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Clinical & Experimental Metastasis

Mariz Kasoha, Rainer M Bohle, Anita Seibold, Christoph Gerlinger, Ingolf Juhasz-Böss, Erich-Franz Solomayer
Dysregulation of the Wnt inhibitor dickkopf-1 protein (Dkk1) has been reported in a variety of cancers. In addition, it has been linked to the progression of malignant bone disease by impairing osteoblast activity. This study investigated serum- and tissue levels of Dkk1 in breast cancer patients with- or without bone metastases. Serum Dkk1 levels were measured by ELISA in 89 breast cancer patients and 86 healthy women. Tissue levels of Dkk1 and β-catenin, a major downstream component of Wnt transduction pathway, were tested with immunohistochemical staining in 143 different tissues, including adjacent non-tumoral breast tissues, primary breast tumours, lymph nodes metastases, and bone metastases...
September 20, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Jennifer Hazel Elizabeth Baker, Alastair Hugh Kyle, Stefan Alexander Reinsberg, Firas Moosvi, Haley Margaret Patrick, Jordan Cran, Katayoun Saatchi, Urs Häfeli, Andrew Ivor Minchinton
Most HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients continue to relapse. Incomplete access to all target HER2-positive cells in metastases and tumor tissues is a potential mechanism of resistance to trastuzumab. The location of locally bound trastuzumab was evaluated in HER2-positive tissues in vivo and as in vivo xenografts or metastases models in mice. Microenvironmental elements of tumors were related to bound trastuzumab using immunohistochemical staining and include tight junctions, vasculature, vascular maturity, vessel patency, hypoxia and HER2 to look for correlations...
September 8, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Ramkishen Narayanan, Timothy G Wilson
Sentinel lymph node (SLN) based pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in prostate cancer (PCa) is appealing over the time, cost and morbidity classically attributed to conventional PLND during radical prostatectomy. The initial report of feasibility of the SLN concept in prostate cancer was nearly 20 years ago. However, PLND based on the SLN concept, either SLN biopsy of a single node or targeted SLN dissection of multiple nodes, is still considered investigational in PCa. To better appreciate the challenges, and potential solutions, associated with SLN-based PLND in PCa, this review will discuss the rationale behind PLND in PCa and evaluate current SLN efforts in the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in the US...
September 5, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Verena Kirn, Leonie Strake, Fabinshy Thangarajah, Lisa Richters, Hannah Eischeid, Ulrike Koitzsch, Margarete Odenthal, Jochen Fries
The role of ESR1 methylation in breast cancer and its influence on disease progression is not yet fully understood. Healthy breast tissue usually does not show ESR1 promoter methylation, whereas the frequency of ESR1 methylation appears to increase in primary breast cancer and in metastatic disease. Although women with ER positive breast cancer have a good prognosis, some will relapse. We aimed to evaluate the methylation status of ESR1 in primary breast cancer and its corresponding metastases by a methylation-specific real-time PCR and to correlate the methylation status with clinical outcome...
September 1, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Joaquín Araos, Jonathan P Sleeman, Boyan K Garvalov
Hypoxia is a characteristic feature of many cancer types, which ensues when the growth of a tumour outpaces its oxygen supply. The cellular response to reduced oxygen tension is centred around the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), which become stabilized under hypoxic conditions. In addition, a number of oxygen-independent mechanisms of HIF regulation have been described, which also play a role at distinct stages of tumour progression. Hypoxia and HIF activity have been linked to the control of all hallmarks of cancer, and increased levels of hypoxia or HIFs in human tumours are typically associated with poor prognosis...
August 31, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Filippo Alongi, Alba Fiorentino, Ruggero Ruggieri, Francesco Ricchetti, Patrick Kupelian
In the last few years, the major change has occurred in the expansion of indications for radiosurgery (SRS) to include patients with more than four brain metastases (BM). To address the expanding indications for SRS in the treatment of multiple BMs, HyperArcTM (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA, U.S.) was recently introduced in order to automate and simplify sophisticated treatments such as SRS/FSRT for multiple lesions (up to 20 BM). In this editorial some consideration about HyperArc cost-effectiveness were discussed in terms of reduction of treatment delivery time (multiple intracranial targets can be treated in a few minutes), the reduction of overall treatment time (treatment course of SRS of multiple BMs in a single session, rather than having to irradiate lesion per lesion during separate sessions on different days); reduction of costs for health systems...
