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Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30631901/purification-and-characterization-of-a-urea-sensitive-lactate-dehydrogenase-from-skeletal-muscle-of-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#1
Christine L Childers, Kenneth B Storey
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis endures whole body dehydration which can increase its reliance on anaerobic glycolysis for energy production. This makes the regulation of the terminal enzyme of glycolysis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), crucial to stress survival. We investigated the enzymatic properties and posttranslational modification state of purified LDH from the skeletal muscle of control and dehydrated (30% total body water loss) X. laevis. LDH from the muscle of dehydrated frogs showed a 93% reduction in phosphorylation on threonine residues and an 80% reduction of protein nitrosylation...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30610293/effects-of-acclimation-temperature-on-the-thermal-tolerance-hypoxia-tolerance-and-swimming-performance-of-two-endangered-fish-species-in-china
#2
Long-Yan Zhou, Shi-Jian Fu, Cheng Fu, Hong Ling, Xiu-Ming Li
Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the physiological activities and, thus, the fitness of fish, and physiological studies can help predict the effects of climate change on fish species in the field. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acclimation temperature on the thermal tolerance, hypoxia tolerance and swimming ability of two endangered fish species in the upper reach of the Yangtze River, namely, the Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) and rock carp (Procypris rabaudi)...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30603847/physiological-effects-of-dissolved-oxygen-are-stage-specific-in-incubating-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#3
Andrew T Wood, Timothy D Clark, Nicholas G Elliott, Peter B Frappell, Sarah J Andrewartha
Oxygen availability is highly variable during salmonid incubation in natural redds and also in aquaculture incubation systems. Hypoxia generally decreases growth and aerobic metabolism prior to hatching, in parallel with eliciting physiological modifications that enhance oxygen delivery. However, it is less-well known whether developmental hyperoxia can drive the opposite effect. Moreover, there is insufficient understanding of stage-specific developmental windows during which ambient oxygen availability may be of greater or lesser impact to incubating embryos...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30603846/effects-of-thyroid-hormones-and-cold-acclimation-on-the-energy-metabolism-of-the-striped-hamster-cricetulus-barabensis
#4
Jing Wen, Qing-Gang Qiao, Zhi-Jun Zhao, De-Hua Wang, Wei-Hong Zheng, Zuo-Xin Wang, Jin-Song Liu
To examine the effects of low ambient temperature and thyroid hormones on the energy metabolism of the striped hamster (Cricetulus barabensis), adult male striped hamsters were kept at 30 °C, or acclimated to 5 °C, for 4 weeks. During this time, hamsters were treated with a synthetic thyroxine, levothyroxine sodium (LTS), the antithyroid drug methimazole, or saline solution (control). Hamster's food intake, basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST), thyroid hormones, body fat content, mitochondrial state-4 respiration, cytochrome c oxidase, and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT), were measured...
February 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30560503/acute-hypoxia-reoxygenation-affects-muscle-mitochondrial-respiration-and-redox-state-as-well-as-swimming-endurance-in-zebrafish
#5
G Napolitano, Paola Venditti, G Fasciolo, D Esposito, E Uliano, C Agnisola
Rapid fluctuations of the oxygen content of both natural and anthropogenic origin are relatively common in freshwater environments. Fish adaptation to these conditions implies tolerance of both low levels of oxygen availability and reoxygenation. Hypoxia tolerance in fish has been widely studied, but the involvement of mitochondria in the response of fish to rapid hypoxia/reoxygenation stress is less known. Zebrafish, a floodplain species, is likely facing significant changes in dissolved oxygen in its natural environment and displays a moderate ability to tolerate hypoxia...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515571/mechanisms-of-ca-2-uptake-in-freshwater-and-seawater-acclimated-killifish-fundulus-heteroclitus-and-their-response-to-acute-salinity-transfer
#6
Alex M Zimmer, Kevin V Brix, Chris M Wood
Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) has been extensively used as a model for ion regulation by euryhaline fishes. Na+ and Cl- dynamics have been well studied in killifish, but few studies have addressed that of Ca2+ . Therefore, this study aimed to characterize Ca2+ fluxes in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW)-acclimated killifish, their response to salinity transfer, and to elucidate the mechanisms of Ca2+ influx in FW and SW. SW killifish displayed a significantly higher Ca2+ influx rate than that of FW fish, while Ca2+ efflux rates were comparable in both salinities...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488104/ecoimmunology-in-degus-interplay-among-diet-immune-response-and-oxidative-stress
#7
Natalia Ramirez-Otarola, Mauricio Sarria, Daniela S Rivera, Pablo Sabat, Francisco Bozinovic
