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Virus Research

Thaís C S Rodrigues, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Stephen D McCulloch, Juli D Goldstein, Adam M Schaefer, Patricia A Fair, John S Reif, Gregory D Bossart, Thomas B Waltzek
We report the discovery of the first cetacean pegivirus (family Flaviviridae) using a next-generation sequencing approach. One of two infected bottlenose dolphins had elevated activities of liver enzymes, which may suggest hepatocellular injury. Further research is needed to determine the epidemiology and pathogenicity of dolphin pegivirus.
January 8, 2019: Virus Research
Feng Bo, Wen-Tao Yang, Seria Masole Shonyela, Yu-Bei Jin, Ke-Yan Huang, Li-Na Shao, Cong Wang, You Zhou, Qiong-Yan Li, Yan-Long Jiang, Hai-Bin Huang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Guan-Wang, Yuan-Huan Kang, Gui-Lian Yang, Chun-Feng Wang
To evaluate the efficiency of preventing pathogenic avian influenza by vaccination with recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) that expresses conserved antigens, the mucosal and systemic immune responses in animals vaccinated with recombinant L. plantarum NC8-409-1 (NC8-pSIP409-pgsA'-HA2) and NC8-409-2 (NC8-pSIP409-pgsA'-3M2e-HA2) were evaluated. Our results showed that recombinant L. plantarum NC8-409-1 and NC8-409-2 could substantially stimulate the specific IgA titer in the intestine and the specific IgG antibody titer in the serum...
January 3, 2019: Virus Research
Zhen Dong, Zi-Wei Liu, Rui Chen, Xiao-Jing Wen, Jing Ji, Xue-Xing Zheng, Li Zhao, Zhi-Yu Wang, Hong-Ling Wen
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is known for its manifestation as hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which has caused countless large-scale epidemic outbreaks throughout the world. However, the molecular pathogenesis of EV-A71 infection is still elusive. Previous studies found that the biological characteristics of a mild EV-A71 strain (SDLY1) and a severe EV-A71 strain (SDLY107) are significantly different, and sequence analysis showed that there are several differences in nucleotide sites of UTRs (88 nt, 123 nt, 143 nt, 154 nt, 187 nt, 241 nt, 243 nt, 253 nt, 291 nt, 438 nt, 440 nt, 571 nt, 579 nt, 602 nt, 658 nt, 664 nt, 690 nt, 696 nt, 7328 nt, 7335 nt, 7367 nt, and 7395 nt)...
January 3, 2019: Virus Research
Olivier Ferraris, Marie Moroso, Julien Siracusa, Fanny Jarjaval, Marie-Emmanuelle Goriot, Christophe N Peyrefitte, Sébastien Banzet
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe disease leading to high mortality in humans. Early diagnosis and evaluation of the severity are necessary to improve patient survival. In a model of CCHF virus-infected interferon-receptor-deficient (IFNAR) KO mice, we found a specific circulating miRNA (c-miRNA) profile when compared to wild-type (wt), resistant mice. Among this response, 20 c-miRNA were shown to be specifically altered, including miR-122-5p, miR-216a-5p, 217-5p, miR-29a-3p and miR-511-5p...
December 31, 2018: Virus Research
Jie Gao, Lingxi Gao, Rui Li, Zhenping Lai, Zengfeng Zhang, Xiaohui Fan
Although several miRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in the influenza virus replication cycle, the identification of miRNAs and mRNAs that are expressed in A549 cells infected with influenza A viruses (IAVs) from different host species has remained poorly studied. To investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with the differential expression of miRNAs during influenza A virus infection, we performed global miRNA and mRNA expression profiling in A549 cells infected with human-origin seasonal influenza A virus H3N2 (Human_Br07), swine-origin influenza A virus H1N1 (SW_3861) or avian-origin influenza A virus H3N2 (AVI_9990)...
December 31, 2018: Virus Research
Haiying Wang, Qundi Cai, Yuanhao Liang, Jingwei Shui, Shixing Tang
In this study, we described an ultrasensitive and high-throughput luciferase immunosorbent assay (LISA) for qualitative and quantitative detection of anti-HIV-1 antibody. Anti-HIV antibody in serum or plasma samples was captured by protein A/G-coated microtiter plate and detected with crude cell lysates expressing Nanoluc luciferase (Nluc) enzyme fused with HIV-1 p24 or gp41 antigen without the need of protein purification. After the addition of furimazine substrate, anti-HIV antibodies were quantitatively measured as luciferase light units...
