Expression of microsomal proteins can be changed by oil exposure, causing functional alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in protein expression signatures in microsomes of oysterl Crassostrea brasiliana (=C.gasar) gill after exposure to 10% diesel-WAF for 24 and 72 h. Protein expression signatures of gills of oysters exposed to diesel-WAF were compared to those of unexposed oysters using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify differentially expressed proteins...
June 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Hongyan Xu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Hankun Li, Caixia Li, Xiao-Jing Huo, Li-Ping Hou, Zhiyuan Gong
Environmental pollutants may cause adverse effects on the immune system of aquatic organisms. However, the cellular effects of pollutants on fish immune system are largely unknown. Here, we exploited the transgenic zebrafish Tg(lysC:DsRed2) larva as a preliminary screening system to evaluate the potential inflammatory effects of environmental pollutants. Tg(lysC:DsRED2) larvae aged 7-day-postfertilization (7 dpf) were treated with selected environmental chemicals for 24 h (24 h) and the number of neutrophils were quantified using both image analysis and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)...
June 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Guidi Zhong, Zhonghua Wu, Nian Liu, Jun Yin
Glyphosate, as a broad-spectrum herbicide, is frequently detected in water, and phosphorus widely enters the water due to the extensive use of phosphorus-containing substances in agriculture, industries and daily life. Thus, aquatic ecosystems are exposed to both glyphosate and phosphorus, which may affect aquatic organisms. In the present research, we studied the physiological responses of the floating aquatic plant species H. dubia to different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 1, 5, 15 mg/L) with different levels of phosphate (0, 50, 100 mg/L) after 14 days (d) of treatment...
May 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Hye-Min Kang, Jin-Sol Lee, Min-Sub Kim, Young Hwan Lee, Jee-Hyun Jung, Atsushi Hagiwara, Bingsheng Zhou, Jae-Seong Lee, Chang-Bum Jeong
Autophagy originated from the common ancestor of all life forms, and its function is highly conserved from yeast to humans. Autophagy plays a key role in various fundamental biological processes including defense, and has developed through serial interactions of multiple gene sets referred to as autophagy-related (Atg) genes. Despite their significance in metazoan life and evolution, few studies have been conducted to identify these genes in aquatic invertebrates. In this study, we identified whole Atg genes in four Brachionus rotifer spp...
May 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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