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Virus Research

Marybeth Carmody, Joshua T Zimmer, Camille H Cushman, Thao Nguyen, T Glen Lawson
Many viruses make use of, and even direct, the ubiquitin-proteasome system to facilitate the generation of a cellular environment favorable for virus replication, while host cells use selected protein ubiquitylation pathways for antiviral defense. Relatively little information has been acquired, however, regarding the extent to which protein ubiquitylation determines the replication success of picornaviruses. Here we report that the ubiquitin-protein ligase E6AP/UBE3A, recently shown to be a participant in encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 3C protease concentration regulation, also facilitates the early stages of EMCV replication, probably by a mechanism that does not involve 3C protease ubiquitylation...
May 18, 2018: Virus Research
Daniel A Truchado, Richard A J Williams, Laura Benítez
Papillomaviruses (Family: Papillomaviridae) are small non-enveloped viruses that cause skin and mucosa infections in diverse vertebrates. The vast majority have been detected in mammals. However, the number of papillomaviruses described in birds is growing, especially because of metagenomic studies. Seven complete genomes and one partial sequence have been described, corresponding to five papillomavirus genera. These have been detected from various sample types, including skin, internal epithelium, and faecal material, from seven highly diverse wild and captive avian species...
May 17, 2018: Virus Research
Mengjiao Fu, Bin Wang, Xiang Chen, Zhiyuan He, Yongqiang Wang, Xiaoqi Li, Hong Cao, Shijun J Zheng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as post-transcriptional regulators, play important roles in the process of viral infection through inhibiting virus replication or modulating host immune response. However, the role of miRNAs in host response against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection is still unclear. In this study, we found that gga-miR-454 of the host was decreased in response to IBDV infection and that transfection of DF-1 cells with miR-454 inhibited IBDV replication via directly targeting the specific sequence of IBDV genomic segment B, while blockage of endogenous miR-454 by inhibitors enhanced virus replication...
May 16, 2018: Virus Research
Emily Rames, Joanne Macdonald
Enteroviruses (EV) are associated with a range of serious infections, including aseptic meningitis, hand foot and mouth disease, myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis and encephalitis. Improved methods for assessing EV genotypic diversity could assist molecular epidemiology studies, clinical diagnosis and environmental surveillance. We report new methods for EV genome amplification, and subsequent genotyping using the miniaturised MinION sequencing device. Importantly, this next-generation sequencer enabled correct strain-level assignment of identity for the EV-A71 isolate assessed, where strains with up to 99...
May 12, 2018: Virus Research
Yanhong Qiu, Yuping Wu, Yongjiang Zhang, Wenjie Xu, Chenguang Wang, Shuifang Zhu
In plants, RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism underlying antiviral immunity. To investigate antiviral responses in Nicotiana benthamiana, we analyzed the profiles of the virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in wild-type N. benthamiana and NbRDR6 mutant plants infected with the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b-deficient mutant. We observed that NbRDR6 regulates RNA silencing by producing vsRNAs that trigger an effective antiviral response, while NbRDR1 may nonredundantly and synergistically function with NbRDR6 to mediate immune responses...
May 12, 2018: Virus Research
N Shrestha, P H Weber, S V Burke, W Wysocki, M R Duvall, J J Bujarski
Although RNA viruses evolved the mechanisms of specific encapsidation, miss-packaging of cellular RNAs has been reported in such RNA virus systems as flock house virus or cucumber necrosis virus. To find out if brome mosaic virus (BMV), a tripartite RNA virus, can package cellular RNAs, BMV was propagated in barley and in Nicotiana benthamiana hosts, purified by cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient ultracentrifugation followed by nuclease treatment to remove any contaminating cellular (host) RNAs. The extracted virion RNA was then sequenced by using next-generation sequencing (NGS RNA-Seq) with the Illumina protocol...
May 10, 2018: Virus Research
Irina A Rudneva, Tatiana A Timofeeva, Evgenia A Mukasheva, Anna V Ignatieva, Aleksandr A Shilov, Elena I Burtseva, Boris I Timofeev, Nikolai V Kaverin
In the present study we assessed pleiotropic characteristics of the antibody-selected mutations. We investigated pH optimum of fusion, temperatures of HA heat inactivation, in vivo and in vitro replication kinetics, and connectivity with panel of sera of survivors patients in different epidemic seasons of the previously obtained influenza H1 escape mutants. Our results showed that N133D (H3 numbering) mutation significantly lowered the pH of fusion optimum. Several amino acid substitutions, including K163 N, Q192 L, D190E, G228E, and K285 M, reduced the stability of HA as determined by heat inactivation, whereas A198E substitution is associated with significant increase in HA thermostability compared to the wild-type virus...