The relationships between immunity, oxidative stress, and diet have not often been studied together. Despite this, it has been shown that dietary proteins can have effects on the functioning of the immune system and the oxidative status of animals. Here we evaluated the effects of dietary proteins on the response to an antigen and oxidative status of Octodon degus (Rodentia). We acclimated adult individuals to high-protein and low-protein diets and evaluated several aspects of the acute phase response and variables associated with oxidative status...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488103/thermal-physiology-of-a-range-restricted-desert-lark
#8
Ryno Kemp, Andrew E McKechnie
Much recent work on avian physiological adaptation to desert environments has focused on larks (Passeriformes: Alaudidae). We tested the prediction that the threatened red lark (Calendulauda burra), a species restricted to very arid parts of South Africa and which is not known to drink, exhibits highly efficient evaporative cooling and makes pronounced use of facultative hyperthermia when exposed to high air temperatures (Ta ). We also predicted that C. burra possesses similarly low basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (EWL) at moderate Ta as reported for species from the deserts of the Middle East...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488102/lipid-acquisition-and-tissue-storage-in-hagfish-new-insights-from-an-ancient-vertebrate
#9
Alyssa M Weinrauch, Chris N Glover, Greg G Goss
Hagfishes are ancient vertebrates, which have the ability to tolerate nearly a year of food deprivation with energy during fasting maintained using lipid stores. While lipid transporters are evolutionarily conserved, there are relatively few studies examining mechanisms of lipid acquisition in teleosts and no reports in the primitive and evolutionarily important agnathans. We examined tissue lipid droplet distribution and used gut sac preparations to characterize uptake mechanisms of the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid (OA; 18:1 cis-9), in the Pacific hagfish...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483931/acute-temperature-effects-on-metabolic-rate-ventilation-diffusive-water-exchange-osmoregulation-and-acid-base-status-in-the-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii
#10
Marina Giacomin, Junho Eom, Patricia M Schulte, Chris M Wood
The Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) is a representative of the most basal extant craniates, and is a marine osmoconformer with an extremely low metabolic rate (MO2  = 475 µmol O2 /kg/h at 12 °C). We investigated potential physiological trade-offs associated with compensatory changes in gill ventilation and perfusion when 12 °C-acclimated hagfish were acutely exposed to 7 °C or 17 °C, as reflected in diffusive unidirectional water flux ([Formula: see text], measured with tritiated water: 3 H2 O), net ammonia flux (Jamm ), and plasma ion and acid-base status...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483930/alteration-in-branchial-nka-and-nkcc-ion-transporter-expression-and-ionocyte-distribution-in-adult-hilsa-during-up-river-migration
#11
Soumi Dutta, Saumya Kanti Ray, G H Pailan, V R Suresh, Subrata Dasgupta
Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) is a clupeid that migrates from the off-shore area through the freshwater river for spawning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of branchial Na+ /K+ -ATPase (NKA) and Na+ /K+ /2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) in maintaining ionic homeostasis in hilsa while moving across the salt barriers. Hilsa, migrating through marine and brackish waters, did not show any significant decline in NKA activity, plasma osmolality, and plasma ionic concentration. In contrast, all the parameters declined significantly, after the fish reached in freshwater zone of the river...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478602/thermal-physiological-performance-of-two-freshwater-turtles-acclimated-to-different-temperatures
#12
Wei Dang, Ying-Chao Hu, Jun Geng, Jie Wang, Hong-Liang Lu
The thermal physiological performance of invasive species may play a crucial role in determining their invasion success. In this study, we acclimated two cohorts of hatchlings of freshwater turtles (native Mauremys reevesii and invasive Trachemys scripta elegans) from low and high-latitude collection sites, respectively, to different thermal conditions (20 and 30 °C) for 4 weeks, and then compared their thermal tolerance and locomotor performance. T. scripta elegans hatchlings could swim faster (but righted themselves more slowly), and tolerate a higher temperature and wider temperature range than M...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413882/expression-of-glucose-transporters-and-morphometry-in-the-intestine-of-japanese-quails-after-hatch
#13
Maria de Fátima de Souza Andrade, Alexandre Lemos de Barros Moreira Filho, Eudes Fernando Alves da Silva, Heraldo Bezerra de Oliveira, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa, Ricardo Romão Guerra, Patrícia Emília Naves Givisiez
The intestinal physiology and mechanisms involved in nutrient transport are not well established in quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The present study assessed the growth performance, morphological development, duodenal density and the expression of Sglt1 and Glut2 of female Japanese quails from 1 to 49 days of age. The three small intestine segments were sampled weekly from 1 to 49 days of age to evaluate villus height, crypt depth and villus: crypt ratio, and goblet cell counts. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to determine duodenal villus density, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to study the sodium/glucose cotransporter-1 Sglt1 and glucose transporter Glut2 in the jejunum...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390099/overwintering-adaptations-and-extreme-freeze-tolerance-in-a-subarctic-population-of-the-wood-frog-rana-sylvatica
#14
REVIEW
Jon P Costanzo
