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Virus Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746884/effects-of-single-and-combined-use-of-bacteriophages-and-antibiotics-to-inactivate-escherichia-coli
#1
Nádia Valério, Cristiana Oliveira, Vânia Jesus, Tatiana Branco, Carla Pereira, Catarina Moreirinha, Adelaide Almeida
A major concern of phage therapy is the emergency of phage-resistant mutants. This limitation can be overcome by the combined use of phages and antibiotics. It has been shown that the combination of antibiotics and phages is an alternative that cannot only be effective at reducing bacterial numbers, but also to contribute to the management of resistance levels. However, this view has only been discussed with regard to antibiotic resistance and not to control phage-mutant emergence. In our study we compared not only the resistance of the bacteria to the four antibiotics tested with and without phages addition, but also the resistance to the phages in the presence and absence of antibiotics...
July 23, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743463/study-of-rna-a-initiation-translation-of-the-infectious-pancreatic-necrosis-virus
#2
Andrea Rivas-Aravena, Patricio Muñoz, Patricia Jorquera, Alvaro Diaz, Claudia Reinoso, Sebastián González- Catrilelbún, Ana María Sandino
The infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a salmonid pathogen that causes significant economic losses to the aquaculture industry. IPNV is a non-enveloped virus containing two uncapped and non-polyadenylated double strand RNA genomic segments, RNA-A and RNA-B. The viral protein Vpg is covalently attached to the 5' end of both segments. There is little knowledge about its viral cycle, particularly about the translation of the RNAs. Through experiments using mono and bicistronic reporters, in this work we show that the 120-nucleotide-long 5'-UTR of RNA-A contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that functions efficiently both in vitro and in salmon cells...
July 22, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743462/bacteriophages-in-the-human-gut-our-fellow-travelers-throughout-life-and-potential-biomarkers-of-heath-or-disease
#3
REVIEW
Babak Bakhshinejad, Saeedeh Ghiasvand
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is populated by a huge variety of viruses. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) constitute the largest and the most unrecognized part of virome. The total bacteriophage community of the human gut is called phageome. Phages colonize the gut from the earliest moments of life and become our fellow travelers throughout life. Phageome seems to be unique to each individual and shows a high degree of interpersonal variation. In the healthy gut, a vast majority of phages have a lysogenic lifestyle...
July 22, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723412/identification-of-a-viroid-like-rna-in-a-lychee-transcriptome-shotgun-assembly
#4
Jihong Jiang, Zhixiang Zhang, Bing Hu, Guibing Hu, Hongqing Wang, Chantal Faure, Armelle Marais, Thierry Candresse, Shifang Li
In the course of a systematic screen of plant transcriptomic data, the sequence of a novel viroid-like RNA was identified in four contigs in a recent Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly (TSA) from lychee in China. Portions of this sequence are closely related to the central conserved region (CCR) and terminal conserved region (TCR) present in members of the genus Apscaviroid, sequences that are important criteria for viroid classification. RT-PCR with two divergent adjacent primers amplified the full 304 nucleotide sequence of this viroid-like RNA which can be folded into the rod-like secondary structure that is a typical feature of viroids in the family Pospiviroidae...
July 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720421/assessment-of-the-hiv-1-reservoir-in-cd4-regulatory-t-cells-by-a-droplet-digital-pcr-based-approach
#5
Gábor Artúr Dunay, Anastasia Solomatina, Silke Kummer, Anja Hüfner, Julia Katharina Bialek, Johanna Maria Eberhard, Eva Tolosa, Joachim Hauber, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch
The relative contribution of regulatory T cells (Treg) as reservoir of HIV-1 in patients on chronic antiretroviral therapy is unclear to date. The aim of the current study was to assess the total HIV DNA burden and replication competent viral reservoir in Treg in comparison to central and effector memory cells (Tcm and Tem). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 10 HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy and one HIV elite controller. Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to quantify total HIV DNA loads in FACS sorted CD4+ Treg (CD25+CD127lo) as compared with Tcm (CD45RO+CCR7+) and Tem (CD45RO+CCR7-)...
