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Virus Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341877/characterizing-the-effects-of-insertion-of-a-5-2%C3%A2-kb-region-of-a-vacv-genome-which-contains-known-immune-evasion-genes-on-mva-immunogenicity
#1
Melissa R Ryerson, Joanna L Shisler
Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated Vaccinia virus (VACV) that is a popular vaccine vector candidate against many different pathogens. Its replication-restricted nature makes it a safe vaccine. However, higher doses or multiple boosts of MVA are necessary to elicit an immune response similar to wild-type VACV. Multiple strategies have been used to create modified MVA viruses that remain safe, but have increased immunogenicity. For example, one common strategy is to delete MVA immunomodulatory proteins in hopes of increasing the host immune response...
January 13, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341876/probing-and-characterizing-the-high-specific-sequences-of-ssdna-aptamer-against-sgiv-infected-cells
#2
Pengfei Li, Qing Yu, Lingli Zhou, Dexin Dong, Shina Wei, Hanzheng Ya, Bo Chen, Qiwei Qin
As the major viral pathogen of grouper aquaculture, Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) has caused great economic losses in China and Southeast Asia. In the previous study, we have generated highly specific ssDNA aptamers against SGIV-infected grouper spleen cells (GS) by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment technology (SELEX), in which Q2 had the highest binding affinity of 16.43 nM. In this study, we would try to identify the specific sequences in the aptamer Q2 that exhibited the high binding affinity to SGIV-infected cells by truncating the original Q2 into some different specific segments...
January 13, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337162/antiviral-activity-of-k22-against-members-of-the-order-nidovirales
#3
Julie Christiane Françoise Rappe, Adriaan de Wilde, Han Di, Christin Müller, Hanspeter Stalder, Philip V'kovski, Eric Snijder, Margo A Brinton, John Ziebuhr, Nicolas Ruggli, Volker Thiel
Recently, a novel antiviral compound (K22) that inhibits replication of a broad range of animal and human coronaviruses was reported to interfere with viral RNA synthesis by impairing double-membrane vesicle (DMV) formation (Lundin et al., 2014). Here we assessed potential antiviral activities of K22 against a range of viruses representing two (sub)families of the order Nidovirales, the Arteriviridae (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus [PRRSV], equine arteritis virus [EAV] and simian hemorrhagic fever virus [SHFV]), and the Torovirinae (equine torovirus [EToV] and White Bream virus [WBV])...
January 11, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337161/cellular-redox-cancer-and-human-papillomavirus
#4
REVIEW
Alfredo Cruz-Gregorio, Joaquín Manzo-Merino, Marcela Lizano
High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the causative agent of different human cancers. A persistent HR-HPV infection alters several cellular processes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune evasion, genomic instability and transformation. Cumulative evidence from past studies indicates that HR-HPV proteins are associated with oxidative stress (OS) and has been proposed as a risk factor for cancer development. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) regulate a plethora of processes inducing cellular proliferation, differentiation and death...
January 11, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307794/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-modulates-cytosolic-ca2-signaling-in-primary-human-hepatocytes
#5
Jessica C Casciano, Michael J Bouchard
Worldwide, approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV); chronic HBV infection is associated with the development of life-threatening liver diseases. The HBV HBx protein alters hepatocyte physiology to promote HBV replication. We previously reported that HBx modulates calcium signaling to stimulate HBV replication in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes. Whether HBx modulates calcium signaling in a primary human hepatocyte, the natural site of an HBV infection, has not been determined...
January 4, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294313/k48-linked-polyubiquitination-of-dengue-virus-ns1-protein-inhibits-its-interaction-with-the-viral-partner-ns4b
#6
Maria Isabel Giraldo, Oscar Vargas-Cuartas, Juan Carlos Gallego-Gomez, Pei-Yong Shi, Leonardo Padilla-Sanabria, Jhon Carlos Castaño-Osorio, Ricardo Rajsbaum
Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, which is transmitted to mammalian species through arthropods, and causes dengue fever or severe dengue fever in humans. The DENV genome encodes for multiple nonstructural (NS) proteins including NS1. NS1 plays an essential role in replication by interacting with other viral proteins including NS4B, however how these interactions are regulated during virus infection is not known. By using bioinformatics, mass spectrometry analysis, and co-immunoprecipitation assays, here we show that DENV-NS1 is ubiquitinated on multiples lysine residues during DENV infection, including K189, a lysine residue previously shown to be important for efficient DENV replication...
