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Studies in Mycology

W M Jaklitsch, H Voglmayr
A multigene analysis of a combined ITS-LSU-SSU-rpb2-tef1 sequence data matrix was applied to infer the phylogenetic position of the genus Thyridaria in the Pleosporales. The generic type of Thyridaria, T. broussonetiae (syn. T. incrustans), is situated in a clade currently named Roussoellaceae, which becomes a synonym of Thyridariaceae. However, Thyridaria rubronotata does not belong to this clade, but is here recognised as Cyclothyriella rubronotata in its own family Cyclothyriellaceae. The Thyridariaceae contain the genera Thyridaria, Roussoella, Roussoellopsis, Neoroussoella and the new genus Parathyridaria...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
L V Alvarez, J Z Groenewald, P W Crous
The asexual genera Coniella (1918) and Pilidiella (1927), including their sexual morphs in Schizoparme (1923), have a cosmopolitan distribution and are associated with foliar, fruit, leaf, stem and root diseases on a wide variety of hosts. Species of these genera sometimes occur as secondary invaders of plant tissues infected by other organisms or that are injured by other causes. Several studies published over the last few decades had conflicting ideas as to whether Coniella, Pilidiella and Schizoparme should be regarded as synonymous or as separate genera...
September 2016: Studies in Mycology
M Sandoval-Denis, J Guarro, J F Cano-Lira, D A Sutton, N P Wiederhold, G S de Hoog, S P Abbott, C Decock, L Sigler, J Gené
The taxonomy of the synnematous genera Cephalotrichum, Doratomyces and Trichurus, and other related genera Gamsia, Wardomyces and Wardomycopsis, has been controversial and relies mainly on morphological criteria. These are microascaceous saprobic fungi mostly found in air and soil and with a worldwide distribution. In order to clarify their taxonomy and to delineate generic boundaries within the Microascaceae, we studied 57 isolates that include clinical, environmental and all the available ex-type strains of a large set of species by means of morphological, physiological and molecular phylogenetic analyses using DNA sequence data of four loci (the ITS region, and fragments of rDNA LSU, translation elongation factor 1α and β-tubulin)...
2016: Studies in Mycology
Z W de Beer, T A Duong, M J Wingfield
One of the causal agents of human sporotrichosis, Sporothrix schenckii, is the type species of the genus Sporothrix. During the course of the last century the asexual morphs of many Ophiostoma spp. have also been treated in Sporothrix. More recently several DNA-based studies have suggested that species of Sporothrix and Ophiostoma converge in what has become known as Ophiostoma s. lat. Were the one fungus one name principles adopted in the Melbourne Code to be applied to Ophiostoma s. lat., Sporothrix would have priority over Ophiostoma, resulting in more than 100 new combinations...
2016: Studies in Mycology
S I R Videira, J Z Groenewald, U Braun, H D Shin, P W Crous
Ramularia is a species-rich genus that harbours plant pathogens responsible for yield losses to many important crops, including barley, sugar beet and strawberry. Species of Ramularia are hyphomycetes with hyaline conidiophores and conidia with distinct, thickened, darkened, refractive conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, and Mycosphaerella sexual morphs. Because of its simple morphology and general lack of DNA data in public databases, several allied genera are frequently confused with Ramularia. In order to improve the delimitation of Ramularia from allied genera and the circumscription of species within the genus Ramularia, a polyphasic approach based on multilocus DNA sequences, morphological and cultural data were used in this study...
2016: Studies in Mycology
M Hernández-Restrepo, J Z Groenewald, M L Elliott, G Canning, V E McMillan, P W Crous
Take-all disease of Poaceae is caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis (Magnaporthaceae). Four varieties are recognised in G. graminis based on ascospore size, hyphopodial morphology and host preference. The aim of the present study was to clarify boundaries among species and varieties in Gaeumannomyces by combining morphology and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses based on partial gene sequences of ITS, LSU, tef1 and rpb1. Two new genera, Falciphoriella and Gaeumannomycella were subsequently introduced in Magnaporthaceae...
