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Journal of Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108235/the-use-of-bacteriophages-to-biocontrol-oral-biofilms
#1
Szymon P Szafrański, Andreas Winkel, Meike Stiesch
Infections induced by oral biofilms include caries, as well as periodontal, and peri-implant disease, and may influence quality of life, systemic health, and expenditure. As bacterial biofilms are highly resistant and resilient to conventional antibacterial therapy, it has been difficult to combat these infections. An innovative alternative to the biocontrol of oral biofilms could be to use bacteriophages or phages, the viruses of bacteria, which are specific, non-toxic, self-proliferating, and can penetrate into biofilms...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043840/characterization-of-cytochrome-p450-cyp109e1-from-bacillus-megaterium-as-a-novel-vitamin-d3-hydroxylase
#2
Ammar Abdulmughni, Ilona K Jóźwik, Natalia Putkaradze, Elisa Brill, Josef Zapp, Andy-Mark W H Thunnissen, Frank Hannemann, Rita Bernhardt
In this study the ability of CYP109E1 from Bacillus megaterium to metabolize vitamin D3 (VD3) was investigated. In an in vitro system using bovine adrenodoxin reductase (AdR) and adrenodoxin (Adx4-108), VD3 was converted by CYP109E1 into several products. Furthermore, a whole-cell system in B. megaterium MS941 was established. The new system showed a conversion of 95% after 24h. By NMR analysis it was found that CYP109E1 catalyzes hydroxylation of VD3 at carbons C-24 and C-25, resulting in the formation of 24(S)-hydroxyvitamin D3 (24S(OH)VD3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)VD3) and 24S,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24S,25(OH)2VD3)...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042013/antibody-engineering-of-a-cytotoxic-monoclonal-antibody-84-against-human-embryonic-stem-cells-investigating-the-effects-of-multivalency-on-cytotoxicity
#3
Maximilian Klement, Jiyun Zheng, Chengcheng Liu, Heng-Liang Tan, Victor Vai Tak Wong, Andre Boon-Hwa Choo, Dong-Yup Lee, Dave Siak-Wei Ow
Antibody fragments have shown targeted specificity to their antigens, but only modest tissue retention times in vivo and in vitro. Multimerization has been used as a protein engineering tool to increase the number of binding units and thereby enhance the efficacy and retention time of antibody fragments. In this work, we explored the effects of valency using a series of self-assembling polypeptides based on the GCN4 leucine zipper multimerization domain fused to a single-chain variable fragment via an antibody upper hinge sequence...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042012/biotechnological-production-of-vanillin-using-immobilized-enzymes
#4
Toshiki Furuya, Mari Kuroiwa, Kuniki Kino
Vanillin is an important and popular plant flavor, but the amount of this compound available from plant sources is very limited. Biotechnological methods have high potential for vanillin production as an alternative to extraction from plant sources. Here, we report a new approach using immobilized enzymes for the production of vanillin. The recently discovered oxygenase Cso2 has coenzyme-independent catalytic activity for the conversion of isoeugenol and 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. Immobilization of Cso2 on Sepabeads EC-EA anion-exchange carrier conferred enhanced operational stability enabling repetitive use...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042011/application-of-next-generation-sequencing-in-clinical-microbiology-and-infection-prevention
#5
Ruud H Deurenberg, Erik Bathoorn, Monika A Chlebowicz, Natacha Couto, Mithila Ferdous, Silvia García-Cobos, Anna M D Kooistra-Smid, Erwin C Raangs, Sigrid Rosema, Alida C M Veloo, Kai Zhou, Alexander W Friedrich, John W A Rossen
Current molecular diagnostics of human pathogens provide limited information that is often not sufficient for outbreak and transmission investigation. Next generation sequencing (NGS) determines the DNA sequence of a complete bacterial genome in a single sequence run, and from these data, information on resistance and virulence, as well as information for typing is obtained, useful for outbreak investigation. The obtained genome data can be further used for the development of an outbreak-specific screening test...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042010/laser-reflectance-measurement-for-the-online-monitoring-of-chlorella-sorokiniana-biomass-concentration
#6
Patricio López Expósito, Angeles Blanco Suárez, Carlos Negro Álvarez
