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Virus Research

Yabin Tian, Weijin Huang, Jun Yang, Zhiheng Wen, Yansheng Geng, Chenyan Zhao, Heqiu Zhang, Youchun Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E. Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) encodes the capsid protein of HEV, which is the main structural protein and may participate, together with the host factors, in viral entry and egress. However, it is still not clear which host proteins are involved in the interaction with ORF2 and what the functions of these ORF2-interacting proteins are. In this study, we have applied a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screening approach in combination with the pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays, identified and validated multiple interacting partners of ORF2 of genotype 1 and 4, which have diverse biological functions...
November 26, 2016: Virus Research
Jianxiang Qiu, Zhimin Tang, Meijin Yuan, Wenbi Wu, Kai Yang
During baculovirus infection, most viral proteins must be imported to the nucleus to support virus multiplication. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf34 (ac34) is an alphabaculovirus unique gene that is required for optimal virus production. Ac34 distributes in both the cytoplasm and the nuclei of virus-infected Sf9 cells, but contains no conventional nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, we investigated the nuclear targeting domains in Ac34. Transient expression assays showed that Ac34 localized in both the cytoplasm and the nuclei of Sf9 cells, indicating that no viral protein is required for Ac34 nuclear localization...
November 25, 2016: Virus Research
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Jing Li, Beibei Tang, Ying Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Lichun Wang, Shengtao Fan, Ming Feng, Qihan Li
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections which presented significantly different clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, the factors underlying these differences remain unclear. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. Here, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing...
November 24, 2016: Virus Research
Xinquan Zhang, Ivana Bilic, Salome Troxler, Michael Hess
Although the presence of four genotypes of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) in chickens has been demonstrated, its natural host range is still barely known. In this study, swab samples from 626 wild birds originating from 62 bird species were investigated for HEV detection by molecular METHODS: The aim was to explore the cross-species infection of avian HEV and to compare the genetic diversity between strains infecting chicken and wild birds. In total, 8 positive samples from 4 different bird species (song thrush, little owl, feral pigeon and common buzzard) were identified and further confirmed by partial sequencing of ORF3...
November 24, 2016: Virus Research
Joseph A Westrich, Cody J Warren, Dohun Pyeon
A majority of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are asymptomatic and self-resolving in the absence of medical interventions. Various innate and adaptive immune responses, as well as physical barriers, have been implicated in controlling early HPV infections. However, if HPV overcomes these host immune defenses and establishes persistence in basal keratinocytes, it becomes very difficult for the host to eliminate the infection. The HPV oncoproteins E5, E6, and E7 are important in regulating host immune responses...
November 24, 2016: Virus Research
Alberto Rastrojo, Antonio Alcamí
Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth, exceeding bacteria in most of the ecosystems. Specially in oceans, viruses are thought to be the major planktonic predators shaping microorganism communities and controlling ocean biological capacity. Plankton lysis by viruses plays an important role in ocean nutrient and energy cycles. Viral metagenomics has emerged as a powerful tool to uncover viral diversity in aquatic ecosystems through the use of Next Generation Sequencing. However, many of the commonly used viral sample preparation steps have several important biases that must be considered to avoid a misinterpretation of the results...
November 23, 2016: Virus Research
Christina Schellenbacher, Richard B S Roden, Reinhard Kirnbauer
Infections with sexually transmitted high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV), of which there are at least 15 genotypes, are responsible for a tremendous disease burden by causing cervical, and subsets of other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas, together representing 5% of all cancer cases worldwide. HPV subunit vaccines consisting of virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1 plus adjuvant have been licensed. Prophylactic vaccinations with the 2-valent (HPV16/18), 4-valent (HPV6/11/16/18), or 9-valent (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine induce high-titer neutralizing antibodies restricted to the vaccine types that cause up to 90% of cervical carcinomas, a subset of other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal cancers and 90% of benign ano-genital warts (condylomata)...
