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Virus Research

Zongxi Han, Mengying Gao, Yuqiu Chen, Wenzhuo Zhao, Junfeng Sun, Yan Zhao, Shengwang Liu
Three different IBV genotypes/serotypes, designated ck/CH/LDL/150434-I (LDL/150434-I), ck/CH/LDL/150434-II (LDL/150434-II) and ck/CH/LDL/150434-III (LDL/150434-III), were detected in a single tracheal sample from a chicken showing signs of respiratory disease. The viruses were isolated using a cross-neutralization test and limiting dilution in embryonated specific-pathogen-free (SPF) eggs. Isolate LDL/150434-I was a re-isolation of H120 vaccine strain that was introduced into the chicken flock by vaccination, transmitted between chickens, and later accumulated several genomic mutations...
September 18, 2018: Virus Research
Dongmin Zhao, Kaikai Han, Lijiao Zhang, Huili Wang, Yujie Tian, Xinmei Huang, Qingtao Liu, Jing Yang, Yuzhuo Liu, Yin Li
Newly emerging tembusu virus (TMUV) is a severe threat to poultry industry and causes huge economic losses. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity are both play vital roles in TMUV infection. Up to now, there has been no report on identification of T cell epitopes of the TMUV. In this work, we identified T cell epitopes within TMUV envelope (E) protein using synthesized peptides predicted in silico. A total of ten peptides could stimulate TMUV-specific T cells in murine ELISPOT and duck lymphocyte proliferation assay...
September 18, 2018: Virus Research
Kerstin Wernike, Claudia Wylezich, Dirk Höper, Julia Schneider, Peter W W Lurz, Anna Meredith, Elspeth Milne, Martin Beer, Rainer G Ulrich
The Eurasian Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is distributed throughout large parts of Europe and Asia. However, its distribution in certain regions of Europe is endangered by the invasive, non-native Grey Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Adenoviruses were already described in squirrels in Great Britain almost two decades ago. In 2013, a squirrel adenovirus (SqAdV-1) was additionally found in a red squirrel from Germany, which suffered from acute diffuse catarrhal enteritis, and the complete genome sequence was determined...
September 17, 2018: Virus Research
Tsuneyuki Masuda, Fujiko Sunaga, Yuki Naoi, Mika Ito, Hiroki Takagi, Yukie Katayama, Tsutomu Omatsu, Mami Oba, Shoichi Sakaguchi, Tetsuya Furuya, Hiroshi Yamasato, Junsuke Shirai, Shinji Makino, Tetsuya Mizutani, Makoto Nagai
A novel virus related to the Enterovirus/Sapelovirus supergroup in the family Picornaviridae was identified in healthy porcine feces in Japan by using a metagenomics approach. The genome of the virus, named Sapelo-like porcine picornavirus Japan (SPPVJ) Pig/Isi-Im1/JPN/2016, had a type-IV internal ribosomal entry site and carried a 6,978-nucleotide-long single open reading frame encoding a 2,326 amino acids (aa) polyprotein precursor. The coding sequence region consisted of leader protein (68 aa), a structural protein region P1 (824 aa), and the non-structural protein regions P2 (672 aa) and P3 (762 aa)...
September 15, 2018: Virus Research
Ryo Okada, Ricardo Iván Alcalá-Briseño, Cesar Escalante, Sead Sabanadzovic, Rodrigo A Valverde
The Endornaviridae family includes viruses with ssRNA genome that infect plants, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant endornaviruses do not cause visible symptoms and are transmitted only vertically. Many common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes have been reported to be infected by Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2. Using next-generation sequencing, we obtained the RNA sequence of a third common bean endornavirus, which we named Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 3 (PvEV3). The complete sequence consisted of 15,205nt in length with a single open reading frame (ORF) coding for a polyprotein of 4932 aa, and untranslated regions of 344önt and 62önt at the 5' and 3' ends respectively...
September 12, 2018: Virus Research
Shuang Li, Li Yi, Zhigang Cao, Yuening Cheng, Mingwei Tong, Jianke Wang, Peng Lin, Shipeng Cheng
The highly contagious canine distemper virus (CDV) is a non-segmented single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus, which belongs to the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family. The phosphoprotein (P) of CDV plays the important role in the virus replication and pathogenesis. In this study, we characterized four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated as Pc7, Pc8, Pc11 and Pc25 MAbs against the P protein of CDV-PS strain. A series of overlapping P protein-derived peptides representing the CDV-PS phosphoprotein (aa232-507) were screened to identify linear peptide epitopes recognized by each MAb...
