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Cognitive Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188746/can-neuroimaging-help-aphasia-researchers-addressing-generalizability-variability-and-interpretability
#1
Idan A Blank, Swathi Kiran, Evelina Fedorenko
Neuroimaging studies of individuals with brain damage seek to link brain structure and activity to cognitive impairments, spontaneous recovery, or treatment outcomes. To date, such studies have relied on the critical assumption that a given anatomical landmark corresponds to the same functional unit(s) across individuals. However, this assumption is fallacious even across neurologically healthy individuals. Here, we discuss the severe implications of this issue, and argue for an approach that circumvents it, whereby: (i) functional brain regions are defined separately for each subject using fMRI, allowing for inter-individual variability in their precise location; (ii) the response profile of these subject-specific regions are characterized using various other tasks; and (iii) the results are averaged across individuals, guaranteeing generalizabliity...
November 30, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165034/congenital-prosopagnosia-without-object-agnosia-a-literature-review
#2
Jacob Geskin, Marlene Behrmann
A longstanding controversy concerns the functional organization of high-level vision, and the extent to which the recognition of different classes of visual stimuli engages a single system or multiple independent systems. We examine this in the context of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a neurodevelopmental disorder in which individuals, without a history of brain damage, are impaired at face recognition. This paper reviews all CP cases from 1976 to 2016, and explores the evidence for the association or dissociation of face and object recognition...
November 22, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145761/non-fluent-speech-following-stroke-is-caused-by-impaired-efference-copy
#3
Lynda Feenaughty, Alexandra Basilakos, Leonardo Bonilha, Dirk-Bart den Ouden, Chris Rorden, Brielle Stark, Julius Fridriksson
Efference copy is a cognitive mechanism argued to be critical for initiating and monitoring speech: however, the extent to which breakdown of efference copy mechanisms impact speech production is unclear. This study examined the best mechanistic predictors of non-fluent speech among 88 stroke survivors. Objective speech fluency measures were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA). The primary PCA factor was then entered into a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis as the dependent variable, with a set of independent mechanistic variables...
November 17, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140189/predicting-the-sources-of-impaired-wh-question-comprehension-in-non-fluent-aphasia-a-cross-linguistic-machine-learning-study-on-turkish-and-german
#4
Seçkin Arslan, Eren Gür, Claudia Felser
This study investigates the comprehension of wh-questions in individuals with aphasia (IWA) speaking Turkish, a non-wh-movement language, and German, a wh-movement language. We examined six German-speaking and 11 Turkish-speaking IWA using picture-pointing tasks. Findings from our experiments show that the Turkish IWA responded more accurately to both object who and object which questions than to subject questions, while the German IWA performed better for subject which questions than in all other conditions...
November 15, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117799/subclinical-executive-function-impairment-in-children-with-asymptomatic-treated-phenylketonuria-a-comparison-with-children-with-immunodeficiency-virus
#5
Patrizia Bisiacchi, Vincenza Tarantino, Giovanni Mento
In this study we compared the neuropsychological profile of phenylketonuria (PKU) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to examine the specificity of the executive function (EF) impairment reported in these two patologies. A total of 55 age-matched children and adolescents were assessed, including 11 patients with PKU, 16 patients with HIV and 28 healthy controls, underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Although neither the PKU nor the HIV group scored below the normative ranges, both groups showed lower scores in neuropsychological tests engaging EFs than controls...
November 9, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077534/neuroplasticity-and-the-logic-of-cognitive-neuropsychology
#6
Simon Fischer-Baum, Giulia Campana
More than thirty years ago, Alfonso Caramazza laid out assumptions for drawing inferences about the undamaged cognitive system from individuals with brain damage. Since then, these assumptions have been challenged including the transparency or subtractivity assumption, that the cognitive system does not reorganize following brain damage. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that brains are highly plastic. However, there is no clear connection between brain plasticity and cognitive reorganization. Brain plasticity research does not require a rethinking of the core logic of cognitive neuropsychology...
October 27, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948860/understanding-handwriting-difficulties-a-comparison-of-children-with-and-without-motor-impairment
#7
Mellissa Prunty, Anna L Barnett
The nature of handwriting difficulties have been explored in children with specific developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of handwriting difficulties in children with dysgraphia, a less studied group who have significant handwriting difficulties in the absence of motor control or cognitive difficulties. The performance of a dysgraphia group aged 8-14 years was compared to a group with Developmental Coordination Disorder and to typically developing (TD) controls. Participants completed two handwriting tasks on a digitizing writing tablet...
