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Studies in Mycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413236/scopulariopsis-and-scopulariopsis-like-species-from-indoor-environments
#1
J H C Woudenberg, M Meijer, J Houbraken, R A Samson
Scopulariopsis-like species are often reported from the indoor environment, as well as from clinical samples. The lack of type isolates and thorough phylogenetic studies in the Microascaceae hampered the correct identification of these isolates. Based on recent phylogenetic studies, which resulted in multiple name changes, the aim is to molecularly identify the Scopulariopsis and scopulariopsis-like species which occur in the indoor environment and give an overview of the current species in these genera and their habitats...
September 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794574/pseudodidymellaceae-fam-nov-phylogenetic-affiliations-of-mycopappus-like-genera-in-dothideomycetes
#2
A Hashimoto, M Matsumura, K Hirayama, R Fujimoto, K Tanaka
The familial placement of four genera, Mycodidymella, Petrakia, Pseudodidymella, and Xenostigmina, was taxonomically revised based on morphological observations and phylogenetic analyses of nuclear rDNA SSU, LSU, tef1, and rpb2 sequences. ITS sequences were also provided as barcode markers. A total of 130 sequences were newly obtained from 28 isolates which are phylogenetically related to Melanommataceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes) and its relatives. Phylogenetic analyses and morphological observation of sexual and asexual morphs led to the conclusion that Melanommataceae should be restricted to its type genus Melanomma, which is characterised by ascomata composed of a well-developed, carbonaceous peridium, and an aposphaeria-like coelomycetous asexual morph...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720979/first-report-of-phyllosticta-citricarpa-and-description-of-two-new-species-p-%C3%A2-paracapitalensis-and-p-%C3%A2-paracitricarpa-from-citrus-in-europe
#3
V Guarnaccia, J Z Groenewald, H Li, C Glienke, E Carstens, V Hattingh, P H Fourie, P W Crous
The genus Phyllosticta occurs worldwide, and contains numerous plant pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species. Phyllosticta citricarpa is the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot disease (CBS), affecting fruits and leaves of several citrus hosts (Rutaceae), and can also be isolated from asymptomatic citrus tissues. Citrus Black Spot occurs in citrus-growing regions with warm summer rainfall climates, but is absent in countries of the European Union (EU). Phyllosticta capitalensis is morphologically similar to P...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706324/didymellaceae-revisited
#4
Q Chen, L W Hou, W J Duan, P W Crous, L Cai
The Didymellaceae is one of the most species-rich families in the fungal kingdom, and includes species that inhabit a wide range of ecosystems. The taxonomy of Didymellaceae has recently been revised on the basis of multi-locus DNA sequence data. In the present study, we investigated 108 Didymellaceae isolates newly obtained from 40 host plant species in 27 plant families, and various substrates from caves, including air, water and carbonatite, originating from Argentina, Australia, Canada, China, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Africa, the Netherlands, the USA and former Yugoslavia...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663603/stemphylium-revisited
#5
J H C Woudenberg, B Hanse, G C M van Leeuwen, J Z Groenewald, P W Crous
In 2007 a new Stemphylium leaf spot disease of Beta vulgaris (sugar beet) spread through the Netherlands. Attempts to identify this destructive Stemphylium sp. in sugar beet led to a phylogenetic revision of the genus. The name Stemphylium has been recommended for use over that of its sexual morph, Pleospora, which is polyphyletic. Stemphylium forms a well-defined monophyletic genus in the Pleosporaceae, Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes), but lacks an up-to-date phylogeny. To address this issue, the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 and intervening 5...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649153/corynespora-exosporium-and-helminthosporium-revisited-new-species-and-generic-reclassification
#6
H Voglmayr, W M Jaklitsch
Molecular phylogenetic analyses of a multigene matrix of partial nuSSU-ITS-LSU rDNA, rpb2 and tef1 sequences were performed to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Corynespora, Exosporium and Helminthosporium species. Based on phylogenetic analyses and morphology, the genus Exosporium is synonymised with Helminthosporium, and the genus Corynespora is revealed as polyphyletic. Corynespora smithii is confirmed to be closely related to the generic type C. cassiicola and its morphology is described and illustrated...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373739/phylogeny-and-taxonomy-of-the-scab-and-spot-anthracnose-fungus-elsino%C3%A3-myriangiales-dothideomycetes
#7
X L Fan, R W Barreto, J Z Groenewald, J D P Bezerra, O L Pereira, R Cheewangkoon, L Mostert, C M Tian, P W Crous
Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like appearance of older infected tissues with scab-like appearance. In some Elsinoë-host associations the resulting symptoms are better described as spot anthracnose...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663602/genera-of-phytopathogenic-fungi-gophy-1
#8
Y Marin-Felix, J Z Groenewald, L Cai, Q Chen, S Marincowitz, I Barnes, K Bensch, U Braun, E Camporesi, U Damm, Z W de Beer, A Dissanayake, J Edwards, A Giraldo, M Hernández-Restrepo, K D Hyde, R S Jayawardena, L Lombard, J Luangsa-Ard, A R McTaggart, A Y Rossman, M Sandoval-Denis, M Shen, R G Shivas, Y P Tan, E J van der Linde, M J Wingfield, A R Wood, J Q Zhang, Y Zhang, P W Crous
Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) is introduced as a new series of publications in order to provide a stable platform for the taxonomy of phytopathogenic fungi. This first paper focuses on 21 genera of phytopathogenic fungi: Bipolaris, Boeremia, Calonectria, Ceratocystis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Coniella, Curvularia, Monilinia, Neofabraea, Neofusicoccum, Pilidium, Pleiochaeta, Plenodomus, Protostegia, Pseudopyricularia, Puccinia, Saccharata, Thyrostroma, Venturia and Wilsonomyces. For each genus, a morphological description and information about its pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms are provided...
