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Virus Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522332/towards-measles-elimination-in-italy-virological-surveillance-and-genotypes-trend-2013-2015
#1
Fabio Magurano, Melissa Baggieri, Antonietta Filia, Martina Del Manso, Tiziana Lazzarotto, Antonella Amendola, Pierlanfranco D'Agaro, Maria Chironna, Filippo Ansaldi, Stefania Iannazzo, Paola Bucci, Antonella Marchi, Loredana Nicoletti
In accordance with the goal of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, the Italian National Measles and Rubella Elimination Plan aimed to interrupt indigenous measles transmission in Italy by the end of 2015. However, from 2013 to 2015, Italy experienced high measles burden with 4,902 measles cases (49.3% laboratory-confirmed) reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system (cumulative incidence in the triennium reference period: 2.4/100,000 population). The measles elimination goal was not reached...
May 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506792/discovery-of-a-novel-canine-respiratory-coronavirus-support-genetic-recombination-among-betacoronavirus1
#2
Shuai Lu, Yanqun Wang, Yingzhu Chen, Bingjie Wu, Kun Qin, Jincun Zhao, Yongliang Lou, Wenjie Tan
Although canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) is an important respiratory pathogen that is prevalent in many countries, only one complete genome sequence of CRCoV (South Korea strain K37) has been obtained to date. Genome-wide analyses and recombination have rarely been conducted, as small numbers of samples and limited genomic characterization have previously prevented further analyses. Herein, we report a unique CRCoV strain, denoted strain BJ232, derived from a CRCoV-positive dog with a mild respiratory infection...
May 13, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506791/enterovirus-71-induced-has-mir-21-contributes-to-evasion-of-host-immune-system-by-targeting-myd88-and-irak1
#3
Na Feng, Zhizhao Zhou, Yuanxia Li, Lifang Zhao, Zhengfeng Xue, Rong Lu, Kunpeng Jia
Enterovirus71(EV71), the etiological agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has increasingly become a public health challenge around the world. Type I interferons (IFNs) are an important family of cytokines that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens.These pathways are tightly regulated by the host to prevent an inappropriate cellular response, but viruses can modulate these pathways to proliferate and spread. In this study, we demonstrated that EV71 evades the immune surveillance system to proliferate by activating microRNA-21...
May 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506790/single-particle-labeling-of-rna-virus-in-live-cells
#4
REVIEW
Xiaohui Liu, Ting Ouyang, Hongsheng Ouyang, Linzhu Ren
Real-time and visual tracking of viral infection is crucial for elucidating the infectious and pathogenesis mechanisms. To track the virus successfully, an efficient labeling method is necessary. In this review, we first discuss the practical labeling techniques for virus tracking in live cells. We then describe the current knowledge of interactions between RNA viruses (especially influenza viruses, immunodeficiency viruses, and Flaviviruses) and host cellular structures, obtained using single particle labeling techniques combined with real-time fluorescence microscopy...
May 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502641/insights-in-luteovirid-structural-biology-guided-by-chemical-cross-linking-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#5
Mariko M Alexander, Jared P Mohr, Stacy L DeBlasio, Juan D Chavez, Veronique Ziegler-Graff, Veronique Brault, James E Bruce, Michelle Cilia
Interactions between plant pathogenic viruses in the family Luteoviridae and their plant hosts and insect vectors are governed by the topology of the viral capsid, which is the sole vehicle for long distance movement of the viral genome. Previous application of a mass spectrometry-compatible cross-linker to preparations of the luteovirid Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) revealed a detailed network of interactions between viral structural proteins and enabled generation of the first cross-linking guided coat protein models...
May 11, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501627/detection-of-viromes-of-rna-viruses-using-the-next-generation-sequencing-libraries-prepared-by-three-methods
#6
Yuan Qiu, Ji-Ming Chen, Tong Wang, Guang-Yu Hou, Qing-Ye Zhuang, Run Wu, Kai-Cheng Wang
Virome (viral megagenomics) detection using next generation sequencing has been widely applied in virology, but its methods remain complicated and need optimization. In this study, we detected the viromes of RNA viruses of one mock sample, one pooled duck feces sample and one pooled mink feces sample on the Personal Genome Machine platform using the sequencing libraries prepared by three methods. The sequencing primers were added through random hybridization and ligation to fragmented viral RNA using a RNA-Seq kit in method 1, through random reverse transcription (RT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in method 2 which was developed in our laboratory, and through hybridization and ligation to fragmented amplicons of random RT-PCR using a single primer in method 3...
May 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501626/a-method-for-the-detection-of-virus-infectivity-in-single-cells-and-real-time-towards-an-automated-fluorescence-neutralization-test
#7
Marylene Maistriau, Tea Carletti, Mohammad Khalid Zakaria, Luca Braga, Valentina Faoro, Vasileios Vasileiadis, Alessandro Marcello
Virus neutralizing antibodies are critical correlates of protection in vaccine development and are discriminatory in the plaque reduction neutralization test when used for the diagnosis of viral infections. However, neutralization assays are time consuming, labor intensive and highly variable, thus limiting their use. Advances in automated live imaging of cells opened new possibilities for standard virus diagnostic techniques such as neutralization assays. To this end, a reporter cell line based on the translocation of the transcription factor IRF3 in response to infection is proposed...
