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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104453/alphavirus-polymerase-and-rna-replication
#1
REVIEW
Maija K Pietilä, Kirsi Hellström, Tero Ahola
Alphaviruses are typically arthropod-borne, and many are important pathogens such as chikungunya virus. Alphaviruses encode four nonstructural proteins (nsP1-4), initially produced as a polyprotein P1234. nsP4 is the core RNA-dependent RNA polymerase but all four nsPs are required for RNA synthesis. The early replication complex (RC) formed by the polyprotein P123 and nsP4 synthesizes minus RNA strands, and the late RC composed of fully processed nsP1-nsP4 is responsible for the production of genomic and subgenomic plus strands...
January 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104452/cystoviral-rna-directed-rna-polymerases-regulation-of-rna-synthesis-on-multiple-time-and-length-scales
#2
REVIEW
Sébastien Alphonse, Ranajeet Ghose
P2, an RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP), is encoded on the largest of the three segments of the double-stranded RNA genome of cystoviruses. P2 performs the dual tasks of replication and transcription de novo on single-stranded RNA templates, and plays a critical role in the viral life-cycle. Work over the last few decades has yielded a wealth of biochemical and structural information on the functional regulation of P2, on its role in the spatiotemporal regulation of RNA synthesis and its variability across the Cystoviridae family...
January 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104451/bovine-herpesvirus-1-can-efficiently-infect-the-human-sh-sy5y-but-not-the-mouse-neuroblastoma-cell-line-neuro-2a
#3
Prasanth Thunuguntla, Fouad S El-Mayet, Clinton Jones
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a significant bovine pathogen that establishes a life-long latent infection in sensory neurons. Previous attempts to develop immortalized bovine neuronal cells were unsuccessful. Consequently, our understanding of the BoHV-1 latency-reactivation cycle has relied on studying complex virus-host interactions in calves. In this study, we tested whether BoHV-1 can infect human (SH-SY5Y) or mouse (Neuro-2A) neuroblastoma cells. We provide new evidence that BoHV-1 efficiently infects SH-SY5Y cells and yields virus titers approximately 100 fold less than bovine kidney cells...
January 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104450/polymerases-of-paramyxoviruses-and-pneumoviruses
#4
REVIEW
Rachel Fearns, Richard K Plemper
The paramyxo- and pneumoviruses are members of the order Mononegavirales, a group of viruses with non-segmented, negative strand RNA genomes. The polymerases of these viruses are multi-functional complexes, capable of transcribing subgenomic capped and polyadenylated mRNAs and replicating the genome. Although there is no native structure available for any complete paramyxo- or pneumovirus polymerase, functional and structural studies of a fragment of a pneumovirus polymerase protein and mutation analyses and resistance profiling of small-molecule inhibitors have generated a wealth of mechanistic information...
January 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104449/acute-neurologic-disease-in-porcine-rubulavirus-experimentally-infected-piglets
#5
Jenifer Herrera, Luis Gómez-Núñez, Rocío Lara-Romero, Fernando Diosdado, Atalo Martínez-Lara, Miguel Jasso, Humberto Ramírez-Mendoza, Armando Pérez-Torres, José Francisco Rivera-Benítez
The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical disease, humoral response and viral distribution of recent Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates in experimentally infected pigs. Four, 6-piglet (5-days old) groups were employed (G1-84, G2-93, G3-147, and G4-T). Three viral strains were used for the experimental infection: the reference strain LPMV-1984 (Michoacán 1984) and two other strains isolated in 2013, one in Queretaro (Qro/93/2013) and the other in Michoacán (Mich/147/2013). Each strain was genetically characterized by amplification and sequencing of the gene encoding hemagglutinin-neuroamidase (HN)...
January 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089865/pathogens-and-epidemiologic-features-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-in-hubei-province-china
#6
Jianbo Zhan, Jing Cheng, Bing Hu, Jing Li, Ruangang Pan, Zhaohui Yang, Wenjing Zou, Faxian Zhan, Deyin Guo
To evaluate the aetiological agents and epidemiologic features of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Hubei Province, China, sera from patients were collected from January to December 2011. All cases occurred from April to December, and the epidemic peaked from May to August. The ages of patients ranged from 10 to 86 years (median=55years), and the incidence of SFTS increased with age. The female:male ratio of cases was 1.008:1, and 54.6% (77/141) and 1.4% (2/141) of the cases were confirmed by qPCR to be SFTSV and Hantavirus (HV) infection, respectively...