July 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705681/mosquito-borne-and-sexual-transmission-of-zika-virus-recent-developments-and-future-directions
#6
REVIEW
Tereza Magalhaes, Brian D Foy, Ernesto T A Marques, Gregory D Ebel, James Weger-Lucarelli
Zika virus (ZIKV; Genus Flavivirus, Family Flaviviridae) has recently emerged in Asia and the Americas to cause large outbreaks of human disease. The outbreak has been characterized by high attack rates, birth defects in infants and severe neurological complications in adults. ZIKV is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes, but recent evidence implicates sexual transmission as playing an important role as well. This review highlights the transmission of ZIKV in humans, with a focus on both mosquito and sexually-transmitted routes and their outcomes...
July 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705680/characterization-of-significant-molecular-determinants-of-virulence-of-enterovirus-71-sub-genotype-b4-in-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells
#7
Pinn Tsin Isabel Yee, Reham Ahmed Hashim Mohamed, Seng-Kai Ong, Kuan Onn Tan, Chit Laa Poh
One of the leading causes of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71), displaying symptoms such as fever and ulcers in children but some strains can produce cardiopulmonary oedema which leads to death. There is no FDA-approved vaccine for prevention of severe HFMD. The molecular determinants of virulence for EV-A71 are unclear. It could be a single or a combination of amino acids that determines virulence in different EV-A71 genotype/sub-genotypes. Several EV-A71 strains bearing single nucleotide (nt) mutations were constructed and the contribution of each mutation to virulence was evaluated...
July 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698047/identification-of-a-novel-linear-b-cell-epitope-in-the-p27-of-avian-leukosis-virus
#8
Wiaam O A Khairy, Lin Wang, Xue Tian, Jianqiang Ye, Kun Qian, Hongxia Shao, Aijian Qin
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce virus-associated neoplasia and causes great economic loss in poultry industry. It is known that the capsid antigen p27 is the group-specific antigen that is highly conserved among all ALV subgroups, and is the most abundant immunogenic viral protein. In the present study, five overlapping fragments (GST- p27-F1/2, GST- p27-F2-1/2/3) of ALV-p27 were subjected to Western blotting analysis using a monoclonal antibody (5D3) against ALV-p27 to identify the epitope...
July 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698046/simian-varicella-virus-causes-robust-transcriptional-changes-in-t-cells-that-support-viral-replication
#9
Nicole Arnold, Ilhem Messaoudi
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox) during acute infection. Several studies have shown that T cells are early and preferential targets of VZV infection that play a critical role in disseminating VZV in to the skin and ganglia. However, the transcriptional changes that occur in VZV-infected T cells remain unclear due to limited access to clinical samples and robust translational animal models. In this study, we used a nonhuman primate model of VZV infection where rhesus macaques are infected with the closely related Simian Varicella Virus (SVV) to provide novel insights into VZV-T cell interactions...
July 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690070/plant-viruses-and-viroids-in-the-united-kingdom-an-analysis-of-first-detections-and-novel-discoveries-from-1980-2014
#10
REVIEW
A Fox, R A Mumford
This review covers 35 years (1980-2014) representing a period of changing land use and agricultural practices in the United Kingdom (UK), which have also witnessed a marked change in the availability and application of new diagnostic technologies. During this period there have been 53 first records of viruses and viroids, of which 36 were first UK findings and a further 17 previously undescribed viruses. Given the challenges in detection and diagnosis of plant viruses, the field of plant virology has been an early adopter of new diagnostic technologies and these data highlight the transition from a reliance on biological, morphological, and serological based identification to the increased application of nucleic acid based detection methods and latterly the emergence of Next-Generation Sequencing...