September 26, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914156/lexical-decision-performance-in-developmental-surface-dysgraphia-evidence-for%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-unitary-orthographic-system-that-is-used-in-both-reading-and-spelling
#8
Andreas Sotiropoulos, J Richard Hanley
The relationship between spelling, written word recognition, and picture naming is investigated in a study of seven bilingual adults who have developmental surface dysgraphia in both Greek (their first language) and English (their second language). Four of the cases also performed poorly at orthographic lexical decision in both languages. This finding is consistent with similar results in Italian that have been taken as evidence of a developmental impairment to a single orthographic system that is used for both reading and spelling...
September 15, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914137/comparing-phoneme-frequency-age-of-acquisition-and-loss-in-aphasia-implications-for-phonological-universals
#9
Cristina Romani, Claudia Galuzzi, Cecilia Guariglia, Jeremy Goslin
Phonological complexity may be central to the nature of human language. It may shape the distribution of phonemes and phoneme sequences within languages, but also determine age of acquisition and susceptibility to loss in aphasia. We evaluated this claim using frequency statistics derived from a corpus of phonologically transcribed Italian words (phonitalia, available at phonitalia,org), rankings of phoneme age of acquisition (AoA) and rate of phoneme errors in patients with apraxia of speech (AoS) as an indication of articulatory complexity...
September 15, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906176/developmental-dysgraphia-an-overview-and-framework-for-research
#10
Michael McCloskey, Brenda Rapp
Developmental deficits in the acquisition of writing skills (developmental dysgraphias) are common and have significant consequences, yet these deficits have received relatively little attention from researchers. We offer a framework for studying developmental dysgraphias (including both spelling and handwriting deficits), arguing that research should be grounded in theories describing normal cognitive writing mechanisms and the acquisition of these mechanisms. We survey the current state of knowledge concerning developmental dysgraphia, discussing potential proximal and distal causes...
September 14, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906173/diagnosing-prosopagnosia-in-east-asian-individuals-norms-for-the-cambridge-face-memory-test-chinese
#11
Elinor McKone, Lulu Wan, Rachel Robbins, Kate Crookes, Jia Liu
The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) is widely accepted as providing a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing prosopagnosia (inability to recognize people's faces). Previously, large-sample norms have been available only for Caucasian-face versions, suitable for diagnosis in Caucasian observers. These are invalid for observers of different races due to potentially severe other-race effects. Here, we provide large-sample norms (N = 306) for East Asian observers on an Asian-face version (CFMT-Chinese). We also demonstrate methodological suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for prosopagnosia diagnosis (high internal reliability, approximately normal distribution, norm-score range sufficiently far above chance)...
September 14, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906170/developmental-graphemic-buffer-dysgraphia-in-english-a-single-case-study
#12
Kristina Barisic, Saskia Kohnen, Lyndsey Nickels
A single case study is reported of a 10-year-old, English-speaking boy, L.S., who presented with spelling errors similar to those described in acquired graphemic buffer dysgraphia (GBD). We used this case to evaluate the appropriateness of applying adult cognitive models to the investigation of developmental cognitive disorders. The dual-route model of spelling guided this investigation. L.S. primarily made "letter errors" (deletions, additions, substitutions, transpositions, or a combination of these errors) on words and nonwords and in all input (aural and visual) and output modalities (writing, typing, oral spelling); there was also some evidence of a length effect and U-shaped serial position curve...
September 14, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891745/motor-control-of-handwriting-in-the-developing-brain-a-review
#13
Sarah Palmis, Jeremy Danna, Jean-Luc Velay, Marieke Longcamp
This review focuses on the acquisition of writing motor aspects in adults, and in 5-to 12-year-old children without learning disabilities. We first describe the behavioural aspects of adult writing and dominant models based on the notion of motor programs. We show that handwriting acquisition is characterized by the transition from reactive movements programmed stroke-by-stroke in younger children, to an automatic control of the whole trajectory when the motor programs are memorized at about 10 years old. Then, we describe the neural correlates of adult writing, and the changes that could occur with learning during childhood...
