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Virus Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155032/pennington-et-al-first-demonstration-of-equid-gammaherpesviruses-within-the-gastric-mucosal-epithelium-of-horses-virus-research-volume-242-15-october-2017-pages-30-36
#1
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155139/the-generation-and-characterisation-of-neutralising-antibodies-against-the-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus-tmev-gdvii-capsid-reveals-the-potential-binding-site-of-the-host-cell-co-receptor-heparan-sulfate
#2
Nicole Upfold, Caroline Ross, Özlem Tastan Bishop, Garry A Luke, Caroline Knox
The early stages of picornavirus capsid assembly and the host factors involved are poorly understood. Since the localisation of viral proteins in infected cells can provide information on their function, antibodies against purified Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) GDVII capsids were generated by immunisation of rabbits. The resultant anti-TMEV capsid antibodies recognised a C-terminal region of VP1 but not VP2 or VP3 by Western analysis. Examination of the sites of TMEV capsid assembly by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy showed that at 5hours post infection, capsid signal was diffusely cytoplasmic with strong perinuclear staining and moved into large punctate structures from 6 to 8hours post infection...
November 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155138/hpv16-e5-is-produced-from-an-hpv16-early-mrna-spliced-from-sd226-to-sa3358
#3
Kersti Nilsson, Christopher Norberg, Ann-Kristin Mossberg, Stefan Schwartz
The HPV16 E5 open reading frame (ORF) is present on the majority of all alternatively spliced HPV16 mRNAs, but it is currently unknown how well it is translated into E5 protein. To identify HPV16 mRNAs that are efficiently translated into E5, we have generated cDNA plasmids expressing individual, alternatively spliced HPV16 mRNAs with the potential to produce E5. By replacing the E5 ORF with sLuc, we could quantitate sLuc and determine how well each cDNA was translated. Our results showed that the upstream E1 and E7 AUGs inhibited translation of the E5 ORF and revealed that only one HPV16 mRNA produced high levels of E5...
November 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155034/identification-of-a-novel-porcine-oasl-variant-exhibiting-antiviral-activity
#4
Changjing Zhao, Sheng Zheng, Dan Zhu, Xue Lian, Weiting Liu, Feng Hu, Puyan Chen, Ruibing Cao
2', 5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase-lilke (OASL) protein is an atypical oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) family member, which possesses antiviral activity but lacks 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity. Here, a novel variant of porcine OASL (pOASL2) was identified through RT-PCR amplification. This gene is distinguishable from the previously described wild-type porcine OASL (pOASL1). The gene appears to be derived from a truncation of exon 4 plus 8 nucleotides of exon 5 with a premature termination, measuring only 633 bp in length, although its position corresponds to that of pOASL1...
November 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155033/the-gut-virome-of-the-protochordate-model-organism-ciona-intestinalis-subtype-a
#5
Brittany A Leigh, Anni Djurhuus, Mya Breitbart, Larry J Dishaw
The identification of host-specific bacterial and viral communities associated with diverse animals has led to the concept of the metaorganism, which defines the animal and all of its associated microbes as a single unit. Here we sequence the viruses found in the gut (i.e., the gut virome) of the marine invertebrate model system, Ciona intestinalis subtype A, in samples collected one year apart. We present evidence for a host-associated virome that is distinct from the surrounding seawater and contains some temporally-stable members...
November 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154906/increase-in-taxonomic-assignment-efficiency-of-viral-reads-in-metagenomic-studies
#6
S François, D Filloux, M Frayssinet, P Roumagnac, D P Martin, M Ogliastro, R Froissart
Metagenomics studies have revolutionized the field of biology by revealing the presence of many previously unisolated and uncultured micro-organisms. However, one of the main problems encountered in metagenomic studies is the high percentage of sequences that cannot be assigned taxonomically using commonly used similarity-based approaches (e.g. BLAST or HMM). These unassigned sequences are allegorically called « dark matter » in the metagenomic literature and are often referred to as being derived from new or unknown organisms...
