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Virus Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428007/identification-and-characterization-of-two-rna-silencing-suppressors-encoded-by-ophioviruses
#1
Gabriel Robles Luna, Carina A Reyes, Eduardo J Peña, Eliana Ocolotobiche, Cecilia Baeza, Maria Belén Borniego, Richard Kormelink, María Laura García
Citrus psorosis virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus are two members of the genus Ophiovirus, family Ophioviridae. So far, how these viruses can interfere in the antiviral RNA silencing pathway is not known. In this study, using a local GFP silencing assay on Nicotiana benthamiana, the 24K-25K and the movement protein (MP) of both viruses were identified as RNA silencing suppressor proteins. Upon their co-expression with GFP in N. benthamiana 16c plants, the proteins also showed to suppress systemic RNA (GFP) silencing...
April 17, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419861/agroecological-and-environmental-factors-influence-barley-yellow-dwarf-viruses-in-grasslands-in-the-us-pacific-northwest
#2
Laura L Ingwell, Christelle Lacroix, Paul R Rhoades, Alexander V Karasev, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez
Plant pathogens can play a role in the competitive interactions between plant species and have been understudied in native prairies, which are declining globally, and in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands in the United States. Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV) are among the most economically important disease-causing agents of small grain cereal crops, such as wheat, and are known to infect over 150 Poaceae species, including many of the grass species present in prairies and CRP lands. Field surveys of Poaceae species were conducted in endangered Palouse Prairie and CRP habitats of southeastern Washington and adjacent northern Idaho, USA from 2010-2012 to examine for the presence of B/CYDV among plant hosts and aphid vectors...
April 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416404/genomic-and-antigenic-characterization-of-bovine-parainfluenza-3-viruses-in-the-united-states-including-modified-live-virus-vaccine-mlv-strains-and-field-strains-from-cattle
#3
R W Fulton, J D Neill, J T Saliki, C Landis, L J Burge, M E Payton
This study investigated the genetic and antigenic characterization of parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V) of cattle. Using molecular tests including real time PCR and viral genome sequencing, PI3V strains could be separated into PI3V types, including PI3V A, PI3V B, and PI3VC. Isolates from cattle with bovine respiratory disease clinical signs and commercial vaccines in the U.S. with MLV PI3V were typed using these molecular tests. All the MLV vaccine strains tested were PI3V A. In most cases PI3V field strains from calves receiving MLV vaccines were types heterologous to the vaccine type A...
April 14, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416403/feasibility-of-dsrna-treatment-for-post-clearing-spf-shrimp-stocks-of-newly-discovered-viral-infections-using-laem-singh-virus-lsnv-as-a-model
#4
Vanvimon Saksmerprome, Patai Charoonnart, Timothy W Flegel
Using post-larvae derived from specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks in penaeid shrimp farming has led to a dramatic increase in production. At the same time, new pathogens of farmed shrimp are continually being discovered. Sometimes these pathogens are carried by shrimp and other crustaceans as persistent infections without gross signs of disease. Thus it is that a 5-generation stock of Penaeus monodon SPF for several pathogens was found, post-stock-development, to be persistently-infected with newly-discovered Laem Singh virus (LSNV)...
April 14, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414040/sars-coronavirus-papain-like-protease-up-regulates-the-collagen-expression-through-non-samd-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling
#5
Ching-Ying Wang, Chien-Yi Lu, Shih-Wen Li, Chien-Chen Lai, Chun-Hung Hua, Su-Hua Huang, Ying-Ju Lin, Mann-Jen Hour, Cheng-Wen Lin
SARS coronavirus (CoV) papain-like protease (PLpro) reportedly induced the production of TGF-β1 through p38 MAPK/STAT3-meidated Egr-1-dependent activation (Sci. Rep. 6, 25754). This study investigated the correlation of PLpro-induced TGF-β1 with the expression of Type I collagen in human lung epithelial cells and mouse pulmonary tissues. Specific inhibitors for TGF-βRI, p38 MAPK, MEK, and STAT3 proved that SARS-CoV PLpro induced TGF-β1-dependent up-regulation of Type I collagen in vitro and in vivo. Subcellular localization analysis of SMAD3 and SMAD7 indicated that non-SMAD pathways in TGF-β1 signaling involved in the production of Type I collagen in transfected cells with pSARS-PLpro...
