journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Virus Research

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223184/aphid-transmission-of-lettuce-necrotic-leaf-curl-virus-a-member-of-a-tentative-new-subgroup-within-the-genus-torradovirus
#1
Martin Verbeek, Annette M Dullemans, René A A van der Vlugt
Lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus (LNLCV) was described as the first non-tomato-infecting member of the genus Torradovirus. Until today, the virus was found only in The Netherlands in two different areas in open field crops of lettuce. In 2015, LNLCV was accepted by the ICTV as a new member of the genus Torradovirus. The tomato-infecting (TI) torradoviruses Tomato torrado virus (ToTV), Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV) and Tomato chocolàte virus (ToChV) are transmitted by at least three whitefly species in a semi-persistent and stylet-borne manner...
February 18, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219746/application-of-high-throughput-sequencing-to-whole-rabies-viral-genome-characterisation-and-its-use-for-phylogenetic-re-evaluation-of-a-raccoon-strain-incursion-into-the-province-of-ontario
#2
Susan A Nadin-Davis, Adam Colville, Hannah Trewby, Roman Biek, Leslie Real
Raccoon rabies remains a serious public health problem throughout much of the eastern seaboard of North America due to the urban nature of the reservoir host and the many challenges inherent in multi-jurisdictional efforts to administer co-ordinated and comprehensive wildlife rabies control programmes. Better understanding of the mechanisms of spread of rabies virus can play a significant role in guiding such control efforts. To facilitate a detailed molecular epidemiological study of raccoon rabies virus movements across eastern North America, we developed a methodology to efficiently determine whole genome sequences of hundreds of viral samples...
February 17, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215614/genome-characterization-infectivity-assays-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-infectious-transcripts-of-soybean-yellow-mottle-mosaic-virus-from-india-reveals-a-novel-short-mild-genotype
#3
Nagamani Sandra, Abdul Kader Jailani, Rakesh Kumar Jain, Bikash Mandal
Nucleotide sequence of a distinct soybean yellow mottle mosaic virusisolate from Vignaradiata (mungbean isolate, SYMMV-Mb) from India was determined and compared with othermembers of the family Tombusviridae. The complete monopartite single-stranded RNA genome of SYMMV-Mb consisted of 3974nt with six putative open reading frames and includes 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 35 and 254nt, respectively. SYMMV-Mb genome shared 75% nt sequence identity at complete genome level and 67-92% identity at all ORFs level with SYMMV Korean and USA isolates (soybean isolates) followed by CPMoV, whereas it shared very low identity with other tombusviridae members (5 to 41%)...
February 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192164/origins-and-challenges-of-viral-dark-matter
#4
REVIEW
Siddharth R Krishnamurthy, David Wang
The accurate classification of viral dark matter - metagenomic sequences that originate from viruses but do not align to any reference virus sequences - is one of the major obstacles in comprehensively defining the virome. Depending on the sample, viral dark matter can make up from anywhere between 40 and 90% of sequences. This review focuses on the specific nature of dark matter as it relates to viral sequences. We identify three factors that contribute to the existence of viral dark matter: the divergence and length of virus sequences, the limitations of alignment based classification, and limited representation of viruses in reference sequence databases...
February 9, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192163/the-role-of-kenya-in-the-trans-african-spread-of-maize-streak-virus-strain-a
#5
Daniel Pande, Eugene Madzokere, Penelope Hartnady, Simona Kraberger, James Hadfield, Karyna Rosario, Anja Jäschke, Adérito L Monjane, Betty E Owor, Mathews M Dida, Dionne N Shepherd, Darren P Martin, Arvind Varsani, Gordon W Harkins
Maize streak virus (MSV), the causal agent of maize streak disease (MSD), is the most important viral pathogen of Africa's staple food crop, maize. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that the most widely-distributed and common MSV variant, MSV-A1, has been repeatedly traversing Africa over the past fifty years with long-range movements departing from either the Lake Victoria region of East Africa, or the region around the convergence of Zimbabwe, South Africa and Mozambique in southern Africa. Despite Kenya being the second most important maize producing country in East Africa, little is known about the Kenyan MSV population and its contribution to the ongoing diversification and trans-continental dissemination of MSV-A1...
February 9, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189698/a-free-vp3-c-terminus-is-essential-for-the-replication-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#6
Yung-Yi C Mosley, Ching Ching Wu, Tsang Long Lin
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been successfully incorporated into the viral-like particles of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) with a linker at the C-terminus of VP3 in a baculovirus system. However, when the same locus in segment A was used to express GFP by a reverse genetic (RG) system, no viable GFP-expressing IBDV was recovered. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, cDNA construct of segment A with only the linker sequence (9 amino acids) was applied to generate RG IBDV virus (rIBDV). Similarly, no rIBDV was recovered...
