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Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232543/ameliorating-the-adverse-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-chemical-immobilization-by-inducing-general-anaesthesia-in-sheep-and-goats-implications-for-physiological-studies-of-large-wild-mammals
#1
Adian Izwan, Edward P Snelling, Roger S Seymour, Leith C R Meyer, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Duncan Mitchell, Anthony P Farrell, Mary-Ann Costello, Shane K Maloney
Chemical immobilization is necessary for the physiological study of large wild animals. However, the immobilizing drugs can adversely affect the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, yielding data that do not accurately represent the normal, resting state. We hypothesize that these adverse effects can be ameliorated by reversing the immobilizing agent while holding the animal under general anaesthesia. We used habituated sheep Ovis aries (N = 5, 46.9 ± 5.3 kg body mass, mean ± SEM) and goats Capra hircus (N = 4, 27...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218147/sources-of-ca-2-for-contraction-of-the-heart-tube-of-tenebrio-molitor-coleoptera-tenebrionidae
#2
Arnaldo Fim Neto, Rosana A Bassani, Pedro X de Oliveira, José W M Bassani
Insect and vertebrate hearts share the ability to generate spontaneously their rhythmic electrical activity, which triggers the fluid-propelling mechanical activity. Although insects have been used as models in studies on the impact of genetic alterations on cardiac function, there is surprisingly little information on the generation of the inotropic activity in their hearts. The main goal of this study was to investigate the sources of Ca2+ for contraction in Tenebrio molitor hearts perfused in situ, in which inotropic activity was assessed by the systolic variation of the cardiac luminal diameter...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218146/the-effects-of-embryonic-hypoxic-programming-on-cardiovascular-function-and-autonomic-regulation-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-at-rest-and-during-swimming
#3
William Joyce, Tiffany E Miller, Ruth M Elsey, Tobias Wang, Dane A Crossley
Reptilian embryos naturally experience fluctuating oxygen levels in ovo, and developmental hypoxia has been established to have long-term impacts on cardiovascular function in vertebrates. In the present study, we investigated the impact of developmental 21% (normoxia) and 10% O2 (hypoxia) on juvenile (4-year-old) American alligator cardiovascular function in animals at rest and during swimming. In both experimental groups, combined right aortic and right subclavian blood flow approximately doubled during swimming...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209557/nitric-oxide-metabolites-in-hypoxia-freezing-and-hibernation-of-the-wood-frog-rana-sylvatica
#4
Bethany L Williams, James M Wiebler, Richard E Lee, Jon P Costanzo
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical that in diverse organisms performs many signaling and protective functions, such as vasoregulation, inhibition of apoptosis, antioxidation, and metabolic suppression. Increased availability of NO may be especially important during life-history periods when organisms contend with multiple stresses. We investigated dynamics of the NO metabolites, nitrite (NO2 - ) and nitrate (NO3 - ), in the blood plasma, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), an amphibian that endures chronic cold, freezing, hypoxia, dehydration, and extended aphagia during hibernation...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194463/individual-variation-of-daily-torpor-and-body-mass-change-during-winter-in-the-large-japanese-field-mouse-apodemus-speciosus
#5
Takeshi Eto, Shinsuke H Sakamoto, Yoshinobu Okubo, Yasuhiro Tsuzuki, Chihiro Koshimoto, Tetsuo Morita
Daily torpor is a strategy used by some overwintering small endotherms to aid in energy conservation. However, the pattern of torpor varies among individuals within species and populations, even under the same environmental conditions, with significant implications for survival rate and reproductive success. Body mass is one factor that may influence this variation, especially in some small mammals that accumulate fat stores prior to overwintering. However, to our knowledge there has been no previous study examining the detailed relationships between torpor expression and body mass change in small mammals that hoard food as an energy resource during winter...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194462/the-springtail-megaphorura-arctica-survives-extremely-high-osmolality-of-body-fluids-during-drought
#6
Martin Holmstrup
The springtail Megaphorura arctica Tullberg 1876 is widespread in the arctic and subarctic regions where it can be abundant along beaches. This species survives winters using cryoprotective dehydration as a cold tolerance strategy during which it becomes drastically dehydrated. Several studies have investigated the physiological responses associated with water loss of M. arctica under exposure to freezing temperatures, but little is known of the dynamics of body water and hemolymph osmolality when subjected to gradually increasing drought stress at temperatures above the freezing point...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121696/short-and-hyperthermic-torpor-responses-in-the-malagasy-bat-macronycteris-commersoni-reveal-a-broader-hypometabolic-scope-in-heterotherms
#7
Stephanie Reher, Julian Ehlers, Hajatiana Rabarison, Kathrin H Dausmann
