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Studies in Mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413236/scopulariopsis-and-scopulariopsis-like-species-from-indoor-environments
#1
J H C Woudenberg, M Meijer, J Houbraken, R A Samson
Scopulariopsis-like species are often reported from the indoor environment, as well as from clinical samples. The lack of type isolates and thorough phylogenetic studies in the Microascaceae hampered the correct identification of these isolates. Based on recent phylogenetic studies, which resulted in multiple name changes, the aim is to molecularly identify the Scopulariopsis and scopulariopsis-like species which occur in the indoor environment and give an overview of the current species in these genera and their habitats...
September 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373739/phylogeny-and-taxonomy-of-the-scab-and-spot-anthracnose-fungus-elsino%C3%A3-myriangiales-dothideomycetes
#2
X L Fan, R W Barreto, J Z Groenewald, J D P Bezerra, O L Pereira, R Cheewangkoon, L Mostert, C M Tian, P W Crous
Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like appearance of older infected tissues with scab-like appearance. In some Elsinoë-host associations the resulting symptoms are better described as spot anthracnose...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539687/phylogenetic-analysis-of-monascus-and-new-species-from-honey-pollen-and-nests-of-stingless-bees
#3
R N Barbosa, S L Leong, O Vinnere-Pettersson, A J Chen, C M Souza-Motta, J C Frisvad, R A Samson, N T Oliveira, J Houbraken
The genus Monascus was described by van Tieghem (1884) to accommodate M. ruber and M. mucoroides, two species with non-ostiolate ascomata. Species delimitation in the genus is still mainly based on phenotypic characters, and taxonomic studies that include sequence data are limited. The genus is of economic importance. Species are used in fermented Asian foods as food colourants (e.g. 'red rice' (ang-kak, angka)) and found as spoilage organisms, and recently Monascus was found to be essential in the lifecycle of stingless bees...
March 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348446/exploring-the-genomic-diversity-of-black-yeasts-and-relatives-chaetothyriales-ascomycota
#4
M M Teixeira, L F Moreno, B J Stielow, A Muszewska, M Hainaut, L Gonzaga, A Abouelleil, J S L Patané, M Priest, R Souza, S Young, K S Ferreira, Q Zeng, M M L da Cunha, A Gladki, B Barker, V A Vicente, E M de Souza, S Almeida, B Henrissat, A T R Vasconcelos, S Deng, H Voglmayr, T A A Moussa, A Gorbushina, M S S Felipe, C A Cuomo, G Sybren de Hoog
The order Chaetothyriales (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycetes) harbours obligatorily melanised fungi and includes numerous etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and other diseases of vertebrate hosts. Diseases range from mild cutaneous to fatal cerebral or disseminated infections and affect humans and cold-blooded animals globally. In addition, Chaetothyriales comprise species with aquatic, rock-inhabiting, ant-associated, and mycoparasitic life-styles, as well as species that tolerate toxic compounds, suggesting a high degree of versatile extremotolerance...
March 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082760/aspergillus-is-monophyletic-evidence-from-multiple-gene-phylogenies-and-extrolites-profiles
#5
S Kocsubé, G Perrone, D Magistà, J Houbraken, J Varga, G Szigeti, V Hubka, S-B Hong, J C Frisvad, R A Samson
Aspergillus is one of the economically most important fungal genera. Recently, the ICN adopted the single name nomenclature which has forced mycologists to choose one name for fungi (e.g. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, etc.). Previously two proposals for the single name nomenclature in Aspergillus were presented: one attributes the name "Aspergillus" to clades comprising seven different teleomorphic names, by supporting the monophyly of this genus; the other proposes that Aspergillus is a non-monophyletic genus, by preserving the Aspergillus name only to species belonging to subgenus Circumdati and maintaining the sexual names in the other clades...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082759/the-forgotten-calonectria-collection-pouring-old-wine-into-new-bags
#6
L Lombard, M J Wingfield, A C Alfenas, P W Crous
The genus Calonectria with its Cylindrocladium asexual morphs has been subject to several taxonomic revisions in the past. These have resulted in the recognition of 116 species, of which all but two species (C. hederae and C. pyrochroa) are supported by ex-type cultures and supplemented with DNA barcodes. The present study is based on a large collection of unidentified Calonectria isolates that have been collected over a period of 20 years from various substrates worldwide, which has remained unstudied in the basement of the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082758/the-good-the-bad-and-the-tasty-the-many-roles-of-mushrooms
#7
K M J de Mattos-Shipley, K L Ford, F Alberti, A M Banks, A M Bailey, G D Foster
Fungi are often inconspicuous in nature and this means it is all too easy to overlook their importance. Often referred to as the "Forgotten Kingdom", fungi are key components of life on this planet. The phylum Basidiomycota, considered to contain the most complex and evolutionarily advanced members of this Kingdom, includes some of the most iconic fungal species such as the gilled mushrooms, puffballs and bracket fungi. Basidiomycetes inhabit a wide range of ecological niches, carrying out vital ecosystem roles, particularly in carbon cycling and as symbiotic partners with a range of other organisms...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050056/wood-staining-fungi-revealed-taxonomic-novelties-in-pezizomycotina-new-order-superstratomycetales-and-new-species-cyanodermella-oleoligni
