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Virus Research

Jianliang Lv, Zhongwang Zhang, Li Pan, Yongguang Zhang
MicroRNAs are short, endogenous, nonprotein-coding RNAs that are essential for regulation of cellular processes through gene silencing. The miR-34/449 family is conserved in mammalian organisms and generally comprises six homologous genes: miR-34a, miR-34b, miR-34c, miR-449a, miR-449b and miR-449c, at three genomic loci. Strong similarity in the sequence of these miRNAs, particularly at the seed region, predicts robust functional redundancy. A large proportion of the literature on the miR-34/449 family focuses on its role in regulating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by modulating E2F- and p53-related signaling pathways...
November 6, 2018: Virus Research
Wenchao Sun, Hongyun Zhang, Min Zheng, Huihui Cao, Huijun Lu, Guanyu Zhao, Changzhan Xie, Liang Cao, Xiankai Wei, Jingshan Bi, Chizhe Yi, Gefen Yin, Ningyi Jin
Since the first description of canine circovirus (CanineCV)-associated infection, there have been several reports on the distribution of the disease in worldwide. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of CanineCV in China, we conducted PCR screening of 1226 dog serum samples collected from different regions in mainland China between 2014 and 2016. CanineCV DNA was found in 81/926 serum samples from Guangxi Province. Furthermore, 25 full-length genomes of CanineCV from positive samples were sequenced and compared with CanineCV sequences in the GenBank database...
November 2, 2018: Virus Research
Karla Cristine C Doysabas, Mami Oba, Masaya Furuta, Keisuke Iida, Tsutomu Omatsu, Tetsuya Furuya, Takashi Okada, Kripitch Sutummaporn, Hiroshi Shimoda, Min-Liang Wong, Chung-Hsin Wu, Yasushige Ohmori, Ryosuke Kobayashi, Yupadee Hengjan, Kenzo Yonemitsu, Ryusei Kuwata, Yoo-Kyung Kim, Sang-Hyun Han, Joon-Hyuk Sohn, Sang-Hoon Han, Kazuo Suzuki, Junpei Kimura, Ken Maeda, Hong-Shik Oh, Daiji Endoh, Tetsuya Mizutani, Eiichi Hondo
Bats are reservoir hosts of many zoonotic viruses and identification of viruses that they carry is important. This study aimed to use high throughput screening to identify the viruses in fecal guano of Taiwanese insectivorous bats caves in order to obtain more information on bat-derived pathogenic viruses in East Asia. Guano samples were collected from two caves in Taiwan, pooled, and then subjected to Multiplex PCR-based next generation sequencing for viral identification. Subsequently, encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) sequence was detected and confirmed by reverse transcription PCR...
November 1, 2018: Virus Research
Jianhao Cao, Junchang Zhang, Yanmeng Lu, Shuhong Luo, Jingqiang Zhang, Ping Zhu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) contains 3 types of particles, i.e., 22-nm-diameter spherical and tubular subviral particles (SVPs) and 44-nm-diameter Dane particles. The SVPs are non-infectious and present strong immunogenicity, while Dane particles are infectious. In this study, we isolated spherical SVPs from HBV carriers' sera and determined their 3D structure at the resolution of ~30 Å by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single-particle reconstruction. Our cryo-EM structure suggests that the native HBV spherical SVP is irregularly organized, where spike-like features are arranged in a crystalline-like pattern on the surface...
November 1, 2018: Virus Research
Wendy Black, Ryan M Troyer, Jesse Coutu, Karsten Wong, Peregrine Wolff, Martin Gilbert, Junfa Yuan, Annabel G Wise, Sunny Wang, Dan Xu, Matti Kiupel, Roger K Maes, Rob Bildfell, Ling Jin
Herpesvirus infection was investigated in black bears (Ursus americanus) with neurological signs and brain lesions of nonsuppurative encephalitis of unknown cause. Visible cytopathic effects (CPE) could only be observed on days 3-5 post-infection in HrT-18G cell line inoculated with bear tissue extracts. The observed CPE in HrT-18G cells included syncytia, intranuclear inclusions, and cell detachments seen in herpesvirus infection in vitro. Herpesvirus-like particles were observed in viral culture supernatant under the electron microscope, however, capsids ranging from 60 nm to 100 nm in size were often observed in viral cultures within the first two passages of propagation...
October 30, 2018: Virus Research
Heidar Sharafi, Saeideh Maleki, Seyed Moayed Alavian
INTRODUCTION: Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in the NS5A gene of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been studied as one of the predictors of response to NS5A inhibitor-containing regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of pre-treatment naturally-occurring NS5A RASs in HCV isolates from patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection retrieved from GenBank. METHODS: In the search procedure, the studies with published HCV-1 NS5A sequence in GenBank were screened and evaluated for inclusion in the pooled analysis...
