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Virus Research

Farah Saeed, Muhammad Naeem Sattar, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Muhammad Hamza, Shahid Mansoor, Imran Amin
Cotton crop has been severely affected by multiple begomoviruses in Pakistan and India. In our previous study, we found okra enation leaf curl virus (OELCuV), cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) and cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMuA) infecting cotton in Pakistan. The current study was designed to investigate the infectivity of OELCuV and its ability to trans-replicate non-cognate CLCuMuB. Agro-infectious clones containing the partial tandem repeats of OELCuV and CLCuMuB were constructed and the infectivity assays were carried out through Agrobacterium mediated transformation in the model host species Nicotiana benthamiana under controlled conditions...
July 13, 2018: Virus Research
G I Godahewa, Seongdo Lee, Jeongeun Kim, N C N Perera, Myoung-Jin Kim, Mun Gyeong Kwon, Bo Young Jee, Seong Don Hwang, Jehee Lee
A batch of wild common carp and largemouth bass died in Andong, Gyeongsangbuk-do province, South Korea, in 2016. Moribund fish showed typical signs of spring viremia of carp (SVC) disease, which causes acute hemorrhage in the skin and ascites. Thus far, SVC disease has been detected in several regions of the world but never in South Korea. Suspecting the infectious agent to be the SCV virus (SVCV), the moribund fish were sampled and screened. The isolated virus developed a cytopathic effect in EPC cells. Both viral isolates from the common carp (ADC-SVC2016-1) and largemouth bass (ADC-SVC2016-3) were identical in terms of their genome sequence, which were 11034 bp nucleotides in length...
July 12, 2018: Virus Research
Yating Zhang, Lili Yao, Xin Xu, Huansheng Han, Pengfei Li, Dehua Zou, Xingzhi Li, Liang Zheng, Lixin Cheng, Yujiang Shen, Xianhe Wang, Xuening Wu, Jiaxin Xu, Baifen Song, Shuyan Xu, Hua Zhang, Hongwei Cao
Stress granules (SGs) are host translationally silent ribonucleo-proteins formed in cells in response to multiple types of environmental stress, including viral infection. We previously showed that the nuclear protein, 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis protein (Sam68), is recruited to cytoplasm and form the Sam68-positive SGs at 6 hpi, but the Sam68-positive SGs disassembled beyond 12 hpi, suggesting that the SGs might be inhibited during the late stage of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. However, the mechanism and function of this process remains poorly understood...
July 10, 2018: Virus Research
Noha Mohamed Hosni Shaheen, Naglaa Zayed, Nermine Magdi Riad, Hend H Tamim, Rasha Mohamed Hosny Shahin, Dalia A Labib, Suzan Mahrous ELsheikh, Reham Abdel Moneim, Ayman Yosry, Rania H Khalifa
In Egypt, liver diseases are exceptionally high, maintaining the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide, and increasing rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Available diagnostic methods show poor performance in early diagnosis of HCC. Definite pathogenic factors contributing in the development of HCV are still lacking. MicroRNAs have been reported as promising biomarkers for cancers diagnosis and in virus-host interaction. This study was conducted to detect the role of miR-182 and miR-150 as biomarkers for development of cirrhosis and malignant transformation in HCV infected patients...
July 9, 2018: Virus Research
Mudassar Imran, Muhammad Usman, Tufail Malik, Ali R Ansari
The Zika virus is transmitted to humans primarily through Aedes mosquitoes and through sexual contact. It is documented that the virus can be transmitted to newborn babies from their mothers. We consider a deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of the Zika virus infectious disease that spreads in, both humans and vectors, through horizontal and vertical transmission. The total populations of both humans and mosquitoes is assumed to be constant. Our models consist of a system of eight differential equations describing the human and vector populations during the different stages of the disease...
July 9, 2018: Virus Research
Zhijun Bai, Li Cheng Liu, Liyun Jiang, Lei Luo, Huahua Feng, Peng Lin, Qinglong Jing, Xincai Xiao, Huiqiong Zhou, Wenzhe Su, Yimin Cao, Yilan Li, Qing Cao, Weijun Chen, Biao Di, Zhicong Yang
To determine the evolutionary and phylodynamic history of DENV-1 in Guangdong, the strains detected between 1985 and 2015 were determined with phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses of the E gene. Three DENV-1 genotypes (I, V, and VI) were circulating in Guangdong, and genotype I was detected most frequently. The evolutionary rate of DENV-1 was estimated to be 1.03 × 10-3 nucleotide substitutions/site/year. The most recent ancestor of the viruses existed approximately 141 years ago. The observed epidemiological dynamics correlated with similar fluctuations in diversity, and the epidemiological dynamics of DENV-1 transmission reflect dramatic changes in the viral population sizes...
