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Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413882/expression-of-glucose-transporters-and-morphometry-in-the-intestine-of-japanese-quails-after-hatch
#1
Maria de Fátima de Souza Andrade, Alexandre Lemos de Barros Moreira Filho, Eudes Fernando Alves da Silva, Heraldo Bezerra de Oliveira, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa, Ricardo Romão Guerra, Patrícia Emília Naves Givisiez
The intestinal physiology and mechanisms involved in nutrient transport are not well established in quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The present study assessed the growth performance, morphological development, duodenal density and the expression of Sglt1 and Glut2 of female Japanese quails from 1 to 49 days of age. The three small intestine segments were sampled weekly from 1 to 49 days of age to evaluate villus height, crypt depth and villus: crypt ratio, and goblet cell counts. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to determine duodenal villus density, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to study the sodium/glucose cotransporter-1 Sglt1 and glucose transporter Glut2 in the jejunum...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390099/overwintering-adaptations-and-extreme-freeze-tolerance-in-a-subarctic-population-of-the-wood-frog-rana-sylvatica
#2
REVIEW
Jon P Costanzo
The terrestrially hibernating wood frog (Rana sylvatica) is well-known for its iconic freeze tolerance, an overwintering adaptation that has received considerable investigation over the past 35 years. Virtually, all of this research has concerned frogs indigenous to the temperate regions of its broad range within North America. However, recent investigations have shown that frogs of subarctic populations are extremely cold hardy, being capable of surviving freezing for longer periods and at much lower temperatures as compared to conspecifics from temperate regions...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357584/ontogenetic-changes-in-cutaneous-and-branchial-ionocytes-and-morphology-in-yellowfin-tuna-thunnus-albacares-larvae
#3
Garfield T Kwan, Jeanne B Wexler, Nicholas C Wegner, Martin Tresguerres
The development of osmoregulatory and gas exchange organs was studied in larval yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) from 2 to 25 days post-hatching (2.9-24.5 mm standard length, SL). Cutaneous and branchial ionocytes were identified using Na+ /K+ -ATPase immunostaining and scanning electron microscopy. Cutaneous ionocyte abundance significantly increased with SL, but a reduction in ionocyte size and density resulted in a significant decrease in relative ionocyte area. Cutaneous ionocytes in preflexion larvae had a wide apical opening with extended microvilli; however, microvilli retracted into an apical pit from flexion onward...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317383/cardiovascular-resistance-to-thrombosis-in-13-lined-ground-squirrels
#4
Alison Bonis, Leah Anderson, Gaëlle Talhouarne, Emily Schueller, Jenna Unke, Catherine Krus, Jordan Stokka, Anna Koepke, Brittany Lehrer, Anthony Schuh, Jeremiah J Andersen, Scott Cooper
13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) enter hibernation as a survival strategy during extreme environmental conditions. Typical ground squirrel hibernation is characterized by prolonged periods of torpor with significantly reduced heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow, interrupted every few weeks by brief interbout arousals (IBA) during which blood flow fluctuates dramatically. These physiological conditions should increase the risk of stasis-induced blood clots and myocardial ischemia...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218147/sources-of-ca-2-for-contraction-of-the-heart-tube-of-tenebrio-molitor-coleoptera-tenebrionidae
#5
Arnaldo Fim Neto, Rosana A Bassani, Pedro X de Oliveira, José W M Bassani
Insect and vertebrate hearts share the ability to generate spontaneously their rhythmic electrical activity, which triggers the fluid-propelling mechanical activity. Although insects have been used as models in studies on the impact of genetic alterations on cardiac function, there is surprisingly little information on the generation of the inotropic activity in their hearts. The main goal of this study was to investigate the sources of Ca2+ for contraction in Tenebrio molitor hearts perfused in situ, in which inotropic activity was assessed by the systolic variation of the cardiac luminal diameter...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218146/the-effects-of-embryonic-hypoxic-programming-on-cardiovascular-function-and-autonomic-regulation-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-at-rest-and-during-swimming
#6
William Joyce, Tiffany E Miller, Ruth M Elsey, Tobias Wang, Dane A Crossley
Reptilian embryos naturally experience fluctuating oxygen levels in ovo, and developmental hypoxia has been established to have long-term impacts on cardiovascular function in vertebrates. In the present study, we investigated the impact of developmental 21% (normoxia) and 10% O2 (hypoxia) on juvenile (4-year-old) American alligator cardiovascular function in animals at rest and during swimming. In both experimental groups, combined right aortic and right subclavian blood flow approximately doubled during swimming...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209557/nitric-oxide-metabolites-in-hypoxia-freezing-and-hibernation-of-the-wood-frog-rana-sylvatica
#7
Bethany L Williams, James M Wiebler, Richard E Lee, Jon P Costanzo
