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Cognitive Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071771/the-processing-of-inflected-and-derived-words-in-writing
#1
Victoria P Shuster, Michele Miozzo
We report on an English-speaking, aphasic individual (RB) with a spelling deficit more severely affecting orthographically irregular words for which phonologically plausible errors (PPEs) were produced. PPEs were observed for all word forms, with the exception of inflectional suffixes, despite the irregular sound-print mappings of many inflectional suffixes (e.g., walked → /wɔkt/). RB's pattern replicates that reported in Badecker, Rapp, and Caramazza (Badecker, W., Rapp, B., & Caramazza, A. (1996)...
August 2, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033814/how-modality-specific-is-morphology
#2
Michele Miozzo, Victoria P Shuster, Simon Fischer-Baum
Writing has long been considered to be dependent on speaking. However, modality-specific dissociations between written and spoken word production imply that word production is supported by distinct neural mechanisms in writing, which can be impaired or spared regardless of the intactness of spoken word production. Rapp et al. (2015). Modality and morphology: What we write may not be what we say. Psychological Science, 26, 892-902 documented a double dissociation where problems with regular inflections were selectively restricted to writing or speaking...
July 21, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033810/when-mild-pure-alexia-may-not-be-reducible-to-hemianopic-alexia
#3
Cristina Rosazza, Valeria Isella, Ildebrando Appollonio, Tim Shallice
Individuals with pure alexia often have visual field defects such as right homonymous hemianopia. Relatively few attempts have been made to develop criteria to differentiate pure alexia from hemianopic alexia. In this Commentary we provide concrete suggestions to distinguish the two disorders. We also report on additional assessments with two previously reported cases for whom the diagnosis of pure alexia was called into question and an alternative proposal was offered that the reading deficits were instead due to hemianopia...
July 21, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996708/language-processing-from-the-perspective-of-electrical-stimulation-mapping
#4
Adrià Rofes, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Vânia de Aguiar, Brenda Rapp, Kyrana Tsapkini, Gabriele Miceli
Electrical Stimulation (ES) is a neurostimulation technique that is used to localize language functions in the brain of people with intractable epilepsy and/or brain tumors. We reviewed 25 ES articles published between 1984 and 2018 and interpreted them from a cognitive neuropsychological perspective. Our aim was to highlight ES as a tool to further our understanding of cognitive models of language. We focused on associations and dissociations between cognitive functions within the framework of two non-neuroanatomically specified models of language...
July 12, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940788/developmental-surface-dysgraphia-without-surface-dyslexia
#5
J Richard Hanley, Andreas Sotiropoulos
The case is reported of an individual (N.K.) with a developmental spelling impairment (dysgraphia) who has no apparent problems in reading. His performance therefore provides further evidence of a classical dissociation between impaired spelling and preserved reading in individuals with developmental literacy problems. The dissociation is observed when N.K. is asked to read and spell in either his first (Greek) or his second language (English). An investigation of his spelling performance revealed that his impairment was more selective than that of P...
June 25, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902952/visual-crowding-in-pure-alexia-and-acquired-prosopagnosia
#6
Katrine Sand, Ro Julia Robotham, Marialuisa Martelli, Randi Starrfelt
Visual crowding is a phenomenon that impairs object recognition when the features of an object are positioned too closely together. Crowding limits recognition in normal peripheral vision and it has been suggested to be the core deficit in visual agnosia, leading to a domain-general deficit in object recognition. Using a recently developed tool, we test whether crowding is the underlying deficit in four patients with category specific agnosias: Two with pure alexia and two with acquired prosopagnosia. We expected all patients to show abnormal crowding...
June 14, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888628/vowel-letter-dyslexia
#7
Lilach Khentov-Kraus, Naama Friedmann
This research describes vowel letter dyslexia, a new type of dyslexia characterized by impaired reading of vowel letters. We report a multiple case study of 23 Hebrew readers with vowel letter dyslexia (1 acquired, 22 developmental). They made vowel-letter migrations, omissions, and additions in reading, with significantly fewer errors on consonants, and without vowel errors in speech production. Based on 24 tests that examined various components and the analysis of errors in reading 33,483 words, we ruled out deficits in the orthographic-visual analysis and phonological-output stages, as well as visual, morphological, and auditory deficits...