October 25, 2018: Virus Research
Shu Li, Shuguang Lu, Hui Huang, Li Tan, Qingshan Ni, Weilong Shang, Yi Yang, Zhen Hu, Junmin Zhu, Ming Li, Xiancai Rao, Fuquan Hu, Xiaomei Hu
Enterobacteria phage SSL-2009a is a virulent bacteriophage with strong and abroad lytic ability against lots of engineering E. coli strains. In this study, we re-sequenced its whole genome and made a detail analysis on its genomic and proteomic characteristics according to the updated genomic sequence. The genome of SSL-2009a is a circular double-stranded DNA of 44,899 base pairs in length, with a 54.67% G + C content. A total of 67 open reading frames were predicted as protein coding sequences, 24 of which encode products highly homologous to known phage proteins...
October 25, 2018: Virus Research
Diego Alejandro Álvarez-Díaz, Aimer Alonso Gutiérrez-Díaz, Elizabeth Orozco-García, Andrés Puerta-González, Clara Isabel Bermúdez-Santana, Juan Carlos Gallego-Gómez
The most life-threatening effect of the Dengue virus (DENV) infection is an acute destabilization of the microvascular endothelial cell (MEC) barrier leading to plasma leakage, hypovolemic shock and haemorrhage. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms responsible for the dysfunction of MECs are not well understood. To identify potential cellular processes altered during DENV infection of MECs, expression profiles of cytokines/growth factors and microRNAs were measured by Luminex assay and next generation sequencing, respectively...
October 25, 2018: Virus Research
Lok R Joshi, Fernando V Bauermann, Kyle S Hain, Gerald F Kutish, Anibal G Armién, Chad P Lehman, Regg Neiger, Claudio L Afonso, Deoki N Tripathy, Diego G Diel
Fowlpox virus (FWPV), the type species of the genus Avipoxvirus family Poxviridae, is a large double-stranded DNA virus that causes fowlpox in chickens and turkeys. Notably, sequences of the avian retrovirus reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) are frequently found integrated into the genome of FWPV. While some FWPV strains carry remnants of the REV long terminal repeats (LTRs), other strains have been shown to contain insertions of nearly the full-length REV provirus in their genome. In the present study we detected heterogeneous FWPV populations carrying the REV LTR or the near full-length REV provirus genome in a Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami)...
October 22, 2018: Virus Research
Tengzhi Xu, Lei Lei, Junpeng Shi, Xin Wang, Jian Chen, Mingshuo Xue, Silong Sun, Binhui Zhan, Zihao Xia, Na Jiang, Tao Zhou, Jinsheng Lai, Zaifeng Fan
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) frequently causes dramatic losses in maize production as the main pathogen of maize dwarf mosaic disease. It is important to understand the translational responses in maize to SCMV infection since viruses have to recruit host translation apparatus to express their proteins. However, due to technical limitations, research on virus translation lags far behind that on transcription. Here, we studied the relationship between systemic symptom expression and virus accumulation and found that both SCMV RNA and proteins accumulated rapidly during the systemic infection process in which varying degrees of chlorosis to mosaic symptoms developed on non-inoculated leaves...
October 21, 2018: Virus Research
Xinsheng Liu, Qiaoling Zhang, Liping Zhang, Peng Zhou, Jun Yang, Yuzhen Fang, Zhaoliang Dong, Donghong Zhao, Weiyan Li, Jiaxin Feng, Baofeng Cui, Yongguang Zhang, Yonglu Wang
Since October 2010, severe porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreaks caused by highly virulent PED virus (PEDV) strains have occurred continuously in the Chinese pig population and caused considerable economic losses. Although PEDV vaccines based on classical PEDV strains have been widely used in China in recent years, the morbidity and mortality in piglets remain high. Therefore, virulent genotype GII PEDV strains that are prevalent in the field should be isolated and used to develop next-generation vaccines...
October 17, 2018: Virus Research
Juliana G S de Lima, Diego G Teixeira, Tiago T Freitas, João P M S Lima, Daniel C F Lanza
In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number of new species potentially belonging to the Totiviridae family. Most of these new viruses have not yet been covered by the Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) official classification. In this study, a phylogenetic analysis including new sequences of Totiviridae candidates revealed a clade including Giardiavirus and a great diversity of new totiviruses, which infect arthropods, protozoa and mollusc. This expanded Giardiavirus clade comprises two monophyletic groups, one of them including Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) grouped with viruses that infect arthropods and vertebrates (GLV-like group), and the other includes the previously proposed Artivirus group (IMNV-like group)...
October 16, 2018: Virus Research
Kalliopi Alpantaki, Alexandros Zafiropoulos, Melpomeni Tseliou, Eirini Vasarmidi, George Sourvinos
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration has a complex multifactorial origin and it is tightly associated with changes in the secretion of proteoglycans and collagen of the Nucleus Pulposus (NP) extracellular matrix. Chronic infection by Herpes virus has been previously associated with disc degeneration after detection of Herpes Simplex Virus type-1 (HSV-1) and CMV DNA in human excised disc samples. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of HSV-1 infection on proteoglycan synthesis employing human Nucleus Pulposus (HNPCs) cells as a model of intervertebral disc degeneration...