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical that in diverse organisms performs many signaling and protective functions, such as vasoregulation, inhibition of apoptosis, antioxidation, and metabolic suppression. Increased availability of NO may be especially important during life-history periods when organisms contend with multiple stresses. We investigated dynamics of the NO metabolites, nitrite (NO2 - ) and nitrate (NO3 - ), in the blood plasma, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), an amphibian that endures chronic cold, freezing, hypoxia, dehydration, and extended aphagia during hibernation...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288595/effect-of-temperature-on-the-locomotor-performance-of-species-in-a-lizard-assemblage-in-the-puna-region-of-argentina
#8
Rodrigo Gómez Alés, Juan Carlos Acosta, Vanesa Astudillo, Mariela Córdoba, Graciela Mirta Blanco, Donald Miles
Locomotion is relevant to the ecology of reptiles because of its presumed influence on an organism's Darwinian fitness. Moreover, in ectothermic species, physiological performance capacity is affected by body temperature. We analyzed two components of locomotor performance in three species of lizards, Phymaturus extrilidus, Liolaemus parvus, and Liolaemus ruibali, in the Puna environment of Argentina. First, we estimated the thermal sensitivity of locomotion by measuring sprint speed at four different body temperatures...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232543/ameliorating-the-adverse-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-chemical-immobilization-by-inducing-general-anaesthesia-in-sheep-and-goats-implications-for-physiological-studies-of-large-wild-mammals
#9
Adian Izwan, Edward P Snelling, Roger S Seymour, Leith C R Meyer, Andrea Fuller, Anna Haw, Duncan Mitchell, Anthony P Farrell, Mary-Ann Costello, Shane K Maloney
Chemical immobilization is necessary for the physiological study of large wild animals. However, the immobilizing drugs can adversely affect the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, yielding data that do not accurately represent the normal, resting state. We hypothesize that these adverse effects can be ameliorated by reversing the immobilizing agent while holding the animal under general anaesthesia. We used habituated sheep Ovis aries (N = 5, 46.9 ± 5.3 kg body mass, mean ± SEM) and goats Capra hircus (N = 4, 27...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194463/individual-variation-of-daily-torpor-and-body-mass-change-during-winter-in-the-large-japanese-field-mouse-apodemus-speciosus
#10
Takeshi Eto, Shinsuke H Sakamoto, Yoshinobu Okubo, Yasuhiro Tsuzuki, Chihiro Koshimoto, Tetsuo Morita
Daily torpor is a strategy used by some overwintering small endotherms to aid in energy conservation. However, the pattern of torpor varies among individuals within species and populations, even under the same environmental conditions, with significant implications for survival rate and reproductive success. Body mass is one factor that may influence this variation, especially in some small mammals that accumulate fat stores prior to overwintering. However, to our knowledge there has been no previous study examining the detailed relationships between torpor expression and body mass change in small mammals that hoard food as an energy resource during winter...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194462/the-springtail-megaphorura-arctica-survives-extremely-high-osmolality-of-body-fluids-during-drought
#11
Martin Holmstrup
The springtail Megaphorura arctica Tullberg 1876 is widespread in the arctic and subarctic regions where it can be abundant along beaches. This species survives winters using cryoprotective dehydration as a cold tolerance strategy during which it becomes drastically dehydrated. Several studies have investigated the physiological responses associated with water loss of M. arctica under exposure to freezing temperatures, but little is known of the dynamics of body water and hemolymph osmolality when subjected to gradually increasing drought stress at temperatures above the freezing point...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121696/short-and-hyperthermic-torpor-responses-in-the-malagasy-bat-macronycteris-commersoni-reveal-a-broader-hypometabolic-scope-in-heterotherms
#12
Stephanie Reher, Julian Ehlers, Hajatiana Rabarison, Kathrin H Dausmann
The energy budgets of animal species are closely linked to their ecology, and balancing energy expenditure with energy acquisition is key for survival. Changes in animals' environments can be challenging, particularly for bats, which are small endotherms with large uninsulated flight membranes. Heterothermy is a powerful response used to cope with changing environmental conditions. Recent research has revealed that many tropical and subtropical species are heterothermic and display torpor with patterns unlike those of "classical" heterotherms from temperate and arctic regions...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094506/body-and-organ-metabolic-rates-of-a-cave-fish-triplophysa-rosa-influence-of-light-and-ontogenetic-variation
#13
Chenchen Shi, Min Yao, Xiao Lv, Qingyuan Zhao, Zuogang Peng, Yiping Luo
Triplophysa rosa is a typical species of cave-dwelling fish distributed throughout Wulong County, Chongqing, China. This study aimed to test whether T. rosa has a low metabolic level as a cave species and how the metabolic rate of this fish responds to light stimulation. The whole body and organ (including brain, heart, and liver) oxygen consumption rates ([Formula: see text]) and several blood parameters related to oxygen carrying were compared between T. rosa acclimated in constant dark and those in regular photoperiod conditions...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056509/soluble-calcium-binding-proteins-scbps-of-the-earthworm-lumbricus-terrestris-possible-role-as-relaxation-factors-in-muscle
#14
Prasath Thiruketheeswaran, Ralf Huch, Jochen D'Haese