September 11, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210605/cognitive-and-behaviour-profiles-of-children-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii
#14
Louise Crowe, Joy Yaplito-Lee, Vicki Anderson, Heidi Peters
Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (MPS II) or Hunter Syndrome is a rare X-linked condition, due to a defect in a lysosomal enzyme involved in the breakdown of glycosaminoglycans. It is a progressive condition with worsening over time; however, symptom severity and progression rates vary. Normal intellectual function has been reported in males with mild MPS II but few studies are available that provide comprehensive cognitive profiles. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) can stabilize physical symptoms and has become standard treatment...
September 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165028/super-recognition-in-development-a-case-study-of-an-adolescent-with-extraordinary-face-recognition-skills
#15
Rachel J Bennetts, Joseph Mole, Sarah Bate
Face recognition abilities vary widely. While face recognition deficits have been reported in children, it is unclear whether superior face recognition skills can be encountered during development. This paper presents O.B., a 14-year-old female with extraordinary face recognition skills: a "super-recognizer" (SR). O.B. demonstrated exceptional face-processing skills across multiple tasks, with a level of performance that is comparable to adult SRs. Her superior abilities appear to be specific to face identity: She showed an exaggerated face inversion effect and her superior abilities did not extend to object processing or non-identity aspects of face recognition...
September 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072529/cognitive-processes-in-spatial-mapping-evidence-from-a-developmental-spatial-deficit
#16
Miles Hatfield, Caroline Reilhac, Hannah Cowley, Elizabeth Chang, Michael McCloskey
We report a case study of an adolescent girl (N.K.Y.) with a developmental deficit affecting spatial processing. In a simple spatial mapping task, N.K.Y. shows a striking dissociation: She succeeds in one variant of the experiment in which the stimuli are objects, but struggles in a structurally identical task with people as stimuli. We present evidence that this dissociation stems from a tendency to automatically adopt the spatial perspective of other people, but not objects-a phenomenon also observed in neurotypical individuals...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052461/beyond-the-subjective-experience-of-colour-an-experimental-case-study-of-grapheme-texture-synesthesia
#17
Hayaki Banno, Hiroki Koga, Hiroki Yamamoto, Jun Saiki
This study was a case investigation of grapheme-texture synestheste TH, a female who subjectively reported experiencing a visual association between grapheme and colour/texture. First, we validated the existence of a synesthetic association in an objective manner. Involuntarily elicited experience is a major hallmark that is common to different types of synesthetes. Our results indicated interference between physical and synesthetic texture, suggesting the involuntary occurrence of synesthetic textural experience...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662611/cognition-and-anatomy-of-adult-niemann-pick-disease-type-c-insights-for-the-alzheimer-field
#18
David Bergeron, Stéphane Poulin, Robert Laforce
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder causing an intracellular lipid trafficking defect and varying damage to the spleen, liver, and central nervous system. The adult form, representing approximately 20% of the cases, is associated with progressive cognitive decline. Intriguingly, brains of adult NPC patients exhibit neurofibrillary tangles, a characteristic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the cognitive, psychiatric, and neuropathological features of adult NPC and their relation to AD have yet to be explored...
June 30, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649924/the-value-of-cognitive-neuropsychology-the-case-of-vision-research
#19
Michael McCloskey, Thitaporn Chaisilprungraung
Cognitive neuropsychological evidence is widely viewed as inherently flawed or weak, despite well-reasoned arguments to the contrary by many theorists. Rather than attempting yet another defence of cognitive neuropsychology on logical grounds, we point out through examples that in practice, cognitive neuropsychological evidence is widely accepted as valid and important, and has had a major impact on cognitive theory and research. Objections offered in the abstract rarely arise in the context of actual studies...
June 26, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632427/speed-of-processing-and-executive-functions-in-adults-with-phenylketonuria-quick-in-finding-the-word-but-not-the-ladybird
#20
Cristina Romani, Anita MacDonald, Sara De Felice, Liana Palermo
A reduction in processing speed is widely reported in phenylketonuria (PKU), possibly due to white matter pathology. We investigated possible deficits and their relationships with executive functions in a sample of 37 early-treated adults with PKU (AwPKUs). AwPKUs were not characterized by a generalized speed deficit, but instead their performance could be explained by two more specific impairments: (a) a deficit in the allocation of visuo-spatial attention that reduced speed in visual search tasks, in some reading conditions and visuo-motor coordination tasks; and (b) a more conservative decision mechanism that slowed down returning an answer across domains...
June 20, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
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