April 13, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408208/establishing-alighting-preferences-and-species-transmission-differences-for-pea-seed-borne-mosaic-virus-aphid-vectors
#6
B S Congdon, B A Coutts, M Renton, G R Flematti, R A C Jones
Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV) infection causes a serious disease of field pea (Pisum sativum) crops worldwide. The PSbMV transmission efficiencies of five aphid species previously found landing in south-west Australian pea crops in which PSbMV was spreading were studied. With plants of susceptible pea cv. Kaspa, the transmission efficiencies of Aphis craccivora, Myzus persicae, Acyrthosiphon kondoi and Rhopalosiphum padi were 27%, 26%, 6% and 3%, respectively. Lipaphis erysimi did not transmit PSbMV in these experiments...
April 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408207/transactivator-protein-an-alternative-for-delivery-of-recombinant-proteins-for-safer-reprogramming-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell
#7
REVIEW
Fazlina Nordin, Raja Norazireen Raja Ahmad, Farzin Farzaneh
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are somatic cells reprogrammed to pluripotency by forced expression of pluripotency factors. These cells are shown to have the same pluripotent potential as embryonic stem cells (ESC) and considered as an alternative to the much controversial usage of ESC which involved human embryos. However, the traditional method in reprogramming cells into iPSC using genome-integrating retro- or lenti- viruses remains an obstacle for its application in clinical setting. Although numerous studies have been conducted for a safer DNA-based reprogramming, reprogramming of iPSC by genetic modifications may raise the possibility of malignant transformation and has been a major limitation for its usage in clinical applications...
April 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396285/a-new-widespread-emaravirus-discovered-in-blackberry
#8
Mohamed Hassan, Patrick L Di Bello, Karen E Keller, Robert R Martin, Sead Sabanadzovic, Ioannis E Tzanetakis
A new virus was identified in blackberry plants exhibiting leaf mottling, chlorotic ringspots and curved midribs, symptoms associated with blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). The genome of the new virus, provisionally named blackberry leaf mottle-associated virus (BLMaV), was characterized and phylogenetic analysis revealed its close relationship to recognized members of the genus Emaravirus. BLMaV was transmitted by a yet to be described eriophyid mite species, further reinforcing its placement in the genus...
April 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396284/identification-of-a-nanovirus-alphasatellite-complex-in-sophora-alopecuroides
#9
Jahangir Heydarnejad, Mehdi Kamali, Hossain Massumi, Anders Kvarnheden, Maketalena F Male, Simona Kraberger, Daisy Stainton, Darren P Martin, Arvind Varsani
Viruses in the genus Nanovirus of the family Nanoviridae generally have eight individually encapsidated circular genome components and have been predominantly found infecting Fabaceae plants in Europe, Australia, Africa and Asia. For over a decade Sophora alopecuroides L. (Fabaceae) plants have been observed across Iran displaying dwarfing, yellowing, stunted leaves and yellow vein banding. Using a high-throughput sequencing approach, sequences were identified within one such plant that had similarities to nanovirus genome components...
April 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396283/experimental-infections-of-wild-bank-voles-myodes-glareolus-from-nephropatia-epidemica-endemic-and-non-endemic-regions-revealed-slight-differences-in-puumala-virological-course-and-immunological-responses
#10
Adélaïde Dubois, Guillaume Castel, Séverine Murri, Coralie Pulido, Jean-Baptiste Pons, Laure Benoit, Anne Loiseau, Latifa Lakhdar, Maxime Galan, Nathalie Charbonnel, Philippe Marianneau
In Europe, the occurrence of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a human disease caused by Puumala virus (PUUV), exhibits considerable geographical heterogeneity despite the continuous distribution of its reservoir, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. To better understand the causes of this heterogeneity, wild voles sampled in two adjacent NE endemic and non-endemic regions of France were infected experimentally with PUUV. The responses of bank voles to PUUV infection, based on the levels of anti-PUUV IgG and viral RNA, were compared...