November 14, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141205/investigation-of-alimentary-canal-ultrastructure-following-knockdown-of-the-dicer-2-gene-in-planthoppers-reveals-the-potential-pathogenicity-of-southern-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-to-its-insect-vector
#7
Yuyan Liu, Qianzhuo Mao, Hanhong Lan, Haitao Wang, Taiyun Wei, Qian Chen
An increasing number of studies are suggesting that plant viruses, including southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), can adversely affect biological characteristics of insect vectors by unknown mechanisms. To study the adverse effect of SRBSDV at cellular level on the insect vector, we promoted viral infection by the disruption of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. The transmission electron microscopy was utilized to describe the ultrastructural changes that occurred in insects when the core component of the siRNA pathway, Dicer-2, was knocked down...
November 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141204/characterization-of-the-complete-genome-antigenicity-pathogenicity-tissue-tropism-and-shedding-of-a-recombinant-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-with-a-ck-ch-ljl-140901-like-backbone-and-an-s2-fragment-from-a-4-91-like-virus
#8
Lei Jiang, Zongxi Han, Yuqiu Chen, Wenjun Zhao, Junfeng Sun, Yan Zhao, Shengwang Liu
In this study, we isolated an infectious bronchitis virus, designated I1101/16, from broiler breeders in China. Analysis of the S1 gene showed that isolate I1101/16 was genetically close to strain ck/CH/LJL/140901, which belongs to the TW I genotype (also known as lineage GI-7 based on the recent IBV classification), however the S2 gene showed genetic diversity comparing to that of S1 gene. Comparison of the genomic sequences showed that the genome of isolate I1101/16 was similar to that of strain ck/CH/LJL/140901 from the 5' end of the genome to the 5' end of the S2 gene and from the 5' end of the 3a gene to the end of the genome, whereas the remaining parts of the genome sequences were more closely related to those of strain 4/91 than those of ck/CH/LJL/140901, thereby suggesting that recombination might have occurred during the origin of the virus...
November 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141203/mouse-adenovirus-type-1-infection-of-adipose-tissue
#9
Caitlyn T Molloy, Laura J Adkins, Cameron Griffin, Kanakadurga Singer, Jason B Weinberg
Human adenovirus (HAdV) type 36 seropositivity has been linked to obesity in humans. That link is supported by a small number of studies using HAdV-36 infection of animals that are not natural hosts for HAdVs. In this study, we infected mice with mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1), a mouse pathogen, to determine whether MAV-1 infected adipose tissue and was associated with adipose tissue inflammation and obesity. We detected MAV-1 in adipose tissue during acute MAV-1 infection, but we did not detect virus-induced increases in adipose tissue cytokine expression or histological evidence of adipose tissue inflammation during acute infection...
November 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138044/new-insight-into-the-rna-aquatic-virosphere-via-viromics
#10
REVIEW
Alexander Culley
RNA viruses that infect microbes are now recognized as an active, persistent and important component of the aquatic microbial community. While some information about the diversity and dynamics of the RNA virioplankton has been derived from culture-based and single gene approaches, research based on viromic and metatransciptomic methods has generated unprecedented insight into this relatively understudied class of microbes. Here, the relevant literature is summarized and discussed, including viromic studies of extracellular aquatic RNA viral assemblages, and transcriptomic studies of active and associated RNA viruses from aquatic environments followed by commentary on the present challenges and future directions of this field of research...
