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Studies in Mycology

X W Wang, F Y Yang, M Meijer, B Kraak, B D Sun, Y L Jiang, Y M Wu, F Y Bai, K A Seifert, P W Crous, R A Samson, J Houbraken
The traditional concept of the genus Humicola includes species that produce pigmented, thick-walled and single-celled spores laterally or terminally on hyphae or minimally differentiated conidiophores. More than 50 species have been described in the genus. Species commonly occur in soil, indoor environments, and compost habitats. The taxonomy of Humicola and morphologically similar genera is poorly understood in modern terms. Based on a four-locus phylogeny, the morphological concept of Humicola proved to be polyphyletic...
June 2019: Studies in Mycology
J C Frisvad, V Hubka, C N Ezekiel, S-B Hong, A Nováková, A J Chen, M Arzanlou, T O Larsen, F Sklenář, W Mahakarnchanakul, R A Samson, J Houbraken
Aflatoxins and ochratoxins are among the most important mycotoxins of all and producers of both types of mycotoxins are present in Aspergillus section Flavi , albeit never in the same species. Some of the most efficient producers of aflatoxins and ochratoxins have not been described yet. Using a polyphasic approach combining phenotype, physiology, sequence and extrolite data, we describe here eight new species in section Flavi . Phylogenetically, section Flavi is split in eight clades and the section currently contains 33 species...
June 2019: Studies in Mycology
N Maryani, L Lombard, Y S Poerba, S Subandiyah, P W Crous, G H J Kema
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt or Panama disease on banana, is one of the major constraints in banana production worldwide. Indonesia is the centre of origin for wild and cultivated bananas, which likely co-evolved with Foc. This study explored the widest possible genetic diversity of Foc by sampling across Indonesia at 34 geographically and environmentally different locations in 15 provinces at six islands. This resulted in a comprehensive collection of ∼200 isolates from 40 different local banana varieties...
March 2019: Studies in Mycology
Y Marin-Felix, M Hernández-Restrepo, M J Wingfield, A Akulov, A J Carnegie, R Cheewangkoon, D Gramaje, J Z Groenewald, V Guarnaccia, F Halleen, L Lombard, J Luangsa-Ard, S Marincowitz, A Moslemi, L Mostert, W Quaedvlieg, R K Schumacher, C F J Spies, R Thangavel, P W J Taylor, A M Wilson, B D Wingfield, A R Wood, P W Crous
This paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information regarding the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera. In addition, primary and secondary DNA barcodes for the currently accepted species are included. This second paper in the GOPHY series treats 20 genera of phytopathogenic fungi and their relatives including: Allantophomopsiella, Apoharknessia, Cylindrocladiella, Diaporthe, Dichotomophthora, Gaeumannomyces, Harknessia, Huntiella, Macgarvieomyces, Metulocladosporiella, Microdochium, Oculimacula, Paraphoma, Phaeoacremonium, Phyllosticta, Proxypiricularia, Pyricularia, Stenocarpella , Utrechtiana and Wojnowiciella ...
March 2019: Studies in Mycology
U Damm, T Sato, A Alizadeh, J Z Groenewald, P W Crous
Although Glomerella glycines , Colletotrichum magnum and C. orchidearum are known as causal agents of anthracnose of soybean, Cucurbitaceae and Orchidaceae , respectively, their taxonomy remains unresolved. In preliminary analyses based on ITS, strains of these species appear basal in Colletotrichum phylogenies, clustering close to C. cliviae , C. brevisporum and other recently described species from tropical or subtropical regions. Phylogenetic analyses (ITS, GAPDH , CHS-1, HIS3, ACT, TUB2 ) of 102 strains previously identified as Ga...
March 2019: Studies in Mycology
D Vu, M Groenewald, M de Vries, T Gehrmann, B Stielow, U Eberhardt, A Al-Hatmi, J Z Groenewald, G Cardinali, J Houbraken, T Boekhout, P W Crous, V Robert, G J M Verkley
Species identification lies at the heart of biodiversity studies that has in recent years favoured DNA-based approaches. Microbial Biological Resource Centres are a rich source for diverse and high-quality reference materials in microbiology, and yet the strains preserved in these biobanks have been exploited only on a limited scale to generate DNA barcodes. As part of a project funded in the Netherlands to barcode specimens of major national biobanks, sequences of two nuclear ribosomal genetic markers, the Internal Transcribed Spaces and 5...