December 30, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292065/nuclear-localization-signal-regulates-porcine-circovirus-type-2-capsid-protein-nuclear-export-through-phosphorylation
#7
Qiang Hou, Shaohua Hou, Qing Chen, Hong Jia, Ting Xin, Yitong Jiang, Xiaoyu Guo, Hongfei Zhu
The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes the major Capsid (Cap) protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particle (VLP) of similar morphology to the PCV2 virion and accumulates in the nucleus through the N-terminal arginine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, PCV2 Cap protein and its derivates were expressed via the baculovirus expression system, and the cellular localization of the recombinant proteins were investigated using anti-Cap mAb by imaging flow cytometry...
December 29, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288673/construction-and-immunogenicity-analysis-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-expressing-a-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-s-gene-fused-to-a-dc-targeting-peptide
#8
Ke-Yan Huang, Gui-Lian Yang, Yu-Bei Jin, Jing Liu, Hong-Liang Chen, Peng-Bo Wang, Yan-Long Jiang, Chun-Wei Shi, Hai-Bin Huang, Jian-Zhong Wang, Guang Wang, Yuan-Huan Kang, Wen-Tao Yang, Chun-Feng Wang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is one of the most important causative pathogens of swine diarrhea, which is widely prevalent throughout the world and is responsible for significant economic losses in the commercial pig industry, both domestic and abroad. The spike (S) protein in the PEDV capsid structure can carry the major B lymphocyte epitope, which induces production of neutralizing antibodies and provides immunoprotective effects. Moreover, the conserved region encoded by the S gene can be considered a target for establishing a new diagnostic method and is a new candidate for vaccine design...
December 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278728/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-b-cell-epitope-on-aleutian-mink-disease-virus-capsid-protein-vp2-using-a-monoclonal-antibody
#9
Taofeng Lu, Yuanzhi Wang, Junwei Ge, Qin Ma, Wenzhuo Yan, Yuanyuan Zhang, Lili Zhao, Hongyan Chen
Aleutian mink disease is caused by a highly contagious parvovirus (Aleutian mink disease virus, AMDV). This disease is one of the most commercially important infectious disease worldwide and causes considerable economic losses to mink farmers. The capsid protein VP2 is the major immunogenic antigenic protein of AMDV, and is involved in viral tropism, pathogenicity, and host selection. However, few reports have described the use of VP2-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in B-cell epitope identification and immunological detection...
December 23, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275103/most-rotavirus-strains-require-the-cation-independent-mannose-6-phosphate-receptor-sortilin-1-and-cathepsins-to-enter-cells
#10
Marco A Díaz-Salinas, Luis A Casorla, Tomás López, Susana López, Carlos F Arias
Cathepsins, endosomal acid proteases, are transported from the trans-Golgi network to late endosomes by the mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR). We have previously demonstrated that some rotavirus strains, like UK, Wa, WI61, DS-1, and YM, require the cation-dependent (CD-) M6PR and cathepsins to enter from late endosomes to the cytoplasm in MA104 cells, while other strains, like the simian strain RRV, which enter cells from maturing endosomes, do not. However, the role of other trans-Golgi network-late endosome transporters, such as the cation-independent (CI-) M6PR and sortillin-1, has not been evaluated...
December 21, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273342/the-association-of-ribosomal-protein-l18-rpl18-with-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-viral-protein-vp3-enhances-viral-replication
#11
Bin Wang, Xueyan Duan, Mengjiao Fu, Yanan Liu, Yongqiang Wang, Xiaoqi Li, Hong Cao, Shijun J Zheng
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). IBDV VP3 is a multifunctional protein playing a key role in virus assembly and pathogenesis. To investigate the role of VP3 in pathogenesis, we transfected DF-1 cells with pRK5-FLAG-vp3 and found that VP3 enhanced type I interferon expression and suppressed IBDV replication. Furthermore we found that VP3 interacted with chicken Ribosomal Protein L18 (chRPL18) in host cells and knockdown of chRPL18 by RNAi significantly promoted Type I interferon expression and inhibited IBDV replication...
