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Cognitive Neuropsychology

Solja K Klargaard, Randi Starrfelt, Anders Petersen, Christian Gerlach
Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing - that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants included nine individuals with developmental prosopagnosia and 18 matched controls. The group with developmental prosopagnosia had no difficulty with topographic perception, but was reliably poorer in the retention of topographic information...
December 30, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Dorit Kliemann, Nir Jacoby, Stefano Anzellotti, Rebecca R Saxe
Observers can deliberately attend to some aspects of a face (e.g. emotional expression) while ignoring others. How do internal goals influence representational geometry in face-responsive cortex? Participants watched videos of naturalistic dynamic faces during MRI scanning. We measured multivariate neural response patterns while participants formed an intention to attend to a facial aspect (age, or emotional valence), and then attended to that aspect, and responses to the face's emotional valence, independent of attention...
December 15, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Agnieszka B Janik McErlean, Tirta Susilo, Constantin Rezlescu, Amy Bray, Michael J Banissy
Synaesthesia is a rare phenomenon in which stimulation in one modality (e.g., audition) evokes a secondary percept not associated with the first (e.g., colour). Prior work has suggested links between synaesthesia and other neurodevelopmental conditions that are linked to altered social perception abilities. With this in mind, here we sought to examine social perception abilities in grapheme-colour synaesthesia (where achromatic graphemes evoke colour experiences) by examining facial identity and facial emotion perception in synaesthetes and controls...
December 11, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Sarah F Barclay, Ford Burles, Kendra Potocki, Kate M Rancourt, Mary Lou Nicolson, N Torben Bech-Hansen, Giuseppe Iaria
A variety of brain lesions may affect the ability to orient, resulting in what is termed "acquired topographical disorientation". In some individuals, however, topographical disorientation is present from childhood, with no apparent brain abnormalities and otherwise intact general cognitive abilities, a condition referred to as "developmental topographical disorientation" (DTD). Individuals affected by DTD often report relatives experiencing the same lifelong orientation difficulties. Here, we sought to assess the familial aggregation of DTD by investigating its occurrence in the families of DTD probands, and in the families of control probands who did not experience topographical disorientation...
December 6, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Itaru Tamura, Shinsuke Hamada, Hiroyuki Soma, Fumio Moriwaka, Kunio Tashiro
A 69-year-old male (N.A.) with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease showed pure autotopagnosia. We administered tests evaluating his ability to name his own body parts, to point to body parts (his own and examiner's), and to recognize positional relationships between his body parts by verbal questions and responses. We found impaired localization of the patient's own body parts by pointing and impaired recognition of positional relationships between his body parts. However, there was no impairment in naming his own body parts or in localizing the examiner's body parts...
December 2, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Cristina Rubino, Shanna C Yeung, Jason J S Barton
Studies suggest that a word-length effect of up to 160 ms/letter distinguishes hemianopic dyslexia from pure alexia. However, partial preservation of central vision is common in right hemianopia, but its effects on single-word reading are unknown. Eighteen healthy subjects read single words with a gaze-contingent right hemianopia simulation that varied the degree of central sparing. Mean reading onset time declined with small degrees of central sparing, but the word-length effect did not decrease until sparing exceeded 3...
October 12, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Laurent Cleret de Langavant, Charlotte Jacquemot, Virginie Cruveiller, Emmanuel Dupoux, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi
Pointing is a communicative gesture that allows individuals to share information about surrounding objects with other humans. Patients with heterotopagnosia are specifically impaired in pointing to other humans' body parts but not in pointing to themselves or to objects. Here, we describe a female patient with heterotopagnosia who was more accurate in pointing to men's body parts than to women's body parts. We replicated this gender effect in healthy participants with faster reaction times for pointing to men's body parts than to women's body parts...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Cristina Rubino, Sherryse L Corrow, Jeffrey C Corrow, Brad Duchaine, Jason J S Barton
The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
William Hayward, Sarah F Snider, George Luta, Rhonda B Friedman, Peter E Turkeltaub
People with aphasia frequently report being able to say a word correctly in their heads, even if they are unable to say that word aloud. It is difficult to know what is meant by these reports of "successful inner speech". We probe the experience of successful inner speech in two people with aphasia. We show that these reports are associated with correct overt speech and phonologically related nonword errors, that they relate to word characteristics associated with ease of lexical access but not ease of production, and that they predict whether or not individual words are relearned during anomia treatment...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Jennifer Cupit, Naida L Graham, Carol Leonard, David Tang-Wai, Sandra E Black, Elizabeth Rochon
Using an anagram task, we investigated longitudinal syntactic production by individuals with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) and non-fluent variant PPA (nfvPPA), compared to controls. The accuracy of the production of active and passive, and reversible and non-reversible sentences, as well as of wh- questions was compared across the three groups. Results showed a different pattern of syntactic impairment across the two patient groups. The nfvPPA group showed difficulty with wh- questions at Time 1 and impairment with the passive structure approximately one year later, at Time 2...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Konstantina Zougkou, Christine M Temple
