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Virus Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634115/delineating-the-roles-of-cellular-and-innate-antiviral-immune-parameters-mediating-ranavirus-susceptibility-using-rainbow-trout-cell-lines
#1
Graeme J Lisser, Nguyen T K Vo, Stephanie J DeWitte-Orr
Frog virus 3 is the type species of the Ranavirus genus and the causative agent of massive mortalities of aquatic species worldwide. A critical step in limiting virus replication, particularly early in infection, is the innate immune response. Presently, little is known regarding what innate immune strategies limit FV3 at the cellular level. To this end, the present study uses two rainbow trout cell lines, RTG-2 and RTgutGC, which demonstrate susceptible and relatively resistant phenotypes to FV3 infection, to elucidate susceptibility factors to FV3...
June 17, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629901/identification-of-the-adenovirus-type-2-c-168-protein
#2
Arina Gromova, Hongxing Zhao, Anne Konzer, Alexander Falk, Ulf Pettersson, Sara Bergström Lind
A hitherto predicted but undetected protein, C-168, in adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) has been identified using mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics. The gene of this 17.7kDa protein is located on the forward strand in the major late transcription unit between base pairs 9294 and 9797. A tryptic peptide, derived from the C-terminal part of the protein, was identified with high amino acid sequence coverage. A candidate splice site for the corresponding mRNA is also presented. The protein sequence is unusual with repeats of serine, glycine and arginine...
June 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625668/towards-area-wide-management-of-insect-vectored-viruses-of-tomatoes-in-the-bowen-district
#3
P R Campbell, J E Cremer, R L Roach, V Steele, S Subramaniam, V Sivasubramaniam, C Monsour, T Mullins, D M Persley, C F Gambley
The Bowen region of Northern Queensland is an important winter production area for tomatoes in Australia. There are three economically important viruses in the region that affect tomato, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), which are vectored by whiteflies, thrips and aphids, respectively. An area wide management approach is required to lower the primary inoculum throughout the district. To this end, we undertook investigations into the virus incidence and alternative hosts for the virus and vectors in different cropping regions throughout the district, as well as local management options such as insecticide application and possible non-host cover crops for the wet-season break in production...
June 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625667/dynamics-of-pvy-strains-in-field-grown-potato-impact-of-strain-competition-and-ability-to-overcome-host-resistance-mechanisms
#4
Kim Davie, Ross Holmes, Jon Pickup, Christophe Lacomme
Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most important viral pathogen affecting potato crops worldwide. PVY can be transmitted non-persistently by aphids that do not colonize the host plant, resulting in a rapid acquisition and transmission of the virus between plants. PVY exists as a complex of strains that can be distinguished according to their pathogenicity, serology and genomic analysis. While virus incidence remains low in Scottish seed potato crops, PVY has become the increasingly prevalent virus. The monitoring of PVY(N) and PVY° serotypes has revealed a recent shift towards PVY(N) which now accounts for more than 90% of all PVY cases...
June 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625666/a-comparative-analysis-on-the-physicochemical-properties-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-envelope-protein-residues-that-affect-its-antigenic-properties
#5
Yu S Bukin, Yu P Dzhioev, S E Tkachev, I V Kozlova, A I Paramonov, D Ruzek, Z Qu, V I Zlobin
This work is dedicated to the study of the variability of the main antigenic envelope protein E among different strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus at the level of physical and chemical properties of the amino acid residues. E protein variants were extracted from then NCBI database. Four amino acid residues properties in the polypeptide sequences were investigated: the average volume of the amino acid residue in the protein tertiary structure, the number of amino acid residue hydrogen bond donors, the charge of amino acid residue lateral radical and the dipole moment of the amino acid residue...