May 10, 2018: Virus Research
Zi Yang, Xiaomin Xu, Fang Li, Feng Yang
White spot syndrome virus immediate early (IE) gene wsv249 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that can interact with a shrimp ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to mediate ubiquitination. In this study, to understand the transcriptional regulation of wsv249, a serial of 5'-truncated mutations were made on its promoter and the activities of mutated promoters was analyzed. Four 25 bp regions potentially containing either positive or negative regulatory elements were identified. Notably, the deletion of -275/-250, which abolished a cAMP-response element (CRE), greatly reduced the promoter activity by 84...
May 10, 2018: Virus Research
Bashar Ibrahim, Dino P McMahon, Franziska Hufsky, Martin Beer, Li Deng, Philippe Le Mercier, Massimo Palmarini, Volker Thiel, Manja Marz
Despite the recognized excellence of virology and bioinformatics, these two communities have interacted surprisingly sporadically, aside from some pioneering work on HIV-1 and influenza. Bringing together the expertise of bioinformaticians and virologists is crucial, since very specific but fundamental computational approaches are required for virus research, particularly in an era of big data. Collaboration between virologists and bioinformaticians is necessary to improve existing analytical tools, cloud-based systems, computational resources, data sharing approaches, new diagnostic tools, and bioinformatic training...
May 8, 2018: Virus Research
Ahmed M Erfan, Abdullah A Selim, Mahmoud M Naguib
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is one of the commercially important diseases of poultry worldwide. In Egypt, CAV has been reported to be a potential threat to the commercial poultry sectors. Hence, this study was aimed at isolation and full genomic analysis of CAVs circulating in chicken populations in different geographical location in Egypt. A total of 42 samples were collected from broiler chicken flocks in 9 governorates in Egypt from12 to 42 days of age. The mortality rate observed among chickens was ranging from 3% to 22%...
May 8, 2018: Virus Research
Jingfeng Li, Yu Sun, Yuying Li, Ximeng Liu, Qi Yue, Zhaofei Li
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the synthesis of palmitate, which is required for formation of complex fatty acids and phospholipids that are involved in energy production, membrane remodeling and modification of host and viral proteins. Presently, the roles of cellular fatty acid synthesis pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infection is not clear. In this study, we found that the transcripts level of fasn was significantly up-regulated at the early stage of AcMNPV infection...
May 7, 2018: Virus Research
Eilam-Frenkel B, Naaman H, Berkic G, I Veksler-Lublinsky, G Rall, Shemer Y, Gopas J
Many viruses can establish non-cytolytic, chronic infections in host cells. Beyond the intrinsically interesting questions of how this long-term parasitism is achieved, persistently infected cells can be useful to study virus-host interactions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs transcribed from the genomes of all multicellular organisms and some viruses. Individual miRNAs may regulate several hundred genes. In this research we have studied the expression of a selective group of host-cell encoded miRNAs, as expressed in a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) persistently infected HEp-2 cell line (HEp-2+RSV-GFP)...
May 4, 2018: Virus Research
Ákos Gellért, Tímea Pósa, Attila Fábián, László Szabó, Károly Bóka, Barbara Forró, Katalin Salánki, László Drahos, Eszter Tóth, Angéla Juhász, Ervin Balázs
A previous study showed that a single amino acid difference in the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) capsid protein (CP) elicits unusual symptoms. The wild-type strain (CMV-R) induces green mosaic symptoms and malformation while the mutant strain (CMV-R3E79R) causes chlorotic lesions on inoculated leaves and strong stunting with necrosis on systemic leaves. Virion preparations of CMV-R and CMV-R3E79R were partially purified from Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray and analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Their separated protein patterns showed remarkable differences at the 50-75 kDa range, both in numbers and intensity of spots, with more protein spots for the mutant CMV...