December 19, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273341/current-concepts-on-immunopathogenesis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#12
REVIEW
Hadi Peeridogaheh, Zahra Meshkat, Shahram Habibzadeh, Mohsen Arzanlou, Jafar Mohammad Shahi, Sina Rostami, Sina Gerayli, Roghayeh Teimourpour
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of liver damage and hepatic inflammation. Upon infection, effective antiviral responses by CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, Natural killer (NK) cells, and monocytes can lead to partial or complete eradication of the viral infection. To date, many studies have shown that the production of inhibitory cytokines such as Interleukin 10 (IL-10), Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), along with dysfunction of the dendritic cells (DCs), and the absence of efficient innate immune responses could lead to T cell exhaustion, development of persistent infection, and inability to eradicate the viral infection from liver...
December 19, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269104/dengue-virus-induced-changes-in-ca2-homeostasis-in-human-hepatic-cells-that-favor-the-viral-replicative-cycle
#13
Cinthia L Dionicio, Franshelle Peña, Luis A Constantino-Jonapa, Carlos Vazquez, Martha Yocupicio-Monroy, Romel Rosales, José Luis Zambrano, Marie Christine Ruiz, Rosa M Del Angel, Juan E Ludert
The role of Ca2+ during dengue virus (DENV) replication is unknown; thus, changes in Ca2+ homeostasis in DENV infected human hepatic HepG2 and Huh-7 cells were analyzed. Infected HepG2 cells, but not Huh-7 cells, showed a significant increase in plasma membrane permeability to Ca2+, while both cell lines showed marked reduced levels of Ca2+ stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. While the expression levels of STIM1 and ORAI1 showed no changes, STIM1 and ORAI1 were shown to co-localized in infected cells, indicating activation of the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) pathway...
December 18, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258747/direct-sequencing-of-the-white-spot-syndrome-virus-from-brazil-genome-assembly-and-new-insights-on-phylogeny
#14
Márcia Danielle A Dantas, Diego G Teixeira, Rita Cássia B Silva-Portela, Paulo Eduardo T Soares, João Paulo M S Lima, Lucymara F Agnez-Lima, Daniel Carlos F Lanza
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been the cause of great economic losses in world shrimp farming. In this work the genome of a Brazilian WSSV isolate was determined from direct sequencing of total DNA extracted from an infected whiteleg shrimp, and assembled based on a chimera template approach. Comparisons between WSSV-BR and other isolates revealed that the Brazilian virus has a relatively small genome, and is very similar to isolates from Thailand and Mexico. A phylogenetic relationship using different approaches has demonstrated that these isolates share a common evolutionary history...
December 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248499/gp41-a-superfamily-sf2-helicase-from-bacteriophage-bfk20
#15
Nora Halgasova, Radka Matuskova, Daniel Kraus, Adela Tkacova, Lenka Balusikova, Gabriela Bukovska
Gp41 is one of two helicases encoded by the genome of bacteriophage BFK20. The gp41 sequence contains conserved motifs from the SF2 family of helicases. We prepared and studied three recombinant proteins: gp41HN, a wild type-like protein with an N-terminal His-Tag; gp41HC, with an S2A mutation and a C-terminal His-Tag; and gp41dC, a mutant protein with a deleted C-terminal region and His-Tags on both N- and C-termini. We tested the enzymatic activities and DNA binding abilities of these isolated proteins. We found that both gp41HN and gp41HC had strong DNA-dependent ATPase activities, but that the ATPase activity of gp41dC was significantly lower regardless of the presence of DNA...