August 24, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Jessica M Pastoriza, George S Karagiannis, Juan Lin, Sonali Lanjewar, David Entenberg, John S Condeelis, Joseph A Sparano, Xiaonan Xue, Thomas E Rohan, Maja H Oktay
Black race compared to white race is associated with more advanced stage and biologically aggressive breast cancer. Consequently, black patients are more frequently treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) than white patients. However, it is unclear how distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) of black patients treated with NAC, compares to DRFS of black patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC). We evaluated the association between race, distant recurrence, and type of chemotherapy (AC or NAC) in localized or locally advanced breast cancer...
August 22, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Masashi Takeuchi, Hiroya Takeuchi, Hirofumi Kawakubo, Yuko Kitagawa
The clinical utilization of sentinel node (SN) mapping for early esophageal cancer or gastric cancer has been unclear for a long time. However, previous investigations regarding SN mapping of these cancers have shown relatively good results with regard to the detection rate and diagnostic accuracy for determining the lymph node status. SN mapping helps obtain information about individual metastatic status and allows the modification of the operation in early-stage upper gastrointestinal (GI) disease. Radio-guided methods for identifying SNs in early esophageal cancer have been established via endoscopic injection of technetium-99m tin colloid...
August 22, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Kotaro Matsuda, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Mayuko Moritsubo, Koji Hiraoka, Tetsuya Hamada, Naoto Shiba, Koichi Ohshima
Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a transcription factor that is expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells. It plays an essential role in central tolerance by eliminating self-reactive T cells. Recently, extrathymic AIRE-expressing cells have been revealed, which are associated with peripheral tolerance. Moreover, AIRE expression has been demonstrated in skin tumors and breast cancer. However, the expression of AIRE in osteosarcoma is unknown. We used immunohistochemistry to investigate AIRE expression in biopsy samples from 43 patients with conventional osteosarcoma and statistically analyzed the association between AIRE expression and clinicopathological characteristics...
August 18, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Jenny Capuccini, Gabriella Macchia, Eleonora Farina, Milly Buwenge, Domenico Genovesi, Luciana Caravatta, Nam P Nguyen, Silvia Cammelli, Savino Cilla, Tigeneh Wondemagegnhu, A F M Kamal Uddin, Mostafà Aziz Sumon, Francesco Cellini, Vincenzo Valentini, Francesco Deodato, Alessio G Morganti
Metastases with soft tissues invasion, impending fractures or spinal cord compression (complicated bone metastases) represent a common clinical problem in advanced cancers and frequently lead to deterioration of patients' quality of life (QoL). A phase I-II study was planned to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a short-course radiotherapy (RT) and its efficacy in palliation of complicated bone metastases. A phase I trial was designed with three dose-escalation steps: 16, 18, and 20 Gy. Total dose at each level was delivered in 2 days, twice daily...
August 18, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Sukamal Saha, Mohamed Elgamal, Meghan Cherry, Robin Buttar, Swetha Pentapati, Suresh Mukkamala, Kiran Devisetty, Sunil Kaushal, Mustafa Alnounou, Trevor Singh, Sandeep Grewal, David Eilender, Madan Arora, David Wiese
All colon cancer patients with lymph node (LN) positive disease are treated with chemotherapy. Patients with node negative disease are usually cured by surgery alone. Yet about 20% of patients develop recurrence within 5 years despite node negative status. This may often be the result of missed micrometastases by conventional examination. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping was developed to find those nodes detected by blue dye which was ultrastaged to detect micrometastases. Consecutive patients, underwent SLN mapping with the blue dye with success rate of 99...
August 16, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Russell S Witte, Chandra Karunakaran, Andres N Zuniga, Hannah Schmitz, Hina Arif
This review describes emerging techniques within the last 5 years that employ ultrasound for detecting and staging malignancy, tracking metastasis, and guiding treatment. Ultrasound elastography quantifies soft tissue elastic properties that change as a tumor grows and proliferates. Hybrid imaging modalities that combine ultrasound with light or microwave energy provide novel contrast for mapping blood oxygen saturation, transport of particles through lymphatic vessels and nodes, and real-time feedback for guiding needle biopsies...