The energy budgets of animal species are closely linked to their ecology, and balancing energy expenditure with energy acquisition is key for survival. Changes in animals' environments can be challenging, particularly for bats, which are small endotherms with large uninsulated flight membranes. Heterothermy is a powerful response used to cope with changing environmental conditions. Recent research has revealed that many tropical and subtropical species are heterothermic and display torpor with patterns unlike those of "classical" heterotherms from temperate and arctic regions...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094506/body-and-organ-metabolic-rates-of-a-cave-fish-triplophysa-rosa-influence-of-light-and-ontogenetic-variation
#8
Chenchen Shi, Min Yao, Xiao Lv, Qingyuan Zhao, Zuogang Peng, Yiping Luo
Triplophysa rosa is a typical species of cave-dwelling fish distributed throughout Wulong County, Chongqing, China. This study aimed to test whether T. rosa has a low metabolic level as a cave species and how the metabolic rate of this fish responds to light stimulation. The whole body and organ (including brain, heart, and liver) oxygen consumption rates ([Formula: see text]) and several blood parameters related to oxygen carrying were compared between T. rosa acclimated in constant dark and those in regular photoperiod conditions...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056509/soluble-calcium-binding-proteins-scbps-of-the-earthworm-lumbricus-terrestris-possible-role-as-relaxation-factors-in-muscle
#9
Prasath Thiruketheeswaran, Ralf Huch, Jochen D'Haese
The soluble Ca2+ -binding protein (SCBP) from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris was analyzed with regard to its role as a soluble muscle relaxation factor. The actomyosin ATPase activity was inhibited by the addition of decalcified SCBP as it binds Ca2+ stronger than the regulatory proteins associated with the actomyosin. Competitive 45 Ca2+ -binding assays with decalcified actomyosin and SCBP showed that 45 Ca2+ is first bound to actomyosin and is subsequently taken over by SCBP with increasing incubation time...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008138/ocean-acidification-effects-of-ph-on-45-ca-uptake-by-lobster-branchiostegites
#10
Lilian Nagle, Skye Brown, Arianna Krinos, Gregory A Ahearn
Gill chambers of the Atlantic lobster, Homarus americanus, possess three structures that are involved with respiration and ion regulation: gill filaments, epipodites, and branchiostegites. This paper describes ion transport mechanisms present in the plasma membranes of branchiostegite epithelial cells and the effects of pH on the uptake of 45 Ca by these processes. Partially purified membrane vesicles (PPMV) of branchiostegite cells were produced by a homogenization/centrifugation method that has previously been used to define ion transport processes in both crab and lobster gill tissues...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008137/savanna-elephants-maintain-homeothermy-under-african-heat
#11
Michael A Mole, Shaun Rodrigues DÁraujo, Rudi J van Aarde, Duncan Mitchell, Andrea Fuller
To conserve body water, mammals may reduce evaporative water loss by storing heat, allowing core body temperature to rise more than usual during the day, and to fall more than usual during the cooler night, so demonstrating heterothermy. It has been proposed that elephants are heterothermic, but body temperature never has been measured in elephants over 24 h at environmental temperatures higher than body temperature, where elephants would have to rely on evaporative cooling to maintain homeothermy. We used ingested temperature data loggers to record core temperature of four partly free-ranging savanna elephants exposed to high solar radiation and environmental temperatures that exceeded core temperature (> 36 °C) in their natural habitat...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008136/species-specific-low-plasma-glucose-in-fish-is-associated-with-relatively-high-tissue-glucose-content-and-is-inversely-correlated-with-cardiac-glycogen-content
#12
Connie E Short, William R Driedzic
The relationship between plasma glucose concentration and intracellular glucose (liver, heart, brain, gill, gonad, intestine, kidney, spleen, white muscle) was determined in fish species with a range in plasma glucose (Atlantic cod, 5.06 mM; cunner, 3.8 mM; rainbow trout, 3.7 mM; lumpfish, 0.9 mM; short-horned sculpin, 0.6 mM; and winter flounder, 0.6 mM). The ratio of intracellular glucose/plasma glucose was always higher than one in liver for all species consistent with a diffusion gradient from the tissue to the plasma...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039300/oxygen-consumption-of-desert-pupfish-at-ecologically-relevant-temperatures-suggests-a-significant-role-for-anaerobic-metabolism
#13
Matt Heuton, Luis Ayala, Aldo Morante, Kyle Dayton, Alexander C Jones, Joseph R Hunt, Austin McKenna, Frank van Breukelen, Stanley Hillyard
Oxygen consumption is oftentimes used as a proxy for metabolic rate. However, pupfish acclimated to ecologically relevant temperatures may employ extended periods of anaerobism despite the availability of oxygen-a process we called paradoxical anaerobism. In this study, we evaluated data from pupfish exhibiting stable oxygen consumption. Routine oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) of a refuge population derived from Cyprinodon spp. acclimated to 28 and 33 °C was evaluated at the ecologically relevant assay temperatures of between 25 and 38 °C...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039299/muscle-specific-activation-of-calpain-system-in-hindlimb-unloading-rats-and-hibernating-daurian-ground-squirrels-a-comparison-between-artificial-and-natural-disuse
#14
Hui Chang, Tingyun Lei, Xiufeng Ma, Jie Zhang, Huiping Wang, Xingyuan Zhang, Yun-Fang Gao
