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Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866230/differential-expression-and-emerging-functions-of-non-coding-rnas-in-cold-adaptation
#1
REVIEW
Jacques J Frigault, Mathieu D Morin, Pier Jr Morin
Several species undergo substantial physiological and biochemical changes to confront the harsh conditions associated with winter. Small mammalian hibernators and cold-hardy insects are examples of natural models of cold adaptation that have been amply explored. While the molecular picture associated with cold adaptation has started to become clearer in recent years, notably through the use of high-throughput experimental approaches, the underlying cold-associated functions attributed to several non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), remain to be better characterized...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830334/the-effect-of-body-mass-and-diet-composition-on-torpor-patterns-in-a-malagasy-primate-microcebus-murinus
#2
Sheena L Faherty, C Ryan Campbell, Susan A Hilbig, Anne D Yoder
One of the most obvious physiological changes accompanying seasonal heterothermy in mammals is a fattening stage preceding periods of resource scarcity. This phenomenon reflects the interplay of both diet and physiology. Though the accrual of fat stores is known to be essential for overwintering in some species, the influence of diet on the physiology of torpor is not fully understood. Results from captive studies in heterothermic rodents and marsupials have indicated that when autumn diets are enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), animals receiving these diets experience deeper and more frequent torpor bouts than their counterparts receiving a control diet...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830333/hooded-seal-cystophora-cristata-pups-ingest-snow-and-seawater-during-their-post-weaning-fast
#3
Pauke C Schots, Marie E Bue, Erling S Nordøy
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the importance of exogenous water intake (snow/seawater) in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) pups during their post-weaning fast. In this study, five hooded seal pups had ad lib access to snow and seawater for the first 12 and last 21 days of their post-weaning fast, respectively. Total body water and water flux were determined during both exposure periods by use of the tritiated water method. Blood samples were collected to monitor changes in hematocrit, plasma urea and plasma osmolality...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812726/avian-thermoregulation-in-the-heat-efficient-evaporative-cooling-in-two-southern-african-nightjars
#4
Ryan S O'Connor, Blair O Wolf, R Mark Brigham, Andrew E McKechnie
Nightjars represent a model taxon for investigating physiological limits of heat tolerance because of their habit of roosting and nesting in sunlit sites during the heat of the day. We investigated the physiological responses of Rufous-cheeked nightjars (Caprimulgus rufigena) and Freckled nightjars (Caprimulgus tristigma) to high air temperatures (T a) by measuring body temperature (T b), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) at T a ranging from 10 to 56 °C. Both species became hyperthermic at T a > T b...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803975/di-and-tripeptide-transport-in-vertebrates-the-contribution-of-teleost-fish-models
#5
REVIEW
Tiziano Verri, Amilcare Barca, Paola Pisani, Barbara Piccinni, Carlo Storelli, Alessandro Romano
Solute Carrier 15 (SLC15) family, alias H(+)-coupled oligopeptide cotransporter family, is a group of membrane transporters known for their role in the cellular uptake of di- and tripeptides (di/tripeptides) and peptide-like molecules. Of its members, SLC15A1 (PEPT1) chiefly mediates intestinal absorption of luminal di/tripeptides from dietary protein digestion, while SLC15A2 (PEPT2) mainly allows renal tubular reabsorption of di/tripeptides from ultrafiltration, SLC15A3 (PHT2) and SLC15A4 (PHT1) possibly interact with di/tripeptides and histidine in certain immune cells, and SLC15A5 has unknown function...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803974/swimming-metabolic-rates-vary-by-sex-and-development-stage-but-not-by-species-in-three-species-of-australian-otariid-seals
#6
Monique A Ladds, David J Slip, Robert G Harcourt
Physiology may limit the ability for marine mammals to adapt to changing environments. Depth and duration of foraging dives are a function of total available oxygen stores, which theoretically increase as animals grow, and metabolic costs. To evaluate how physiology may influence the travelling costs for seals to foraging patches in the wild, we measured metabolic rates of a cross-section of New Zealand fur seals, Australian fur seals and Australian sea lions representing different foraging strategies, development stages, sexes and sizes...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803973/thermal-implications-of-interactions-between-insulation-solar-reflectance-and-fur-structure-in-the-summer-coats-of-diverse-species-of-kangaroo
#7
Terence J Dawson, Shane K Maloney
Not all of the solar radiation that impinges on a mammalian coat is absorbed and converted into thermal energy at the coat surface. Some is reflected back to the environment, while another portion is reflected further into the coat where it is absorbed and manifested as heat at differing levels. Substantial insulation in a coat limits the thermal impact at the skin of solar radiation, irrespective where in the coat it is absorbed. In coats with low insulation, the zone where solar radiation is absorbed may govern the consequent heat load on the skin (HL-SR)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787665/metabolic-and-regulatory-responses-involved-in-cold-acclimation-in-atlantic-killifish-fundulus-heteroclitus
