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Cognitive Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632427/speed-of-processing-and-executive-functions-in-adults-with-phenylketonuria-quick-in-finding-the-word-but-not-the-ladybird
#1
Cristina Romani, Anita MacDonald, Sara De Felice, Liana Palermo
A reduction in processing speed is widely reported in phenylketonuria (PKU), possibly due to white matter pathology. We investigated possible deficits and their relationships with executive functions in a sample of 37 early-treated adults with PKU (AwPKUs). AwPKUs were not characterized by a generalized speed deficit, but instead their performance could be explained by two more specific impairments: (a) a deficit in the allocation of visuo-spatial attention that reduced speed in visual search tasks, in some reading conditions and visuo-motor coordination tasks; and (b) a more conservative decision mechanism that slowed down returning an answer across domains...
June 20, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628367/learning-to-spell-phonology-and-beyond
#2
Rebecca Treiman
An understanding of the nature of writing systems and of the typical course of spelling development is an essential foundation for understanding the problems of children who have serious difficulties in learning to spell. The present article seeks to provide that foundation. It argues that the dual-route models of spelling that underlie much existing research and practice are based on overly simple assumptions about how writing systems work and about how spelling skills develop. Many writing systems include not only context-free links from phonemes to letters but also context-sensitive phonological patterns, morphological influences, and graphotactic patterns...
June 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632043/simultanagnosia-and-object-individuation
#3
Veronica Mazza
Simultanagnosic patients have difficulty in perceiving multiple objects when presented simultaneously. In this review article, I discuss how neuropsychological research on simultanagnosia has been inspirational for two interconnected lines of research related to the core mechanisms by which the visual system processes cluttered scenes. First, I review previous studies on enumeration tasks indicating that, despite their inability to identify multiple objects, simultanagnosic patients can enumerate up to 2-3 elements as efficiently as healthy individuals (the so-called "subitizing" phenomenon)...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562194/the-cart-before-the-horse-when-cognitive-neuroscience-precedes-cognitive-neuropsychology
#4
Daniel Agis, Argye E Hillis
Cognitive neuropsychology (CN) has had an immense impact on the understanding of the normal cognitive processes underlying reading, spelling, spoken language comprehension and production, spatial attention, memory, visual perception, and orchestration of actions, through detailed analysis of behavioural performance by neurologically impaired individuals. However, there are other domains of cognition and communication that have rarely been investigated with this approach. Many cognitive neuropsychologists have extended their work in language, perception, or attention by turning to functional neuroimaging or lesion-symptom mapping to identify the neural mechanisms underlying the cognitive mechanisms they have identified...
May 31, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514892/single-case-cognitive-neuropsychology-in-the-age-of-big-data
#5
Jared Medina, Simon Fischer-Baum
Historically, single-case studies of brain-damaged individuals have contributed substantially to our understanding of cognitive processes. However, the role of single-case cognitive neuropsychology has diminished with the proliferation of techniques that measure neural activity in humans. Instead, large-scale informatics approaches in which data are gathered from hundreds of neuroimaging studies have become popular. It has been claimed that utilizing these informatics approaches can address problems found in single imaging studies...
May 17, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514877/the-assumptions-of-cognitive-neuropsychology-reflections-on-caramazza-1984-1986
#6
Max Coltheart
Approximately 30 years ago, Caramazza (1984. The logic of neuropsychological research and the problem of patient classification in aphasia. Brain and Language, 21, 9-20; 1986. On drawing inferences about the structure of normal cognitive systems from the analysis of patterns of impaired performance. Brain and Language, 5, 41-66) proposed that cognitive neuropsychology needs to make four assumptions in order for its inferences from pathological performance to the structure of intact cognitive systems to be justifiable...
May 17, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393604/a-selective-morpho-phonological-deficit
#7
Victoria P Shuster, Michele Miozzo
We report on an English-speaking, aphasic individual (TB) who showed a striking dissociation in speaking with the different forms (allomorphs) that an inflection can take. Although very accurate in producing the consonantal inflections (-/s/, -/z/, -/d/, -/t/), TB consistently omitted syllabic inflections (-/əz/, -/əd/), therefore correctly saying "dogs" or "walked," but "bench" for benches or "skate" for skated. Results from control tests ruled out that TB's selective difficulties stemmed from problems in selecting the correct inflection for the syntactic context or problems related to phonological or articulatory mechanisms...
April 9, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353390/evidence-for-a-differential-interference-of-noise-in-sub-lexical-and-lexical-reading-routes-in-healthy-participants-and-dyslexics
#8
Ana Pina Rodrigues, José Rebola, Helena Jorge, Maria José Ribeiro, Marcelino Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Marieke van Asselen
The ineffective exclusion of surrounding noise has been proposed to underlie the reading deficits in developmental dyslexia. However, previous studies supporting this hypothesis focused on low-level visual tasks, providing only an indirect link of noise interference on reading processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of noise on regular, irregular, and pseudoword reading in 23 dyslexic children and 26 age- and IQ-matched controls, by applying the white noise displays typically used to validate this theory to a lexical decision task...
March 29, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632042/lesions-to-the-left-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-impair-decision-threshold-adjustment-for-lexical-selection
#9
Royce Anders, Stéphanie Riès, Leendert Van Maanen, F-Xavier Alario
Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data...