Fast and reliable methods to determine biomass concentration are necessary to facilitate the large scale production of microalgae. A method for the rapid estimation of Chlorella sorokiniana biomass concentration was developed. The method translates the suspension particle size spectrum gathered though laser reflectance into biomass concentration by means of two machine learning modelling techniques. In each case, the model hyper-parameters were selected applying a simulated annealing algorithm. The results show that dry biomass concentration can be estimated with a very good accuracy (R(2)=0...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034616/enhancing-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-sus-scrofa-lysozyme-by-n-terminal-fusion-of-a-sextuple-unique-homologous-peptide
#7
Dewei Zhu, Guolin Cai, Xiaomin Li, Jian Lu, Liang Zhang
Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL), an important component of the pig immune system, is a potential candidate to replace antibiotics in feed. However, there is little antimicrobial activity of natural SSL against gram-negative bacteria, which limits its application. In this study, a unique peptide (A-W-V-A-W-K) with antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria was discovered and purified from trypsin hydrolysate of natural SSL. This unique peptide was fused to natural SSL and the recombinant fused SSL exhibited improved activity against gram-negative bacteria...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011130/highly-efficient-bioreduction-of-2-hydroxyacetophenone-to-s-and-r-1-phenyl-1-2-ethanediol-by-two-substrate-tolerance-carbonyl-reductases-with-cofactor-regeneration
#8
Zhi-Mei Cui, Jian-Dong Zhang, Xiao-Jun Fan, Gao-Wei Zheng, Hong-Hong Chang, Wen-Long Wei
Optically pure 1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol is a very important chiral building block and intermediate in fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Reduction of 2-hydroxyacetophenone provides a straightforward approach to access these important compounds. In this study, two enantiocomplementary carbonyl reductases, BDHA (2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis) and GoSCR (polyol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter oxydans) were discovered for the first time to convert 2-hydroxyacetophenone (2-HAP) to (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol ((R)-PED) and (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol ((S)-PED) with excellent stereochemical selectivity, respectively...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011129/fast-and-sensitive-in-vivo-studies-under-controlled-environmental-conditions-to-substitute-long-term-field-trials-with-genetically-modified-plants
#9
Patricia Horn, André Schlichting, Christel Baum, Ute Hammesfahr, Sören Thiele-Bruhn, Peter Leinweber, Inge Broer
We introduce an easy, fast and effective method to analyze the influence of genetically modified (GM) plants on soil and model organisms in the laboratory to substitute laborious and time consuming field trials. For the studies described here we focused on two GM plants of the so-called 3rd generation: GM plants producing pharmaceuticals (PMP) and plant made industrials (PMI). Cyanophycin synthetase (cphA) was chosen as model for PMI and Choleratoxin B (CTB) as model for PMP. The model genes are expressed in transgenic roots of composite Vicia hirsuta plants grown in petri dishes for semi-sterile growth or small containers filled with non-sterile soil...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011128/isolation-of-lactic-acid-forming-bacteria-from-biogas-plants
#10
Jelena Bohn, Aytül Yüksel-Dadak, Stefan Dröge, Helmut König
Direct molecular approaches provide hints that lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the degradation process of organic material to methanogenetic substrates in biogas plants. However, their diversity in biogas fermenter samples has not been analyzed in detail yet. For that reason, five different biogas fermenters, which were fed mainly with maize silage and manure from cattle or pigs, were examined for the occurrence of lactic acid-forming bacteria. A total of 197 lactic acid-forming bacterial strains were isolated, which we assigned to 21 species, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Pseudoramibacter-related...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007516/using-transposition-to-introduce-egfp-fusions-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti-a-tool-to-analyze-protein-localization-patterns-in-bacteria