July 7, 2018: Virus Research
Fangying Cui, Zhuo Zhang, Jianju Xu, Xianping Ding, Xuemei Mu, Qiuling Wan, Liping Tan, Liyuan Fang, Zuyi Chen
The current study investigated nucleotide variability and phylogeny in high-risk HPV45 collected from Chinese women. Fifty-one samples positive for single infections of HPV45 were collected for DNA extraction and HPV typing. The E6 and E7 genes of HPV45 were sequenced, and then the phylogenetic tree was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method implemented in IQ-TREE under the HKY nucleotide substitution model. The selection pressures of the E6 and E7 genes were estimated using PAML software. Eleven nucleotide polymorphism sites were observed in the HPV45 E6 sequences, with 6 synonymous (C134T, T163C, A284C, T341C, T482C, A497G) and 5 non-synonymous (A124C, C157T, T162A, G259T, G487A) mutations...
July 5, 2018: Virus Research
Julien Andreani, Bernard La Scola
Metagenomic binning reconstructions represent an emergent powerful tool to discover novel microbial genomes and explore the diversity in microbial communities. This method is sometimes coupled with automatic pipeline to perform automatic annotations. Nevertheless, we found a publish Alphaproteobacteria in public database that containing 20 contigs identified as a bacterium that were actually a novel giant viruses close to Aureococcus anophagefferens virus. This virus was completely misidentified by automatic pipeline and missed by control program and finally concern near to 20% of this 2,4 Mb...
July 4, 2018: Virus Research
Andressa Fernanda Kunz, Flavia Possatti, José Antonio de Freitas, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Elisabete Takiuchi
This study reports the detection by RT-PCR and molecular characterization of partial RdRp gene of picobirnavirus (PBV) dsRNA in fecal samples (n = 100) from a meat sheep flock in southern Brazil. The analysis of the results allowed the identification of two important characteristics of PBV infection. The first was the high frequency of infection in the sheep flock evaluated where 62% of the analyzed fecal samples were PBV-positive. The second was the high genetic variability found in field strains of ovine PBV genogroup I circulating in animals of the same sheep flock...
July 3, 2018: Virus Research
Maribel Cayetano-Cruz, Carlos Francisco Coffeen, Josefina Valadez-García, Carmina Montiel-Pacheco, Ismael Bustos-Jaimes
The natural properties of virus-like particles (VLPs), like their nanometric size, polyvalence, monodispersity and biocompatibility, had called the attention of scientists from different fields. VLPs constitute an excellent platform for the development nanomaterials with a broad spectrum of applications, ranging from physics of soft matter to the development of vaccines and biological nanocarriers. To expand the repertoire of functions of VLPs, they can be decorated with different molecules. In this research, the α-glucosidase Ima1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was attached to the surface of in vitro assembled VLPs of parvovirus B19, by using the SpyTag/SpyCatcher system...
June 28, 2018: Virus Research
Ramanjit Kaur, Rajat Mudgal, Manju Narwal, Shailly Tomar
Alphavirus non-structural protein, nsP1 has a distinct molecular mechanism of capping the viral RNAs than the conventional capping mechanism of host. Thus, alphavirus capping enzyme nsP1 is a potential drug target. nsP1 catalyzes the methylation of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by transferring the methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to a GTP molecule at its N7 position with the help of nsP1 methyltransferase (MTase) followed by guanylylation (GT) reaction which involves the formation of m7 GMP-nsP1 covalent complex by nsP1 guanylyltransferase (GTase)...
June 26, 2018: Virus Research
Ching-Ying Wang, Mann-Jen Hour, Hsueh-Chou Lai, Chao-Hsien Chen, Pei-Jung Chang, Su-Hua Huang, Cheng-Wen Lin
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, shows broad sepectrum antiviral activity against many RNA and DNA viruses. This study investigated the antiviral efficacy of EGCG against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic flavivirus in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region. EGCG concentration-dependently reduced CPE, sub-G1 phase, and virus yield of infected cells with different JEV strains at different MOIs. The antiviral activity of EGCG against JEV in different assays declined in the following order: virus yield (IC50 of 7...
June 26, 2018: Virus Research
Wang Jinghan, Sun Yuan, Xing-Yu Meng, Li Lian-Feng, Li Yongfeng, Luo Yuzi, Wang Wenjing, Yu Shaoxiong, Yin Caixia, Li Su, Qiu Hua-Ji
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection causes most variable clinical syndromes from chronic or latent infection to acute death, and it is generally acknowledged that the course of disease is affected by both virus and host factors. To compare host immune responses to differentially virulent CSFV strains in pigs, fifteen 8-week-old specific-pathogen-free pigs were randomly divided into four groups and inoculated with the CSFV Shimen strain (a highly virulent strain), the HLJZZ2014 strain (a moderately virulent strains), C-strain (an avirulent strain), and DMEM (mock control), respectively...