April 7, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392445/identification-of-residues-or-motif-s-of-the-rice-stripe-virus-ns3-protein-required-for-self-interaction-and-for-silencing-suppressor-activity
#11
Hangil Kim, Won Kyong Cho, Sen Lian, Kook-Hyung Kim
Rice stripe virus (RSV) is an important pathogen of rice. The RSV genome consists of four single-stranded RNA segments that encode seven viral proteins. A previous report found that NS3 is a viral suppressor of RNA silencing and self interacts. Using a model that predicts protein structure, we identified amino acid residues or motifs, including four α-helix motifs, required for NS3 self-interaction. We then used yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays to study the interactions between full-length NS3 and its truncated and alanine substitution mutants...
April 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392444/spatiotemporal-spread-of-grapevine-red-blotch-associated-virus-in-a-california-vineyard
#12
Elizabeth J Cieniewicz, Sarah J Pethybridge, Adrienne Gorny, Laurence V Madden, Heather McLane, Keith L Perry, Marc Fuchs
Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), the causative agent of red blotch disease, is a member of the genus Grablovirus, in the family Geminiviridae and the first known geminivirus of Vitis spp. Limited information is available on the epidemiology of red blotch disease. A 2-hectare Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet franc' vineyard in Napa County, California, USA was selected for monitoring GRBaV spread over a three-year period (2014-2016) based on an initially low disease incidence and an aggregation of symptomatic vines at the edge of the vineyard proximal to a wooded riparian area...
April 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392443/enhanced-immunogenicity-following-mir-155-incorporation-into-the-influenza-a-virus-genome
#13
Leonard Izzard, Daniel Dlugolenski, Yingju Xia, Meagan McMahon, Deborah Middleton, Ralph A Tripp, John Stambas
Influenza A vaccine efficacy in the elderly is generally poor and so identification of novel molecular adjuvants to improve immunogenicity is important to reduce the overall burden of disease. Short non-coding RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate gene expression and have the potential to influence immune responses. One such miRNA, miR-155, has been shown to modulate T and B cell development and function. We incorporated miR-155 into the influenza A virus (IAV) genome creating a self-adjuvanting 'live vaccine' with the ability to modify immunogenicity...
April 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390972/targeting-cell-surface-hiv-1-env-protein-to-suppress-infectious-virus-formation
#14
Arangassery Rosemary Bastian, Charles G Ang, Kantharaju Kamanna, Farida Shaheen, Yu-Hung Huang, Karyn McFadden, Caitlin Duffy, Lauren D Bailey, Ramalingam Venkat Kalyana Sundaram, Irwin Chaiken
HIV-1 Env protein is essential for host cell entry, and targeting Env remains an important antiretroviral strategy. We previously found that a peptide triazole thiol KR13 and its gold nanoparticle conjugate AuNP-KR13 directly and irreversibly inactivate the virus by targeting the Env protein, leading to virus gp120 shedding, membrane disruption and p24 capsid protein release. Here, we examined the consequences of targeting cell-surface Env with the virus inactivators. We found that both agents led to formation of non-infectious virus from transiently transfected HEK293T cells...
April 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385491/hpv-transgenic-mouse-models-tools-for-studying-the-cancer-associated-immune-response
#15
REVIEW
Carlos Santos, Manuel Vilanova, Rui Medeiros, Rui M Gil da Costa
For decades, research on the pathogenesis of papillomavirus-induced lesions, particularly of human papillomavirus (HPV) has relied on the use of animal models. Among these, HPV-transgenic mice are some of the most frequently employed. After some initial unsuccessful attempts, researchers have succeeded in targeting the expression of one or more HPV-16 oncogenes to squamous epithelia, closely mimicking the lesions observed in cancer patients. The present review describes the relevance and usefulness of these animal models in understanding the tumour-associated immune response and developing new preventive and therapeutic strategies for HPV-associated cancers...