May 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487059/community-phytosanitation-to-manage-cassava-brown-streak-disease
#8
James Legg, Mathias Ndalahwa, Juma Yabeja, Innocent Ndyetabula, Hein Bouwmeester, Rudolph Shirima, Kiddo Mtunda
Cassava viruses are the major biotic constraint to cassava production in Africa. Community-wide action to manage them has not been attempted since a successful cassava mosaic disease control programme in the 1930s/40s in Uganda. A pilot initiative to investigate the effectiveness of community phytosanitation for managing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was implemented from 2013-2016 in two communities in coastal (Mkuranga) and north-western (Chato) Tanzania. CBSD incidence in local varieties at the outset was >90%, which was typical of severely affected regions of Tanzania...
May 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483585/from-mouse-to-pig-is-prv-vaccine-safe-across-two-species
#9
Yufang Li, Shijun Yan, Xuefeng Li, Qingyuan Yang, Linghua Guo, Yuzhou Wang, Yan Xiao, Feifei Tan, Xiangdong Li, Kegong Tian
Pseudorabies (PR) is an economically important viral disease of pigs which can infect numerous species of mammals including rodents. Commercial PR vaccines have been widely used worldwide to control and eradicate this disease. However, some PRV vaccines such as Bartha-K61 were occasionally reported to be lethal to mice. Since mice are commonly found in pig farms, the safety issue of PRV live vaccine across different species was never addressed. In this study, PRV vaccine strain Bartha-K61 was in vivo propagated in mice for five passages...
May 5, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478136/characterization-of-a-broad-host-spectrum-virulent-salmonella-bacteriophage-fmb-p1-and-its-application-on-duck-meat
#10
Changbao Wang, Qiming Chen, Chong Zhang, Jie Yang, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lu, Xiaomei Bie
The aim of this study was to find a virulent bacteriophage for the biocontrol of Salmonella in duck meat. A broad host-spectrum virulent phage, fmb-p1, was isolated and purified from an duck farm, and its host range was determined to include S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Saintpaul, S. Agona, S. Miami, S. Anatum, S. Heidelberg and S. Paratyphi-C. Electron microscopy and genome sequencing showed that fmb-p1 belongs to the family Siphoviridae. The genome of fmb-p1 is composed of a 43,327-bp double-stranded DNA molecule with 60 open reading frames and a total G+C content of 46...
May 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465158/measles-virus-hemagglutinin-epitopes-immunogenic-in-natural-infection-and-vaccination-are-targeted-by-broad-or-genotype-specific-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibodies
#11
Miguel Angel Muñoz-Alía, José M Casasnovas, María Luisa Celma, Juan Carabaña, Paloma B Liton, Rafael Fernandez-Muñoz
Measles virus (MV) remains a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in children. Protection against MV is associated with neutralizing antibodies that preferentially recognize the viral hemagglutinin (MV-H), and to a lesser extent, the fusion protein (MV-F). Although MV is serologically monotypic, 24 genotypes have been identified. Here we report three neutralization epitopes conserved in the more prevalent circulating MV genotypes, two located in the MV-H receptor binding site (RBS) (antigenic site III) and a third in MV-H/MV-F interphase (antigenic site Ia)...
April 29, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456575/incorporation-of-the-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-capsid-vertex-specific-component-cvsc-into-self-assembled-capsids
#12
Peter Grzesik, Derek MacMath, Brandon Henson, Sanjana Prasad, Poorval Joshi, Prashant J Desai
Self-assembly of herpesvirus capsids can be accomplished in heterologous expression systems provided all six capsid proteins are present. We have demonstrated the assembly of icosahedral Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) capsids in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. Using this self-assembly system we investigated whether we could add additional capsid associated proteins and determine their incorporation into the assembled capsid. We chose the capsid vertex-specific component (CVSC) proteins encoded by open reading frames (ORFs) 19 and 32 to test this...
April 26, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456574/suppression-of-epstein-barr-virus-dna-load-in-latently-infected-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-by-crispr-cas9
#13
Kit-San Yuen, Zhong-Min Wang, Nok-Hei Mickey Wong, Zhi-Qian Zhang, Tsz-Fung Cheng, Wai-Yin Lui, Chi-Ping Chan, Dong-Yan Jin
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects more than 90% of the world's adult population. Once established, latent infection of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells with EBV is difficult to eradicate and might lead to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in a small subset of individuals. In this study we explored the anti-EBV potential of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting of EBV genome in infected NPC cells. We designed gRNAs to target different regions of the EBV genome and transfected them into C666-1 cells. The levels of EBV DNA in transfected cells were decreased by about 50%...