June 25, 2018: Virus Research
Yoo Jin Lee, Changhee Lee
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), a newly discovered enteric coronavirus, is a causative agent of severe clinical diarrhea and intestinal pathological damage in piglets. As a first step toward understanding the effect of PDCoV on host cells, we elucidated mechanisms underlying the process of apoptotic cell death after PDCoV infection. The use of a pan-caspase inhibitor resulted in the inhibition of PDCoV-induced apoptosis and reduction of PDCoV replication, suggestive of the association of a caspase-dependent pathway...
June 22, 2018: Virus Research
Weijun Mai, Hongxiao Liu, Huiqing Chen, Yajing Zhou, Yan Chen
Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is a ubiquitous pathogen in the aquaculture worldwide. Little is known about the relationship between NNV virus and host cells. Our studies showed that RGNNV infection could induce cell cycle arrest via activation of p53 signaling in cultured host cells. Infection of RGNNV redistributed NPM1, stabilized p53 and inhibited cell proliferation by inducing G1 arrest. RGNNV infection also led to phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, RGNNV infection upregulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 A (p21) and downregulated cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)...
June 22, 2018: Virus Research
Kazuya Shirato, Hui-Wen Chang, Peter J M Rottier
The ability to infect and replicate in monocytes/macrophages is a critically distinguishing feature between the two feline coronavirus (FCoV) pathotypes: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV; low-virulent) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV; lethal). Previously, by comparing serotype II strains FIPV 79-1146 and FECV 79-1683 and recombinant chimeric forms thereof in cultured feline bone marrow macrophages, we mapped this difference to the C-terminal part of the viral spike (S) protein (S2). In view of the later identified diagnostic difference in this very part of the S protein of serotype I FCoV pathotypes, the present study aimed to further define the contribution of the earlier observed ten amino acids difference to the serotype II virus phenotype in macrophages...
June 21, 2018: Virus Research
Amanda Abdel-Al, Eman El-Ahwany, Mona Zoheiry, Marwa Hassan, Amged Ouf, Hoda Abu-Taleb, Ali Abdel Rahim, Mohamed Darwish El-Talkawy, Suher Zada
BACKGROUND: Current methodologies used to determine the progression of hepatic fibrosis rely heavily on liver biopsy, a dangerous and invasive procedure, with semi-subjective analysis of the results of the biopsy. Thus, a new approach is immensely needed for monitoring the progression of liver fibrosis in Hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. AIM OF WORK: The purpose of this study was to find highly specific and sensitive miRNA biomarkers that can be used to detect different stages of liver fibrosis...
June 19, 2018: Virus Research
Li Liwei, Zhou Yanjun, Jiang Yifeng, Gao Fei, Shan Tongling, Zhao Kuan, Zhang Yujiao, Li Lin, Tong Guangzhi
Porcine galectin-3 (GAL3) is a 29-kDa protein encoded by a single gene, LGALS3, located on chromosome 1. Here, using a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library from porcine alveolar macrophage cells (PAMs), we report for the first time that GAL3 interacts with nonstructural protein 12 (Nsp12) of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Although extensive research has focused on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), little is known about the pathogen and host interactions involving individual nonstructural viral proteins, especially Nsp12...
June 16, 2018: Virus Research
Chen Cheng, Shen Yu-Feng, Hu Yang, Liu Lei, Chen Wei-Chao, Wang Gao-Xue, Zhu Bin
As one of nine piscine viruses recognized by the International Office of Epizootics, spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is an important pathogen bringing high mortality to cyprinids. Up to now, there is no approved therapy on SVCV, making them strong public health threat in aquaculture. In this study, the anti-SVCV activities of 12 plant crude extracts were investigated by using epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. Among these plants, Psoralea corylifolia Linn. showed the highest inhibition on SVCV replication, with an inhibitory percentage of 67...
June 15, 2018: Virus Research
Hervé Seligmann
Mimivirus' genome includes parts of 5S, 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs encoded by Acanthamoeba's mitogenome, the giant virus' host. Two non-exclusive hypotheses for rRNA remnants in giant viruses are examined: 1. mitogenomes invade viral genomes as they do for nuclear chromosomes (producing numts); 2. megaviral genomes evolved from an ancestral mitogenome. Alignment analyses confirm mitochondrial, rather than alphaproteobacterial origins of megaviral rRNAs. Other mitogenes have likely megaviral homologues. These megaviral homologues coevolve to much larger extents than candidate rRNA homologues, suggesting rRNA decay in viruses...
June 15, 2018: Virus Research
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