April 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373061/sequence-analysis-and-functional-characterization-of-full-length-hepatitis-b-virus-genomes-from-korean-cirrhotic-patients-with-or-without-liver-cancer
#16
Huailiang Zhou, Dina Gewaily, Sang Hoon Ahn, Carina Preskill, Yongxiang Wang, Li Zong, Jing Zhang, Kwang-Hyub Han, Jack Wands, Jisu Li, Shuping Tong
This study aimed to identify and characterize mutations in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome associated with advanced liver diseases. The 3.2-kb HBV genome of the C2 subgenotype was amplified from sera of 18 cirrhotic Korean patients with (10) or without (8) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and two clones per patient were characterized by transient transfection experiments in human hepatoma cells. While A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations were highly prevalent in both groups, the G1896A precore mutation to abolish hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression was more common in HCC clones (55% vs...
March 31, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365210/resolution-of-cassava-infecting-alphaflexiviruses-molecular-and-biological-characterization-of-a-novel-group-of-potexviruses-lacking-the-tgb3-gene
#17
Ivan Lozano, Ana M Leiva, Jenyfer Jimenez, Elizabeth Fernandez, Monica Carvajal-Yepes, Maritza Cuervo, Wilmer J Cuellar
Several potexviruses (Family Alphaflexiviridae) have been reported infecting cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in the Americas. They were isolated from severely diseased plants during the last 30-40 years and include: Cassava common mosaic virus (CsCMV), Cassava Caribbean mosaic virus (CsCaMV), Cassava Colombian symptomless virus (CsCSV) and Cassava virus X (CsVX). However, their definitive classification as distinct species remains unresolved for several reasons, including the lack of sequence data and unavailability of samples from original isolates...
March 29, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363778/aminopeptidase-n-is-not-required-for-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-cell-entry
#18
Wentao Li, Rui Luo, Qigai He, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Peter J M Rottier, Berend-Jan Bosch
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an emerging pathogenic coronavirus that causes a significant economic burden to the swine industry. The virus infects the intestinal epithelium and causes villous atrophy, resulting in diarrhea and dehydration. Interaction of the viral spike (S) surface glycoprotein - through its S1 subunit - with the host cell receptor is the first step in infection and the main determinant for virus tropism. As for several other alphacoronaviruses including the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), the aminopeptidase N (APN) protein was reported to be a functional receptor for PEDV...
March 28, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342998/field-evaluation-of-cucurbit-yellow-stunting-disorder-virus-transmission-by-bemisia-tabaci
#19
S J Castle, J P Palumbo, P Merten
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a whitefly-transmitted Crinivirus (Closteroviridae) that impacts melon production in many parts of the world including the USA. It has been responsible for melon crop loss in the southwestern U.S. since 2006 when it was first identified. Control strategies have revolved mainly around chemical control, but research to identify suitable products and approaches to implementing them has lagged. The current study investigated the performance of four systemic insecticides in the field while concurrently tracking CYSDV disease progression after controlled and natural whitefly inoculation of young melon plants...
March 22, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330779/enzootic-bovine-leukosis-in-a-two-month-old-calf
#20
Keisuke Oguma, Miho Suzuki, Hiroshi Sentsui
A two-month-old calf was diagnosed with leukosis on the basis of the clinical sign of enlarged, superficial lymph nodes. Serological and genetic tests for bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were performed because the calf was born from a cow infected with BLV. The serum had a weakly positive BLV antibody, and the BLV provirus was detected within neoplastic cells on performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis of the BLV provirus integration site using inverse PCR revealed that the BLV integration site location was identical on all chromosomes in all tumor tissues examined...
March 19, 2017: Virus Research
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