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Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766065/body-temperatures-of-hibernating-little-brown-bats-reveal-pronounced-behavioural-activity-during-deep-torpor-and-suggest-a-fever-response-during-white-nose-syndrome
#1
Heather W Mayberry, Liam P McGuire, Craig K R Willis
Hibernating animals use torpor [reduced body temperature (T b) and metabolic rate] to reduce energy expenditure during winter. Periodic arousals to normal T b are energetically expensive, so hibernators trade off arousal benefits against energetic costs. This is especially important for bats with white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing increased arousal frequency. Little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with WNS show upregulation of endogenous pyrogens and sickness behaviour. Therefore, we hypothesized that WNS should cause a fever response characterized by elevated T b...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761984/embryonic-and-post-embryonic-development-inside-wolf-spiders-egg-sac-with-special-emphasis-on-the-vitellus
#2
M Trabalon, F Ruhland, A Laino, M Cunningham, F Garcia
The development of Pardosa saltans wolf spiders inside an egg sac includes two periods: an embryonic period and a post-embryonic period after hatching. We investigated spiderlings' energy expenditure to assess energetic costs during the different embryonic and post-embryonic developmental stages during which they are confined within their egg sac. We focused on the following developmental stages: egg, embryonic stages 1 and 2, and two stages, separated by a moult, during post-embryogenesis inside the egg sac: "juvenile instars 1 and 2" until emergence of 2 instar juveniles from their egg sac...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756562/life-history-written-in-blood-erythrocyte-parameters-in-a-small-hibernator-the-edible-dormouse
#3
Nadine Havenstein, Franz Langer, Joanna Fietz
The oxygen delivery system is one major determinant of the performance of vertebrates and responds sensitively to a variety of internal and environmental factors. To understand physiological mechanisms underlying variations of fitness, we investigated effects of demanding conditions associated with certain life-history events, food availability, and population density on the oxygen delivery system in free-ranging edible dormice (Glis glis). We sampled blood (n = 248) and urine (n = 319), performed an erythrocyte haemogram and visually determined the presence of haemoglobinuria...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755031/interspecies-differences-in-plasma-concentrations-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-and-dermal-vitamin-d-synthesis-of-kiwi-apteryx-mantelli-tuatara-sphenodon-punctatus-and-new-zealand-sea-lions-phocarctos-hookeri
#4
Madhumita S Kale, Keren E Dittmer, Wendi D Roe, Brett D Gartrell
Vitamin D plays a central role in calcium homeostasis of most vertebrates, and is obtained in different species through diet, dermal synthesis, or a combination of both. The aim of this study was to determine the predominant routes of Vitamin D synthesis in three disparate species, brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), and New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri). We surveyed plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3, analysed environmental conditions and life history factors, and determined the ability of skin samples to synthesise Vitamin D3 on exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726024/thermal-physiology-of-three-sympatric-and-syntopic-liolaemidae-lizards-in-cold-and-arid-environments-of-patagonia-argentina
#5
F Duran, E L Kubisch, Jorgelina M Boretto
The thermal physiology determines the whole biology of ectotherm organisms, by limiting their acquisition and allocation of resources. Herein, we aim to add knowledge on how different species use the thermal resources when they coexist in a habitat, studying the thermal physiology of three sympatric and syntopic liolaemid lizards, Phymaturus querque, Phymaturus zapalensis, and Liolaemus elongatus during the summer season. We measured the body temperatures at capture places, the operative microenvironmental temperatures in the field, and the preferred body temperature in an experimental thermal gradient in the laboratory...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721476/post-prandial-physiology-and-intestinal-morphology-of-the-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii
#6
Alyssa M Weinrauch, Alexander M Clifford, Greg G Goss
Hagfishes are unique to the vertebrate lineage in that they acquire dissolved nutrients across multiple epithelia including the intestine, gill, and skin. This feat has been attributed to their immersive feeding behavior that likely simultaneously provides benefits (nutrient rich) and potentially adverse (hypercapnia, hypoxia, high environmental ammonia) physiological effects. Examinations have been conducted of the ex vivo transport capabilities of specific nutrients as well as in vivo effects of the hypothesized feeding environments, yet the physiological effects of feeding itself have never been elucidated...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695272/cardiovascular-effects-of-histamine-in-three-widely-diverse-species-of-reptiles
#7
Nini Skovgaard, Augusto S Abe, Edwin W Taylor, Tobias Wang