April 26, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455127/oxidative-stress-in-mayaro-virus-infection
#14
Fernanda Caetano Camini, Camila Carla da Silva Caetano, Letícia Trindade Almeida, Joyce Ferreira da Costa Guerra, Breno de Mello Silva, Silvana de Queiroz Silva, José Carlos de Magalhães, Cintia Lopes de Brito Magalhães
Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a neglected tropical arbovirus that causes a febrile syndrome that is sometimes accompanied by incapacitating arthritis/arthralgia. The pathogenesis of MAYV has not been completely defined and oxidative stress mediated by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or depletion of antioxidant defences has been found to contribute to several aspects of viral disease. To investigate whether MAYV induced oxidative stress in host cells, we monitored ROS production, oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defences at different time points after infection...
April 25, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450055/john-michael-thresh-founding-father-of-plant-virus-epidemiology-a-tribute
#15
Michael E Irwin, Alberto Fereres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438632/molecular-diagnostic-development-for-begomovirus-betasatellite-complexes-undergoing-diversification-a-case-study
#16
Judith K Brown, Muhammad Zia Ur-Rehman, Sofia Avelar, N Chingandu, Usman Hameed, Saleem Haider, Muhammad Ilyas
At least five begomoviral species that cause leaf curl disease of cotton have emerged recently in Asia and Africa, reducing fiber quality and yield. The potential for the spread of these viruses to other cotton-vegetable growing regions throughout the world is extensive, owing to routine, global transport of alternative hosts of the leaf curl viruses, especially ornamentals. The research reported here describes the design and validation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers undertaken to facilitate molecular detection of the two most-prevalent leaf curl-associated begomovirus-betasatellite complexes in the Indian Subcontinent and Africa, the Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala strain and Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus, endemic to Asia and Africa, respectively...
April 22, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434906/the-evolution-of-parasitic-and-mutualistic-plant-virus-symbioses-through-transmission-virulence-trade-offs
#17
Frédéric M Hamelin, Frank M Hilker, T Anthony Sun, Michael J Jeger, M Reza Hajimorad, Linda J S Allen, Holly R Prendeville
Virus-plant interactions range from parasitism to mutualism. Viruses have been shown to increase fecundity of infected plants in comparison with uninfected plants under certain environmental conditions. Increased fecundity of infected plants may benefit both the plant and the virus as seed transmission is one of the main virus transmission pathways, in addition to vector transmission. Trade-offs between vertical (seed) and horizontal (vector) transmission pathways may involve virulence, defined here as decreased fecundity in infected plants...
April 20, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428007/identification-and-characterization-of-two-rna-silencing-suppressors-encoded-by-ophioviruses
#18
Gabriel Robles Luna, Carina A Reyes, Eduardo J Peña, Eliana Ocolotobiche, Cecilia Baeza, Maria Belén Borniego, Richard Kormelink, María Laura García
Citrus psorosis virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus are two members of the genus Ophiovirus, family Ophioviridae. So far, how these viruses can interfere in the antiviral RNA silencing pathway is not known. In this study, using a local GFP silencing assay on Nicotiana benthamiana, the 24K-25K and the movement protein (MP) of both viruses were identified as RNA silencing suppressor proteins. Upon their co-expression with GFP in N. benthamiana 16c plants, the proteins also showed to suppress systemic RNA (GFP) silencing...
April 18, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419861/agroecological-and-environmental-factors-influence-barley-yellow-dwarf-viruses-in-grasslands-in-the-us-pacific-northwest
#19
Laura L Ingwell, Christelle Lacroix, Paul R Rhoades, Alexander V Karasev, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez
Plant pathogens can play a role in the competitive interactions between plant species and have been understudied in native prairies, which are declining globally, and in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands in the United States. Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV) are among the most economically important disease-causing agents of small grain cereal crops, such as wheat, and are known to infect over 150 Poaceae species, including many of the grass species present in prairies and CRP lands. Field surveys of Poaceae species were conducted in endangered Palouse Prairie and CRP habitats of southeastern Washington and adjacent northern Idaho, USA from 2010-2012 to examine for the presence of B/CYDV among plant hosts and aphid vectors...
April 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416404/genomic-and-antigenic-characterization-of-bovine-parainfluenza-3-viruses-in-the-united-states-including-modified-live-virus-vaccine-mlv-strains-and-field-strains-from-cattle
#20
R W Fulton, J D Neill, J T Saliki, C Landis, L J Burge, M E Payton
This study investigated the genetic and antigenic characterization of parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V) of cattle. Using molecular tests including real time PCR and viral genome sequencing, PI3V strains could be separated into PI3V types, including PI3V A, PI3V B, and PI3V C. Isolates from cattle with bovine respiratory disease clinical signs and commercial vaccines in the U.S. with MLV PI3V were typed using these molecular tests. All the MLV vaccine strains tested were PI3V A. In most cases PI3V field strains from calves receiving MLV vaccines were types heterologous to the vaccine type A...
April 14, 2017: Virus Research
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