November 11, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129607/polymorphisms-in-hla-c-and-kir-alleles-are-not-associated-with-ham-tsp-risk-in-htlv-1-infected-subjects
#11
Tatiane Assone, Fernanda M Malta, Sonia Bakkour, Leilani Montalvo, Arthur M Paiva, Jerusa Smid, Augusto César Penalva de Oliveira, Fernanda de Toledo Gonçalves, Olinda do Carmo Luiz, Luiz Augusto M Fonseca, Philip J Norris, Jorge Casseb
INTRODUCTION: Several genetic polymorphisms may be related to susceptibility or resistance to viral disease outcomes. Immunological or genetic factors may act as major triggers of the immune pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. This study investigated the association of immune related genetic polymorphisms with viral and immunological markers. METHODS: 247 HTLV-1-infected volunteers, drawn from a larger group of HTLV-infected subjects followed at the Institute of Infectious Diseases "Emilio Ribas" (IIER) for up to 19 years, participated in this study, which ran from June 2011 to July 2016...
November 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126872/phylogenetic-analyses-of-denv-3-isolated-from-field-caught-mosquitoes-in-thailand
#12
Thikhumporn Sittivicharpinyo, Passorn Wonnapinij, Wunrada Surat
Dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV-3) can cause all forms of dengue diseases and is a predominant serotype in many countries. This serotype is classified into five genotypes: I-V. Genotypes I-III have widely spread throughout the world, whereas genotypes IV and V are rare. Despite the impact on the spread of dengue diseases, only a few studies have reported the characteristics of DENV present in mosquito vectors. Hence, this study aimed to identify DENV-3 genotypes and reveal genetic variation of this virus presented in field-caught mosquitoes collected from endemic areas in Thailand during 2011-2015...
November 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103997/metagenomics-reshapes-the-concepts-of-rna-virus-evolution-by-revealing-extensive-horizontal-virus-transfer
#13
REVIEW
Valerian V Dolja, Eugene V Koonin
Virus metagenomics is a young research filed but it has already transformed our understanding of virus diversity and evolution, and illuminated at a new level the connections between virus evolution and the evolution and ecology of the hosts. In this review article, we examine the new picture of the evolution of RNA viruses, the dominant component of the eukaryotic virome, that is emerging from metagenomic data analysis. The major expansion of many groups of RNA viruses through metagenomics allowed the construction of substantially improved phylogenetic trees for the conserved virus genes, primarily, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp)...
November 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122644/a-neo-virus-lifestyle-exhibited-by-a-ssrna-virus-hosted-in-an-unrelated-dsrna-virus-taxonomic-and-evolutionary-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Sakae Hisano, Rui Zhang, Md Iqbal Faruk, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki
Recent studies illustrate that fungi as virus hosts provides a unique platform for hunting viruses and exploring virus/virus and virus/host interactions. Such studies have revealed a number of as-yet-unreported viruses and virus/virus interactions. Among them is a unique intimate relationship between a (+)ssRNA virus, yado-kari virus (YkV1) and an unrelated dsRNA virus, yado-nushi virus (YnV1). YkV1 dsRNA, a replicated form of YkV1, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, are trans-encapsidated by the capsid protein of YnV1...
November 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113825/isolation-and-genetic-characterization-of-encephalomyocarditis-virus-1-from-a-deceased-captive-hamadryas-baboon
#15
Oleg I Vyshemirskii, Aslan A Agumava, Akop A Kalaydzyan, Andrei V Leontyuk, Jens H Kuhn, Alexey M Shchetinin, Tatyana V Vishnevskaya, Aykaz A Eremyan, Sergey V Alkhovsky
In 2007, numerous hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) died suddenly in an aviary of a primate institute in Sochi, Russia, in the absence of prior clinical signs. Necropsies were suggestive of encephalomyocarditis virus infection, but RT-PCR assays with commonly used primers were negative. Here we report the histopathological results obtained during necropsies and the isolation and genomic characterization of a divergent strain of encephalomyocarditis virus 1 (EMCV-1) from heart tissue of one of the succumbed hamadryas baboons...
