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Aquatic Toxicology

Annarita Falanga, Flavia A Mercurio, Antonietta Siciliano, Lucia Lombardi, Stefania Galdiero, Marco Guida, Giovanni Libralato, Marilisa Leone, Emilia Galdiero
This study evaluated the effect of QDs functionalized with the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin on oxidative stress and metabolomics profiles of Daphnia magna across three generations (F0, F1, and F2). Exposing D. magna to sub-lethal concentrations of the complex QDs-indolicidin, a normal survival of daphnids was observed from F0 to F2, but a delay of first brood, fewer broods per female, a decrease of length of about 50% compared to control. In addition, QDs-indolicidin induced a significantly higher production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) gradually in each generation and an impairment of enzymes response to oxidative stress such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione transferase (GST)...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Fangjie Cao, Peizhuo Wu, Lan Huang, Hui Li, Le Qian, Sen Pang, Lihong Qiu
Previous study indicated that azoxystrobin had high acute toxicity to zebrafish, and larval zebrafish were more sensitive to azoxystrobin than adult zebrafish. The objective of the present study was to investigate short-term developmental effects and potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval and adult zebrafish. After zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20 mg/L azoxystrobin (equal to 25, 124 and 496 nM azoxystrobin, respectively) for 8 days, the lethal effect, physiological responses, liver histology, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and expression alteration of genes related to mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and innate immune response were determined...
March 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
T C M Brock, J D M Belgers, M-C Boerwinkel, L Jollie, M H S Kraak, M J Papo, J A Vonk, I Roessink
This paper deals with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for the lipophilic insecticide lufenuron and benthic arthropods based on sediment-spiked laboratory toxicity tests. This compound that inhibits chitin synthesis and moulting of arthropods persists in sediment. Using field-collected sediment, toxicity tests were conducted with three macro-crustaceans and six insects. The Hazardous Concentration to 5% of the tested species, the HC5 (and 95% confidence limit), derived from an SSD constructed with 10d-LC50's was 2...
March 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Rachel M Speer, Catherine F Wise, Jamie L Young, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Mark Martin Bras, Mike Barandiaran, Erick Bermúdez, Lirio Márquez-D'Acunti, John Pierce Wise
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood...
March 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Renée Katrin Bechmann, Emily Lyng, Stig Westerlund, Shaw Bamber, Mark Berry, Maj Arnberg, Alfhild Kringstad, Piero Calosi, Paul J Seear
Increasing use of fish feed containing the chitin synthesis inhibiting anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron (DFB) in salmon aquaculture has raised concerns over its impact on coastal ecosystems. Larvae of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were exposed to DFB medicated feed under Control conditions (7.0 °C, pH 8.0) and under Ocean Acidification and Warming conditions (OAW, 9.5 °C and pH 7.6). Two weeks' exposure to DFB medicated feed caused significantly increased mortality. The effect of OAW and DFB on mortality of shrimp larvae was additive; 10% mortality in Control, 35% in OAW, 66% in DFB and 92% in OAW + DFB...
February 28, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Vanessa Koehlé-Divo, Carole Cossu-Leguille, Sandrine Pain-Devin, Cécile Simonin, Carole Bertrand, Bénédicte Sohm, Catherine Mouneyrac, Simon Devin, Laure Giambérini
The rapid development of nanotechnology and the increased use of nanomaterials in products used in everyday life have raised the question of the potential release of nanoparticles into the aquatic environment. Their fate and effects in natural ecosystems are not currently well understood but harmful effects of nanoparticles have been demonstrated at low concentrations on some freshwater and marine species. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are produced in large quantities and used in products in many different fields, such as automotives or optics...
February 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Nathalie Coquillé, Dominique Ménard, Julien Rouxel, Valentin Dupraz, Mélissa Éon, Patrick Pardon, Hélène Budzinski, Soizic Morin, Édith Parlanti, Sabine Stachowski-Haberkorn
Microalgae, which are the foundation of aquatic food webs, may be the indirect target of herbicides used for agricultural and urban applications. Microalgae also interact with other compounds from their environment, such as natural dissolved organic matter (DOM), which can itself interact with herbicides. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of natural DOM on the toxicity of three herbicides (diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor), singly and in ternary mixtures, to two marine microalgae, Chaetoceros calcitrans and Tetraselmis suecica, in monospecific, non-axenic cultures...