To determine whether the regulation of calpain system is involved in non-hibernators and hibernators in disused condition, the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were used for investigating the muscle mass, the ratio of muscle wet weight/body weight (MWW/BW), fiber-type distribution, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and the protein expression of MuRF1, calpain-1, calpain-2, calpastatin, desmin, troponin T, and troponin C in hindlimb unloading rats and hibernating Daurian ground squirrels...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039298/the-energetics-of-torpor-in-a-temperate-passerine-endemic-to-new-zealand-the-rifleman-acanthisitta-chloris
#15
Brian K McNab, Kerry A Weston
Compared to other birds, passerines, reflecting their small mass, have a narrow set of behavioral characteristics. One difference is that few enter torpor, especially in temperate environments. The few that do include swallows, none of which live throughout the year in cold-temperate environments, because their food, flying insects, is not available in winter and no passerine is known to hibernate. They seasonally migrate to warm-temperate and tropical environments. We present data on the energetics of the Rifleman (Acanthisitta chloris), a small, insectivorous member of the Acanthisittidae, a passerine family endemic to temperate New Zealand...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948161/physiological-protective-action-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-on-ion-regulation-and-nitrogenous-waste-excretion-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-exposed-to-low-ph-in-ion-poor-water
#16
Rafael M Duarte, Chris M Wood, Adalberto L Val, D Scott Smith
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) represents a heterogeneous group of naturally-occurring molecules in aquatic environments, and recent studies have evidenced that optically dark DOCs can exert some positive effects on ionoregulatory homeostasis of aquatic organisms in acidic waters. We investigated the effects of Luther Marsh DOC, a dark allochthonous DOC, on ion regulation and N-waste excretion of zebrafish acutely exposed to either neutral or low pH in ion-poor water. In the first experiment, simultaneous exposure to pH 4...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948160/effects-of-ocean-acidification-and-salinity-variations-on-the-physiology-of-osmoregulating-and-osmoconforming-crustaceans
#17
Andressa Cristina Ramaglia, Leandro Mantovani de Castro, Alessandra Augusto
Survival, osmoregulatory pattern, oxygen consumption, energy spent on metabolism, ammonia excretion, type of oxidized energy substrate, and hepatosomatic index were evaluated in decapods (an osmoregulating crab, Callinectes danae, and an osmoconforming seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri) exposed to carbon dioxide-induced water acidification (pH 7.3, control pH 8.0) and different salinities (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40‰) for 3 days. Compared to the animals kept at controlled pH, exposure to reduced pH resulted in the loss of osmoregulatory capacity in C...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948159/thyroid-hormone-manipulation-influences-development-of-cardiovascular-regulation-in-embryonic-pekin-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-domestica
#18
Tushar S Sirsat, Dane A Crossley, Janna L Crossley, Edward M Dzialowski
Thyroid hormones are key regulators of avian metabolism and may play a significant role in development at hatching. To better understand the role of thyroid hormones in avian development, we examined autonomic control of heart rate and blood pressure while manipulating thyroid hormone levels in the late stage embryonic Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica). Thyroid hormone levels were manipulated on day 24 of a 28-day incubation period with the thyroperoxidase inhibitor methimazole (MMI), triiodothyronine (T3 ), or saline...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948158/protective-effects-of-compatible-solute-ectoine-against-ethanol-induced-toxic-alterations-in-daphnia-magna
#19
Adam Bownik, Brygida Ślaska, Aleksandra Szabelak
Ectoine (ECT) is a compatible solute synthesized mostly by halophilic microorganisms subjected to various stressful factors. Its protective properties in bacteria and some populations of isolated cells subjected to different stressors are reported; however, little is known on its effects against a commonly used compound, ethanol (ETH). The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of ETH alone (at 20 and 60 g/L) and in the combination with various concentrations of ECT (5, 10, and 25 mg/L) at various times of exposure on behavioural, physiological, and biochemical parameters of a model invertebrate Daphnia magna...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948157/seasonal-variation-in-energy-expenditure-in-a-rodent-inhabiting-a-winter-rainfall-desert
#20
Rebecca Rimbach, Stéphane Blanc, Alexandre Zahariev, Maria Gatta, Neville Pillay, Carsten Schradin
Animals that spend more energy than they obtain risk entering allostatic overload, reducing survival and fitness. They are predicted to adjust their daily energy expenditure (DEE) during periods of food scarcity. Adjustments of DEE to changes in food availability have been well-studied in species in temperate zones during winter, but less so in species enduring seasonal droughts. Likely mechanisms regulating DEE involve adjustments of activity and maintenance metabolism. Species that experience seasonal droughts and changes in food availability, like the African striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio), are appropriate model organisms to study the regulation of seasonal changes of DEE...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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