May 3, 2018: Virus Research
Taís Fukuta Cruz, Angelo José Magro, Alessandra M M G de Castro, Francisco J Pedraza-Ordoñez, Miriam Harumi Tsunemi, David Perahia, João Pessoa Araújo
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is an icosahedral, non-enveloped, and single-stranded circular DNA virus that belongs to the family Circoviridae, genus Circovirus, and is responsible for a complex of different diseases defined as porcine circovirus diseases (PCVDs). These diseases - including postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), enteric disease, respiratory disease, porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), and reproductive failure - are responsible for large economic losses in the pig industry...
May 3, 2018: Virus Research
Lin Chen, Chao Xing, Guoyao Ma, Jing Luo, Wen Su, Meng Li, Qiumei Shi, Hongxuan He
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A/H5N1 virus hijacks host cellular machinery to complete its life cycle; identification of the host factors involved in viral replication may facilitate antiviral drug development. Here, we first characterize a metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), and showed that it plays a crucial role in H5N1 viral replication. We found that H5N1 infection upregulated NDRG1 mRNA and protein expression. Overexpression of NDRG1 released approximately 4-fold more virions compared to the control group, whereas knockdown of NDRG1 resulted in a drop in viral RNA and protein production...
May 3, 2018: Virus Research
Doyeong Kim, Younghee Lee, Theo W Dreher, Tae-Ju Cho
Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) was able to enter animal cells when the spherical plant virus was conjugated with Tat, a cell penetrating peptide (CPP). Tat was chemically attached to the surface lysine residues of TYMV using hydrazone chemistry. Baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were incubated with either unmodified or Tat-conjugated TYMV and examined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopic analyses. Tat conjugation was shown to be more efficient than Lipofectamine in allowing TYMV to enter the mammalian cells...
May 3, 2018: Virus Research
Shokouhi Hadiseh, Farahmand Behrokh, Ghaemi Amir, Mazaheri Vahideh, Fotouhi Fatemeh
Influenza viruses are globally important respiratory pathogens with high degree of morbidity and mortality during annual epidemics. Influenza A vaccination has been challenged due to genetic evolution. M2 protein is the surface antigen of the virus and facilitates virus entry into the host cells. N-terminal 24 amino acid residues that constitute the extracellular domain of M2 protein (M2e) show remarkable conservation among all subtypes of influenza A viruses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of using HSP70 as an adjuvant fused to three tandem repeats of M2e (3M2e) to enhance the immune responses against influenza A challenge...
May 3, 2018: Virus Research
Irene Melegari, Federica Di Profio, Fulvio Marsilio, Vittorio Sarchese, Andrea Palombieri, Klaus Gunther Friedrich, Federico Coccia, Barbara Di Martino
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of human enterically-transmitted viral hepatitis occurring around the world both as outbreaks and as sporadic cases. Non-human primates (NHPs) have been experimentally infected with HEV, but few studies have been reported about natural infection in wild-living and zoo monkeys. In order to provide a more complete picture on the epidemiology of HEV in NHPs living in controlled environment, we investigated the presence of HEV by screening serologically and molecularly a historical collection of 86 sera from seven different species of primates housed at the Zoological Garden (Bioparco) of Rome, Italy...
May 2, 2018: Virus Research
Nisrine Chelkha, Philippe Colson, Anthony Levasseur, Bernard La Scola
Giant viruses infect protozoa, especially amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba. These viruses possess genetic elements named Mobilome. So far, this mobilome comprises provirophages which are integrated into the genome of their hosts, transpovirons, and Maverick/Polintons. Virophages replicate inside virus factories within Acanthamoeba and can decrease the infectivity of giant viruses. The virophage infecting CroV was found to be integrated in the host of CroV, Cafeteria roenbergensis, thus protecting C. roenbergensis by reduction of CroV multiplication...
April 28, 2018: Virus Research
Zijing Guo, Qifu He, Hua Yue, Bin Zhang, Cheng Tang
Nebovirus is a new genus within the family Caliciviridae and is a causative agent of calf diarrhea. The limited nebovirus genomic sequences that are currently available has hampered understanding of nebovirus genetic evolution. The aim of the present study was to determine the genomic characterization of strain Bo/LZB-1/17/CH, which was previously identified as being similar to the novel genotype strain Bo/DijonA216/06/FR based on partial capsid sequences. Our results show that the complete RNA genome of strain Bo/LZB-1/17/CH is 7,453 nucleotides (nt) in length and shares 79...
April 27, 2018: Virus Research
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