March 2019: Studies in Mycology
V Paolillo, C B Jenkinson, T Horio, B R Oakley
We have identified the cyclin domain-containing proteins encoded by the genomes of 17 species of Aspergillus as well as 15 members of other genera of filamentous ascomycetes. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the cyclins fall into three groups, as in other eukaryotic phyla, and, more significantly, that they are remarkably conserved in these fungi. All 32 species examined, for example, have three group I cyclins, cyclins that are particularly important because they regulate the cell cycle, and these are highly conserved...
September 2018: Studies in Mycology
J P M Araújo, H C Evans, R Kepler, D P Hughes
Ophiocordyceps species infecting ants - the so-called zombie-ant fungi - comprise one of the most intriguing and fascinating relationships between microbes and animals. They are widespread within tropical forests worldwide, with relatively few reports from temperate ecosystems. These pathogens possess the ability to manipulate host behaviour in order to increase their own fitness. Depending on the fungal species involved the infected ants are manipulated either to leave the nest to ascend understorey shrubs, to die biting onto vegetation, or descend from the canopy to die at the base of trees...
June 2018: Studies in Mycology
A Hashimoto, K Hirayama, H Takahashi, M Matsumura, G Okada, C Y Chen, J W Huang, M Kakishima, T Ono, K Tanaka
Lophiostoma bipolare was taxonomically revised based on the morphological observations and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data from nuclear rDNA SSU-ITS-LSU, TUB , tef1 , and rpb2 genes. Twenty-nine strains were morphologically similar to Lo . bipolare . A total of 174 sequences were generated from the Lo . bipolare complex. Phylogenetic analyses based on TUB sequence revealed 11 distinct species within the Lo. bipolare complex. Morphological features of the ascospores and the anatomical structure of the ascomata from both field collections as well as axenic culture, which have been reported previously as variable features at intraspecific levels, were compared to evaluate the taxonomic reliability of these features...
June 2018: Studies in Mycology
W M Jaklitsch, J Checa, M N Blanco, I Olariaga, S Tello, H Voglmayr
Fresh collections, type studies and molecular phylogenetic analyses of a multigene matrix of partial nuSSU-ITS-LSU rDNA, rpb2 , tef1 and tub2 sequences were used to evaluate the boundaries of Cucurbitaria in a strict sense and of several related genera of the Cucurbitariaceae . Two species are recognised in Cucurbitaria and 19 in Neocucurbitaria . The monotypic genera Astragalicola , Cucitella , Parafenestella , Protofenestella , and Seltsamia are described as new. Fenestella is here included as its generic type F...
June 2018: Studies in Mycology
N Valenzuela-Lopez, J F Cano-Lira, J Guarro, D A Sutton, N Wiederhold, P W Crous, A M Stchigel
The taxonomy of the coelomycetes has undergone dramatic changes in recent years, but remains controversial due to the high number of taxa involved, their poor morphological differentiation, the rare occurrence of the sexual morphs, and rapid loss of fertility in vitro. In the present study, we revisited the families Cucurbitariaceae and Didymellaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), which include numerous plant pathogens, endophytic species associated with a wide host range, and saprobes. The taxonomy of two of the most relevant genera, i...
June 2018: Studies in Mycology
P Zhan, K Dukik, D Li, J Sun, J B Stielow, B Gerrits van den Ende, B Brankovics, S B J Menken, H Mei, W Bao, G Lv, W Liu, G S de Hoog
Trichophyton rubrum and T. violaceum are prevalent agents of human dermatophyte infections, the former being found on glabrous skin and nail, while the latter is confined to the scalp. The two species are phenotypically different but are highly similar phylogenetically. The taxonomy of dermatophytes is currently being reconsidered on the basis of molecular phylogeny. Molecular species definitions do not always coincide with existing concepts which are guided by ecological and clinical principles. In this article, we aim to bring phylogenetic and ecological data together in an attempt to develop new species concepts for anthropophilic dermatophytes...
March 2018: Studies in Mycology
M C Aime, C D Bell, A W Wilson
The rust fungi ( Pucciniales ) are the most speciose natural group of plant pathogens, members of which possess the most complex lifecycles in Fungi . How natural selection works on the Pucciniales has been the subject of several hypotheses in mycology. This study uses molecular age estimation using sequence data from multiple loci, and cophylogeny reconciliation analyses to test hypotheses regarding how the aecial and telial stages in the lifecycle of rust fungi may have differentially impacted their diversification...