March 1, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426391/2016-published-papers
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426390/cognitive-neuropsychology-student-travel-prize-september-2016-winner
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034340/topographic-processing-in-developmental-prosopagnosia-preserved-perception-but-impaired-memory-of-scenes
#12
Solja K Klargaard, Randi Starrfelt, Anders Petersen, Christian Gerlach
Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing - that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants included nine individuals with developmental prosopagnosia and 18 matched controls. The group with developmental prosopagnosia had no difficulty with topographic perception, but was reliably poorer in the retention of topographic information...
October 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978778/decoding-task-and-stimulus-representations-in-face-responsive-cortex
#13
Dorit Kliemann, Nir Jacoby, Stefano Anzellotti, Rebecca R Saxe
Observers can deliberately attend to some aspects of a face (e.g. emotional expression) while ignoring others. How do internal goals influence representational geometry in face-responsive cortex? Participants watched videos of naturalistic dynamic faces during MRI scanning. We measured multivariate neural response patterns while participants formed an intention to attend to a facial aspect (age, or emotional valence), and then attended to that aspect, and responses to the face's emotional valence, independent of attention...
October 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937073/social-perception-in-synaesthesia-for-colour
#14
Agnieszka B Janik McErlean, Tirta Susilo, Constantin Rezlescu, Amy Bray, Michael J Banissy
Synaesthesia is a rare phenomenon in which stimulation in one modality (e.g., audition) evokes a secondary percept not associated with the first (e.g., colour). Prior work has suggested links between synaesthesia and other neurodevelopmental conditions that are linked to altered social perception abilities. With this in mind, here we sought to examine social perception abilities in grapheme-colour synaesthesia (where achromatic graphemes evoke colour experiences) by examining facial identity and facial emotion perception in synaesthetes and controls...
October 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923326/familial-aggregation-in-developmental-topographical-disorientation-dtd
#15
Sarah F Barclay, Ford Burles, Kendra Potocki, Kate M Rancourt, Mary Lou Nicolson, N Torben Bech-Hansen, Giuseppe Iaria
A variety of brain lesions may affect the ability to orient, resulting in what is termed "acquired topographical disorientation". In some individuals, however, topographical disorientation is present from childhood, with no apparent brain abnormalities and otherwise intact general cognitive abilities, a condition referred to as "developmental topographical disorientation" (DTD). Individuals affected by DTD often report relatives experiencing the same lifelong orientation difficulties. Here, we sought to assess the familial aggregation of DTD by investigating its occurrence in the families of DTD probands, and in the families of control probands who did not experience topographical disorientation...
October 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910737/a-case-of-pure-autotopagnosia-following-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#16
Itaru Tamura, Shinsuke Hamada, Hiroyuki Soma, Fumio Moriwaka, Kunio Tashiro
A 69-year-old male (N.A.) with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease showed pure autotopagnosia. We administered tests evaluating his ability to name his own body parts, to point to body parts (his own and examiner's), and to recognize positional relationships between his body parts by verbal questions and responses. We found impaired localization of the patient's own body parts by pointing and impaired recognition of positional relationships between his body parts. However, there was no impairment in naming his own body parts or in localizing the examiner's body parts...
October 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730848/the-impact-of-central-sparing-on-the-word-length-effect-in-hemianopia
#17
Cristina Rubino, Shanna C Yeung, Jason J S Barton
Studies suggest that a word-length effect of up to 160 ms/letter distinguishes hemianopic dyslexia from pure alexia. However, partial preservation of central vision is common in right hemianopia, but its effects on single-word reading are unknown. Eighteen healthy subjects read single words with a gaze-contingent right hemianopia simulation that varied the degree of central sparing. Mean reading onset time declined with small degrees of central sparing, but the word-length effect did not decrease until sparing exceeded 3...
October 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593456/pointing-to-others-how-the-target-gender-influences-pointing-performance
#18
Laurent Cleret de Langavant, Charlotte Jacquemot, Virginie Cruveiller, Emmanuel Dupoux, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi
Pointing is a communicative gesture that allows individuals to share information about surrounding objects with other humans. Patients with heterotopagnosia are specifically impaired in pointing to other humans' body parts but not in pointing to themselves or to objects. Here, we describe a female patient with heterotopagnosia who was more accurate in pointing to men's body parts than to women's body parts. We replicated this gender effect in healthy participants with faster reaction times for pointing to men's body parts than to women's body parts...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593455/word-and-text-processing-in-developmental-prosopagnosia
#19
Cristina Rubino, Sherryse L Corrow, Jeffrey C Corrow, Brad Duchaine, Jason J S Barton
The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469037/objective-support-for-subjective-reports-of-successful-inner-speech-in-two-people-with-aphasia
#20
William Hayward, Sarah F Snider, George Luta, Rhonda B Friedman, Peter E Turkeltaub
People with aphasia frequently report being able to say a word correctly in their heads, even if they are unable to say that word aloud. It is difficult to know what is meant by these reports of "successful inner speech". We probe the experience of successful inner speech in two people with aphasia. We show that these reports are associated with correct overt speech and phonologically related nonword errors, that they relate to word characteristics associated with ease of lexical access but not ease of production, and that they predict whether or not individual words are relearned during anomia treatment...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
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