January 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088362/molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-orthomyxovirus-from-rainbow-and-steelhead-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#7
William N Batts, Scott E LaPatra, Ryan Katona, Eric Leis, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Marine S O Brieuc, Rachel B Breyta, Maureen K Purcell, Carla M Conway, Thomas B Waltzek, Eric Delwart, James R Winton
A novel virus, rainbow trout orthomyxovirus (RbtOV), was isolated in 1997 and again in 2000 from commercially-reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Idaho, USA. The virus grew optimally in the CHSE-214 cell line at 15°C producing a diffuse cytopathic effect; however, juvenile rainbow trout exposed to cell culture-grown virus showed no mortality or gross pathology. Electron microscopy of preparations from infected cell cultures revealed the presence of typical orthomyxovirus particles. The complete genome of RbtOV is comprised of eight linear segments of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA having highly conserved 5' and 3'-terminal nucleotide sequences...
January 11, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087399/advances-with-using-crispr-cas-mediated-gene-editing-to-treat-infections-with-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus
#8
REVIEW
Buhle Moyo, Kristie Bloom, Tristan Scott, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot
Chronic infections with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) account for the majority of cases of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapies for the infections have limitations and improved efficacy is necessary to prevent complications in carriers of the viruses. In the case of HBV persistence, the replication intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is particularly problematic. Licensed therapies have little effect on cccDNA and HBV replication relapses following treatment withdrawal...
January 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087398/interaction-of-mal-de-r%C3%A3-o-cuarto-virus-fijivirus-genus-proteins-and-identification-of-putative-factors-determining-viroplasm-formation-and-decay
#9
Gabriela Llauger, Luis Alejandro de Haro, Victoria Alfonso, Mariana Del Vas
Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a member of the Fijivirus genus, within the Reoviridae family, that replicates and assembles in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies called viroplasms. In this study, we investigated interactions between ten MRCV proteins by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays and identified interactions of non-structural proteins P6/P6, P9-2/P9-2 and P6/P9-1. P9-1 and P6 are the major and minor components of the viroplasms respectively, whereas P9-2 is an N-glycosylated membrane protein of unknown function...
January 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082213/deep-sequencing-analysis-reveals-a-tmv-mutant-with-a-poly-a-tract-reduces-host-defense-responses-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#10
Song Guo, Sek-Man Wong
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) possesses an upstream pseudoknotted domain (UPD), which is important for replication. After substituting the UPD with an internal poly(A) tract (43 nt), a mutant TMV-43A was constructed. TMV-43A replicated slower than TMV and induced a non-lethal mosaic symptom in Nicotiana benthamiana. In this study, deep sequencing was performed to detect the differences of small RNA profiles between TMV- and TMV-43A-infected N. benthamiana. The results showed that TMV-43A produced lesser amount of virus-derived interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) than that of TMV...
January 9, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069520/conditioned-medium-from-persistently-rsv-infected-macrophages-alters-transcriptional-profile-and-inflammatory-response-of-non-infected-macrophages
#11
Evelyn Rivera-Toledo, Iván Salido-Guadarrama, Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes, Laura Torres-González, Carlos Santiago-Olivares, Beatriz Gómez
Cells susceptible to persistent viral infections undergo important changes in their biological functions as a consequence of the expression of viral gene products that are capable of altering the gene expression profile of the host cell. Previously, we reported that persistence of the RSV genome in a mouse macrophage cell line induces important alterations in cell homeostasis, including constitutive expression of IFN-β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we postulated that changes in the homeostasis of non-infected macrophages could be induced by soluble factors secreted by persistently RSV- infected macrophages...
January 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057480/detection-of-picobirnaviruses-in-vervet-monkeys-chlorocebus-sabaeus-molecular-characterization-of-complete-genomic-segment-2
#12
Christa A Gallagher, Ryan Navarro, Katalina Cruz, Meiji Soe Aung, Agnes Ng, Edyta Bajak, Amy Beierschmitt, Matthew Lawrence, Kerry M Dore, Jennifer Ketzis, Yashpal S Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi, Souvik Ghosh
During 2014-2015, 270 fecal samples were collected from non-diarrheic, captive and wild African green monkeys (AGMs) on the island of St. Kitts, Caribbean region. By RNA-PAGE, picobirnaviruses (PBVs) were detected in sixteen captive AGMs. By RT-PCR and sequencing of partial gene segment-2, PBVs in 15 of these 16 samples were assigned to genogroup-I. The full-length nucleotide (nt) sequence of gene segment-2 of one of the genogroup-I PBV strains, strain PBV/African green monkey/KNA/016593/2015, was obtained using a non-specific primer-based amplification method with modifications...
January 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043823/viral-reverse-transcriptases
#13
REVIEW
Luis Menéndez-Arias, Alba Sebastián-Martín, Mar Álvarez
Reverse transcriptases (RTs) play a major role in the replication of Retroviridae, Metaviridae, Pseudoviridae, Hepadnaviridae and Caulimoviridae. RTs are enzymes that are able to synthesize DNA using RNA or DNA as templates (DNA polymerase activity), and degrade RNA when forming RNA/DNA hybrids (ribonuclease H activity). In retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons (Metaviridae and Pseudoviridae), the coordinated action of both enzymatic activities converts single-stranded RNA into a double-stranded DNA that is flanked by identical sequences known as long terminal repeats (LTRs)...