December 31, 2018: Virus Research
W Alfredo Ríos-Ocampo, María-Cristina Navas, Klaas Nico Faber, Toos Daemen, Han Moshage
Oxidative- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress are common events during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and both regulate cell survival and determine clinical outcome. In response to intrinsic and extrinsic cellular stress, different adaptive mechanisms have evolved in hepatocytes to restore cellular homeostasis like the anti-oxidant response, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the integrated stress response (ISR). In this review, we focus on the cellular stress response in the context of acute and chronic HCV infection...
December 29, 2018: Virus Research
Chutima Thepparit, Sarawut Khongwichit, Kunjimas Ketsuwan, Sirikwan Libsittikul, Prasert Auewarakul, Duncan R Smith
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway accessory protein apoptosis linked gene-2-interacting protein X (ALIX) has been shown to be upregulated during dengue virus (DENV) replication. Yeast-two-hybrid screens have additionally shown that ALIX interacts with DENV NS3 protein, but evaluation of the interaction through a replicon assay failed to show a functional significance to the interaction. In this study the interaction between DENV NS3 and ALIX was investigated by co-immunoprecipitation, and functional significance assessed by investigation of DENV production in ALIX expression regulated cells...
December 29, 2018: Virus Research
Alireza Mohebbi, Mir Saeed Ebrahimzadeh, Sanaz Baghban Rahimi, Mohsen Saeidi, Alijan Tabarraei, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Sadegh Shirian, Ali Gorji, Amir Ghaemi
The potential of non-replicating Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) as an adjuvant for DNA vaccination remains to be elucidated. To assess the therapeutic effects of DNA vaccine (HPV-16 E7 gene) adjuvanted with NDV, female C57/BL6 mice were inoculated with murine TC-1 cells of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related carcinoma, expressing human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) E6/E7 antigens, and immunized with DNA vaccine alone or pretreated with NDV. One week after third immunization, Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), splenocyte proliferation, cytokine balance (IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-12 secretions) and intratumoral expression of cytotoxicity related proteins in tumor lysates were investigated...
December 29, 2018: Virus Research
Komínek Petr, Massart Sébastien, Pham Khanh, Paul van Leeuwen, Komínková Marcela
Plants of the genus Pleione,sss originating from hobby growers in the Netherlands and in the Czech Republic, were conspicuous for viral infection, showing symptoms of leaf mosaic or flower breaking. Using Sanger and high throughput sequencing, the full genome sequence of a novel potyvirus was obtained from sequencing data. The genome sequence was annotated and compared to the genome of other potyviruses. The virus was experimentally transmitted by aphids into Pleione and Chenopodium quinoa plants. The name Pleione flower breaking virus (PlFBV) was suggested for the new virus...
December 20, 2018: Virus Research
Cormac M Kinsella, Martin Deijs, Lia van der Hoek
VIDISCA is a next-generation sequencing (NGS) library preparation method designed to enrich viral nucleic acids from samples before highly-multiplexed low depth sequencing. Reliable detection of known viruses and discovery of novel divergent viruses from NGS data require dedicated analysis tools that are both sensitive and accurate. Existing software was utilised to design a new bioinformatic workflow for high-throughput detection and discovery of viruses from VIDISCA data. The workflow leverages the VIDISCA library preparation molecular biology, specifically the use of Mse1 restriction enzyme which produces biological replicate library inserts from identical genomes...
December 19, 2018: Virus Research
Fuxiao Liu, Yongqiang Zhang, Ling Li, Yuanyuan Zuo, Chengyou Sun, Wu Xiaodong, Zhiliang Wang
Small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV), formerly called peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV), is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. If genetically modified using reverse genetics, the SRMV would be a useful vector to express foreign proteins in vitro and in vivo. In this study, a recombinant SRMV was rescued by reverse genetics for efficiently expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein in vitro. Based on green fluorescence-tracked characteristics of the recombinant SRMV, eight mammalian cell lines (BHK-21, F81, MDBK, RK13, MDCK, PK15, Vero and GT) were selected for identifying their susceptibilities to SRMV infection...
December 19, 2018: Virus Research
Yongle Yu, Jianlou Zhang, Jigui Wang, Ji Xi, Xiaomei Zhang, Peiran Li, Ying Liu, Weiquan Liu
We have isolated 4 naturally-occurring strains of CPV in mainland China and have identified them as CPV-2, 2a, 2b and 2c genotypes according to their VP2 sequences which also revealed substitutions within their right terminal regions. To determine if these substitutions affected the growth characteristics of the 4 strains, we constructed plasmids based on their genomic sequences minus their right terminal sequences, with the latter replaced by a single right terminal region. Analysis of rescued recombinants showed that the substitutions within their natural right termini had no significant effect on their growth characteristics...