June 9, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879863/functional-compensation-of-the-left-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-for-picture-naming
#8
Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Fabien Almairac, Hugues Duffau
The role of the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in language processing has been called into question by recent studies showing that disruption of this tract in glioma patients did not necessarily lead to detrimental effects on spoken language, especially on picture naming. Here we show that disruption of the left ILF with axonal stimulation in patients undergoing an "awake" surgery for a slow-growing tumour systematically induces pure anomia, but only when the temporal pole (TP) is not infiltrated by the tumour...
June 7, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869940/to-select-or-to-wait-the-importance-of-criterion-setting-in-debates-of-competitive-lexical-selection
#9
Nazbanou Nozari, Christopher R Hepner
Competitive accounts of lexical selection propose that the activation of competitors slows down the selection of the target. Non-competitive accounts, on the other hand, posit that target response latencies are independent of the activation of competing items. In this paper, we propose a signal detection framework for lexical selection and show how a flexible selection criterion affects claims of competitive selection. Specifically, we review evidence from neurotypical and brain-damaged speakers and demonstrate that task goals and the state of the production system determine whether a competitive or a non-competitive selection profile arises...
June 5, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865937/investigating-the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-concrete-and-abstract-word-processing-through-direct-electric-stimulation-des-during-awake-surgery
#10
E F Orena, D Caldiroli, F Acerbi, I Barazzetta, C Papagno
Neuropsychological, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies demonstrate that abstract and concrete word processing relies not only on the activity of a common bilateral network but also on dedicated networks. The neuropsychological literature has shown that a selective sparing of abstract relative to concrete words can be documented in lesions of the left anterior temporal regions. We investigated concrete and abstract word processing in 10 patients undergoing direct electrical stimulation (DES) for brain mapping during awake surgery in the left hemisphere...
June 5, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792367/visual-and-visuomotor-processing-of-hands-and-tools-as-a-case-study-of-cross-talk-between-the-dorsal-and-ventral-streams
#11
Jorge Almeida, Lénia Amaral, Frank E Garcea, Diana Aguiar de Sousa, Shan Xu, Bradford Z Mahon, Isabel Pavão Martins
A major principle of organization of the visual system is between a dorsal stream that processes visuomotor information and a ventral stream that supports object recognition. Most research has focused on dissociating processing across these two streams. Here we focus on how the two streams interact. We tested neurologically-intact and impaired participants in an object categorization task over two classes of objects that depend on processing within both streams-hands and tools. We measured how unconscious processing of images from one of these categories (e...
May 24, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786470/direct-cortical-stimulation-of-inferior-frontal-cortex-disrupts-both-speech-and-music-production-in-highly-trained-musicians
#12
Matthew K Leonard, Maansi Desai, Dylan Hungate, Ruofan Cai, Nilika S Singhal, Robert C Knowlton, Edward F Chang
Music and speech are human-specific behaviours that share numerous properties, including the fine motor skills required to produce them. Given these similarities, previous work has suggested that music and speech may at least partially share neural substrates. To date, much of this work has focused on perception, and has not investigated the neural basis of production, particularly in trained musicians. Here, we report two rare cases of musicians undergoing neurosurgical procedures, where it was possible to directly stimulate the left hemisphere cortex during speech and piano/guitar music production tasks...
May 22, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770733/the-relationship-between-mirror-touch-synaesthesia-and-empathy-new-evidence-and-a-new-screening-tool
#13
Jamie Ward, Patricia Schnakenberg, Michael J Banissy
People with mirror-touch synaesthesia (MTS) report tactile sensations on their own body when seeing another person being touched. Although this has been associated with heightened empathy and emotion perception, this finding has been disputed. Here, we conduct two experiments to explore this relationship further. In Experiment 1, we develop a new screening measure for MTS. We show that MTS is related to vicarious experiences more generally, but is not a simple exaggerated version of normality. For example, people with MTS report videos of scratching as "touch" rather than "itchiness" and have localized sensations when watching others in pain...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749293/decisional-space-determines-saccadic-reaction-times-in-healthy-observers-and-acquired-prosopagnosia
#14
Meike Ramon, Nayla Sokhn, Junpeng Lao, Roberto Caldara
Determining the familiarity and identity of a face have been considered as independent processes. Covert face recognition in cases of acquired prosopagnosia, as well as rapid detection of familiarity have been taken to support this view. We tested P.S. a well-described case of acquired prosopagnosia, and two healthy controls (her sister and daughter) in two saccadic reaction time (SRT) experiments. Stimuli depicted their family members and well-matched unfamiliar distractors in the context of binary gender, or familiarity decisions...