#8
Timothy M Healy, Dillon J Chung, Kyle G Crowther, Patricia M Schulte
Ectotherms often respond to prolonged cold exposure by increasing mitochondrial capacity via elevated mitochondrial volume density [V V(mit,f)]. In fish, higher V V(mit,f) is typically associated with increased expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), a transcription factor that induces expression of nuclear-encoded respiratory genes. To examine if nrf1 expression or the expression of other genes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis contribute to changes in whole-organism metabolic rate during cold acclimation, we examined the time course of changes in the expression of these genes and in metabolic rate in Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744515/comparison-of-thermal-traits-of-polistes-dominula-and-polistes-gallicus-two-european-paper-wasps-with-strongly-differing-distribution-ranges
#9
Helmut Kovac, Helmut Käfer, Iacopo Petrocelli, Anton Stabentheiner
The two paper wasps, Polistes dominula and Polistes gallicus, are related species with strongly differing distribution ranges. We investigated thermal tolerance traits (critical thermal limits and metabolic response to temperature) to gain knowledge about physiological adaptations to their local climate conditions and to get evidence for the reasons of P. dominula's successful dispersion. Body and ambient temperature measurements at the nests revealed behavioural adaptations to microclimate. The species differed clearly in critical thermal minimum (P...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744514/establishing-the-thermal-window-for-aerobic-scope-in-new-zealand-geoduck-clams-panopea-zelandica
#10
Dung V Le, Andrea C Alfaro, Norman L C Ragg, Zoë Hilton, Nick King
Geoduck clams (Panopea spp.) are the longest-lived and largest deep burrowing bivalve. Their unique morphology allows them to live buried in the sediment at depths of up to 1 m. The endemic New Zealand geoduck (Panopea zelandica Quoy and Gaimard, 1835) has recently been identified as a potential species for aquaculture. However, very little is known about the biology and physiology of this entirely subtidal geoduck species. Currently, the New Zealand geoduck fishery relies entirely upon wild harvests, but farms are expected to emerge as cultivation protocols are established...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734149/torpor-and-basking-after-a-severe-wildfire-mammalian-survival-strategies-in-a-scorched-landscape
#11
Jaya K Matthews, Clare Stawski, Gerhard Körtner, Cassandra A Parker, Fritz Geiser
Wildfires can completely obliterate above-ground vegetation, yet some small terrestrial mammals survive during and after fires. As knowledge about the physiological and behavioural adaptations that are crucial for post-wildfire survival is scant, we investigated the thermal biology of a small insectivorous marsupial (Antechinus flavipes) after a severe forest fire. Some populations of antechinus survived the fire in situ probably by hiding deep in rocky crevices, the only fire-proof sites near where they were trapped...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722773/expression-of-vegf-111-and-other-vegf-a-variants-in-the-rat-uterus-is-correlated-with-stage-of-pregnancy
#12
Camilla M Whittington, Kevin Danastas, Georges E Grau, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson
Vascular endothelial growth factor A is a major mediator of angiogenesis, a critically important process in vertebrate growth and development as well as pregnancy. Here we report for the first time the expression of a rare and unusually potent splice variant, VEGF 111 , in vivo in mammals. This variant has previously only been found in mammals in cultured human cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Our discovery of VEGF 111 in the uterus of both a eutherian (rat) and a marsupial (fat-tailed dunnart) suggests that the splice variant may be common to all mammals...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695931/modulation-of-digestive-enzyme-activities-in-the-avian-digestive-tract-in-relation-to-diet-composition-and-quality
#13
Kevin D Kohl, M Eugenia Ciminari, Juan G Chediack, James O Leafloor, William H Karasov, Scott R McWilliams, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal
In nature, birds are faced with variable food sources that may differ in composition (protein vs. carbohydrates) and quality (highly digestible material vs. indigestible fiber). Studies in passerine birds and some commercial poultry demonstrate that the gastrointestinal tract can respond to varying diet composition and quality by changing morphology and/or activities of digestive enzymes. However, studies in additional avian species are warranted to understand generalities of these trends. We first fed juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), chickens (Gallus gallus), and quails (Coturnix coturnix) on either high-carbohydrate or high-protein diets...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695946/browning-of-subcutaneous-fat-and-higher-surface-temperature-in-response-to-phenotype-selection-for-advanced-endurance-exercise-performance-in-male-duhtp-mice
#14
J Brenmoehl, D Ohde, E Albrecht, C Walz, A Tuchscherer, A Hoeflich