March 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626275/phylogeny-of-saprobic-microfungi-from-southern-europe
#9
M Hernández-Restrepo, J Gené, R F Castañeda-Ruiz, J Mena-Portales, P W Crous, J Guarro
During a survey of saprophytic microfungi on decomposing woody, herbaceous debris and soil from different regions in Southern Europe, a wide range of interesting species of asexual ascomycetes were found. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial gene sequences of SSU, LSU and ITS proved that most of these fungi were related to Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes and to lesser extent to Leotiomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Four new monotypic orders with their respective families are proposed here, i.e. Lauriomycetales, Lauriomycetaceae; Parasympodiellales, Parasympodiellaceae; Vermiculariopsiellales, Vermiculariopsiellaceae and Xenospadicoidales, Xenospadicoidaceae...
March 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539687/phylogenetic-analysis-of-monascus-and-new-species-from-honey-pollen-and-nests-of-stingless-bees
#10
R N Barbosa, S L Leong, O Vinnere-Pettersson, A J Chen, C M Souza-Motta, J C Frisvad, R A Samson, N T Oliveira, J Houbraken
The genus Monascus was described by van Tieghem (1884) to accommodate M. ruber and M. mucoroides, two species with non-ostiolate ascomata. Species delimitation in the genus is still mainly based on phenotypic characters, and taxonomic studies that include sequence data are limited. The genus is of economic importance. Species are used in fermented Asian foods as food colourants (e.g. 'red rice' (ang-kak, angka)) and found as spoilage organisms, and recently Monascus was found to be essential in the lifecycle of stingless bees...
March 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348446/exploring-the-genomic-diversity-of-black-yeasts-and-relatives-chaetothyriales-ascomycota
#11
M M Teixeira, L F Moreno, B J Stielow, A Muszewska, M Hainaut, L Gonzaga, A Abouelleil, J S L Patané, M Priest, R Souza, S Young, K S Ferreira, Q Zeng, M M L da Cunha, A Gladki, B Barker, V A Vicente, E M de Souza, S Almeida, B Henrissat, A T R Vasconcelos, S Deng, H Voglmayr, T A A Moussa, A Gorbushina, M S S Felipe, C A Cuomo, G Sybren de Hoog
The order Chaetothyriales (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycetes) harbours obligatorily melanised fungi and includes numerous etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and other diseases of vertebrate hosts. Diseases range from mild cutaneous to fatal cerebral or disseminated infections and affect humans and cold-blooded animals globally. In addition, Chaetothyriales comprise species with aquatic, rock-inhabiting, ant-associated, and mycoparasitic life-styles, as well as species that tolerate toxic compounds, suggesting a high degree of versatile extremotolerance...