#11
Hanna Bednarz, Karsten Niehaus
Conventional methods used for the in vivo analysis of subcellular protein localizations and their spatio-temporal dynamics in prokaryotes are based on either the engineering of N(amino)- or C(carboxy)-terminal fusions of fluorescent proteins with the protein of interest, or involved probing internal sites for tag integration. In addition, the use of inducible or constitutive promoters for the expression of fluorescent fusion proteins can lead to overexpression and result in localization artifacts. Here, we describe a method for the synthesis of fluorescent fusion proteins using transposable elements, which can randomly integrate in the internal sections of the protein coding sequence to produce full-length fluorescent fusion proteins expressed at endogenous levels...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989733/immunomagnetic-separation-of-human-myeloperoxidase-using-an-antibody-mimicking-peptide-identified-by-phage-display
#12
Soi Yun, Hyunmin Ryu, E K Lee
Phage display biopanning is a powerful in vitro selection process for screening and identifying peptides that bind to a target protein of interest. With the aim of replacing antibodies in immuno-diagnostic applications, we identified peptides whose binding characteristics mimicked those of anti-human myeloperoxidase (hMPO), a biomarker for acute cardiac diseases. Based on ELISA results from four phage clones, we selected and chemically synthesized a 12-mer peptide (SYIEPPERHRHR). Quartz crystal microbalance and surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed that the molar binding equilibrium ratio of the synthesized peptide was 0...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988216/kinetic-models-for-batch-ethanol-production-from-sweet-sorghum-juice-under-normal-and-high-gravity-fermentations-logistic-and-modified-gompertz-models
#13
Niphaphat Phukoetphim, Apilak Salakkam, Pattana Laopaiboon, Lakkana Laopaiboon
The aim of this study was to model batch ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice (SSJ), under normal gravity (NG, 160g/L of total sugar) and high gravity (HG, 240g/L of total sugar) conditions with and without nutrient supplementation (9g/L of yeast extract), by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01. Growth and ethanol production increased with increasing initial sugar concentration, and the addition of yeast extract enhanced both cell growth and ethanol production. From the results, either logistic or a modified Gompertz equation could be used to describe yeast growth, depending on information required...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939320/minion-as-part-of-a-biomedical-rapidly-deployable-laboratory
#14
Mathias C Walter, Katrin Zwirglmaier, Philipp Vette, Scott A Holowachuk, Kilian Stoecker, Gelimer H Genzel, Markus H Antwerpen
Fast turnaround times are of utmost importance for biomedical reconnaissance, particularly regarding dangerous pathogens. Recent advances in sequencing technology and its devices allow sequencing within a short time frame outside stationary laboratories close to the epicenter of the outbreak. In our study, we evaluated the portable sequencing device MinION as part of a rapidly deployable laboratory specialized in identification of highly pathogenic agents. We tested the device in the course of a NATO live agent exercise in a deployable field laboratory in hot climate conditions...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919692/improved-production-of-2-fucosyllactose-in-engineered-escherichia-coli-by-expressing-putative-%C3%AE-1-2-fucosyltransferase-wcfb-from-bacteroides-fragilis
#15
Young-Wook Chin, Ji-Yeong Kim, Jae-Han Kim, Sang-Min Jung, Jin-Ho Seo
2'-Fucosyllactose (2-FL) is one of most abundant oligosaccharides in human milk, which is involved in many biological functions for infant health. Since 2-FL has a great potential in application to functional food materials and pharmaceuticals, several microbial systems for mass production of 2-FL have been developed in recent years. Microbial production of 2-FL was suggested to be influenced by a number of factors including fucosylation activity of α-1,2-fucosyltransferase. In the present study, the wcfB gene coding for α-1,2-fucosyltransferase from Bacteroides fragilis was screened from eleven candidates of putative α-1,2-fucosyltransferase...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919690/comparative-analysis-of-different-xanthan-samples-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#16