For the assessment of genetic or conditional factors of fat cell browning, novel and polygenic animal models are required. Therefore, the long-term selected polygenic mouse line DUhTP originally established in Dummerstorf for high treadmill performance is used. DUhTP mice are characterized by increased fat accumulation in the sedentary condition and elevated fat mobilization during mild voluntary physical activity. In the present study, the phenotype of fat cell browning of subcutaneous fat and a potential effect on oral glucose tolerance, an indicator of metabolic health, were addressed in DUhTP mice...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686668/physiological-constraints-and-energetic-costs-of-diving-behaviour-in-marine-mammals-a-review-of-studies-using-trained-steller-sea-lions-diving-in-the-open-ocean
#15
David A S Rosen, Allyson G Hindle, Carling D Gerlinsky, Elizabeth Goundie, Gordon D Hastie, Beth L Volpov, Andrew W Trites
Marine mammals are characterized as having physiological specializations that maximize the use of oxygen stores to prolong time spent under water. However, it has been difficult to undertake the requisite controlled studies to determine the physiological limitations and trade-offs that marine mammals face while diving in the wild under varying environmental and nutritional conditions. For the past decade, Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) trained to swim and dive in the open ocean away from the physical confines of pools participated in studies that investigated the interactions between diving behaviour, energetic costs, physiological constraints, and prey availability...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686667/characterization-of-the-functional-and-anatomical-differences-in-the-atrial-and-ventricular-myocardium-from-three-species-of-elasmobranch-fishes-smooth-dogfish-mustelus-canis-sandbar-shark-carcharhinus-plumbeus-and-clearnose-skate-raja-eglanteria
#16
Julie Larsen, Peter Bushnell, John Steffensen, Morten Pedersen, Klaus Qvortrup, Richard Brill
We assessed the functional properties in atrial and ventricular myocardium (using isolated cardiac strips) of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by blocking Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with ryanodine and thapsigargin and measuring the resultant changes in contraction-relaxation parameters and the force-frequency relationship at 20 °C and 30 °C. We also examined ultrastructural differences with electron microscopy...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678513/determinants-of-coronary-blood-flow-in-sandbar-sharks-carcharhinus-plumbeus
#17
Georgina K Cox, Richard W Brill, Kaitlin A Bonaro, Anthony P Farrell
The coronary circulation first appeared in the chordate lineage in cartilaginous fishes where, as in birds and mammals but unlike most teleost fishes, it supplies arterial blood to the entire myocardium. Despite the pivotal position of elasmobranch fishes in the evolution of the coronary circulation, the determinants of coronary blood flow have never been investigated in this group. Elasmobranch fishes are of special interest because of the morphological arrangement of their cardiomyocytes. Unlike teleosts, the majority of the ventricular myocardium in elasmobranch fishes is distant to the venous blood returning to the heart (i...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672043/seasonal-changes-of-cholinergic-response-in-the-atrium-of-arctic-navaga-cod-eleginus-navaga
#18
Denis V Abramochkin, Matti Vornanen
Fishes of north-temperate latitudes exhibit marked seasonal changes in electrical excitability of the heart partly as an outcome of temperature-dependent changes in the density of major K(+) ion currents: delayed rectifiers (IKr, IKs) and background inward rectifier (IK1). In the arctic teleost, navaga cod (Eleginus navaga), IKr and IK1 are strongly up-regulated in winter. The current study tests the hypothesis that the ligand-gated K(+) current, the acetylcholine-activated inward rectifier, IKACh, is also modified by seasonal acclimatization in atrial myocytes of navaga...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638521/the-influence-of-natural-photoperiod-on-seasonal-torpor-expression-of-two-opportunistic-marsupial-hibernators
#19
James M Turner, Fritz Geiser
Many mammals use torpor throughout the year but the individual contributions of environmental variables to seasonal changes in torpor expression are often difficult to tease apart. In many mammals, torpor is most often used opportunistically in response to decreased ambient temperature (T a ) and food availability, but information on how seasonally changing photoperiod per se influences torpor patterns is scant. Therefore, we quantified patterns of torpor use in response to natural photoperiod in captive marsupial pygmy-possums held at near-constant T a with a stable food supply over a period of 19 months...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318666/natural-variations-of-cold-tolerance-and-temperature-acclimation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Misaki Okahata, Akane Ohta, Hitomi Mizutani, Yohei Minakuchi, Atsushi Toyoda, Atsushi Kuhara
Temperature is critical for the survival and proliferation of animals, which must be adapted to cope with environmental temperature changes. In this study, we demonstrated natural variations in the phenotypes of temperature tolerance and temperature acclimation of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and we decoded whole genome sequence of six natural variations, which enabled us to map responsible gene polymorphisms onto specific chromosomal regions. The C. elegans laboratory strain, N2, survives at 2 °C after cultivation at 15 °C but is unable to survive at 2 °C after cultivation at 20 or 25 °C...
December 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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