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Clinical & Experimental Metastasis

Stanley P Leong, Carmen Ballesteros-Merino, Shawn M Jensen, Sebastian Marwitz, Carlo Bifulco, Bernard A Fox, Mojca Skoberne
Cancer microenvironment is the critical battle ground between the cancer cells and host response. Thus, more emphasis is directed to study the relationship between cancer cells and the stromal cells. Multiplex microscopy is an emerging technique in which multiple cell populations within the cancer microenvironment may be stained so that spatial relationship between cancer cells and, in particular, the immune cells may be studied during different stages of cancer development. Recent discovery of mutational burden and neoantigens in cancer has opened new landscapes in the interaction of host immune cells and cancer neoantigens...
July 18, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Thein Swe, Kevin B Kim
Malignant melanoma is generally chemo- and radio-resistant, and patients with advanced melanoma have a poor prognosis. However, with our increased understanding of the checkpoint immune molecules and genetic alterations of melanoma cells, more effective immunotherapy, such as anti CTLA4 antibody and anti PD-1 antibodies, and targeted drug therapy, such as BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors, have been developed, resulting in improved overall survival and quality of life of patients with advanced melanoma. In addition, emerging technologies to develop prognostic and predictive biomarkers for response to systemic therapy could help clinicians make more accurate assessments of the disease and formulate more effective treatment plans...
July 17, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Catherine Alix-Panabières, Klaus Pantel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Mauro Loi, Michael Frelinghuysen, Natalie Desiree Klass, Esther Oomen-De Hoop, Patrick Vincent Granton, Joachim Aerts, Cornelis Verhoef, Joost Nuyttens
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective option in oligo-metastatic cancer patients affected by lymph node metastases, but its use might be questioned due to risk of regional and distant dissemination through the lymph node chain. The primary aim of our study was to assess the loco-regional control following SBRT in this setting. Ninety-one patients undergoing SBRT for at least one lymph node metastasis from miscellaneous primary tumors were retrospectively evaluated for patterns of failure and toxicity...
July 11, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Stanley P Leong, Athena Aktipis, Carlo Maley
Within the cancer microenvironment, the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in the primary site as well as in the metastatic site represent a global biological phenomenon. To understand the growth, proliferation and progression of cancer either by local expansion and/or metastasis, it is important to understand the cancer microenvironment and host response to cancer growth. Melanoma is an excellent model to study the interaction of cancer initiation and growth in relationship to its microenvironment. Social evolution with cooperative cellular groups within an organism is what gives rise to multicellularity in the first place...
July 11, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Shiue-Wei Lai, Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Wen-Chiuan Tsai, Yi-Ming Chang, Wei-Hwa Lee, Chi-Tai Yeh, Tsu-Yi Chao
The aberrant activation of the FGFR signaling is detected in many solid tumors, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), suggesting it as a potential therapeutic target. In this study, we investigated the antitumor and anti-metastasis efficacy of the selective FGFR1 inhibitor, PD173074 in PDAC. We used immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses to demonstrate a strong correlation between FGFR1 amplification and/or expression and disease progression in PDAC patients. We showed that ALDHhigh (ALDH+) pancreatic cancer cells exhibited stem cell-like phenotype and expressed higher levels of FGFR1, Src, NF-κB, alongside stemness markers like Oct4 and Sox2, compared to their ALDHlow/null (ALDH-) counterparts, suggesting the preferential activation of the FGFR1/Src/NF-κB signaling axis in pancreatic cancer stem cells (panCSCs)...
July 9, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Catherine Alix-Panabières, Klaus Pantel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Jay W Granzow
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Lymphedema surgery, when integrated into a comprehensive lymphedema treatment program for patients, can provide effective and long-term improvements that non-surgical management alone cannot achieve. Such a treatment program can provide significant improvement for many issues such as recurring cellulitis infections, inability to wear clothing appropriate for the rest of their body size, loss of function of arm or leg, and desire to decrease the amount of lymphedema therapy and compression garment use...
July 6, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Olga A Martin, Robin L Anderson
The idea for this Special Issue originated from our recent review in Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology entitled "Does the mobilization of circulating tumour cells during cancer therapy cause metastasis?" Martin et al. (Nat Rev Clin Oncol 14:32-44, 2017). While preparing this review, it became evident that an overwhelming number of preclinical and clinical papers were implicating the involvement of all the major and indispensable cancer treatment modalities in causing increased numbers of tumour cells in circulation (CTCs), and potentially increased risk of distant metastasis...
July 3, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Belinda Yeo, Andrew D Redfern, Kellie A Mouchemore, John A Hamilton, Robin L Anderson
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is one of several cytokines that can expand and mobilize haematopoietic precursor cells from bone marrow. In particular, G-CSF mobilizes neutrophils when the host is challenged by infection or tissue damage. Severe neutropenia, or febrile neutropenia is a life-threatening event that can be mitigated by administration of G-CSF. Consequently, G-CSF has been used to support patients undergoing chemotherapy who would otherwise require dose reduction due to neutropenia...
July 2, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Katherine L Morel, Rebecca J Ormsby, Emma L Solly, Linh N K Tran, Christopher J Sweeney, Sonja Klebe, Nils Cordes, Pamela J Sykes
Despite advances in prostate cancer therapy, dissemination and growth of metastases results in shortened survival. Here we examined the potential anti-cancer effect of the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide (PTL) and its water soluble analogue dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT) on tumour progression and metastasis in the TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model of prostate cancer. Six-week-old male TRAMP mice received PTL (40 mg/kg in 10% ethanol/saline), DMAPT (100 mg/kg in sterile water), or vehicle controls by oral gavage thrice weekly until palpable tumour formation...