The soluble Ca2+ -binding protein (SCBP) from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris was analyzed with regard to its role as a soluble muscle relaxation factor. The actomyosin ATPase activity was inhibited by the addition of decalcified SCBP as it binds Ca2+ stronger than the regulatory proteins associated with the actomyosin. Competitive 45 Ca2+ -binding assays with decalcified actomyosin and SCBP showed that 45 Ca2+ is first bound to actomyosin and is subsequently taken over by SCBP with increasing incubation time...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797052/mammalian-urine-concentration-a-review-of-renal-medullary-architecture-and-membrane-transporters
#15
REVIEW
C Michele Nawata, Thomas L Pannabecker
Mammalian kidneys play an essential role in balancing internal water and salt concentrations. When water needs to be conserved, the renal medulla produces concentrated urine. Central to this process of urine concentration is an osmotic gradient that increases from the corticomedullary boundary to the inner medullary tip. How this gradient is generated and maintained has been the subject of study since the 1940s. While it is generally accepted that the outer medulla contributes to the gradient by means of an active process involving countercurrent multiplication, the source of the gradient in the inner medulla is unclear...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130117/correction-to-the-metabolic-cost-of-nesting-body-condition-and-blood-parameters-of-caiman-crocodilus-and-melanosuchus-niger-in-central-amazonia
#16
José António Lemos Barão-Nóbrega, Boris Marioni, Robinson Botero-Arias, António José Arsénia Nogueira, Emerson Silva Lima, William Ernest Magnusson, Ronis Da Silveira, Jaydione Luiz Marcon
Although nesting ecology is well studied in several crocodilian species, it is not known how nest attendance influences physiology and body condition of nesting females. In this study, we describe body condition and serum biochemical values of nesting female, non-nesting female and male spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) in two areas of Central Amazonia. We also evaluated the effect of nest age and nest distance to water on body condition and blood parameters of nesting females...
November 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039300/oxygen-consumption-of-desert-pupfish-at-ecologically-relevant-temperatures-suggests-a-significant-role-for-anaerobic-metabolism
#17
Matt Heuton, Luis Ayala, Aldo Morante, Kyle Dayton, Alexander C Jones, Joseph R Hunt, Austin McKenna, Frank van Breukelen, Stanley Hillyard
Oxygen consumption is oftentimes used as a proxy for metabolic rate. However, pupfish acclimated to ecologically relevant temperatures may employ extended periods of anaerobism despite the availability of oxygen-a process we called paradoxical anaerobism. In this study, we evaluated data from pupfish exhibiting stable oxygen consumption. Routine oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) of a refuge population derived from Cyprinodon spp. acclimated to 28 and 33 °C was evaluated at the ecologically relevant assay temperatures of between 25 and 38 °C...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039299/muscle-specific-activation-of-calpain-system-in-hindlimb-unloading-rats-and-hibernating-daurian-ground-squirrels-a-comparison-between-artificial-and-natural-disuse
#18
Hui Chang, Tingyun Lei, Xiufeng Ma, Jie Zhang, Huiping Wang, Xingyuan Zhang, Yun-Fang Gao
To determine whether the regulation of calpain system is involved in non-hibernators and hibernators in disused condition, the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were used for investigating the muscle mass, the ratio of muscle wet weight/body weight (MWW/BW), fiber-type distribution, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and the protein expression of MuRF1, calpain-1, calpain-2, calpastatin, desmin, troponin T, and troponin C in hindlimb unloading rats and hibernating Daurian ground squirrels...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039298/the-energetics-of-torpor-in-a-temperate-passerine-endemic-to-new-zealand-the-rifleman-acanthisitta-chloris
#19
Brian K McNab, Kerry A Weston
Compared to other birds, passerines, reflecting their small mass, have a narrow set of behavioral characteristics. One difference is that few enter torpor, especially in temperate environments. The few that do include swallows, none of which live throughout the year in cold-temperate environments, because their food, flying insects, is not available in winter and no passerine is known to hibernate. They seasonally migrate to warm-temperate and tropical environments. We present data on the energetics of the Rifleman (Acanthisitta chloris), a small, insectivorous member of the Acanthisittidae, a passerine family endemic to temperate New Zealand...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948161/physiological-protective-action-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-on-ion-regulation-and-nitrogenous-waste-excretion-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-exposed-to-low-ph-in-ion-poor-water
#20
Rafael M Duarte, Chris M Wood, Adalberto L Val, D Scott Smith
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) represents a heterogeneous group of naturally-occurring molecules in aquatic environments, and recent studies have evidenced that optically dark DOCs can exert some positive effects on ionoregulatory homeostasis of aquatic organisms in acidic waters. We investigated the effects of Luther Marsh DOC, a dark allochthonous DOC, on ion regulation and N-waste excretion of zebrafish acutely exposed to either neutral or low pH in ion-poor water. In the first experiment, simultaneous exposure to pH 4...
September 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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