Julia Teckentrup, Orooba Al-Hammood, Tim Steffens, Hanna Bednarz, Volker Walhorn, Karsten Niehaus, Dario Anselmetti
The polysaccharide xanthan which is produced by the γ-proteobacterium Xanthomonas campestris is used as a food thickening agent and rheologic modifier in numerous food, cosmetics and technical applications. Its great commercial importance stimulated biotechnological approaches to optimize the xanthan production. By targeted genetic modification the metabolism of Xanthomonas can be modified in such a way that the xanthan production efficiency and/or the shear-thickening potency is optimized. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) the secondary structure of single xanthan polymers produced by the wild type Xanthomonas campestris B100 and several genetically modified variations were analyzed...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914890/biomass-and-oil-production-by-chlorella-vulgaris-and-four-other-microalgae-effects-of-salinity-and-other-factors
#17
Tiyaporn Luangpipat, Yusuf Chisti
Five nominally freshwater microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Choricystis minor, Neochloris sp., Pseudococcomyxa simplex, Scenedesmus sp.) with a known ability to produce high-levels of lipids for possible use as fuel oils were evaluated for their ability to thrive and produce lipids in seawater and brackish water. Only C. vulgaris was found to thrive and produce lipids in full strength seawater. Seawater tolerant strains of C. vulgaris are unusual. Lipid productivity in nutrient sufficient seawater exceeded 37mgL(-1)d(-1) and was nearly 2-fold greater than in freshwater...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913217/integration-of-whole-cell-reaction-and-product-isolation-highly-hydrophobic-solvents-promote-in-situ-substrate-supply-and-simplify-extractive-product-isolation
#18
Dorothea Leis, Bernhard Lauß, Robert Macher-Ambrosch, Andreas Pfennig, Bernd Nidetzky, Regina Kratzer
Product isolation from aqueous-organic reaction mixtures that contain high concentrations of whole cells constitutes a challenging task in bioprocessing. Stirring of the biphasic reaction media leads to the formation of solvent droplets coated by cells and other surface active components and an emulsion forms. We used an early focus on phase separation to simplify a whole-cell bioreduction. Octanol, heptanol, hexanol, hexane and dipropylether were tested as co-solvents in the E. coli catalyzed reduction of o-chloroacetophenone...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890772/integrative-analysis-of-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-in-butyrate-treated-cho-cells
#19
Anna Wippermann, Oliver Rupp, Karina Brinkrolf, Raimund Hoffrogge, Thomas Noll
The cellular mechanisms responsible for the versatile properties of CHO cells as the major production cell line for biopharmaceutical molecules are not entirely understood yet, although several 'omics' data facilitate the understanding of CHO cells and their reactions to environmental conditions. However, genome-wide studies of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation are still limited. To prove the applicability and usefulness of integrating DNA methylation and gene expression data in a biotechnological context, we exemplarily analyzed the time course of cellular reactions upon butyrate addition in antibody-producing CHO cells by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and CHO-specific cDNA microarrays...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888122/the-sunflower-transcription-factor-hahb11-confers-tolerance-to-water-deficit-and-salinity-to-transgenic-arabidopsis-and-alfalfa-plants
#20
Julieta V Cabello, Jorge I Giacomelli, María C Gómez, Raquel L Chan
Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom; members of subfamily I are known to be involved in abiotic stress responses. HaHB11 belongs to this subfamily and it was previously shown that it is able to confer improved yield and tolerance to flooding via a quiescent strategy. Here we show that HaHB11 expression is induced by ABA, NaCl and water deficit in sunflower seedlings and leaves. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11, controlled either by its own promoter or by the constitutive 35S CaMV, presented rolled leaves and longer roots than WT when grown under standard conditions...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
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