December 14, 2018: Virus Research
Fuxiao Liu, Ling Li, Yutian Liu, Chengyou Sun, Chunju Liu, Wu Xiaodong, Zhiliang Wang
Peste des petits ruminants and cystic hydatidosis may be simultaneously endemic in a given area. Their pathogens are small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV) and Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), respectively. The SRMV, formerly called peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV), is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxovirida. This virus is an ideal vaccine vector to deliver immunogenic proteins. In this study, a reverse genetics system was developed to rescue a recombinant SRMV (Nigeria 75/1 strain) expressing E...
December 14, 2018: Virus Research
Sharmin Afroz, Robert Brownlie, Michel Fodje, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
The UL 47 gene product, VP8, is a major tegument protein of BoHV-1. While VP8 is not essential for virus replication in cell culture, a UL 47-deleted virus exhibits a smaller tegument structure and is avirulent in cattle. To obtain pure VP8 protein for structural analysis, we expressed a N-terminally truncated version of VP8 in Eschericia coli. However, the recombinant VP8 was consistently co-purified with a tightly associated bacterial protein; this protein was identified by mass spectrometry as GroEL, which has considerable homology with mammalian heat shock protein-60 (HSP60), thus suggesting a new role for VP8 in virus-host interaction...
December 11, 2018: Virus Research
Juan Carlos Santos-Valencia, Clotilde Cancio-Lonches, Adrian Trujillo-Uscanga, Beatriz Alvarado-Hernández, Anel Lagunes-Guillén, Ana Lorena Gutiérrez-Escolano
Cellular proteins have been identified to participate in calicivirus replication in association with viral proteins and/or viral RNAs. By mass spectrometry from pull-down assays, we identified several cellular proteins bound to the feline calicivirus (FCV) genomic RNA; among them the lipid raft-associated scaffold protein Annexin (Anx) A2. AnxA2 colocalizes with FCV NS6/7 protein and with the dsRNA in infected cells; moreover, it was found associated with the viral RNA in the membrane fraction corresponding to the replication complexes (RCs), suggesting its role during FCV replication...
December 10, 2018: Virus Research
Diane A Lima, Samuel P Cibulski, Caroline Tochetto, Ana Paula M Varela, Fabrine Finkler, Thais F Teixeira, Márcia R Loiko, Cristine Cerva, Dennis M Junqueira, Fabiana Q Mayer, Paulo M Roehe
Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) is an economically important disease of young, commercially reared broilers, characterized by growth retardation, defective feather development and diarrheic faeces. Several viruses have been tentatively associated to such syndrome. Here, in order to examine potential associations between enteric viruses and MAS, the faecal viromes of 70 stool samples collected from diseased (n = 35) and healthy (n = 35) chickens from seven flocks were characterized and compared. Following high-throughput sequencing, a total of 8,347,319 paired end reads, with an average of 231 nt, were generated...
December 10, 2018: Virus Research
Lars Schröder, Sandro Klafack, Sven M Bergmann, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Kati Franzke, Dirk Höper, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Walter Fuchs
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus is a global pathogen causing mass mortality in koi and common carp, against which improved vaccines are urgently needed. In this study we investigated the role of four nonessential, but immunogenic envelope glycoproteins encoded by members of the ORF25 gene family (ORF25, ORF65, ORF148 and ORF149) during CyHV-3 replication. Single deletion of ORF65 did not affect in vitro replication, and deletion of ORF148 even slightly enhanced virus growth on common carp brain (CCB) cells, deletions of ORF25 or ORF149 led to reduced plaque sizes and virus titers, which was due to delayed entry into host cells...
December 10, 2018: Virus Research
Yanlong Pei, Juan C Corredor, Peter J Krell, Éva Nagy
Fowl adenovirus 9 (FAdV-9) has one of the largest genomes (45 kb) so far sequenced from all adenoviruses studied. Genus-specific genes located within the early (E) regions at the right and left ends of the viral genome have unknown functions except for ORF8 (Gam-1 gene), ORF22 and ORF1 (dUTPase gene). ORF19, located at the right end of the genome (nts 34,220-36,443), is predicted to encode a lipase protein and its homologs are also found in all FAdV genomes so far sequenced. The role of ORF19 in virus replication and virulence is unknown...
December 5, 2018: Virus Research
Carolina M Malgarin, Roman Nosach, Predrag Novakovic, Muhammad Suleman, Andrea Ladinig, Susan E Detmer, Daniel J MacPhee, John C S Harding
Although porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) readily crosses the maternal fetal interface (MFI) in third trimester, fetal resilience varies within litters. The aim of this study was to characterize PRRSV-2 concentration in MFI and fetuses at five time points after experimental inoculation of late gestation gilts and use this information to classify potentially resistant, resilient and susceptible fetuses. The secondary objective was to verify the relationship between PRRS viral load and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)...
December 5, 2018: Virus Research
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