June 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627394/novel-non-canonical-genetic-rearrangements-termed-complex-structural-variations-in-hbv-genome
#6
Kei Fujiwara, Kayoko Matsunami, Etsuko Iio, Shunsuke Nojiri, Takashi Joh
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important worldwide public health issue. Further knowledge on the characteristics of HBV will facilitate its eradication. Genome structural variations (SVs) are defined by its canonical form such as duplication, deletion, and insertion. However, recent studies have reported complex SVs that cannot be explained by those canonical SVs. A HBV strain (UK2) with an unusual genome structure rearrangement that was completely different from known mutations or rearrangements was previously reported...
June 13, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627393/the-potential-and-challenges-of-crispr-cas-in-eradication-of-hepatitis-b-virus-covalently-closed-circular-dna
#7
REVIEW
Hung-Chih Yang, Pei-Jer Chen
Current antiviral therapy fails to cure chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, primarily because of the persistence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Although nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) can inhibit the reverse transcriptase of HBV and suppress its replication to levels below the detection limit, viremia often rebounds after cessation of therapy. Nuclear cccDNA serves as the HBV replicative template and exhibits extraordinary stability, and is not affected by NAs. Therefore, curing chronic hepatitis B (CHB) requires novel therapy for purging cccDNA from patients...
June 13, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606385/isolation-of-kaeng-khoi-virus-kkv-from-eucampsipoda-sundaica-bat-flies-in-china
#8
Yun Feng, Yuanyuan Li, Shihong Fu, Xiaolong Li, Jingdong Song, Hailin Zhang, Weihong Yang, Yuzhen Zhang, Hong Pan, Guodong Liang
A virus strain (WDBC1210) was isolated from specimens of bat flies (Eucampsipoda sundaica) associated with Leschenault's Rousette (Rousettus leschenaultii) in the China-Myanmar border area of Yunnan Province, China. Both BHK-21 and VeroE6 cells infected with WDBC1210 showed evident cytopathic effects (CPE), and the highest propagation titer was 1×10(5.6). The virus particles were spherical, 70nm in diameter. Virus plaques could be observed in BHK-21 cells. The whole genome of WDBC1210 contained three RNA segments: the small gene (S), 975 nucleotides long; the medium gene (M), 4568 nucleotides long; and the large gene (L), 6866 nucleotides long...
June 9, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595969/emergence-and-epidemiology-of-cucurbit-yellow-stunting-disorder-virus-in-the-american-desert-southwest-and-development-of-host-plant-resistance-in-melon
#9
REVIEW
William M Wintermantel, Robert L Gilbertson, Eric T Natwick, James D McCreight
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Sonoran Desert region of the southwestern USA in 2006 and has become well established. Symptoms induced by CYSDV infection include a striking interveinal chlorosis or yellowing and reduced yield and quality. The virus is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci, and the cryptic species MEAM1 has been present in the region since the early 1990s. CYSDV has now become the most economically important of the viruses affecting cucurbit production in the southwestern US...
June 5, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591557/characterization-of-badnaviruses-infecting-dioscorea-spp-in-the-pacific-reveals-two-putative-novel-species-and-the-first-report-of-dioscorea-bacilliform-rt-virus-2
#10
Amit Sukal, Dawit Kidanemariam, James Dale, Anthony James, Robert Harding
The complete genome sequences of three new badnaviruses associated with yam (Dioscorea spp.) originating from Fiji, Papua New Guinea and Samoa were determined following rolling circle amplification of the virus genomes. The full-length genomes consisted of a single molecule of circular double-stranded DNA of 8106bp for isolate FJ14, 7871bp for isolate PNG10 and 7426bp for isolate SAM01. FJ14 and PNG10 contained three open reading frames while SAM01 had an additional open reading frame which partially overlapped the 3' end of ORF 3...