August 4, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Baldassarre Stea, Tijana Skrepnik, Charles C Hsu, Roy Abendroth
Radiation therapy continues to play an important role in the management of cancer. In this review, we discuss the use of radiation therapy to target and control micrometastatic disease (adjuvant use of radiation), or using stereotactic radiation therapy to address small volumes of gross disease, such as oligometastases, and finally the use of radiation therapy in the era of immunotherapy. Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat nodal basins suspected of harboring microscopic disease. More recently, computer and technical innovations have allowed radiation oncologists to treat small volumes of gross disease within the brain and also in the body with great success, adding to the cancer armamentarium...
July 30, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Philipp Horvath, Stefan Beckert, Florian Struller, Alfred Königsrainer, Marc André Reymond
Data on the effectivness of PIPAC in patients with peritoneal metastases of pancreaticobiliary origin is scarce. We here present further proof of treatment efficacy in this subset of patients. Repetitive PIPAC treatment with low-dose cisplatin 7.5 mg/m2 and doxorubicin 1.5 mg/m2 body surface area every 6 weeks and prospective data collection. Documentation included microscopic histological regression, median overall survival and treatment-related adverse events. Twelve patients with a median age of 57 years (range 43-78 years) were included...
July 30, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Wilko Thiele, Melanie Rothley, Arno Dimmler, Peter Bugert, Carla Salomó Coll, Jonathan P Sleeman
Platelets are thought to play an important role in metastasis formation, although the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Here we studied the influence of platelet numbers on organ-specific metastasis to the lungs and lymph nodes using Tpo deficient mice that have low platelet counts. After tail vein injection of 4T1 breast cancer cells, the number of lung metastases was significantly lower in Tpo-/- mice compared to Tpo+/+ mice. The same was true for the bone-tropic 4T1.2 derivative. In spontaneous orthotopic metastasis assays, 4T1 and 4T1...
July 24, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Stanley P Leong, Jonathan S Zager
The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the initial metastatic site for the majority of solid cancers. In some cases, cancer cells may bypass the SLNs and enter the vascular channels directly to spread to the systemic sites. Metastatic progression is an orderly process. During the process of metastasis, complex biochemical and molecular mechanisms are involved being subjected to the host influence, in particular, the immune system. With more detailed understanding of the genomic and molecular characteristics of cancer both from the primary site and its metastases, the pathways of cancer growth and spread within the cancer microenvironment may be further elucidated...
July 23, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Stanley P Leong, Carmen Ballesteros-Merino, Shawn M Jensen, Sebastian Marwitz, Carlo Bifulco, Bernard A Fox, Mojca Skoberne
Cancer microenvironment is the critical battle ground between the cancer cells and host response. Thus, more emphasis is directed to study the relationship between cancer cells and the stromal cells. Multiplex microscopy is an emerging technique in which multiple cell populations within the cancer microenvironment may be stained so that spatial relationship between cancer cells and, in particular, the immune cells may be studied during different stages of cancer development. Recent discovery of mutational burden and neoantigens in cancer has opened new landscapes in the interaction of host immune cells and cancer neoantigens...
July 18, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Thein Swe, Kevin B Kim
Malignant melanoma is generally chemo- and radio-resistant, and patients with advanced melanoma have a poor prognosis. However, with our increased understanding of the checkpoint immune molecules and genetic alterations of melanoma cells, more effective immunotherapy, such as anti CTLA4 antibody and anti PD-1 antibodies, and targeted drug therapy, such as BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors, have been developed, resulting in improved overall survival and quality of life of patients with advanced melanoma. In addition, emerging technologies to develop prognostic and predictive biomarkers for response to systemic therapy could help clinicians make more accurate assessments of the disease and formulate more effective treatment plans...
July 17, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Catherine Alix-Panabières, Klaus Pantel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Mauro Loi, Michael Frelinghuysen, Natalie Desiree Klass, Esther Oomen-De Hoop, Patrick Vincent Granton, Joachim Aerts, Cornelis Verhoef, Joost Nuyttens
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective option in oligo-metastatic cancer patients affected by lymph node metastases, but its use might be questioned due to risk of regional and distant dissemination through the lymph node chain. The primary aim of our study was to assess the loco-regional control following SBRT in this setting. Ninety-one patients undergoing SBRT for at least one lymph node metastasis from miscellaneous primary tumors were retrospectively evaluated for patterns of failure and toxicity...
July 11, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
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