February 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Cristina Pirrone, Federica Rossi, Simone Cappello, Marina Borgese, Giuseppe Mancini, Giovanni Bernardini, Rosalba Gornati
The large volumes of oily wastewater discharged to marine environment cause heavy impacts on the coastal marine ecosystem. The selection of an appropriate technology to reduce these impacts should be based on the respect of the discharge limits and on the effective assessment and monitoring of its effects on biological organism preservation. To this aim, we set up a controlled microcosm-scale system to compare the effects of a treated and untreated oily wastewater discharge in which the restore process is performed through a Membrane Bio-Reactor...
February 24, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Kristina Beijer, Maria Jönsson, Siraz Shaik, Daphné Behrens, Björn Brunström, Ingvar Brandt
Antifungal azoles are widely used in medicine, agriculture, and material protection and several antifungal azoles have been found in environmental samples. Although these compounds were designed to inhibit fungal enzymes such as lanosterol-14-demethylase (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 51), it is well established that the inhibitory actions of azoles are not specific for fungal CYP isozymes. We refined a gill filament assay to determine the inhibition of CYP1, measured as reduced 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill tissue ex vivo...
February 21, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Gabriel Qualhato, Simone Maria Teixeira de Sabóia-Morais, Luciana Damacena Silva, Thiago Lopes Rocha
Although iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely used in nanomedicine and nanoremediation, their ecotoxicological effects on aquatic organisms remain unclear. In this study, the melanomacrophage center (MMC) response and hepatic histopathologic biomarkers were investigated in female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, exposed to citrate-functionalized IONPs (γ-Fe2 O3 ) at an environmentally relevant iron concentration (0.3 mg L-1 ) over 21 days. The animals were collected at the beginning of the experiment and after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of exposure...
February 21, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Joana C Prata, Beatriz R B O Lavorante, Maria da Conceição B S M Montenegro, Lúcia Guilhermino
Microplastics and pharmaceuticals are considered ubiquitous and emergent pollutants of high concern but the knowledge on their effects on primary producers is still limited, especially those caused by mixtures. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate if the presence of microplastics (1-5 μm diameter) influences the toxicity of the pharmaceuticals procainamide and doxycycline to the marine microalga Tetraselmis chuii. Bioassays (96 h) to investigate the toxicity of those substances individually and in mixtures (i...
February 21, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Gabriela Romina Silveyra, Patricia Silveyra, Itzick Vatnick, Daniel Alberto Medesani, Enrique Marcelo Rodríguez
Atrazine, a widely use herbicide, has been classified as a potential endocrine disruptor, especially for freshwater species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that atrazine can affect reproduction in crayfish through dysregulation of vitellogenin expression and hormone synthesis. Adult female crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) were exposed during one month to atrazine at concentrations of either 1 or 5 mg/L. At the end of the exposure, ovaries, hepatopancreas, and hemolymph samples were harvested for analysis of vitellogenin expression and steroid hormone levels...
February 21, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Karilyn E Sant, Paul P Sinno, Haydee M Jacobs, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
The glutathione redox system undergoes precise and dynamic changes during embryonic development, protecting against and mitigating oxidative insults. The antioxidant response is coordinately largely by the transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf2), an endogenous sensor for cellular oxidative stress. We have previously demonstrated that impaired Nrf family signaling disrupts the glutathione redox system in the zebrafish embryo, and that impaired Nrf2 function increases embryonic sensitivity to environmental toxicants...
February 20, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Ângela Almeida, Vânia Calisto, Valdemar I Esteves, Rudolf J Schneider, Amadeu M V M Soares, Etelvina Figueira, Rosa Freitas
In the aquatic environment, organisms are exposed to complex mixtures of contaminants which may alter the toxicity profile of each compound, compared to its toxicity alone. Pharmaceutical drugs (e.g. carbamazepine (CBZ) and cetirizine (CTZ)) and metals (e.g. cadmium (Cd)) are among those contaminants that co-occur in the environment. However, most studies concerning their toxicity towards aquatic species are based on single exposure experiments. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate single and combined effects of Cd and CBZ or CTZ (single conditions: Cd, CTZ, CBZ; combined conditions: CTZ + Cd, CBZ + Cd) on biomarkers related to oxidative stress and energy metabolism in the edible clam Ruditapes philippinarum, by exposing the organisms for 28 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of these contaminants...