June 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587867/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-in-brazil-during-the-pandemic-and-post-pandemic-periods
#11
Alessandra C B Manito, Tiago Gräf, Vagner R Lunge, Nilo Ikuta
Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was responsible for the first global flu pandemic in 21st century affecting all the world. In Brazil, A(H1N1)pdm09 is still circulating as a seasonal virus, causing deaths every year. Nevertheless, the viral diffusion process that yearly seeds new influenza strains in the country was not investigated yet. The aim of the current study was to describe the phylodynamics and phylogeography of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Brazil between 2009 and 2014. Neuraminidase sequences from Brazil and other regions of the World were retrieved and analyzed...
June 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587866/digging-more-in-the-genetic-risk-prediction-of-hepatitis-c-virus-epidemic-in-egypt-apoptosis-genes-polymorphisms-in-the-susceptibility-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-association-with-viral-load
#12
Rania H Khalifa, Rasha Mohamad Hosny Shahin, Reham Emad Eldin Aboukhalil, Mohamed A Marie, Amr M El-Deeb, Nermine Magdi Riad
Egypt is confronted with the highest hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic. Apoptosis and cellular immune responses are crucial to the clearance or persistence of viral infections. This case-control study was carried out to detect whether apoptosis genes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) confer risk to HCV in a cohort of Egyptian patients and to explore their association with viral load. One hundred and ninety six blood samples were withdrawn from 96 HCV patients and 100 controls. The Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) -1525G>A and FasL-844T>C SNPs were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
June 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587865/impact-of-vat-resistance-in-melon-on-viral-epidemics-and-genetic-structure-of-virus-populations
#13
Schoeny Alexandra, Desbiez Cécile, Millot Pauline, Wipf-Scheibel Catherine, Nozeran Karine, Gognalons Patrick, Lecoq Hervé, Boissot Nathalie
Cultivar choice is at the heart of cropping systems and resistant cultivars should be at the heart of disease management strategies whenever available. They are the easiest, most efficient and environmentally friendly way of combating viral diseases at the farm level. Among the melon genetic resources, Vat is a unique gene conferring resistance to both the melon aphid Aphis gossypii and the viruses it carries. The 'virus side' of this pleiotropic phenotype is seldom regarded as an asset for virus control. Indeed, the effect of Vat on virus epidemics in the field is expected to vary according to the composition of aphid populations in the environment and long-term studies are needed to draw a correct trend...
June 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587864/up-regulation-of-circulating-mirna146a-correlates-with-viral-load-via-irak1-and-traf6-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients
#14
Fayda Ibrahim Abdel Motaleb, Enas Samir Nabih, Sherif Moneir Mohamed, Nehal Samir Abd Elhalim
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a life threatening human pathogen. It has been found that miRNA146a regulates innate immunity, inflammatory response and antiviral pathway. We evaluated miRNA146a expression by real-time PCR and IL-1 receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) levels by ELISA in serum of 36 HCV viremia patients and 42 age and gender matched healthy controls. RESULTS: miRNA146a expression was significantly higher in HCV patients with a best cut off value 1...
June 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583441/herpesvirus-tegument-and-immediate-early-proteins-are-pioneers-in-the-battle-between-viral-infection-and-nuclear-domain-10-related-host-defense
#15
REVIEW
Kuan Zhang, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
The sophisticated anti-viral functions of nuclear domain 10 (ND10) are revealed by identifying the role of each component and the countermeasures applied by viruses. Several ND10 proteins suppress herpesviruses at initial and early phases of infection. Herpesviruses need to antagonize these anti-viral proteins to start a productive infection. In this review the recently identified similarities and differences among the strategies adopted by the three subfamilies of herpesviruses are discussed, highlighting that one of the significant purposes of incorporating tegument proteins into the viral particles might be to counteract ND10 proteins immediately after the viral genome enters the host nucleus...
June 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583442/evolution-of-selective-sequencing-approaches-for-virus-discovery-and-virome-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Arvind Kumar, Satyapramod Murthy, Amit Kapoor
Recent advances in sequencing technologies have transformed the field of virus discovery and virome analysis. Once, mostly confined to the traditional Sanger sequencing based individual virus discovery, is now entirely replaced by high throughput sequencing (HTS) based virus metagenomics that can be used to characterize the nature and composition of entire viromes. To better harness the potential of HTS for study of viromes, sample preparation methodologies used different refinements to exclude amplification of non-viral components that can overshadow low-titer viruses...