July 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690069/bovine-leukemia-virus-g4-enhances-virus-production
#11
Hironobu Murakami, Shotaro Asano, Jumpei Uchiyama, Reiichiro Sato, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Kenji Tsukamoto
The nonstructural G4 gene of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been thought to function in virus replication. However, the discovery of the AS1 gene on the antisense strand of the G4 gene has affected this interpretation. In this study, we investigated the function of G4 in virus production independent of the AS1 gene using a reverse genetic approach, and briefly examined the association of the G4 protein with Tax, which is also a nonstructural protein that promotes virus replication. First, we constructed a mutant molecular clone of BLV with a nonsense mutation in G4 that had a minimal effect on the AS1 gene...
July 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688850/crop-associated-virus-reduces-the-rooting-depth-of-non-crop-perennial-native-grass-more-than-non-crop-associated-virus-with-known-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-vsr
#12
Carolyn M Malmstrom, Patrick Bigelow, Piotr Trebicki, Anna K Busch, Colleen Friel, Ellen Cole, Heba Abdel-Azim, Colin Phillippo, Helen M Alexander
As agricultural acreage expanded and came to dominate landscapes across the world, viruses gained opportunities to move between crop and wild native plants. In the Midwestern USA, virus exchange currently occurs between widespread annual Poaceae crops and remnant native perennial prairie grasses now under consideration as bioenergy feedstocks. In this region, the common aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. (the bird cherry-oat aphid) transmits several virus species in the family Luteoviridae, including Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV, genus Luteovirus) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV and -RPS, genus Polerovirus)...
July 5, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687345/molecular-diversity-geographic-distribution-and-host-range-of-monocot-infecting-mastreviruses-in-africa-and-surrounding-islands
#13
Simona Kraberger, Salem Saumtally, Daniel Pande, Michel H R Khoodoo, Sonalall Dhayan, Asha Dookun-Saumtally, Dionne N Shepherd, Penelope Hartnady, Richard Atkinson, Francisco M Lakay, Britt Hanson, Devasha Redhi, Adérito L Monjane, Oliver P Windram, Matthew Walters, Sunday Oluwafemi, Jean Michel-Lett, Pierre Lefeuvre, Darren P Martin, Arvind Varsani
Maize streak virus (MSV), an important pathogen of maize in Africa, is the most extensively studied member of the Mastrevirus genus in the family Geminiviridae. Comparatively little is known about other monocot-infecting African mastreviruses, most of which infect uncultivated grasses. Here we determine the complete sequences of 134 full African mastrevirus genomes from predominantly uncultivated Poaceae species. Based on established taxonomic guidelines for the genus Mastrevirus, these genomes could be classified as belonging to the species Maize streak virus, Eragrostis minor streak virus, Maize streak Reunion virus, Panicum streak virus, Sugarcane streak Reunion virus and Sugarcane streak virus...
July 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684157/isolation-of-a-highly-pathogenic-spring-viraemia-of-carp-virus-strain-from-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-in-late-summer-china-2016
#14
Ling Shao, Jiuru Zhao
Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is an OIE-listed notifiable pathogen, which has brought huge economic loss to the aquaculture industry. Outbreaks of SVC mostly occur in spring with water temperature 11-17°C. Presently, there is an increase in detection during import quarantine testing and associated with outbreaks of SVCV outside of China, yet China is regarded as the origin of SVCV Asian clade. However, recent isolates from the Shanghai area all showed to be low pathogenic to their original hosts. In this study, we isolated a new SVCV strain (nominated as SH160901) from grass carp in late summer in Shanghai, 2016...
July 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684155/novel-mastreviruses-identified-in-australian-wild-rice
#15
Simona Kraberger, Andrew D W Geering, Matthew Walters, Darren P Martin, Arvind Varsani
Most known mastreviruses (family Geminiviridae) infect members of the grass family, Poaceae. Although the greatest number of grass-infecting mastrevirus species have been discovered in Africa, it is apparent that the ten grass-infecting mastrevirus species that have so far only been discovered in south-east Queensland have a degree of diversity that rivals that observed in Africa. In this study, we have used a deep sequencing approach to identify two new mastrevirus species, tentatively named rice latent virus 1 and 2 (RLV 1 and 2), from two, undescribed wild rice species (Oryza AA genome group) in Cape York Peninsula, Queensland...