September 10, 2018: Virus Research
Szilvia L Farkas, Renáta Varga-Kugler, Szilvia Marton, György Lengyel, Vilmos Palya, Krisztián Bányai
Complete genomic sequences of two orthoreovirus strains, D2533/4/1-10 and D2533/6/1-10, isolated from Pekin ducklings in Germany have been determined. Pairwise sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain D2533/4/1-10 might have acquired its genomic segments from three different origins, from classical and novel waterfowl reoviruses, and a yet unknown orthoreovirus strain. D2533/6/1-10 proved to be only distantly related to previously described orthoreoviruses. Reassortment, host species transmission events, and successful adaptation of novel variants may signify a challenge for animal health and maintenance of economic production...
September 5, 2018: Virus Research
Sitthichai Kanokudom, Timothy J Mahony, Duncan R Smith, Wanchai Assavalapsakul
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), is a member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae in the order Herpesviridae and is a ubiquitous pathogen of cattle responsible for significant economic loss worldwide. The BoHV-1 genome encodes at least 10 BoHV-1 microRNA (miRNA) genes, whose functions remain poorly understood. This study sought to understand the role of three BoHV-1 miRNA genes, Bhv1-miR-B6, Bhv1-miR-B8 and Bhv1-miR-B9, which are located proximal to the BoHV-1 origins of replication (OriS). Therefore, plasmids expressing the precursor miRNA hairpins for the Bhv1-miR-B6, Bhv1-miR-B8, and Bhv1-miR-B9 genes were constructed and transfected into Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells prior to BoHV-1 infection...
September 5, 2018: Virus Research
Yaoyue Kang, Fahong Li, Hongying Guo, Sisi Yang, Yongmei Zhang, Haoxiang Zhu, Jinyu Wang, Richeng Mao, Yanli Qin, Jie Xu, Xinwen Chen, Chunchen Wu, Jiming Zhang
Variants of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) influenced its antigenicity and immunogenicity. In our study, we aim to investigate biological significance of amino acid (aa) substitutions in HBsAg, Q129 N and T131 N/M133 T, for glycosylation, antigenicity and immunogenicity of variant HBsAg (vtHBsAg) and viral replication. Expression plasmids of vtHBsAg with aa substitutions Q129 L, T123 N, Q129 N and T131 N/M133 T were constructed. Immunofluorescence (IF) staining and Western blot were simultaneously utilized to examine expression of vtHBsAg proteins in Huh7 cells transfected with vtHBsAg constructs...
September 1, 2018: Virus Research
Preethi B Poduval, Judith M Noronha, Sandeep K Bansal, Sanjeev C Ghadi
Microbulbifer strain CMC-5, isolated from decomposing seaweeds degrades agar, alginate, carrageenan, chitin, carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan. Using bacterial strain CMC-5 as host, a novel virulent phage, designated ϕMC1 was isolated from the coast of Goa, India. Although ϕMC1 demonstrated cross infectivity with type species of Microbulbifer such as M. agarolyticus JAMBA3T and M. celer KCTC 12973T , it did not infect M. mangrovi KCTC 23483T , M. salipalidus JCM 11542T , M. elongatus DSM 6810T and M. hydrolyticus IRE-31T ...
August 29, 2018: Virus Research
Linlin Chen, Yan Zhou, Hongjun Li
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key components of the transcriptome and play an important role in both normal biological activity and pathological processes such as viral infection and tumorigenesis. LncRNAs and miRNAs are the most important elements of ncRNAs and function as vital regulatory elements. Their complex regulatory relationship has therefore attracted a lot of attention. In this review, we address the generation, classification, and regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs and miRNAs in the interaction between virus and host, focusing on their mutual regulation in viral replication and pathogenesis...
August 28, 2018: Virus Research
Yiyi Chen, Ting Liu, Zhenzhen Zhang, Mingxiao Chen, Liang Rong, Ling Ma, Bolan Yu, De Wu, Ping Zhang, Xun Zhu, Xi Huang, Hui Zhang, Yi-Ping Li
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquitoes-transmitted flavivirus, and its infection may cause severe neurological diseases. A genetically stable infectious clone is essential for ZIKV research, however the toxicity and instability of the viral cDNA in bacteria potentially due to its bacterial promoter activity are major challenges. Here, we constructed a full-length cDNA clone for isolate ZG01 by introducing non-coding changes T1865C/A1868G to reduce the bacterial promoter activity. Wild-type and recombinant ZG01 were highly attenuated in Vero cells, thus we serially passaged wild-type ZG01 through neonatal mice and Vero cells to generate high-titer virus, from which four mutations (4m, C2178T/G2913A/T4991C/T10561C) were identified...
August 23, 2018: Virus Research
Aleksei A Stepanenko, Vladimir P Chekhonin
The cellular internalization (infection of cells) of adenovirus 5 (Ad5) is mediated by the initial attachment of the globular knob domain of the capsid fiber protein to the cell surface coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), then followed by the interaction of the virus penton base proteins with cellular integrins. In tumors, there is a substantial intra- and intertumoral variability in CAR expression. The CAR-negative cells generally exhibit very low infectability. Since the fiber knob is a primary mediator of Ad5 binding to the cell surface, improved infectivity of Ad5-based vectors as oncolytic agents may be achieved via genetic modifications of this domain...