June 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579356/mutations-in-matrix-protein-1-and-nucleoprotein-caused-human-specific-defects-in-nuclear-exportation-and-viral-assembly-of-an-avian-influenza-h7n1-virus
#17
Khwansiri Ninpan, Ornpreya Suptawiwat, Chompunuch Boonarkart, Pucharee Songprakhon, Pilaipan Puthavathana, Prasert Auewarakul
Nuclear exportation of influenza ribonucleoprotein is a vital step in viral replication cycle. In this study a particular H7N1 (A/ostrich/Zimbabwe/222-E3/1996) virus showed exclusively nuclear localization of the viral nucleoprotein (NP) only in human cell lines but not in cell lines of other species suggesting a human-specific nuclear exportation defect. After 10 passages in human lung cells, an adapted strain (H7N1:P10) could efficiently replicate and export viral NP in human cells. Mutations in the NP and matrix M1 gene at position 297 and 227, respectively, were found to rescue the defect...
June 1, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577889/nitric-oxide-associated-protein-1-is-associated-with-chloroplast-perturbation-and-disease-symptoms-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-infected-with-south-african-cassava-mosaic-virus
#18
Imanu Mwaba, Marie Emma Christine Rey
Nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1) in plants is a cyclic GTPase involved in protein translation in the chloroplast and has been indirectly linked to nitric oxide (NO) accumulation and response to biotic stress. The association between NOA1 and NO accumulation in Arabidopsis noa1 mutants has been linked to the inability of noa1 mutants to accumulate carbon reserves such as fumarate, leading to chloroplast dysfunction and a pale green leaf phenotype. To understand the role played by NOA1 in response to South African cassava mosaic virus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana, the expression of NbNOA1 and the accumulation of NO in leaf samples was compared between south african cassava mosaic (SACMV)-infected and mock-infected plants at 14 and 28 dpi...
May 31, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576697/sequencing-viral-sirnas-to-identify-previously-undescribed-viruses-and-viroids-in-a-panel-of-ornamental-plant-samples-structured-as-a-matrix-of-pools
#19
REVIEW
Eric Verdin, Catherine Wipf-Scheibel, Patrick Gognalons, François Aller, Mireille Jacquemond, Mark Tepfer
Ornamental plants constitute a largely unknown and potentially important source of pathogens affecting not only ornamental plants, but also major crop species. We have carried out studies using high-throughput sequencing of 21-24 nt RNAs from potentially virus-infected ornamental plants, followed by assembly of sequence scaffolds, to identify the virus and viroid genomes present in a panel of 67 plant samples representing 46 species belonging to the main sectors of the ornamental plant industry (cut flowers, pot plants, bulbs)...
May 30, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571760/a-bivalent-dendrimeric-peptide-bearing-a-t-cell-epitope-from-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-protein-3a-improves-humoral-response-against-classical-swine-fever-virus
#20
José Alejandro Bohórquez, Sira Defaus, Sara Muñoz-González, Marta Perez-Simó, Rosa Rosell, Lorenzo Fraile, Francisco Sobrino, David Andreu, Llilianne Ganges
Three dendrimeric peptides were synthesized in order to evaluate their immunogenicity and their potential protection against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in domestic pigs. Construct 1, an optimized version of a previously used dendrimer, had four copies of a B-cell epitope derived from CSFV E2 glycoprotein connected to an also CSFV-derived T-cell epitope through maleimide instead of thioether linkages. Construct 2 was similarly built but included only two copies of the B-cell epitope, and in also bivalent construct 3 the CSFV T-cell epitope was replaced by a previously described one from the 3A protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)...
May 30, 2017: Virus Research
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