May 11, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724159/word-repetition-and-retrieval-practice-effects-in-aphasia-evidence-for-use-dependent-learning-in-lexical-access
#15
Julia Schuchard, Erica L Middleton
This study tested the hypothesis that a use-dependent learning mechanism operates at each of two stages of lexical access: retrieval of a word from semantics ("Stage 1"), followed by retrieval of the word's constituent phonemes ("Stage 2"). Two participants with aphasia were selected due to their contrasting types of naming impairment (Stage 1 versus Stage 2 difficulty). For each participant, items were assigned to naming training that involved retrieval practice (retrieval of the name from semantics) or repetition practice (hear the name and orally repeat it)...
May 4, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741470/markers-of-cognitive-function-in-individuals-with-metabolic-disease-morquio-syndrome-and-tyrosinemia-type-iii
#16
James Blundell, Steven Frisson, Anupam Chakrapani, Shauna Kearney, Suresh Vijay, Anita MacDonald, Paul Gissen, Chris Hendriksz, Andrew Olson
We characterized cognitive function in two metabolic diseases. MPS-IVa (mucopolysaccharidosis IVa, Morquio) and tyrosinemia type III individuals were assessed using tasks of attention, language and oculomotor function. MPS-IVa individuals were slower in visual search, but the display size effects were normal, and slowing was not due to long reaction times (ruling out slow item processing or distraction). Maintaining gaze in an oculomotor task was difficult. Results implicated sustained attention and task initiation or response processing...
May 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741469/cognitive-impairments-in-inherited-metabolic-diseases-promises-and-challenges
#17
Cristina Romani
This is an introduction to the special issue on cognitive impairments in inherited metabolic diseases (IMD). It provides an overview of the studies included, focusing on the possibility of selective impairments which could provide unique evidence on the specificity of neural circuitries mediating cognitive functions. It will suggest that these circuitries have different metabolic properties which make them especially apt to carry out certain functions, but also particularly susceptible to certain forms of metabolic disruption...
May 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519194/corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488825/language-processing-and-executive-functions-in-early-treated-adults-with-phenylketonuria-pku
#19
Sara De Felice, Cristina Romani, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Anita MacDonald, Liana Palermo
We provide an in-depth analysis of language functions in early-treated adults with phenylketonuria (AwPKUs, N = 15-33), as compared to age- and education-matched controls (N = 24-32; N varying across tasks), through: a. narrative production (the Cinderella story), b. language pragmatics comprehension (humour, metaphors, inferred meaning), c. prosody discrimination d. lexical inhibitory control and planning (Blocked Cyclic Naming; Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Burgess & Shallice, 1997). AwPKUs exhibited intact basic language processing (lexical retrieval, phonology/articulation, sentence construction)...
May 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117799/subclinical-executive-function-impairment-in-children-with-asymptomatic-treated-phenylketonuria-a-comparison-with-children-with-immunodeficiency-virus
#20
Patrizia Bisiacchi, Giovanni Mento, Vincenza Tarantino, Alberto Burlina
In this study we compared the neuropsychological profile of phenylketonuria (PKU) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to examine the specificity of the executive function (EF) impairment reported in these two patologies. A total of 55 age-matched children and adolescents were assessed, including 11 patients with PKU, 16 patients with HIV and 28 healthy controls, underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Although neither the PKU nor the HIV group scored below the normative ranges, both groups showed lower scores in neuropsychological tests engaging EFs than controls...
May 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
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