The terrestrially hibernating wood frog (Rana sylvatica) is well-known for its iconic freeze tolerance, an overwintering adaptation that has received considerable investigation over the past 35 years. Virtually, all of this research has concerned frogs indigenous to the temperate regions of its broad range within North America. However, recent investigations have shown that frogs of subarctic populations are extremely cold hardy, being capable of surviving freezing for longer periods and at much lower temperatures as compared to conspecifics from temperate regions...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288595/effect-of-temperature-on-the-locomotor-performance-of-species-in-a-lizard-assemblage-in-the-puna-region-of-argentina
#15
Rodrigo Gómez Alés, Juan Carlos Acosta, Vanesa Astudillo, Mariela Córdoba, Graciela Mirta Blanco, Donald Miles
Locomotion is relevant to the ecology of reptiles because of its presumed influence on an organism's Darwinian fitness. Moreover, in ectothermic species, physiological performance capacity is affected by body temperature. We analyzed two components of locomotor performance in three species of lizards, Phymaturus extrilidus, Liolaemus parvus, and Liolaemus ruibali, in the Puna environment of Argentina. First, we estimated the thermal sensitivity of locomotion by measuring sprint speed at four different body temperatures...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232543/ameliorating-the-adverse-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-chemical-immobilization-by-inducing-general-anaesthesia-in-sheep-and-goats-implications-for-physiological-studies-of-large-wild-mammals
#16
Adian Izwan, Edward P Snelling, Roger S Seymour, Leith C R Meyer, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Duncan Mitchell, Anthony P Farrell, Mary-Ann Costello, Shane K Maloney
Chemical immobilization is necessary for the physiological study of large wild animals. However, the immobilizing drugs can adversely affect the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, yielding data that do not accurately represent the normal, resting state. We hypothesize that these adverse effects can be ameliorated by reversing the immobilizing agent while holding the animal under general anaesthesia. We used habituated sheep Ovis aries (N = 5, 46.9 ± 5.3 kg body mass, mean ± SEM) and goats Capra hircus (N = 4, 27...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194463/individual-variation-of-daily-torpor-and-body-mass-change-during-winter-in-the-large-japanese-field-mouse-apodemus-speciosus
#17
Takeshi Eto, Shinsuke H Sakamoto, Yoshinobu Okubo, Yasuhiro Tsuzuki, Chihiro Koshimoto, Tetsuo Morita
Daily torpor is a strategy used by some overwintering small endotherms to aid in energy conservation. However, the pattern of torpor varies among individuals within species and populations, even under the same environmental conditions, with significant implications for survival rate and reproductive success. Body mass is one factor that may influence this variation, especially in some small mammals that accumulate fat stores prior to overwintering. However, to our knowledge there has been no previous study examining the detailed relationships between torpor expression and body mass change in small mammals that hoard food as an energy resource during winter...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194462/the-springtail-megaphorura-arctica-survives-extremely-high-osmolality-of-body-fluids-during-drought
#18
Martin Holmstrup
The springtail Megaphorura arctica Tullberg 1876 is widespread in the arctic and subarctic regions where it can be abundant along beaches. This species survives winters using cryoprotective dehydration as a cold tolerance strategy during which it becomes drastically dehydrated. Several studies have investigated the physiological responses associated with water loss of M. arctica under exposure to freezing temperatures, but little is known of the dynamics of body water and hemolymph osmolality when subjected to gradually increasing drought stress at temperatures above the freezing point...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121696/short-and-hyperthermic-torpor-responses-in-the-malagasy-bat-macronycteris-commersoni-reveal-a-broader-hypometabolic-scope-in-heterotherms
#19
Stephanie Reher, Julian Ehlers, Hajatiana Rabarison, Kathrin H Dausmann
The energy budgets of animal species are closely linked to their ecology, and balancing energy expenditure with energy acquisition is key for survival. Changes in animals' environments can be challenging, particularly for bats, which are small endotherms with large uninsulated flight membranes. Heterothermy is a powerful response used to cope with changing environmental conditions. Recent research has revealed that many tropical and subtropical species are heterothermic and display torpor with patterns unlike those of "classical" heterotherms from temperate and arctic regions...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094506/body-and-organ-metabolic-rates-of-a-cave-fish-triplophysa-rosa-influence-of-light-and-ontogenetic-variation
#20
Chenchen Shi, Min Yao, Xiao Lv, Qingyuan Zhao, Zuogang Peng, Yiping Luo
Triplophysa rosa is a typical species of cave-dwelling fish distributed throughout Wulong County, Chongqing, China. This study aimed to test whether T. rosa has a low metabolic level as a cave species and how the metabolic rate of this fish responds to light stimulation. The whole body and organ (including brain, heart, and liver) oxygen consumption rates ([Formula: see text]) and several blood parameters related to oxygen carrying were compared between T. rosa acclimated in constant dark and those in regular photoperiod conditions...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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