#8
E J van Nieuwenhuijzen, J M Miadlikowska, J A M P Houbraken, O C G Adan, F M Lutzoni, R A Samson
A culture-based survey of staining fungi on oil-treated timber after outdoor exposure in Australia and the Netherlands uncovered new taxa in Pezizomycotina. Their taxonomic novelty was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, mitSSU, RPB1, RPB2, and EF-1α) using multiple reference data sets. These previously unknown taxa are recognised as part of a new order (Superstratomycetales) potentially closely related to Trypetheliales (Dothideomycetes), and as a new species of Cyanodermella, C...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050055/dna-barcoding-analysis-of-more-than-9%C3%A2-000-yeast-isolates-contributes-to-quantitative-thresholds-for-yeast-species-and-genera-delimitation
#9
D Vu, M Groenewald, S Szöke, G Cardinali, U Eberhardt, B Stielow, M de Vries, G J M Verkleij, P W Crous, T Boekhout, V Robert
DNA barcoding is a global initiative for species identification through sequencing of short DNA sequence markers. Sequences of two loci, ITS and LSU, were generated as barcode data for all (ca. 9k) yeast strains included in the CBS collection, originally assigned to ca. 2 000 species. Taxonomic sequence validation turned out to be the most severe bottleneck due to the large volume of generated trace files and lack of reference sequences. We have analysed and validated CBS strains and barcode sequences automatically...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050054/polyphasic-taxonomy-of-aspergillus-section-cervini
#10
A J Chen, J Varga, J C Frisvad, X Z Jiang, R A Samson
Species belonging to Aspergillus section Cervini are characterised by radiate or short columnar, fawn coloured, uniseriate conidial heads. The morphology of the taxa in this section is very similar and isolates assigned to these species are frequently misidentified. In this study, a polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data, temperature profiles and partial BenA, CaM and RPB2 sequences to examine the relationships within this section. Based on this taxonomic approach the section Cervini is resolved in ten species including six new species: A...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872508/hidden-diversity-in-thyridaria-and-a-new-circumscription-of-the-thyridariaceae
#11
W M Jaklitsch, H Voglmayr
A multigene analysis of a combined ITS-LSU-SSU-rpb2-tef1 sequence data matrix was applied to infer the phylogenetic position of the genus Thyridaria in the Pleosporales. The generic type of Thyridaria, T. broussonetiae (syn. T. incrustans), is situated in a clade currently named Roussoellaceae, which becomes a synonym of Thyridariaceae. However, Thyridaria rubronotata does not belong to this clade, but is here recognised as Cyclothyriella rubronotata in its own family Cyclothyriellaceae. The Thyridariaceae contain the genera Thyridaria, Roussoella, Roussoellopsis, Neoroussoella and the new genus Parathyridaria...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766001/revising-the-schizoparmaceae-coniella-and-its-synonyms-pilidiella-and-schizoparme
#12
L V Alvarez, J Z Groenewald, P W Crous
The asexual genera Coniella (1918) and Pilidiella (1927), including their sexual morphs in Schizoparme (1923), have a cosmopolitan distribution and are associated with foliar, fruit, leaf, stem and root diseases on a wide variety of hosts. Species of these genera sometimes occur as secondary invaders of plant tissues infected by other organisms or that are injured by other causes. Several studies published over the last few decades had conflicting ideas as to whether Coniella, Pilidiella and Schizoparme should be regarded as synonymous or as separate genera...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082757/diversity-and-taxonomy-of-chaetomium-and-chaetomium-like-fungi-from-indoor-environments
#13
X W Wang, J Houbraken, J Z Groenewald, M Meijer, B Andersen, K F Nielsen, P W Crous, R A Samson
During a study of indoor fungi, 145 isolates belonging to Chaetomiaceae were cultured from air, swab and dust samples from 19 countries. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), β-tubulin (tub2), ITS and 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA sequences, together with morphological comparisons with related genera and species, 30 indoor taxa are recognised, of which 22 represent known species, seven are described as new, and one remains to be identified to species level...
June 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070136/new-talaromyces-species-from-indoor-environments-in-china
#14
A J Chen, B D Sun, J Houbraken, J C Frisvad, N Yilmaz, Y G Zhou, R A Samson
Talaromyces contains both asexual and sexually reproducing species. This genus is divided in seven sections and currently has 105 accepted species. In this study we investigated the Talaromyces isolates that were obtained during a study of indoor air collected in Beijing, China. These indoor Talaromyces strains are resolved in four sections, seven of them are identified as T. islandicus, T. aurantiacus, T. siamensis and T. albobiverticillius according to BenA sequences, while 14 isolates have divergent sequences and are described here as nine new species...