November 23, 2016: Virus Research
Stephanie Pfaender, Nathalie J Vielle, Nadine Ebert, Eike Steinmann, Marco P Alves, Volker Thiel
Zika virus infection during pregnancy poses a serious risk for pregnant women as it can cause severe birth defects. Even though the virus is mainly transmitted via mosquitos, human-to-human transmission has been described. Infectious viral particles have been detected in breast milk of infected women which raised concerns regarding the safety of breastfeeding in areas of Zika virus transmission or in case of a suspected or confirmed Zika virus infection. In this study, we show that Zika virus is effectively inactivated in human breast milk after prolonged storage or upon pasteurization of milk...
November 23, 2016: Virus Research
Yu-Liang Huang, Ming-Chung Deng, Kuo-Jung Tsai, Hsin-Meng Liu, Chin-Cheng Huang, Fun-In Wang, Chia-Yi Chang
Classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important and highly contagious disease of pigs, is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In Taiwan, CSFVs from field outbreaks belong to two distinct genotypes. The historical genotype 3.4 dominated from the 1920s to 1996, and since 1996, the newly invading genotype 2.1 has dominated. To explain the phenomenon of this virus shift in the field, representative viruses belonging to genotypes 2.1 and 3.4 were either inoculated alone (single infection) or co-inoculated (co-infection), both in vivo and in vitro, to compare the virus replication and pathogenesis...
November 23, 2016: Virus Research
Mingjun Li, Yongqiang Li, Zihao Xia, Dianping Di, Aihong Zhang, Hongqin Miao, Tao Zhou, Zaifeng Fan
Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is the casual agent of maize rough dwarf disease, which frequently causes severe yield loss in China. However, the interaction between RBSDV and maize plants is largely unknown. RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism against viruses in plants. To understand the antiviral RNA interfering response in RBSDV-infected plants, the profile of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from RBSDV in infected maize plants was obtained by deep sequencing in this study. Our data showed that vsiRNAs, accumulated preferentially as 21- and 22-nucleotide (nt) species, were mapped against all 10 genomic RNA segments of RBSDV and derived almost equally overall from both positive and negative strands, while there were significant differences in the accumulation level of vsiRNAs from segments 2, 4, 6, 7 and 10...
November 22, 2016: Virus Research
Preston Leung, Auda A Eltahla, Andrew R Lloyd, Rowena A Bull, Fabio Luciani
With the advent of affordable deep sequencing technologies, detection of low frequency variants within genetically diverse viral populations can now be achieved with unprecedented depth and efficiency. The high-resolution data provided by next generation sequencing technologies is currently recognised as the gold standard in estimation of viral diversity. In the analysis of rapidly mutating viruses, longitudinal deep sequencing datasets from viral genomes during individual infection episodes, as well as at the epidemiological level during outbreaks, now allow for more sophisticated analyses such as statistical estimates of the impact of complex mutation patterns on the evolution of the viral populations both within and between hosts...
November 22, 2016: Virus Research
Rapeewan Thampaisarn, Vuong N Bui, Dai Q Trinh, Makoto Nagai, Tetsuya Mizutani, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Dulyatad Gronsang, Duong H T Le, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai
A hemagglutinating virus isolate designated 11OG0352, was obtained from a duck fecal sample. Genetic and virological analyses indicated that it might represent a novel serotype of avian paramyxovirus (APMV). Electron micrographs showed that the morphology of the virus particle was similar to that of APMV. The complete genome of this virus comprised 15,444 nucleotides complying with the paramyxovirus "rule of six" and contains six open reading frames (3'-N-P-M-F-HN-L-5'). The phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome revealed that the virus was a member of the genus Avulavirus, but that it was distinct from APMV-1 to APMV-13...
November 21, 2016: Virus Research
Marilyn J Roossinck
The advent of next generation sequencing has allowed great advances to be made in discovery, diagnostics, and evolutionary studies in plant viruses. Various methods have been used for enrichment for virus-specific nucleic acids, each of which have some drawbacks. Many novel viruses have been discovered in plants by NGS technologies, and there is a good deal of promise for more comprehensive studies in virus evolution. However, each aspect of using NGS has its caveats that need to be considered, and there is still a need for better tools of analysis, as well as method for validation of sequence variation...