February 19, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Héctor Martínez-Rodríguez, Kingsley Donkor, Sharon Brewer, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Hariz Islas-Flores, Livier Sánchez-Aceves, Armando Elizalde-Velázquez, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván
During the last decade, β-blockers such as metoprolol (MTP) have been frequently detected in surface water, aquatic systems and municipal water at concentrations of ng/L to μg/L. Only a small number of studies exist on the toxic effects induced by this group of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damage induced by MTP in the common carp Cyprinus carpio, using oxidative stress biomarkers. To this end, indicators of cellular oxidation such as hydroperoxide content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were determined, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)...
February 18, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Eugene Choi, Derek Alsop, Joanna Y Wilson
In this study, we examined if rainbow trout chronically exposed to acetaminophen (10 and 30 μgL-1 ) showed histological changes that coincided with functional changes in the kidney, gill and liver. Histological changes in the kidney included movement and loss of nuclei, non-uniform nuclei size, non-uniform cytoplasmic staining, and loss of tubule integrity. Histological effects were more severe at the higher concentration and coincided with concentration dependent increases in urine flow rate and increased urinary concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, urea, ammonia, glucose, and protein...
February 15, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Moise M Matouke, Dorcas T Elewa, Karimatu Abdullahi
The wide application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and phosphorus in the manufacturing of many industrial products mainly used in agricultural sector has resulted in the release of considerable amounts of these compounds into freshwater aquatic ecosystem. These compounds may cause some unexpected effects to aquatic organisms. This study assessed the binary effects of Titanium nanoparticles (nTiO2 ) and Phosphorus on Chlorella ellipsoides. Toxicological assay test of the compounds nTiO2 (1.25 μM) alone and the combination of Titanium dioxide (1...
February 14, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Paula Rayane de Souza, Kelma Sirleide de Souza, Caio Rodrigo Dias de Assis, Marlyete Chagas de Araújo, Kaline Catiely Campos Silva, Juliett de Fátima Xavier da Silva, Andreia Cybelle Marques Ferreira, Valdir Luna da Silva, Mônica Lúcia Adam, Luiz Bezerra de Carvalho, Ranilson de Souza Bezerra
Enzyme biomarkers from several aquatic organisms have been used for assessing the exposure to contaminants at sublethal levels. Amongst them, the cholinesterases are commonly extracted from several organisms to evaluate/measure organophosphate and carbamate neurotoxic effects. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC is an enzyme of the group of serine esterases that acts on the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine allowing the intermittence of the nerve impulses responsible for the neuronal communication...
February 12, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jeffrey C Wolf, James R Wheeler
Although frequently examined as a target organ for non-endocrine toxicity, histopathological evaluation of the liver is becoming a routine component of endocrine disruption studies that utilize various fish species as test subjects. However, the interpretation of microscopic liver findings can be challenging, especially when attempting to distinguish adverse changes associated with endocrine disrupting substances from those caused by systemic or direct hepatic toxicity. The purpose of this project was to conduct a critical assessment of the available peer-reviewed and grey literature concerning the histopathologic effects of reproductive endocrine active substances (EAS) and non-endocrine acting substances in the livers of fish models, and to determine if liver histopathology can be used to reliably distinguish endocrine from non-endocrine etiologies...
February 12, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Shamaila Fraz, Abigail H Lee, Joanna Y Wilson
Gemfibrozil (GEM) and carbamazepine (CBZ) are two environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals and chronic exposure of fish to these compounds has decreased androgen levels and fish reproduction in laboratory studies. The main focus of this study was to examine the effects of GEM and CBZ on testicular steroid production, using zebrafish as a model species. Chronic water borne exposures of adult zebrafish to 10 μg/L of GEM and CBZ were conducted and the dosing was confirmed by chemical analysis of water as 17...
February 10, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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