December 30, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041960/structure-s-function-s-and-inhibition-of-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-of-noroviruses
#14
REVIEW
Jerome Deval, Zhinan Jin, Ying-Chih Chuang, C Cheng Kao
Noroviruses belong to the Caliciviridae family of single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. The genus Norovirus includes seven genogroups (designated GI-GVII), of which GI, GII and GIV infect humans. Human noroviruses are responsible for widespread outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and represent one of the most common causes of foodborne illness. No vaccine or antiviral treatment options are available for norovirus infection. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of noroviruses is a key enzyme responsible for transcription and replication of the viral genome...
December 29, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040475/the-low-risk-papillomaviruses
#15
REVIEW
Nagayasu Egawa, John Doorbar
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) research has been dominated by the study of a subset of Alpha papillomaviruses that together cause almost 5% of human cancers worldwide, with the focus being on the two most prominent of these (HPV16 and 18). These viruses are referred to as 'high-risk' (hrHPV), to distinguish them from the over 200 prevalent HPV types that more commonly cause only benign epithelial lesions. The 'low-risk' (lrHPV) term used to describe this group belies their cumulative morbidity. Persistent laryngeal papillomas, which occur rarely in children and adults, requires regular surgical de-bulking to allow breathing...
December 28, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040474/deep-sequencing-in-the-management-of-hepatitis-virus-infections
#16
REVIEW
Josep Quer, Francisco Rodríguez-Frias, Josep Gregori, David Tabernero, Maria Eugenia Soria, Damir García-Cehic, Maria Homs, Albert Bosch, Rosa María Pintó, Juan Ignacio Esteban, Esteban Domingo, Celia Perales
The hepatitis viruses represent a major public health problem worldwide. Procedures for characterization of the genomic composition of their populations, accurate diagnosis, identification of multiple infections, and information on inhibitor-escape mutants for treatment decisions are needed. Deep sequencing methodologies are extremely useful for these viruses since they replicate as complex and dynamic quasispecies swarms whose complexity and mutant composition are biologically relevant traits. Population complexity is a major challenge for disease prevention and control, but also an opportunity to distinguish among related but phenotypically distinct variants that might anticipate disease progression and treatment outcome...
December 28, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039047/error-rates-pcr-recombination-and-sampling-depth-in-hiv-1-whole-genome-deep-sequencing
#17
REVIEW
Fabio Zanini, Johanna Brodin, Jan Albert, Richard A Neher
Deep sequencing is a powerful and cost-effective tool to characterize the genetic diversity and evolution of virus populations. While modern sequencing instruments readily cover viral genomes many thousand fold and very rare variants can in principle be detected, sequencing errors, amplification biases, and other artifacts can limit sensitivity and complicate data interpretation. For this reason, the number of studies using whole genome deep sequencing to characterize viral quasi-species in clinical samples is still limited...
December 27, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034778/nervous-necrosis-virus-capsid-protein-exploits-nucleolar-phosphoprotein-nucleophosmin-b23-function-for-viral-replication
#18
Weijun Mai, Fang Huang, Huiqing Chen, Yajing Zhou, Yan Chen
Nucleolar proteins facilitate the replication of certain human and animal viruses through interaction with viral proteins. In this study, an interaction between nervous necrosis virus capsid protein and nucleolar phosphoprotein B23 was identified using in vitro experimental approaches. The capsid protein binds to B23 early during the viral infection and accumulates in the nucleus, particularly in the nucleolus. However, over the course of the infection B23 is redistributed from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm...
December 26, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027928/dengue-virus-non-structural-protein-1-expression-and-associated-risk-factors-among-febrile-patients-attending-university-of-abuja-teaching-hospital-nigeria
#19
Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Olubunmi Olajide Agbede, Amos Dangana, Marycelin Baba, Abubakar Shehu Haruna
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a mosquito-borne and neglected tropical viral disease that has been reported to be hyper-endemic in Nigeria. However, this is the first dengue study in Abuja. OBJECTIVE: This hospital-based cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of Dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein-1 (NS1) antigenaemia, anti-Dengue virus IgG and their associated risk factors among febrile patients attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Nigeria...
December 24, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993623/promises-and-pitfalls-of-illumina-sequencing-for-hiv-resistance-genotyping
#20
REVIEW
Chanson J Brumme, Art F Y Poon
Genetic sequencing ("genotyping") plays a critical role in the modern clinical management of HIV infection. This virus evolves rapidly within patients because of its error-prone reverse transcriptase and short generation time. Consequently, HIV variants with mutations that confer resistance to one or more antiretroviral drugs can emerge during sub-optimal treatment. There are now multiple HIV drug resistance interpretation algorithms that take the region of the HIV genome encoding the major drug targets as inputs; expert use of these algorithms can significantly improve to clinical outcomes in HIV treatment...
December 18, 2016: Virus Research
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