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Aquatic Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623690/candidate-cytochrome-p450-genes-for-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase-activity-in-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#1
Marília Nardelli Siebert, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Guilherme Toledo-Silva, Guilherme Razzera, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Vertebrate cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) enzymes metabolize endogenous and xenobiotic compounds and usually demonstrate a substrate-inducible response. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (EROD) is a common method to quantify CYP1 enzymes activity in these organisms. Despite the absence of this gene family in protostomes, CYP1-like genes were identified in several species, even though no evolutionary relationship has been established with the vertebrate CYP1 family. In the present study, EROD activity was evaluated in microsomal fraction of gills, digestive gland and mantle of Crassostrea gigas...
June 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605647/physiological-determinants-of-individual-variation-in-sensitivity-to-an-organophosphate-pesticide-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#2
David J McKenzie, Felipe R Blasco, Thiago C Belão, Shaun S Killen, Nathan D Martins, Edwin W Taylor, F Tadeu Rantin
Individual variation in sub-lethal sensitivity to the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon was investigated in Nile tilapia, using critical swimming speed (Ucrit) as an indicator. Tilapia exposed for 96h to 500μgl(-1) trichlorfon at 26°C (Tcfn group, n=27) showed a significant decline in mean Ucrit, compared to their own control (pre-exposure) performance in clean water (-14.5±2.3%, mean±SEM), but also compared to a Sham group (n=10) maintained for 96h in clean water. Individuals varied in their relative sensitivity to the pesticide, with the decline in Ucrit after exposure varying from 1 to 41%...
June 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623688/exposure-to-sublethal-concentrations-of-co3o4-and-mn2o3-nanoparticles-induced-elevated-metal-body-burden-in-daphnia-magna
#3
Margit Heinlaan, Marge Muna, Katre Juganson, Olena Oriekhova, Serge Stoll, Anne Kahru, Vera I Slaveykova
Despite the significant progress made in ecotoxicological research on nanoparticles (NPs), there is still very limited information available regarding the biological effects of certain types of NPs such as Co3O4 and Mn2O3. Only a couple of studies provide data on their impact on aquatic organisms whereas, alarmingly, these NPs have been proposed to have high toxicity potential. In addition, more data are needed to determine whether the adverse effects the metal NPs induce on aquatic organisms are rather due to their chemical or particulate nature...
June 6, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605648/impacts-of-triclosan-exposure-on-zebrafish-early-life-stage-toxicity-and-acclimation-mechanisms
#4
Falisse Elodie, Voisin Anne-Sophie, Silvestre Frédéric
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent widely used in personal care products and present in most aquatic ecosystems. This study investigated the occurrence of triclosan acclimation and the biological mechanisms underlying the stress response triggered in early-life stage of zebrafish. Zebrafish eggs were first exposed to four different sublethal concentrations of TCS (2, 20, 50 and 100μg/L) for 7days following fertilization and subsequently exposed to a lethal concentration of TCS (1000μg/L)...
June 6, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601011/developmental-toxicity-of-hydroxylated-chrysene-metabolites-in-zebrafish-embryos
#5
Graciel Diamante, Gabrielle do Amaral E Silva Müller, Norma Menjivar-Cervantes, Elvis Genbo Xu, David C Volz, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy, Daniel Schlenk
One of the primary sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine environments is oil. Photochemical oxidation and microbial transformation of PAH-containing oils can result in the formation of oxygenated products. Among the PAHs in crude oil, chrysene is one of the most persistent within the water column and may be transformed to 2- and 6-hydroxychrysene (OHCHR). Both of these compounds have been shown to activate (2-OHCHR) and antagonize (6-OHCHR) the estrogen receptor (ER). Previous studies in our lab have shown that estrogen can significantly alter zebrafish development...
June 3, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623689/stage-specific-effects-of-soluble-copper-and-copper-oxide-nanoparticles-during-sea-urchin-embryo-development-and-their-relation-to-intracellular-copper-uptake
#6
Cristina Torres-Duarte, Karla M Ramos-Torres, René Rahimoff, Gary N Cherr
The effects of exposure to either soluble copper (copper sulfate) or copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) during specific early developmental stages of sea urchin embryos were analyzed. Soluble copper caused significant malformations in embryos (skeletal malformations, delayed development or gut malformations) when present at any given stage, while cleavage stage was the most sensitive to nano-CuO exposure causing skeletal malformations and decreased total antioxidant capacity. The stage specificity was linked to higher endocytic activity during the first hours of development that leads to higher accumulation of copper in specific cells critical for development...