2016: Studies in Mycology
X Q Li, B L Guo, W Y Cai, J M Zhang, H Q Huang, P Zhan, L Y Xi, V A Vicente, B Stielow, J F Sun, G S de Hoog
Melanisation has been considered to be an important virulence factor of Fonsecaea monophora. However, the biosynthetic mechanisms of melanisation remain unknown. We therefore used next generation sequencing technology to investigate the transcriptome and digital gene expression data, which are valuable resources to better understand the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating melanisation in F. monophora. We performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analyses of parent (CBS 122845) and albino (CBS 125194) strains using the Illumina RNA-seq system...
2016: Studies in Mycology
Q Chen, J R Jiang, G Z Zhang, L Cai, P W Crous
The Didymellaceae was established in 2009 to accommodate Ascochyta, Didymella and Phoma, as well as several related phoma-like genera. The family contains numerous plant pathogenic, saprobic and endophytic species associated with a wide range of hosts. Ascochyta and Phoma are morphologically difficult to distinguish, and species from both genera have in the past been linked to Didymella sexual morphs. The aim of the present study was to clarify the generic delimitation in Didymellaceae by combing multi-locus phylogenetic analyses based on ITS, LSU, rpb2 and tub2, and morphological observations...
September 2015: Studies in Mycology
K Tanaka, K Hirayama, H Yonezawa, G Sato, A Toriyabe, H Kudo, A Hashimoto, M Matsumura, Y Harada, Y Kurihara, T Shirouzu, T Hosoya
We here taxonomically revise the suborder Massarineae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota). Sequences of SSU and LSU nrDNA and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1) are newly obtained from 106 Massarineae taxa that are phylogenetically analysed along with published sequences of 131 taxa in this suborder retrieved from GenBank. We recognise 12 families and five unknown lineages in the Massarineae. Among the nine families previously known, the monophyletic status of the Dictyosporiaceae, Didymosphaeriaceae, Latoruaceae, Macrodiplodiopsidaceae, Massarinaceae, Morosphaeriaceae, and Trematosphaeriaceae was strongly supported with bootstrap support values above 96 %, while the clades of the Bambusicolaceae and the Lentitheciaceae are moderately supported...
September 2015: Studies in Mycology
K Bensch, J Z Groenewald, U Braun, J Dijksterhuis, M de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, P W Crous
The genus Cladosporium (Cladosporiaceae, Dothideomycetes), which represents one of the largest genera of dematiaceous hyphomycetes, has been intensively investigated during the past decade. In the process, three major species complexes (C. cladosporioides, C. herbarum and C. sphaerospermum) were resolved based on morphology and DNA phylogeny, and a monographic revision of the genus (s. lat.) published reflecting the current taxonomic status quo. In the present study a further 19 new species are described based on phylogenetic characters (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) and morphological differences...
September 2015: Studies in Mycology
J H C Woudenberg, M F Seidl, J Z Groenewald, M de Vries, J B Stielow, B P H J Thomma, P W Crous
The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated conidia, including important plant, human and postharvest pathogens. Species within sect. Alternaria have been mostly described based on morphology and / or host-specificity, yet molecular variation between them is minimal...
September 2015: Studies in Mycology
X-Z Liu, Q-M Wang, M Göker, M Groenewald, A V Kachalkin, H T Lumbsch, A M Millanes, M Wedin, A M Yurkov, T Boekhout, F-Y Bai
Families and genera assigned to Tremellomycetes have been mainly circumscribed by morphology and for the yeasts also by biochemical and physiological characteristics. This phenotype-based classification is largely in conflict with molecular phylogenetic analyses. Here a phylogenetic classification framework for the Tremellomycetes is proposed based on the results of phylogenetic analyses from a seven-genes dataset covering the majority of tremellomycetous yeasts and closely related filamentous taxa. Circumscriptions of the taxonomic units at the order, family and genus levels recognised were quantitatively assessed using the phylogenetic rank boundary optimisation (PRBO) and modified general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) tests...
June 2015: Studies in Mycology
Q-M Wang, D Begerow, M Groenewald, X-Z Liu, B Theelen, F-Y Bai, T Boekhout
The subphylum Ustilaginomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) comprises mainly plant pathogenic fungi (smuts). Some of the lineages possess cultivable unicellular stages that are usually classified as yeast or yeast-like species in a largely artificial taxonomic system which is independent from and largely incompatible with that of the smut fungi. Here we performed phylogenetic analyses based on seven genes including three nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and four protein coding genes to address the molecular phylogeny of the ustilaginomycetous yeast species and their filamentous counterparts...