November 19, 2016: Virus Research
Taeyong Kwon, Dong-Uk Lee, Sung J Yoo, Sang H Je, Jeong Y Shin, Young S Lyoo
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a causative agent of PCV2-associated disease (PCVAD), which leads to enormous economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. A high nucleotide substitution rate allows for the continuous evolution of PCV2 and the emergence of novel PCV2 strains. However, the distribution of emerging PCV2 genotypes and the co-existence of multiple genotypes in Korea have not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of PCV2 in Korean pig herds between 2009 and 2016...
November 17, 2016: Virus Research
Sheila V Graham, Arwa Ali A Faizo
Human papillomaviruses possess circular double stranded DNA genomes of around 8kb in size from which multiple mRNAs are synthesized during an infectious life cycle. Although at least three viral promoters are used to initiate transcription, viral mRNAs are largely the product of processing of pre-mRNAs by alternative splicing and polyadenylation. The HPV life cycle and viral gene expression are tightly linked to differentiation of the epithelium the virus infects: there is an orchestrated production of viral mRNAs and proteins...
November 17, 2016: Virus Research
Carolina R Melo-Silva, David C Tscharke, Mario Lobigs, Aulikki Koskinen, Arno Müllbacher, Matthias Regner
Mousepox is caused by the orthopoxvirus ectromelia virus (ECTV), and is thought to be transmitted via skin abrasions. We studied the ECTV virulence factor N1 following subcutaneous infection of mousepox-susceptible BALB/c mice. In this model, ECTV lacking N1L gene was attenuated more than 1000-fold compared with wild-type virus and replication was profoundly reduced as early as four days after infection. However, in contrast to data from an intranasal model, N1 protein was not required for virus dissemination...
November 16, 2016: Virus Research
Maksat Akhmedzhanov, Mariela Scrochi, Maria Barrandeguy, Aldana Vissani, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Armando Mario Damiani
Equine herpesvirus type 3 (EHV-3) is the causal agent of equine coital exanthema, a disease characterized by pox-like lesions on the penis of stallions and the vulva of mares. Although the complete genomic sequence of EHV-3 has been recently made available, its genomic content remains poorly characterized and the molecular mechanisms of disease development not yet elucidated. In an attempt to facilitate genetic manipulation of EHV-3, we describe here the construction of a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of EHV-3...
November 16, 2016: Virus Research
Dylan J Fehl, Maryam Ahmed
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix (M) protein mutants have been studied as oncolytic agents due to their capacity to effectively kill cancer cells while exhibiting low virulence in vivo. Despite encouraging results, many cancer cells maintain resistance to oncolytic VSV mutants in part due to residual antiviral responses. We sought to determine whether combination of VSV with natural agents with anti-tumor properties, such as curcumin, resveratrol, and flavokavain B, would enhance tumor cell killing in a prostate cancer model...
November 16, 2016: Virus Research
Samuel Porter, Wesley H Stepp, James Stamos, Alison A McBride
The life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is tightly regulated by the differentiation state of mucosal and cutaneous keratinocytes. To counteract viral infection, constitutively expressed cellular factors, which are defined herein as restriction factors, directly mitigate viral gene expression and replication. In turn, some HPV gene products target these restriction factors and abrogate their anti-viral effects to establish efficient gene expression and replication programs. Ironically, in certain circumstances, this delicate counterbalance between viral gene products and restriction factors facilitates persistent infection by HPVs...
November 15, 2016: Virus Research
Rachel A Katzenellenbogen
Telomerase extends the ends of linear chromosomes, and its expression leads to cellular immortalization. In HPV-associated cancers, telomerase is universally detected, and this occurs by activation of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT. The expression of hTERT is affected by both high-risk HPV E6 and E7. Seminal studies over the last two decades have identified the transcriptional, epigenetic, and post-transcriptional roles high-risk E6 and E7 have in telomerase regulation. This review will summarize these findings and highlight the importance of telomerase activation as an oncogenic pathway in HPV-associated cancer development and progression...
November 15, 2016: Virus Research
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