June 1, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618302/growth-and-physiological-responses-of-a-marine-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-against-two-imidazolium-based-ionic-liquids-c4mim-bf4-and-c8mim-bf4
#7
Xiang-Yuan Deng, Biao Chen, Da Li, Xiao-Li Hu, Jie Cheng, Kun Gao, Chang-Hai Wang
Ionic liquids (ILs) have been considered as "green" substitutes for traditional organic solvents in many existing biological and chemical areas. However, they have high solubility and poor biodegradability in water, suggesting that they could become persistent chemical pollutants in aquatic environment. The ability of two widely used imidazolium-based ILs to affect the growth and physiological characteristics of a marine diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) was investigated in this study. The diatom was exposed to different concentrations of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim]BF4) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C8mim]BF4) for 96h within a batch-culture system...
May 31, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601012/diclofenac-affects-kidney-histology-in-the-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus-at-low-%C3%AE-g-l-concentrations
#8
Johanna Näslund, Jerker Fick, Noomi Asker, Elisabet Ekman, D G Joakim Larsson, Leif Norrgren
Diclofenac, a commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is considered for regulation under the European water framework directive. This is because effects on fish have bean reported at concentrations around those regularly found in treated sewage effluents (∼1μg/L). However, a recent publication reports no effects on fish at 320μg/L. In this study, three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to 0, 4.6, 22, 82 and 271μg/L diclofenac in flow-through systems for 28days using triplicate aquaria per concentration...
May 31, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582701/oxidative-stress-in-the-algae-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-exposed-to-biocides
#9
Ana Catarina Almeida, Tânia Gomes, Katherine Langford, Kevin V Thomas, Knut Erik Tollefsen
The toxicity of biocides can be associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative damage, interfering with the normal function of photosynthetic organisms. This study investigated the formation and effects of ROS in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to three environmentally relevant biocides, aclonifen, dichlofluanid and triclosan. After a first screening to identify which biocides induced ROS, a 24h multi-endpoint analysis was used to verify the possible consequences...
May 31, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582700/effects-of-road-salt-on-larval-amphibian-susceptibility-to-parasitism-through-behavior-and-immunocompetence
#10
Dino Milotic, Marin Milotic, Janet Koprivnikar
Large quantities of road salts are used for de-icing in temperate climates but often leach into aquatic ecosystems where they can cause harm to inhabitants, including reduced growth and survival. However, the implications of road salt exposure for aquatic animal susceptibility to pathogens and parasites have not yet been examined even though infectious diseases can significantly contribute to wildlife population declines. Through a field survey, we found a range of NaCl concentrations (50-560mg/L) in ponds known to contain larval amphibians, with lower levels found in sites close to gravel- rather than hard-surfaced roads...
May 31, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578214/biomarker-responses-to-environmental-contamination-in-estuaries-a-comparative-multi-taxa-approach
#11
Irina A Duarte, Patrick Reis-Santos, Susana França, Henrique Cabral, Vanessa F Fonseca
Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems subjected to numerous anthropogenic pressures with consequent environmental quality degradation. In this study, multiple biomarker responses [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage (DNAd)] were determined in two fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Pomatoschistus microps) and four macroinvertebrate species (Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon, Hediste diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) from the Ria de Aveiro and Tejo estuaries over distinct months...
May 26, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575748/effects-of-triclosan-tcs-on-fecundity-the-antioxidant-system-and-oxidative-stress-mediated-gene-expression-in-the-copepod-tigriopus-japonicus
#12
Jun Chul Park, Jeonghoon Han, Min-Chul Lee, Jung Soo Seo, Jae-Seong Lee
Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent that has been widely dispersed and detected in the marine environment. However, the effects of TCS in marine invertebrates are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of TCS on life cycle history (e.g. mortality and fecundity) along with cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, GSH content, antioxidant enzymatic activities, and mRNA expression levels of oxidative stress-mediated genes were measured in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and median lethal concentration (LC50) of TCS in the adult stage were determined to be 300μg/L and 437...
May 26, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554051/selenium-accumulation-and-metabolism-in-algae
#13
REVIEW
Michela Schiavon, Andrea Ertani, Sofia Parrasia, Francesca Dalla Vecchia
Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production...