November 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113824/comparative-analysis-of-different-cell-systems-for-zika-virus-zikv-propagation-and-evaluation-of-anti-zikv-compounds-in-vitro
#16
Ilaria Vicenti, Adele Boccuto, Alessia Giannini, Filippo Dragoni, Francesco Saladini, Maurizio Zazzi
A strong correlation between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and severe neurological disease in newborns and occasionally adults has emerged in the Brazilian outbreak. Efficient human cell-based assays are required to test candidate inhibitors of ZIKV replication. The aim of this work was to investigate ZIKV propagation and quantification in different cell lines. The human (U87, A549, Huh7), mosquito (C6/36) and monkey (VERO E6) cell lines tested were all permissive to ZIKV infection. When assessed by plaque forming units (PFU) in three different target cell lines, the maximal production of ZIKV was achieved in Huh7 at day 3 post-infection (6...
November 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113823/genomic-comparison-of-bovine-papillomavirus-1-isolates-from-bovine-equine-and-asinine-lesional-tissue-samples
#17
C Koch, A S Ramsauer, M Drögemüller, M Ackermann, V Gerber, K Tobler
Several attempts have been made to categorize equid- and bovid-specific bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) isolates based on sequence tags. This study includes newly determined sequence information from 33 BPV1 isolates of equine, asinine and bovine origin and investigates sequence bias due to host species. Twenty of the viral genomes were sequenced over their entire length and a further thirteen were sequenced, including flanking sequences, at two specific sites, the LCR and the E5 ORF. Alignment and analyses of the sequences did not reveal statistically significant site differences between the sequences of bovine and equid origin...
November 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113822/lack-of-tnf-%C3%AE-signaling-through-p55-makes-the-mice-more-susceptible-to-acute-infection-but-does-not-alter-state-of-latency-and-reactivation-of-hsv-1
#18
Aditi Mohankrishnan, Rajesh Parmar, Vishakha Bhurani, Sarat Kumar Dalai
TNF-α has been shown to play an important role in pathogenesis and latency of HSV-1 infections. TNF-α signals through TNFR1 (p55) and TNFR2 (p75), and signaling through p55 generally results in gene activation leading to induction of inflammatory responses. Here, we studied the role of TNF-α signaling in latent virus reactivation in p55-knock out (KO) mouse model of ocular HSV-1 infection. We found that KO mice are more susceptible to HSV-1 infection compared to wild type C57Bl/6 mice. While the absence of TNFRI signaling enhanced the ganglion latent DNA content by two folds, there was no difference in the maintenance and reactivation of latent HSV-1...
November 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113821/multiple-adaptive-amino-acid-substitutions-increase-the-virulence-of-a-wild-waterfowl-origin-reassortant-h5n8-avian-influenza-virus-in-mice
#19
Zhijun Yu, Kaihui Cheng, Weiyang Sun, Xinghai Zhang, Xianzhu Xia, Yuwei Gao
A novel H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) caused poultry outbreaks in the Republic of Korea in 2014. The novel H5N8 HPAIV has spread to Asia, Europe, and North America and caused great public concern from then on. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a wild waterfowl-origin H5N8 HPAIV to identify adaptive mutants that confer enhanced pathogenicity in mammals. The mouse lethal doses (MLD50) of the mouse-adapted variants were reduced 31623-fold compared to the wild-type (WT) virus. Mouse-adapted variants displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and expanded tissue tropism in mice...
November 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109019/quantifying-rotavirus-kinetics-in-the-reh-tumor-cell-line-using-in-vitro-data
#20
Gilberto González-Parra, Hana M Dobrovolny, Diego F Aranda, Benito Chen-Charpentier, Rafael Antonio Guerrero Rojas
Globally, rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea in children younger than 5 years of age, however, a quantitative understanding of the infection dynamics is still lacking. In this paper, we present the first study to extract viral kinetic parameters for in vitro rotavirus infections in the REH cell tumor line. We use a mathematical model of viral kinetics to extract parameter values by fitting the model to data from rotavirus infection of REH cells. While accurate results for some of the parameters of the mathematical model were not achievable due to its global non-identifiability, we are able to quantify approximately the time course of the infection for the first time...
November 3, 2017: Virus Research
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