February 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188807/viral-polymerases
#7
EDITORIAL
Luis Menéndez-Arias, Raul Andino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174054/nidovirus-rna-polymerases-complex-enzymes-handling-exceptional-rna-genomes
#8
REVIEW
Clara C Posthuma, Aartjan J W Te Welthuis, Eric J Snijder
Coronaviruses and arteriviruses are distantly related human and animal pathogens that belong to the order Nidovirales. Nidoviruses are characterized by their polycistronic plus-stranded RNA genome, the production of subgenomic mRNAs and the conservation of a specific array of replicase domains, including key RNA-synthesizing enzymes. Coronaviruses (26-34 kilobases) have the largest known RNA genomes and their replication presumably requires a processive RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and enzymatic functions that suppress the consequences of the typically high error rate of viral RdRps...
February 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167267/analysis-of-the-three-dimensional-structure-of-the-african-horse-sickness-virus-vp7-trimer-by-homology-modelling
#9
Shani Bekker, Pieter Burger, Vida van Staden
VP7 is the major core protein of orbiviruses and is essential for virion assembly. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) VP7 self-assembles into highly insoluble crystalline particles - an attribute that may be related to the role of AHSV VP7 in virus assembly but also prevents crystallization. Given that this inherent insolubility is unique to AHSV VP7, we use amino acid sequence conservation analysis between AHSV VP7 and other orbiviruses to identify putative key residues that drive AHSV VP7 self-assembly. A homology model of the AHSV VP7 trimer was generated to analyze surface properties of the trimer and to identify surface residues as candidates for the AHSV VP7 trimer-trimer interactions that drive AHSV VP7 self-assembly...
February 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163093/picornaviral-polymerase-structure-function-and-fidelity-modulation
#10
REVIEW
Olve B Peersen
Like all positive strand RNA viruses, the picornaviruses replicate their genomes using a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme known as 3D(pol). Over the past decade we have made tremendous advances in our understanding of 3D(pol) structure and function, including the discovery of a novel mechanism for closing the active site that allows these viruses to easily fine tune replication fidelity and quasispecies distributions. This review summarizes current knowledge of picornaviral polymerase structure and how the enzyme interacts with RNA and other viral proteins to form stable and processive elongation complexes...
February 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161477/sequential-transmigration-of-polymorphonuclear-cells-and-naive-cd3-t-lymphocytes-across-the-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-in-vitro-following-infection-with-echovirus-30
#11
Tobias Dahm, Franziska Frank, Ortwin Adams, Holger A Lindner, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Christel Weiss, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Tobias Tenenbaum, Henriette Rudolph
Viral meningitis by non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) is a major public health burden causing fatal outcomes especially in the younger population. Strong evidence exists that the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) serves as an entry point for enterovirus and leucocytes into the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, analysis of clinical CSF specimens of patients with a NPEV infection revealed a predominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) in the early phase and mononuclear cells in the later course of meningitis...
February 1, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159613/the-vaccinia-virus-dna-polymerase-and-its-processivity-factor
#12
REVIEW
Maciej W Czarnecki, Paula Traktman
Vaccinia virus is the prototypic poxvirus. The 192 kilobase double-stranded DNA viral genome encodes most if not all of the viral replication machinery. The vaccinia virus DNA polymerase is encoded by the E9L gene. Sequence analysis indicates that E9 is a member of the B family of replicative polymerases. The enzyme has both polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities, both of which are essential to support viral replication. Genetic analysis of E9 has identified residues and motifs whose alteration can confer temperature-sensitivity, drug resistance (phosphonoacetic acid, aphidicolin, cytosine arabinsode, cidofovir) or altered fidelity...
February 1, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159612/a-prime-boost-vaccination-with-ha-dna-and-pichia-produced-ha-protein-elicits-a-strong-humoral-response-in-chickens-against-h5n1
#13
Anna Stachyra, Maria Pietrzak, Agnieszka Macioła, Anna Protasiuk, Monika Olszewska, Krzysztof Śmietanka, Zenon Minta, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Edyta Kopera, Agnieszka Sirko
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses cause severe disease and huge economic losses in domestic poultry and might pose a serious threat to people because of the high mortality rates in case of an accidental transmission to humans. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the immune responses and hemagglutination inhibition potential elicited by a combined DNA/recombinant protein prime/boost vaccination compared to DNA/DNA and protein/protein regimens in chickens. A plasmid encoding hemagglutinin (HA) from the A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006 (H5N1) virus, or the recombinant HA protein produced in Pichia pastoris system, both induced H5 HA-specific humoral immune responses in chickens...
January 31, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153606/herpesvirus-dna-polymerases-structures-functions-and-inhibitors
#14
REVIEW
Karima Zarrouk, Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
Human herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Herpesviridae family. These viruses have the ability to establish lifelong latency into the host and to periodically reactivate. Primary infections and reactivations of herpesviruses cause a large spectrum of diseases and may lead to severe complications in immunocompromised patients. The viral DNA polymerase is a key enzyme in the lytic phase of the infection by herpesviruses. This review focuses on the structures and functions of viral DNA polymerases of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)...