March 2018: Studies in Mycology
J Luangsa-Ard, K Tasanathai, D Thanakitpipattana, A Khonsanit, M Stadler
Ophiocordyceps is a heterogeneous, species-rich genus in the order Hypocreales ( Sordariomycetes , Ascomycota ) that includes invertebrate-pathogenic taxa. In this study, seven new species in Ophiocordyceps producing superficial perithecia infecting various insect hosts (Lepidoptera, Hemiptera) are described from Thailand - Ophiocordyceps brunneinigra, O. brunneiperitheciata, O. geometridicola, O. multiperitheciata, O. pauciovoperitheciata, O. pseudoacicularis and O. spataforae . Phylogenetic analyses based on multigene loci comprising the large subunit of the ribosomal DNA (LSU), partial sequences of elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) and the largest and second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase (RPB1, PRB2) strongly support these new species of Ophiocordyceps in the Ophiocordycipitaceae ...
March 2018: Studies in Mycology
J Hiscox, J O'Leary, L Boddy
Understanding the mechanisms underlying wood decay basidiomycete community dynamics is crucial for fully understanding decomposition processes, and for modelling ecosystem function and resilience to environmental change. Competition drives community development in decaying woody resources, with interactions occurring at a distance, following physical contact, and through specialised relationships such as mycoparasitism. Outcomes of combative interactions range from replacement, where one mycelium displaces another, to deadlock, where neither combatant captures territory from the other; and a spectrum of intermediate outcomes (i...
March 2018: Studies in Mycology
C Aguilera-Galvez, N Champouret, H Rietman, X Lin, D Wouters, Z Chu, J D G Jones, J H Vossen, R G F Visser, P J Wolters, V G A A Vleeshouwers
Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease in potato. For sustainable management of this economically important disease, resistance breeding relies on the availability of resistance ( R ) genes. Such R genes against P. infestans have evolved in wild tuber-bearing Solanum species from North, Central and South America, upon co-evolution with cognate avirulence ( Avr ) genes. Here, we report how effectoromics screens with Avr2 of P. infestans revealed defense responses in diverse Solanum species that are native to Mexico and Peru...
March 2018: Studies in Mycology
S Rudolph, J G Maciá-Vicente, H Lotz-Winter, M Schleuning, M Piepenbring
This study aims at characterizing the diversity and temporal changes of species richness and composition of fungi in an ecotone of a forest border and a meadow in the Taunus mountain range in Germany. All macroscopically visible, epigeous fungi and vascular plants were sampled monthly over three years, together with climatic variables like humidity and temperature that influence fungal diversity and composition as shown by previous studies. In this mosaic landscape, a total of 855 fungal species were collected and identified based on morphological features, the majority of which belonged to Ascomycota (51 %) and Basidiomycota (45 %)...
March 2018: Studies in Mycology
Y Du, R Weide, Z Zhao, P Msimuko, F Govers, K Bouwmeester
Late blight disease caused by the plant pathogenic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans is one of the most limiting factors in potato production. P. infestans is able to overcome introgressed late blight resistance by adaptation of effector genes. AVR1 is an RXLR effector that triggers immune responses when recognized by the potato resistance protein R1. P. infestans isolates avirulent on R1 plants were found to have AVR1 variants that are recognized by R1. Virulent isolates though, lack AVR1 but do contain a close homologue of AVR1, named A-L, of which all variants escape recognition by R1...
March 2018: Studies in Mycology
Sara Maroske, Tom W May
The transition from amateur to professional in natural history is generally regarded as having taken place in the nineteenth century, but landmark events such as the 1917 appointment of mycologist Johanna Westerdijk (1883-1961) as the first female professor in the Netherlands indicate that the pattern of change for women was more varied and delayed than for men. We investigate this transition in mycology, and identify only 43 women in the Western World who published scientific mycological literature pre-1900, of whom twelve published new fungal taxa...
March 2018: Studies in Mycology
K Bensch, J Z Groenewald, M Meijer, J Dijksterhuis, Ž Jurjević, B Andersen, J Houbraken, P W Crous, R A Samson
As part of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota about 520 new Cladosporium isolates from indoor environments mainly collected in China, Europe, New Zealand, North America and South Africa were investigated by using a polyphasic approach to determine their species identity. All Cladosporium species occurring in indoor environments are fully described and illustrated. Fourty-six Cladosporium species are treated of which 16 species are introduced as new. A key for the most common Cladosporium species isolated from indoor environments is provided...
March 2018: Studies in Mycology
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