The cardiovascular system of vertebrates is regulated by a vast number of regulatory factors, including histamine. In pythons, histamine induces a strong tachycardia and dilates the systemic vasculature, which resembles the cardiovascular response to the elevated metabolic rate during digestion. In fact, there is an important role of increased histaminergic tone on the heart during the initial 24 h of digestion in pythons. Whilst the cardiovascular effects of histamine are well studied in pythons, little is known about the effects in other groups of reptiles...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691154/digestive-enzyme-ratios-are-good-indicators-of-hatchling-yolk-reserve-and-digestive-gland-maturation-in-early-life-stages-of-cuttlefish-sepia-officinalis-l-application-of-these-new-tools-in-ecology-and-aquaculture
#8
Georges Safi, A S Martinez, C Le Pabic, E Le Bihan, J P Robin, N Koueta
In Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the digestive gland matures during the first month post-hatching, while a shift from intracellular acid to extracellular alkaline digestion occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using enzymatic ratios for the description of digestive system maturation in early life stages of S. officinalis. Second, it is intended to apply these new tools as eco-physiological indicators for understanding the impact of cuttlefish eggs' life history from different spawning sites of the English Channel on digestive performance of juveniles...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674771/a-review-of-the-physiology-of-a-survival-expert-of-big-freeze-deep-snow-and-an-empty-stomach-the-boreal-raccoon-dog-nyctereutes-procyonoides
#9
REVIEW
Anne-Mari Mustonen, Petteri Nieminen
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an invasive canid originating from eastern Asia. Here, we review its physiological adaptations to wintering, with an emphasis on northern Europe, where the raccoon dog spends the coldest part of the year in winter sleep. The timing of physiological changes related to wintering is connected to photoperiod by melatonin. In preparation to winter, raccoon dogs display autumnal hyperphagia and fattening probably regulated by the interaction of several peptide hormones...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668996/dietary-l-arginine-accelerates-pupation-and-promotes-high-protein-levels-but-induces-oxidative-stress-and-reduces-fecundity-and-life-span-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Maria M Bayliak, Maria P Lylyk, Oksana V Maniukh, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey, Volodymyr I Lushchak
L-Arginine, a precursor of many amino acids and of nitric oxide, plays multiple important roles in nutrient metabolism and regulation of physiological functions. In this study, the effects of L-arginine-enriched diets on selected physiological responses and metabolic processes were assessed in Drosophila melanogaster. Dietary L-arginine at concentrations 5-20 mM accelerated larval development and increased body mass, and total protein concentrations in third instar larvae, but did not affect these parameters when diets contained 100 mM arginine...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631010/the-metabolic-cost-of-nesting-body-condition-and-blood-parameters-of-caiman-crocodilus-and-melanosuchus-niger-in-central-amazonia
#11
José António Lemos Barão-Nóbrega, Boris Marioni, Robinson Botero-Arias, António José Arsénia Nogueira, Emerson Silva Lima, William Ernest Magnusson, Ronis Da Silveira, Jaydione Luiz Marcon
Although nesting ecology is well studied in several crocodilian species, it is not known how nest attendance influences physiology and body condition of nesting females. In this study, we describe body condition and serum biochemical values of nesting female, non-nesting female and male spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) in two areas of Central Amazonia. We also evaluated the effect of nest age and nest distance to water on body condition and blood parameters of nesting females...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601897/histone-methylation-in-the-freeze-tolerant-wood-frog-rana-sylvatica
#12
Liam J Hawkins, Kenneth B Storey
Freeze-tolerant animals survive sub-zero temperatures and long-term starvation associated with the winter by lowering their metabolic rate using a variety of transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulatory methods. Histone methylation is one mechanism that is known to regulate gene expression at the transcriptional level. Here, we measured relative protein levels of seven histone methyltransferases (SMYD2, SETD7, ASH2L, RBBP5, SUV39H1, EHMT2, and SET8), four methylated histone H3 residues (H3K4me1, H3K9me3, H3K27me1, and H3K36me2), the methyltransferase activity on H3K4, and methylation of p53 (p53K370me2 and p53K372me1) in the skeletal muscle and liver of the freeze-tolerant wood frog (Rana sylvatica) during the freeze-thaw cycle...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597237/energy-conserving-thermoregulatory-patterns-and-lower-disease-severity-in-a-bat-resistant-to-the-impacts-of-white-nose-syndrome
#13
Marianne S Moore, Kenneth A Field, Melissa J Behr, Gregory G Turner, Morgan E Furze, Daniel W F Stern, Paul R Allegra, Sarah A Bouboulis, Chelsey D Musante, Megan E Vodzak, Matthew E Biron, Melissa B Meierhofer, Winifred F Frick, Jeffrey T Foster, Daryl Howell, Joseph A Kath, Allen Kurta, Gerda Nordquist, Joseph S Johnson, Thomas M Lilley, Benjamin W Barrett, DeeAnn M Reeder
The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS in the wild and suggests that survival is related to different host physiological responses...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573529/temperature-adaptation-of-lipids-in-diapausing-ostrinia-nubilalis-an-experimental-study-to-distinguish-environmental-versus-endogenous-controls
#14
Elvira L Vukašinović, David W Pond, Gordana Grubor-Lajšić, M Roger Worland, Danijela Kojić, Jelena Purać, Željko D Popović, Duško P Blagojević