December 14, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242077/vaccine-type-mutations-identified-in-varicella-zoster-virus-passaged-in-cell-culture
#16
Seok Cheon Kim, Youn Hee Won, Ji Seon Park, Jeong Seon Jeon, Jin Hyun Ahn, Moon Jung Song, Ok Sarah Shin, Chan Hee Lee
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and shingles. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of clinical and vaccine strains suggested potential sites responsible for attenuation. In this study, low and high passages of two VZV clinical strains cultured in human fibroblast cells were compared for genomic DNA sequences and growth characteristics. Mutations were detected at 187 and 162 sites in the strain YC01 and YC02, respectively. More than 86% of mutations were found in open reading frames, and ORF62 exhibited highest frequency of mutations...
December 11, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233649/immune-protection-efficacy-of-fadv-4-surface-proteins-fiber-1-fiber-2-hexon-and-penton-base
#17
Xinglong Wang, Qiuxia Tang, Zhil Chu, Peixin Wang, Chen Luo, Yajie Zhang, Xiaoyu Fang, Li Qiu, Ruyi Dang, Zengqi Yang
The spread of hydropericardium syndrome has recently become serious in China since 2015. There is, therefore, an urgent need for new, safe and effective vaccines that prevent the disease. Here, the immune protection induced by Escherichia coli-expressed capsid proteins of fowl adenovirus serotype 4, including fiber-1, fiber-2, penton base and hexon (loop-1 region) were compared in chickens at different inoculation amounts. According to challenge mortalities and tissue gross/micro lesion results, fiber-2 induced the best protection, followed by fiber-1 and hexon...
December 9, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208424/evolutionary-studies-on-the-betaretrovirus-rerv-h-in-the-leporidae-family-reveal-an-endogenization-in-the-ancestor-of-oryctolagus-bunolagus-and-pentalagus-at-9-million-years-ago
#18
Patricia de Sousa-Pereira, Joana Abrantes, Hanna-Mari Baldauf, Pedro José Esteves
RERV-H was first identified in human tissues and mistaken for a human exogenous retrovirus. However, the integration sites carried by this virus showed that it was instead a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) endogenous retrovirus. The first clones retrieved from European rabbit samples represented defective proviruses, although estimation of proviral copy numbers found in the European rabbit genome ranged from hundreds to thousands. Screening for the presence of RERV-H showed the absence of the virus in two other lagomorphs, pika (Ochotona) and hares (Lepus), which diverged from rabbits about 35 and 12 million years ago, respectively...
December 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196195/novel-expression-of-immunogenic-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-like-particles-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#19
Varusha Pillay Veerapen, Albertha R van Zyl, Andrés Wigdorovitz, Edward P Rybicki, Ann E Meyers
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals and is endemic in Africa, parts of South America and southern Asia. The causative agent, FMD virus (FMDV) is a member of the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae. Vaccines currently used against FMDV are chemically inactivated virus strains which are produced under high-level biocontainment facilities, thus raising their cost. The development of recombinant FMDV vaccines has focused predominantly on FMDV virus-like particle (VLP) subunit vaccines for which promising results have been achieved...
November 30, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197549/isolation-and-characterization-of-kabuto-mountain-virus-a-new-tick-borne-phlebovirus-from-haemaphysalis-flava-ticks-in-japan
#20
Hiroko Ejiri, Chang-Kweng Lim, Haruhiko Isawa, Yukie Yamaguchi, Ryosuke Fujita, Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Ryusei Kuwata, Daisuke Kobayashi, Madoka Horiya, Guillermo Posadas-Herrera, Itoe Iizuka-Shiota, Satsuki Kakiuchi, Yukie Katayama, Toshihiko Hayashi, Toshinori Sasaki, Mutsuo Kobayashi, Shigeru Morikawa, Ken Maeda, Tetsuya Mizutani, Koki Kaku, Masayuki Saijo, Kyoko Sawabe
In Japan, indigenous tick-borne phleboviruses (TBPVs) and their associated diseases first became evident in 2013 by reported human cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). In this study, we report a novel member of the genus Phlebovirus designated as Kabuto Mountain virus (KAMV), which was isolated from the ixodid tick Haemaphysalis flava in Hyogo, Japan. A complete viral genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses showed that KAMV is a novel member of TBPVs, which is closely related to the Uukuniemi and Kaisodi group viruses...
November 29, 2017: Virus Research
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