The arithmetical skills in two children with Turner's syndrome (TS), each the focus of a case study, were analysed in whole numbers and other number scales that have not been systematically explored previously, fractions, decimals, percentages, and negative numbers. The intention was to identify the fractionation of arithmetical skills. The two girls with TS showed dissociations of arithmetical skill in the calculation system of whole numbers that support its modular organization. Fractionation of skills was observed in some components of the other number scales, suggesting an analogous organization within these scales...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
An T Vu, Jeffrey S Phillips, Kendrick Kay, Matthew E Phillips, Matthew R Johnson, Svetlana V Shinkareva, Shannon Tubridy, Rachel Millin, Murray Grossman, Todd Gureckis, Rajan Bhattacharyya, Essa Yacoub
The blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal measured in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments is generally regarded as sluggish and poorly suited for probing neural function at the rapid timescales involved in sentence comprehension. However, recent studies have shown the value of acquiring data with very short repetition times (TRs), not merely in terms of improvements in contrast to noise ratio (CNR) through averaging, but also in terms of additional fine-grained temporal information...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Francisco Pereira, Samuel Gershman, Samuel Ritter, Matthew Botvinick
In this paper we carry out an extensive comparison of many off-the-shelf distributed semantic vectors representations of words, for the purpose of making predictions about behavioural results or human annotations of data. In doing this comparison we also provide a guide for how vector similarity computations can be used to make such predictions, and introduce many resources available both in terms of datasets and of vector representations. Finally, we discuss the shortcomings of this approach and future research directions that might address them...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Timothy T Rogers, Michael Wolmetz
How is conceptual knowledge encoded in the brain? This special issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology takes stock of current efforts to answer this question through a variety of methods and perspectives. Across this work, three questions recur, each fundamental to knowledge representation in the mind and brain. First, what are the elements of conceptual representation? Second, to what extent are conceptual representations embodied in sensory and motor systems? Third, how are conceptual representations shaped by context, especially linguistic context? In this introductory article we provide relevant background on these themes and introduce how they are addressed by our contributing authors...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Gilles Vannuscorps, Laurence Dricot, Agnesa Pillon
In this study, we addressed the issue of whether the brain sensorimotor circuitry that controls action production is causally involved in representing and processing action-related concepts. We examined the three-year pattern of evolution of brain atrophy, action production disorders, and action-related concept processing in a patient (J.R.) diagnosed with corticobasal degeneration. During the period of investigation, J.R. presented with increasing action production disorders resulting from increasing bilateral atrophy in cortical and subcortical regions involved in the sensorimotor control of actions (notably, the superior parietal cortex, the primary motor and premotor cortex, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the basal ganglia)...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Ryo Ishibashi, Gorana Pobric, Satoru Saito, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The ability to recognize and use a variety of tools is an intriguing human cognitive function. Multiple neuroimaging studies have investigated neural activations with various types of tool-related tasks. In the present paper, we reviewed tool-related neural activations reported in 70 contrasts from 56 neuroimaging studies and performed a series of activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses to identify tool-related cortical circuits dedicated either to general tool knowledge or to task-specific processes...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Emma Gregory, Michael McCloskey, Zoe Ovans, Barbara Landau
Theoretical and empirical studies of memory have long been framed by a distinction between declarative and non-declarative memory. We question the sharpness of the distinction by reporting evidence from amnesic L.S.J., who despite retrograde memory losses in declarative knowledge domains, shows sparing of declarative knowledge related to premorbid skill (e.g., playing an instrument). We previously showed that L.S.J. had severe losses of retrograde declarative knowledge across areas of premorbid expertise (e...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Jing Wang, Vladimir L Cherkassky, Ying Yang, Kai-Min Kevin Chang, Robert Vargas, Nicholas Diana, Marcel Adam Just
The generativity and complexity of human thought stem in large part from the ability to represent relations among concepts and form propositions. The current study reveals how a given object such as rabbit is neurally encoded differently and identifiably depending on whether it is an agent ("the rabbit punches the monkey") or a patient ("the monkey punches the rabbit"). Machine-learning classifiers were trained on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data evoked by a set of short videos that conveyed agent-verb-patient propositions...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Jeffrey R Binder, Lisa L Conant, Colin J Humphries, Leonardo Fernandino, Stephen B Simons, Mario Aguilar, Rutvik H Desai
Componential theories of lexical semantics assume that concepts can be represented by sets of features or attributes that are in some sense primitive or basic components of meaning. The binary features used in classical category and prototype theories are problematic in that these features are themselves complex concepts, leaving open the question of what constitutes a primitive feature. The present availability of brain imaging tools has enhanced interest in how concepts are represented in brains, and accumulating evidence supports the claim that these representations are at least partly "embodied" in the perception, action, and other modal neural systems through which concepts are experienced...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Jared Medina, H Branch Coslett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
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