June 2015: Studies in Mycology
Q-M Wang, M Groenewald, M Takashima, B Theelen, P-J Han, X-Z Liu, T Boekhout, F-Y Bai
In addition to rusts, the subphylum Pucciniomycotina (Basidiomycota) includes a large number of unicellular or dimorphic fungi which are usually studied as yeasts. Ribosomal DNA sequence analyses have shown that the current taxonomic system of the pucciniomycetous yeasts which is based on phenotypic criteria is not concordant with the molecular phylogeny and many genera are polyphyletic. Here we inferred the molecular phylogeny of 184 pucciniomycetous yeast species and related filamentous fungi using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses based on the sequences of seven genes, including the small subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the large subunit rDNA D1/D2 domains, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS 1 and 2) of rDNA including the 5...
June 2015: Studies in Mycology
X-Z Liu, Q-M Wang, B Theelen, M Groenewald, F-Y Bai, T Boekhout
The Tremellomycetes (Basidiomycota) contains a large number of unicellular and dimorphic fungi with stable free-living unicellular states in their life cycles. These fungi have been conventionally classified as basidiomycetous yeasts based on physiological and biochemical characteristics. Many currently recognised genera of these yeasts are mainly defined based on phenotypical characters and are highly polyphyletic. Here we reconstructed the phylogeny of the majority of described anamorphic and teleomorphic tremellomycetous yeasts using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and neighbour-joining analyses based on the sequences of seven genes, including three rRNA genes, namely the small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA), D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rDNA, and the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS 1 and 2) of rDNA including 5...
June 2015: Studies in Mycology
Q-M Wang, A M Yurkov, M Göker, H T Lumbsch, S D Leavitt, M Groenewald, B Theelen, X-Z Liu, T Boekhout, F-Y Bai
Most small genera containing yeast species in the Pucciniomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) are monophyletic, whereas larger genera including Bensingtonia, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Sporidiobolus and Sporobolomyces are polyphyletic. With the implementation of the "One Fungus = One Name" nomenclatural principle these polyphyletic genera were revised. Nine genera, namely Bannoa, Cystobasidiopsis, Colacogloea, Kondoa, Erythrobasidium, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, Sakaguchia and Sterigmatomyces, were emended to include anamorphic and teleomorphic species based on the results obtained by a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, phylogenetic network analyses, branch length-based methods, as well as morphological, physiological and biochemical comparisons...
June 2015: Studies in Mycology
L Lombard, N A van der Merwe, J Z Groenewald, P W Crous
The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera...
March 2015: Studies in Mycology
L Lombard, S F Chen, X Mou, X D Zhou, P W Crous, M J Wingfield
Plantation forestry is expanding rapidly in China to meet an increasing demand for wood and pulp products globally. Fungal pathogens including species of Calonectria represent a serious threat to the growth and sustainability of this industry. Surveys were conducted in the Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces of South China, where Eucalyptus trees in plantations or cuttings in nurseries displayed symptoms of leaf blight. Isolations from symptomatic leaves and soils collected close to infected trees resulted in a large collection of Calonectria isolates...
March 2015: Studies in Mycology
D A Herron, M J Wingfield, B D Wingfield, C A Rodas, S Marincowitz, E T Steenkamp
The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i...
March 2015: Studies in Mycology
R F Alfenas, L Lombard, O L Pereira, A C Alfenas, P W Crous
Species in the genus Calonectria (Hypocreales) represent an important group of plant pathogenic fungi that cause serious losses to plant crops in tropical and subtropical climates. Calonectria leaf blight is currently one of the main impediments to Eucalyptus cultivation in Brazil, and various species of Calonectria have been associated with this disease. Since most previous identifications were solely based on morphological characters, much of the published literature needs to be re-evaluated. The aim of this study was thus to identify and determine the phylogenetic relationships among species that occur in the Eucalyptus growing regions of Brazil by using partial sequences of the β-tubulin, calmodulin, translation elongation factor 1-α and histone H3 gene regions...
March 2015: Studies in Mycology
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