July 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684158/the-high-mobility-group-at-hook-1-protein-stimulates-bovine-herpesvirus-1-productive-infection
#16
Liqian Zhu, Clinton Jones
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle that causes clinical symptoms in the upper respiratory tract and conjunctivitis. Like most alpha-herpesvirinae subfamily members, BoHV-1 establishes latency in sensory neurons. Stress consistently induces reactivation from latency, which is essential for virus transmission. Recent studies demonstrated that a viral protein (ORF2) expressed in a subset of latently infected neurons is associated with β-catenin and the high mobility group AT-hook 1 protein (HMGA1), which correlates with increased expression of these proteins in latently infected neurons...
July 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684156/virus-incidence-in-wheat-increases-under-elevated-co2-a-4-year-study-of-yellow-dwarf-viruses-from-a-free-air-carbon-dioxide-facility
#17
Piotr Trębicki, Narelle Nancarrow, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez, Brendan Rodoni, Mohammad Aftab, Angela Freeman, Alan Yen, Glenn Fitzgerald
The complexities behind the mechanisms associated with virus-host-vector interactions of vector-transmitted viruses, and their consequences for disease development need to be understood to reduce virus spread and disease severity. Climate has a substantial effect on viruses, vectors, host plants and their interactions. Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is predicted to impact the interactions between them. This study, conducted under ambient and elevated CO2 (550μmolmol(-1)), in the Australian Grains Free Air Carbon Enrichment facility reports on natural yellow dwarf virus incidence on wheat (including Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDV))...
July 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676258/discovery-of-a-novel-picornavirales-chequa-iflavirus-from-stressed-redclaw-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus-from-farms-in-northern-queensland-australia
#18
Kitikarn Sakuna, Jennifer Elliman, Leigh Owens
In 2014, northern Queensland crayfish from farms affected by particularly transportation and translocation stress, started to die with mortality reaching 20-40% after about three weeks and then mortalities subsided. Crayfish from 1 farm had 65% mortalities within 11 weeks. With histological examination of broodstock and juveniles, the muscle fibres were fractured with haemocytic infiltration reminiscent of viral infection or vitamin E/selenium deficiencies. Sequence dependent and independent PCRs failed to identify a viral aetiology...
July 1, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673869/impact-of-deletions-and-mutations-in-hepatitis-b-virus-envelope-proteins-on-serological-profile-and-clinical-evolution
#19
Brice Malve, Marine Eschlimann, Shaunagh Galgey, Honorine Fenaux, Fabien Zoulim, François Goehringer, Christian Rabaud, Thierry May, Hélène Jeulin, Evelyne Schvoerer
The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope glycoproteins are essential for viral entry into the hepatocyte and are also targets for host immune response. The study of these proteins could allow us to highlight molecular hot points influencing HBV fitness, which would subsequently modify the clinical evolution of the disease, both under anti-viral therapy or without treatment. The present short communication underlines the importance of the high variability in HBV envelope proteins, in regard with the literature and in our hands, for HBV-infected patients either on anti-HBV treatment or not...
July 1, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673868/complete-nucleotide-sequences-and-virion-particle-association-of-two-satellite-rnas-associated-with-panicum-mosaic-virus
#20
Jesse D Pyle, Judit Monis, Karen-Beth G Scholthof
Over six decades ago, panicum mosaic virus (PMV) was identified as the first viral pathogen of cultivated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Subsequently, PMV was demonstrated to support the replication of both a satellite RNA virus (SPMV) and satellite RNA (satRNA) agents during natural infections of host grasses. In this study, we report the isolation and full-length sequences of two PMV satRNAs identified in 1988 from St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) and centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) hosts...
June 30, 2017: Virus Research
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