Larvae of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubn.) were cold acclimated during different phases of diapause to determine if changes in the fatty acid composition lipids occur as part of a programmed diapause strategy, or as a response to low temperatures during winter. Cold acclimation of fifth instar larvae of O. nubilalis during diapause had modest effects further on the readjustments in fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids. Overall, FA unsaturation (UFAs/SFAs ratio) was stable, with the exception of the triacylglycerols fraction after exposure to -3 and -10 °C in mid-diapause (MD) when it significantly increased...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569355/comparative-physiology-of-vocal-musculature-in-two-odontocetes-the-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-and-the-harbor-porpoise-phocoena-phocoena
#15
Nicole M Thometz, Jennifer L Dearolf, Robin C Dunkin, Dawn P Noren, Marla M Holt, Olivia C Sims, Brandon C Cathey, Terrie M Williams
The mechanism by which odontocetes produce sound is unique among mammals. To gain insight into the physiological properties that support sound production in toothed whales, we examined myoglobin content ([Mb]), non-bicarbonate buffering capacity (β), fiber-type profiles, and myosin heavy chain expression of vocal musculature in two odontocetes: the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus; n = 4) and the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena; n = 5). Both species use the same anatomical structures to produce sound, but differ markedly in their vocal repertoires...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547292/physiological-implications-of-ocean-acidification-for-marine-fish-emerging-patterns-and-new-insights
#16
REVIEW
Andrew J Esbaugh
Ocean acidification (OA) is an impending environmental stress facing all marine life, and as such has been a topic of intense research interest in recent years. Numerous detrimental effects have been documented in marine fish, ranging from reduced mortality to neurosensory impairment, and the prevailing opinions state that these effects are largely the downstream consequences of altered blood carbon dioxide chemistry caused by respiratory acid-base disturbances. While the respiratory acid-base disturbances are consistent responses to OA across tested fish species, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is wide variability in the degree of downstream impairments between species...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536755/taurine-protects-cardiac-contractility-in-killifish-fundulus-heteroclitus-by-enhancing-sarcoplasmic-reticular-ca-2-cycling
#17
Elenor F Henry, Tyson J MacCormack
Intracellular taurine is abundant in many animals and it influences an array of physiological processes, including osmoregulation, metabolism, and cardiac contractility. Taurine is an important osmolyte in teleost hearts, but its role in stress tolerance, cardiac metabolism, and contractility has not been assessed. The goal of this study was to determine if ventricular taurine concentration changes in response to environmental stress and to characterize its influence on contractility. Cardiac taurine concentrations varied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) but were generally maintained following acute environmental challenges...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432393/more-functions-of-torpor-and-their-roles-in-a-changing-world
#18
Julia Nowack, Clare Stawski, Fritz Geiser
Increased winter survival by reducing energy expenditure in adult animals is often viewed as the primary function of torpor. However, torpor has many other functions that ultimately increase the survival of heterothermic mammals and birds. In this review, we summarize new findings revealing that animals use torpor to cope with the conditions during and after natural disasters, including fires, storms, and heat waves. Furthermore, we suggest that torpor, which also prolongs longevity and was likely crucial for survival of mammals during the time of the dinosaur extinctions, will be advantageous in a changing world...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417150/torpor-patterns-in-common-hamsters-with-and-without-access-to-food-stores
#19
Carina Siutz, Eva Millesi
Hibernating species significantly reduce energy expenditure during winter by entering torpor. Nevertheless, the various benefits of hibernation might be counteracted by negative effects of torpor such as immune depression, oxidative stress, or neuronal impairment. Considering these trade-offs, adequate energy reserves could allow animals to reduce the time spent in torpor or the extent of metabolic depression. Common hamsters use food stores during hibernation and previously documented high individual variations in body temperature patterns during winter could, therefore, be related to differences in external energy reserves...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378088/central-activation-of-the-a1-adenosine-receptor-in-fed-mice-recapitulates-only-some-of-the-attributes-of-daily-torpor
#20
Maria A Vicent, Ethan D Borre, Steven J Swoap
Mice enter bouts of daily torpor, drastically reducing metabolic rate, core body temperature (T b), and heart rate (HR), in response to reduced caloric intake. Because central adenosine activation has been shown to induce a torpor-like state in the arctic ground squirrel, and blocking the adenosine-1 (A1) receptor prevents daily torpor, we hypothesized that central activation of the A1 adenosine receptors would induce a bout of natural torpor in mice. To test the hypothesis, mice were subjected to four different hypothermia bouts: natural torpor, forced hypothermia (FH), isoflurane-anesthesia, and an intracerebroventricular injection of the selective A1 receptor agonist N(6-)cyclohexyladenosine (CHA)...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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