January 30, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143725/methylation-at-3-lcr-of-hpv16-can-be-affected-by-patient-age-and-disruption-of-e1-or-e2-genes
#15
Sérgio Menezes Amaro Filho, Neilane Bertoni, Ayslan Castro Brant, João Paulo Castello Branco Vidal, Shayany Pinto Felix, Silvia Maria Baeta Cavalcanti, Fernanda N Carestiato, Luís Felipe Leite Martins, Liz Maria de Almeida, Miguel Angelo Martins Moreira
CpG methylation at early promoter of HPV16 DNA, in the 3' end of the Long Control Region (3'LCR), has been associated to the presence of episomal forms of viral genome and, consequently, intact E1 and E2 ORFs. The DNA methylation would block the access of E2 viral protein to the E2 binding sites at early-promoter. However, is still unclear if methylation at 3'LCR of HPV16 DNA can also vary depending of other tumor characteristics in addition to viral DNA physical state. In this study, we evaluate whether the methylation level at the five CpG located at 3'LCR of HPV16 is associated to patient age and E1 and/or E2 ORFs integrity...
January 29, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137457/transcription-and-replication-mechanisms-of-bunyaviridae-and-arenaviridae-l-proteins
#16
REVIEW
François Ferron, Friedemann Weber, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Juan Reguera
Bunyaviridae and Arenaviridae virus families include an important number of highly pathogenic viruses for humans. They are enveloped viruses with negative stranded RNA genomes divided into three (bunyaviruses) or two (arenaviruses) segments. Each genome segment is coated by the viral nucleoproteins (NPs) and the polymerase (L protein) to form a functional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. The viral RNP provides the necessary context on which the L protein carries out the biosynthetic processes of RNA replication and gene transcription...
January 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137456/flower-like-zno-nanostructure-assisted-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-detection-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#17
Yonghua Ma, Yan Lu, Guiquan Guan, Jianxun Luo, Qingli Niu, Junlong Liu, Hong Yin, Guangyuan Liu
In this study, we described a novel and effective flower-like ZnO nanostructure assisted Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) method to detect Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV). The effects of different concentrations of ZnO nanoflower on the RT-LAMP reaction were investigated. With the increase of concentration of ZnO nanoflower, RT-LAMP reaction obtained optimization, until the concentration exceeded 1.5nM, RT-LAMP reaction was inhibited. Made 1nM as optimum concentration of ZnO nanoflower, we found that optimum RT-LAMP reaction temperature and time were 60°C and 30min, respectively...
January 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131854/a-structural-view-of-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerases-from-the-flavivirus-genus
#18
REVIEW
Guoliang Lu, Peng Gong
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) from the Flavivirus genus is naturally fused to a methyltransferase (MTase), and the full-length protein is named nonstructural protein 5 (NS5). Similar to polymerases from other RNA viruses, the flavivirus RdRP has an encircled human right hand architecture with palm, fingers, and thumb domains surrounding its polymerase active site. In contrast to primer-dependent RdRPs that have a spacious front channel to accommodate the template-product RNA duplex, the flavivirus RdRP has a priming element as a thumb domain insertion, partially occupying the front channel to facilitate the de novo initiation process...
January 25, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119119/association-between-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-hla-dp-gene-polymorphisms-in-the-turkish-population
#19
Ersin Akgöllü, Ramazan Bilgin, Hikmet Akkız, Yakup Ülger, Berrin Yalınbaş Kaya, Ümit Karaoğullarından, Yusuf Kemal Arslan
AIM: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects approximately 360 million people worldwide. 10-15% of patients with chronic HBV develop liver cirrhosis (LC), liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chronic HBV infection or HBV clearance is influenced by both viral and host factors. In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene polymorphisms rs3077 and rs9277535 were identified to be associated with chronic hepatitis B. HLA genes have been linked to immune response to infectious agents...
January 22, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119118/htlv-1-tax-impairs-k63-linked-ubiquitination-of-sting-to-evade-host-innate-immunity
#20
Jie Wang, Shuai Yang, Lu Liu, Hui Wang, Bo Yang
The cellular antiviral innate immune system is essential for host defense and viruses have evolved a variety of strategies to evade the innate immunity. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) belongs to the deltaretrovirus family and it can establish persistent infection in human beings for many years. However, how this virus evades the host innate immune responses remains unclear. Here we report a new strategy used by HTLV-1 to block innate immune responses. We observed that stimulator of interferon genes (STING) limited HTLV-1 protein expression and was critical to HTLV-1 reverse transcription intermediate (RTI) ssDNA90 triggered interferon (IFN)-β production in phorbol12-myristate13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP1 (PMA-THP1) cells...
January 22, 2017: Virus Research
journal
journal
28879
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"