October 16, 2018: Virus Research
Atefeh Mohebbi, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Abbas Jamali, Ramin Yaghobi, Behrokh Farahmand, Reza Mohebbi
In 2015, the influenza virus A/H1N1/pdm09 strain outbreak became prevalent throughout the different provinces of Iran. There are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from Asian countries. Diagnosis and virological surveillance of influenza is essential for detecting novel genetic variants causing epidemic potential. This study describes the genetic properties of HA genome of influenza A/H1N1 pdm09 viruses circulating in Iran during the 2015/2016 season. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A/H1N1 pdm09, a total of 1758 nasopharyngeal swabs were screened by real-time RT-PCR...
October 15, 2018: Virus Research
David Kalbermatter, Neeta Shrestha, Nadine Ader-Ebert, Michael Herren, Pascal Moll, Richard K Plemper, Karl-Heinz Altmann, Johannes P Langedijk, Flavio Gall, Urs Lindenmann, Rainer Riedl, Dimitrios Fotiadis, Philippe Plattet
Morbilliviruses (e.g. measles virus [MeV] or canine distemper virus [CDV]) employ the attachment (H) and fusion (F) envelope glycoproteins for cell entry. H protein engagement to a cognate receptor eventually leads to F-triggering. Upon activation, F proteins transit from a prefusion to a postfusion conformation; a refolding process that is associated with membrane merging. Small-molecule morbilliviral fusion inhibitors such as the compound 3G (a chemical analog in the AS-48 class) were previously generated and mechanistic studies revealed a stabilizing effect on morbilliviral prefusion F trimers...
October 5, 2018: Virus Research
Tamiris Azamor da Costa Barros, Débora de Oliveira Batista, Amanda Torrentes de Carvalho, Nieli Rodrigues da Costa Faria, Débora Ferreira Barreto-Vieira, Fernanda Cunha Jácome, Ortrud Monika Barth, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Patrícia Cristina da Costa Neves, Denise Cristina de Souza Matos, Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo, Paulo Vieira Damasco, Rivaldo Venâncio da Cunha, Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto
Platelets play a role in hemostasis, coagulation, angiogenesis, inflammation and immune response is one of the most affected cells in dengue. Here we describe some aspects of platelets by observing their specific circulating mediators, the ability to interact with the virus and morphological consequences of this interaction, activation markers and intraplatelet protein contents in dengue. We conducted this study using dengue-patients as well as healthy donors. Immunoenzymatic assay, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and intraplatelet proteins expression assays were carried out...
September 30, 2018: Virus Research
B Sangeetha, V G Malathi, D Alice, M Suganthy, P Renukadevi
Chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.) is a single seeded cucurbitaceous vegetable crop mainly grown for its fruit. During 2015-2016, mosaic and leaf distortion type of symptoms were observed in chayote plants in hilly regions of Tamil Nadu. The disease incidence was 50. 3-100% and yield loss was about 69.9% in Dindigul district. The infected chayote plants showed yellow spots, yellow mosaic, leaf curling, puckering, and enations. The fruits of infected plants were malformed and were not marketable. The begomovirus causing the disease was identified as a variant of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus...
October 15, 2018: Virus Research
Giulia Franzoni, Silvia Dei Giudici, Annalisa Oggiano
African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating viral disease of domestic pigs and wild boar for which there is no vaccine available. The aetiological agent ASF virus (ASFV) has a predilection for cells of the myeloid lineage. Macrophages provide a first line defence against pathogens and are the main target of ASFV, thus several studies analysed their response to infection in terms of cytokine/chemokine expression and modulation of functionality. These studies have typically used macrophages differentiated in vitro from blood or bone marrow progenitors and few studies have focused on responses of polarized macrophages (M1, M2) or functional macrophage subsets isolated from different tissues...
October 15, 2018: Virus Research
Shiyu Long, Huipeng Yao, Qi Wu, Guoling Li
By using DNA Star, CUSP of EMBOSS, Codon W and IBM SPSS Statistics, nucleotide composition and codon usage pattern of 115 genes are researched in 37 BAVs. It shows that the composition of all genes prefers to AU, compared to CG, and for most of genes, the order is A, U, G and C in the virus. The ENC-values of the genes are slightly high which shows the weak codon bias, in which the codon bias of VP9 gene is the highest. The codon usage pattern of 12 different genes is different and related to their composition, their function or their host...
October 15, 2018: Virus Research
Tea Meulia, Lucy Stewart, Michael Goodin
The phosphoprotein (P) of the nucleorhabdovirus sonchus yellow net virus has been shown to accumulate in ring-shaped structures in virus-infected nuclei. Further examination by live-cell imaging, in combination with structural examination by transmission electron microscopy and immunolocalization demonstrated that P-rings do not form in association with nucleoli. Furthermore, viral cores were shown to condense on the nucleoplasm-contacting surface of the rings. The data presented here offer evidence for the site of nucleocapsid assembly in SYNV-infected nuclei...
October 15, 2018: Virus Research
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