June 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050053/aspergillus-section-nidulantes-formerly-emericella-polyphasic-taxonomy-chemistry-and-biology
#15
A J Chen, J C Frisvad, B D Sun, J Varga, S Kocsubé, J Dijksterhuis, D H Kim, S-B Hong, J Houbraken, R A Samson
Aspergillus section Nidulantes includes species with striking morphological characters, such as biseriate conidiophores with brown-pigmented stipes, and if present, the production of ascomata embedded in masses of Hülle cells with often reddish brown ascospores. The majority of species in this section have a sexual state, which were named Emericella in the dual name nomenclature system. In the present study, strains belonging to subgenus Nidulantes were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses using internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) sequences...
June 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616803/phylogeny-and-taxonomic-revision-of-microascaceae-with-emphasis-on-synnematous-fungi
#16
M Sandoval-Denis, J Guarro, J F Cano-Lira, D A Sutton, N P Wiederhold, G S de Hoog, S P Abbott, C Decock, L Sigler, J Gené
The taxonomy of the synnematous genera Cephalotrichum, Doratomyces and Trichurus, and other related genera Gamsia, Wardomyces and Wardomycopsis, has been controversial and relies mainly on morphological criteria. These are microascaceous saprobic fungi mostly found in air and soil and with a worldwide distribution. In order to clarify their taxonomy and to delineate generic boundaries within the Microascaceae, we studied 57 isolates that include clinical, environmental and all the available ex-type strains of a large set of species by means of morphological, physiological and molecular phylogenetic analyses using DNA sequence data of four loci (the ITS region, and fragments of rDNA LSU, translation elongation factor 1α and β-tubulin)...
2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616802/the-divorce-of-sporothrix-and-ophiostoma-solution-to-a-problematic-relationship
#17
Z W de Beer, T A Duong, M J Wingfield
One of the causal agents of human sporotrichosis, Sporothrix schenckii, is the type species of the genus Sporothrix. During the course of the last century the asexual morphs of many Ophiostoma spp. have also been treated in Sporothrix. More recently several DNA-based studies have suggested that species of Sporothrix and Ophiostoma converge in what has become known as Ophiostoma s. lat. Were the one fungus one name principles adopted in the Melbourne Code to be applied to Ophiostoma s. lat., Sporothrix would have priority over Ophiostoma, resulting in more than 100 new combinations...
2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570325/all-that-glitters-is-not-ramularia
#18
S I R Videira, J Z Groenewald, U Braun, H D Shin, P W Crous
Ramularia is a species-rich genus that harbours plant pathogens responsible for yield losses to many important crops, including barley, sugar beet and strawberry. Species of Ramularia are hyphomycetes with hyaline conidiophores and conidia with distinct, thickened, darkened, refractive conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, and Mycosphaerella sexual morphs. Because of its simple morphology and general lack of DNA data in public databases, several allied genera are frequently confused with Ramularia. In order to improve the delimitation of Ramularia from allied genera and the circumscription of species within the genus Ramularia, a polyphasic approach based on multilocus DNA sequences, morphological and cultural data were used in this study...
2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504028/take-all-or-nothing
#19
M Hernández-Restrepo, J Z Groenewald, M L Elliott, G Canning, V E McMillan, P W Crous
Take-all disease of Poaceae is caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis (Magnaporthaceae). Four varieties are recognised in G. graminis based on ascospore size, hyphopodial morphology and host preference. The aim of the present study was to clarify boundaries among species and varieties in Gaeumannomyces by combining morphology and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses based on partial gene sequences of ITS, LSU, tef1 and rpb1. Two new genera, Falciphoriella and Gaeumannomycella were subsequently introduced in Magnaporthaceae...
2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504027/the-role-of-melanin-pathways-in-extremotolerance-and-virulence-of-fonsecaea-revealed-by-de-novo-assembly-transcriptomics-using-illumina-paired-end-sequencing
#20
X Q Li, B L Guo, W Y Cai, J M Zhang, H Q Huang, P Zhan, L Y Xi, V A Vicente, B Stielow, J F Sun, G S de Hoog
Melanisation has been considered to be an important virulence factor of Fonsecaea monophora. However, the biosynthetic mechanisms of melanisation remain unknown. We therefore used next generation sequencing technology to investigate the transcriptome and digital gene expression data, which are valuable resources to better understand the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating melanisation in F. monophora. We performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analyses of parent (CBS 122845) and albino (CBS 125194) strains using the Illumina RNA-seq system...
2016: Studies in Mycology
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