March 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082760/aspergillus-is-monophyletic-evidence-from-multiple-gene-phylogenies-and-extrolites-profiles
#12
S Kocsubé, G Perrone, D Magistà, J Houbraken, J Varga, G Szigeti, V Hubka, S-B Hong, J C Frisvad, R A Samson
Aspergillus is one of the economically most important fungal genera. Recently, the ICN adopted the single name nomenclature which has forced mycologists to choose one name for fungi (e.g. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, etc.). Previously two proposals for the single name nomenclature in Aspergillus were presented: one attributes the name "Aspergillus" to clades comprising seven different teleomorphic names, by supporting the monophyly of this genus; the other proposes that Aspergillus is a non-monophyletic genus, by preserving the Aspergillus name only to species belonging to subgenus Circumdati and maintaining the sexual names in the other clades...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082759/the-forgotten-calonectria-collection-pouring-old-wine-into-new-bags
#13
L Lombard, M J Wingfield, A C Alfenas, P W Crous
The genus Calonectria with its Cylindrocladium asexual morphs has been subject to several taxonomic revisions in the past. These have resulted in the recognition of 116 species, of which all but two species (C. hederae and C. pyrochroa) are supported by ex-type cultures and supplemented with DNA barcodes. The present study is based on a large collection of unidentified Calonectria isolates that have been collected over a period of 20 years from various substrates worldwide, which has remained unstudied in the basement of the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082758/the-good-the-bad-and-the-tasty-the-many-roles-of-mushrooms
#14
K M J de Mattos-Shipley, K L Ford, F Alberti, A M Banks, A M Bailey, G D Foster
Fungi are often inconspicuous in nature and this means it is all too easy to overlook their importance. Often referred to as the "Forgotten Kingdom", fungi are key components of life on this planet. The phylum Basidiomycota, considered to contain the most complex and evolutionarily advanced members of this Kingdom, includes some of the most iconic fungal species such as the gilled mushrooms, puffballs and bracket fungi. Basidiomycetes inhabit a wide range of ecological niches, carrying out vital ecosystem roles, particularly in carbon cycling and as symbiotic partners with a range of other organisms...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050056/wood-staining-fungi-revealed-taxonomic-novelties-in-pezizomycotina-new-order-superstratomycetales-and-new-species-cyanodermella-oleoligni
#15
E J van Nieuwenhuijzen, J M Miadlikowska, J A M P Houbraken, O C G Adan, F M Lutzoni, R A Samson
A culture-based survey of staining fungi on oil-treated timber after outdoor exposure in Australia and the Netherlands uncovered new taxa in Pezizomycotina. Their taxonomic novelty was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, mitSSU, RPB1, RPB2, and EF-1α) using multiple reference data sets. These previously unknown taxa are recognised as part of a new order (Superstratomycetales) potentially closely related to Trypetheliales (Dothideomycetes), and as a new species of Cyanodermella, C...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050055/dna-barcoding-analysis-of-more-than-9%C3%A2-000-yeast-isolates-contributes-to-quantitative-thresholds-for-yeast-species-and-genera-delimitation
#16
D Vu, M Groenewald, S Szöke, G Cardinali, U Eberhardt, B Stielow, M de Vries, G J M Verkleij, P W Crous, T Boekhout, V Robert
DNA barcoding is a global initiative for species identification through sequencing of short DNA sequence markers. Sequences of two loci, ITS and LSU, were generated as barcode data for all (ca. 9k) yeast strains included in the CBS collection, originally assigned to ca. 2 000 species. Taxonomic sequence validation turned out to be the most severe bottleneck due to the large volume of generated trace files and lack of reference sequences. We have analysed and validated CBS strains and barcode sequences automatically...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050054/polyphasic-taxonomy-of-aspergillus-section-cervini
#17
A J Chen, J Varga, J C Frisvad, X Z Jiang, R A Samson
Species belonging to Aspergillus section Cervini are characterised by radiate or short columnar, fawn coloured, uniseriate conidial heads. The morphology of the taxa in this section is very similar and isolates assigned to these species are frequently misidentified. In this study, a polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data, temperature profiles and partial BenA, CaM and RPB2 sequences to examine the relationships within this section. Based on this taxonomic approach the section Cervini is resolved in ten species including six new species: A...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872508/hidden-diversity-in-thyridaria-and-a-new-circumscription-of-the-thyridariaceae
#18
W M Jaklitsch, H Voglmayr
A multigene analysis of a combined ITS-LSU-SSU-rpb2-tef1 sequence data matrix was applied to infer the phylogenetic position of the genus Thyridaria in the Pleosporales. The generic type of Thyridaria, T. broussonetiae (syn. T. incrustans), is situated in a clade currently named Roussoellaceae, which becomes a synonym of Thyridariaceae. However, Thyridaria rubronotata does not belong to this clade, but is here recognised as Cyclothyriella rubronotata in its own family Cyclothyriellaceae. The Thyridariaceae contain the genera Thyridaria, Roussoella, Roussoellopsis, Neoroussoella and the new genus Parathyridaria...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766001/revising-the-schizoparmaceae-coniella-and-its-synonyms-pilidiella-and-schizoparme
#19
L V Alvarez, J Z Groenewald, P W Crous
The asexual genera Coniella (1918) and Pilidiella (1927), including their sexual morphs in Schizoparme (1923), have a cosmopolitan distribution and are associated with foliar, fruit, leaf, stem and root diseases on a wide variety of hosts. Species of these genera sometimes occur as secondary invaders of plant tissues infected by other organisms or that are injured by other causes. Several studies published over the last few decades had conflicting ideas as to whether Coniella, Pilidiella and Schizoparme should be regarded as synonymous or as separate genera...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082757/diversity-and-taxonomy-of-chaetomium-and-chaetomium-like-fungi-from-indoor-environments
#20
X W Wang, J Houbraken, J Z Groenewald, M Meijer, B Andersen, K F Nielsen, P W Crous, R A Samson
During a study of indoor fungi, 145 isolates belonging to Chaetomiaceae were cultured from air, swab and dust samples from 19 countries. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), β-tubulin (tub2), ITS and 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA sequences, together with morphological comparisons with related genera and species, 30 indoor taxa are recognised, of which 22 represent known species, seven are described as new, and one remains to be identified to species level...
June 2016: Studies in Mycology
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