August 17, 2018: Virus Research
Yiquan Li, Shuang Chen, Jinbo Fang, Yilong Zhu, Bing Bai, Wenjie Li, Xunzhe Yin, Jing Wang, Xing Liu, Jicheng Han, Xiao Li, Lili Sun, Ningyi Jin
rVTT-TA35-TJ, an attenuated vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (VTT), was constructed by knocking out two non-essential gene fragments (TA35R and TJ2R) related to virulence, immunomodulation, and host range; and by combining double marker screening with exogenous and endogenous selectable marker knock-out techniques. Here, the shuttle plasmids pSK-TA35 and pSK-TJ were constructed, containing two pairs of recombinant arms: early and late strong promoter pE/L and EGFP as an exogenous selectable marker. The recombinant vaccinia virus rVTT-TA35-TJ without exogenous selection markers was then obtained through homologous recombination technology and the Cre/loxP system...
September 2, 2018: Virus Research
Tsutomu Nishizawa, Yuji Sugimoto, Tsutomu Takeda, Yuuji Kodera, Yumi Hatano, Masaharu Takahashi, Hiroaki Okamoto
The members of the family Anelloviridae are small and single-stranded DNA viruses with marked diversity in sequence and length, which ubiquitously infect many vertebrates, including mammals, birds and reptiles. The anelloviruses isolated from mammals are currently classified into 11 assigned and four proposed genera; some anelloviruses remain unassigned. The present study was conducted to identify anelloviruses in wild-caught masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) in Japan using a rolling-circle amplification method...
September 2, 2018: Virus Research
Muhammad Hamza, Muhammad Nouman Tahir, Roma Mustafa, Hira Kamal, Muhammad Zuhaib Khan, Shahid Mansoor, Rob W Briddon, Imran Amin
Spinach is a common vegetable crop and very little data is available about its virus infection. Symptomatic leaves of spinach were collected during field survey. Circular DNA molecules were amplified from symptomatic samples using rolling circle amplification (RCA). After restriction analysis, presumed bands of virus and satellites were cloned, sequenced and analyzed. Analysis of sequenced RCA product revealed the presence of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV; Mastrevirus). Further analyses of the cloned virus showed that strain "C" of CpCDV was present in symptomatic samples of spinach collected from field associated with vein darkening, curling and enations on leaves...
September 2, 2018: Virus Research
Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves, Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes da
Two Alphaviruses stand out for their clinical importance in Brazil: chikungunya (CHIKV) and mayaro (MAYV) viruses. Few studies exist on the mechanisms of the immune response after infection by these viruses and neither a treatment nor a vaccine for these pathogens are available. Although their infection does not have a high mortality rate, they can lead to a joint involvement that can persist for months. The aims of this work were the study of the mechanisms of antiviral immune response following in vitro (U937 cells) infection with these viruses; to investigate the characteristics of the infection by these viruses; and to determine possible molecular targets that could serve as antiviral therapies against these pathogens...
September 2, 2018: Virus Research
Elin Engdahl, Pitt Niehusmann, Anna Fogdell-Hahn
BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is a neurotropic virus that has been repeatedly associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, the mechanism behind this suggested association is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate what genes were affected by HHV-6B, possibly revealing HHV-6B induced disease causing mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHOD: First, gene expression in MTLE tissue positive for HHV-6B DNA (n = 10) and negative for HHV-6B DNA (n = 14) was compared using the Affymetrix® Human Gene 2...
September 2, 2018: Virus Research
Alexandra Milena Cuartas-López, Camilo Eduardo Hernández-Cuellar, Juan Carlos Gallego-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Infection generated by Dengue Virus (DENV) does not have a specific pharmacologic treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate research strategies departing from traditional approaches. Studying cellular mechanisms during early DENV infection may allow the design of a host-based approach to antivirals. Herein, we describe early/late events of DENV infection in mammalian cells related to PI3K/Akt, Rho GTPases, and the actin cytoskeleton. METHODS: To evaluate whether PI3K/Akt/Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton participate in DENV replication in Huh7 cells, chemical and genetic inhibition were performed over 24 h...
September 2, 2018: Virus Research
Tyler A Garretson, Hui Shang, Annie K Schulz, Brian V Donohue, Xiao-Wen Cheng
The baculovirus-based bacmid expression vector system has been widely used for protein production in basic research and biotechnological laboratories. Since the first construction of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid (AcBacmid), three more bacmids have been created from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmBacmid), Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeBacmid) and Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaBacmid). Each of these bacmid-derived viruses replicates efficiently in a range of specific and permissive cell types...
September 2, 2018: Virus Research
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