May 25, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575749/copper-alters-hypoxia-sensitivity-and-the-behavioural-emersion-response-in-the-amphibious-fish-kryptolebias-marmoratus
#14
Tamzin A Blewett, Robyn A Simon, Andy J Turko, Patricia A Wright
Elevated levels of metals have been reported in mangrove ecosystems worldwide. Mangrove fishes also routinely experience severe environmental stressors, such as hypoxia. In the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus (mangrove rivulus), a key behavioural response to avoid aquatic stress is to leave water (emersion). We hypothesized that copper (Cu) exposure would increase the sensitivity of this behavioural hypoxia avoidance response due to histopathological effects of Cu on gill structure and function. K. marmoratus were exposed to either control (no added Cu) or Cu (300μg/L) for 96h...
May 23, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558289/toxicity-of-triphenyltin-on-the-development-of-retinal-axons-in-zebrafish-at-low-dose
#15
Yue Xiao, Jieqiong Jiang, Wenxin Hu, Yanbin Zhao, Jianying Hu
The impacts of triphenyltin (TPT) on ecological health are of particular concern due to the unexpectedly high levels found in wild fish around the world. Here, zebrafish embryos were exposed to TPT via in ovo nano-injection to study its toxicity on the development of retinal axons in fish. Lipophilic dye labeling revealed obvious defects in retinal axon development in larvae with normally shaped eyes, with incidences of 0, 1.08%, 2.66%, 4.26%, and 6.85% observed in the control, 0.8, 4.0, 20.0, and 100ng TPT-Cl/g wet weight (ww) exposure groups, respectively, showing a dose-dependent increase...
May 22, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535436/microcystin-lr-induces-changes-in-the-gaba-neurotransmitter-system-of-zebrafish
#16
Wei Yan, Li Li, Guangyu Li, Sujuan Zhao
It has been reported that exposure to microcystins altered adult zebrafish swimming performance parameters, but the possible mechanisms of action remain unknown. Neuronal activity depends on the balance between the number of excitatory and inhibitory processes which are associated with neurotransmitters. In the present study, zebrafish embryos (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30μg/L (microcystin-LR) MCLR for 90day until reaching sexual maturity. To investigate the effects of MCLR on the neurotransmitter system, mRNA levels involved in amino acid g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate metabolic pathways were tested using quantitative real-time PCR...
May 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528318/metabolic-profiling-of-goldfish-carassius-auratis-after-long-term-glyphosate-based-herbicide-exposure
#17
Ming-Hui Li, Ling-Yu Ruan, Jin-Wei Zhou, Yong-Hong Fu, Lei Jiang, He Zhao, Jun-Song Wang
Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured...
May 13, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599170/developing-transcriptional-profiles-in-orbicella-franksi-exposed-to-copper-characterizing-responses-associated-with-a-spectrum-of-laboratory-controlled-environmental-conditions
#18
Michael B Morgan, Sara E Edge, Alexander A Venn, Ross J Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527383/tributyltin-and-triphenyltin-exposure-promotes-in-vitro-adipogenic-differentiation-but-alters-the-adipocyte-phenotype-in-rainbow-trout
#19
Esmail Lutfi, Natàlia Riera-Heredia, Marlon Córdoba, Cinta Porte, Joaquim Gutiérrez, Encarnación Capilla, Isabel Navarro
Numerous environmental pollutants have been identified as potential obesogenic compounds affecting endocrine signaling and lipid homeostasis. Among them, well-known organotins such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), can be found in significant concentrations in aquatic environments. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the effects of TBT and TPT on the development and lipid metabolism of rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) primary cultured adipocytes. Results showed that TBT and TPT induced lipid accumulation and slightly enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) protein expression when compared to a control, both in the presence or absence of lipid mixture...
May 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500903/microcystin-lr-bioconcentration-induces-antioxidant-responses-in-the-digestive-gland-of-two-marine-bivalves-crassostrea-gigas-and-mytilus-edulis
#20
Young Dae Kim, Won Jin Kim, Yun Kyung Shin, Do-Hee Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Jang Kyun Kim, Jae-Sung Rhee
Microcystins (MCs) are a major group of potent cyanobacterial toxins found in freshwater and even brackish waterbodies. To understand the putative correlation between bioconcentration of MCs and antioxidant responses of the digestive gland of bivalves, Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and blue mussel Mytilus edulis were exposed to different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 20μgL(-1)) of MC-Leucine-Arginine (LR) for seven days. MC-LR bioconcentrated in the digestive glands of both bivalves during exposure period...
May 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
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