June 23, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
John K Chan, Stephanie Chow, Subasish Bhowmik, Amandeep Mann, Daniel S Kapp, Robert L Coleman
Gynecologic cancers comprise of mostly uterine, ovarian, and cervical malignancies and are responsible for 95,000 new cases annually in the United States. Uterine cancer is the most common and the number of new cases and mortality has been increasing. Cervical cancer has decreased due to screening, early detection, and treatment of pre-invasive cancers. However, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal because of advanced stage at diagnosis and drug resistance. The metastatic spread pattern differs amongst these cancers, with uterine and cervical cancer found mostly in the primary organ and ovarian cancer disseminating throughout the peritoneum and upper abdomen at presentation...
June 21, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Guetchyn Millien, Yuxia Cao, Carl J O'Hara, Jean-Bosco Tagne, Anne Hinds, Mary C Williams, Maria I Ramirez, Hasmeena Kathuria
Distinct members of the Ets family of transcription factors act as positive or negative regulators of genes involved in cellular proliferation, development, and tumorigenesis. In human lung cancer, increased ETS1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and metastasis. We tested whether ETS1 contributes to lung tumorigenesis by binding to Twist1, a gene involved in tumor cell motility and dissemination. We used a mouse lung cancer model with metastasis driven by conditionally activated Kras and concurrent tumor suppressor Lkb1 loss (Kras G12D / Lkb1-/- model) and a similar model of lung cancer that does not metastasize, driven by conditionally activated Kras alone (Kras G12D model)...
June 16, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Franz Sellner
Isolated pancreatic metastases (isPM) are a rare metastasizing pattern in the natural history of renal cell cancer. Their clinical hallmark is that they are confined to a single organ, the pancreas, while all other organs are unaffected for a long time. Almost all workers in the field suggested that mechanical tumor cell propagation to the pancreas may be the mechanism underlying this metastasizing pattern. In 2006 our group, by contrast, proposed an alternative mechanism, i.e. a special affinity of the tumor cells for the pancreas...
June 12, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Yu-Xia Yang, Li Wei, Yan-Ju Zhang, Takahide Hayano, María Del Pilar Piñeiro Pereda, Hirofumi Nakaoka, Qiang Li, Isabel Barragán Mallofret, Yuan-Zhi Lu, Luca Tamagnone, Ituro Inoue, Xiangdong Li, Jian-Yuan Luo, Ke Zheng, Hua You
Recent studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have key functions during breast cancer development. Considering the complexity of IncRNAs regulatory network, the identification of novel and functional lncRNAs associated with breast cancer is thus very important. By using Agilent LncRNA Human Gene Expression Microarray, we identified a number of lncRNAs that were differentially expressed in breast cancer compared to their corresponding adjacent tissues. According to the microarray, the expression of p10247, henceforth named as lncRNA-BCHE (standing for lncRNA high expressed in breast cancer), was found to be uniformly higher in all the five breast cancer tissues tested, and this was further confirmed in 56 breast cancer tissues by real-time RT-PCR...
June 8, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Andrew D Redfern, Lisa J Spalding, Erik W Thompson
Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes the shift of cells from an epithelial form to a contact independent, migratory, mesenchymal form. In cancer the change is linked to invasion and metastasis. Tumour conditions, including hypoxia, acidosis and a range of treatments can trigger EMT, which is implicated in the subsequent development of resistance to those same treatments. Consequently, the degree to which EMT occurs may underpin the entire course of tumour progression and treatment response in a patient...
June 8, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Charles M Balch
Dr. Donald L. Morton was clearly the pioneer of the sentinel node biopsy, which was a major advance in oncology that has improved the management of cancer patients worldwide. He conducted a series of practice-changing clinical trials to validate the important staging role of the sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma, and also spawned other studies that demonstrated its staging value in multiple other cancer types, most notably in breast cancer, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer. His many contributions in this field have provided a unique opportunity to study host/tumor relationships, since the sentinel lymph node is the first location were the host immune defenses are confronted with metastasis arising from the primary cancer...
May 31, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Diego M Marzese, Ayla O Manughian-Peter, Javier I J Orozco, Dave S B Hoon
Metastatic cells exhibit an extraordinary phenotypic plasticity, not only in adapting to unfamiliar microenvironments but also in surviving aggressive treatments and immune responses. A major source of phenotypic variability is alternative splicing (AS) of the pre-messenger RNA. This process is catalyzed by one of the most complex pieces of cellular molecular regulatory events, the spliceosome, which is composed of ribonucleoproteins and polypeptides termed spliceosome factors. With strong evidence indicating that AS affects nearly all genes encoded by the human genome, aberrant AS programs have a significant impact on cancer cell development and progression...
May 29, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Michael T Dellinger, Marlys H Witte
Ever since it was discovered that endothelial cells line lymphatic vessels, investigators have been working on unraveling the mechanisms that control the growth of this distinctive endothelium and its role in normal physiology and human disease. Recent technological advances have ushered in a new era of "omics" research on the lymphatic system. Research on the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of lymphatics has increased our understanding of the biology of the lymphatic vasculature. Here, we introduce the context-lymphatic "systemomics," then briefly review some of the latest advances in research on tumor-associated lymphatic vessels highlighting several "omic" studies that have shed light on mechanisms controlling the growth and function of tumor-associated lymphatic vessels...
May 28, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Michail Nikolaou, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Efthymios Kyrodimos
It is generally accepted that recent advances in anticancer agents have contributed significantly to the improvement of both the disease-free survival and quality of life in cancer patients. However, in many instances, a favorable initial response to treatment changes afterwards, thereby leading to cancer relapse and recurrence. This phenomenon of acquired resistance to therapy, it is a major problem for totally efficient anticancer therapy. The failure to obtain an initial response reflects a form of intrinsic resistance...
May 24, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
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