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David Greenberg, Patricia A Hoover, Timo Vesikari, Christopher Peltier, David C Hurley, Richard D McFetridge, Michael Dallas, Jonathan Hartzel, Rocio D Marchese, Beth-Ann G Coller, Jon E Stek, Chitrananda Abeygunawardana, Michael A Winters, John E MacNair, Narahari S Pujar, Luwy Musey
BACKGROUND: Pediatric use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has been associated with significant decrease in disease burden. However, disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes has increased. Safety and immunogenicity of 15-valent PCV (PCV15) containing serotypes included in 13-valent PCV (PCV13) plus serotypes 22F and 33F were evaluated in infants (NCT01215188). METHODS: Infants received adjuvanted PCV15, nonadjuvanted PCV15, or PCV13 at 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months of age...
September 20, 2018: Vaccine
T Fischer, M Spohn, F Olearo, M E Zinser, Rahel Kasonta, H C Stubbe, A Rechtien, M L Ly, S Schmiedel, A W Lohse, A Grundhoff
VSV-EBOV is a replication-competent Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine, which was tested in clinical trials as response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak 2013-2016. It is the most advanced EBOV candidate currently in the licensure process. The experimental vaccine was again administered as response to outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, underlying molecular mechanisms that convey protection remain incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known key regulators that influence gene expression on a post-transcriptional level...
September 20, 2018: Vaccine
Ouzama Henry, Jerzy Brzostek, Hanna Czajka, Giedra Leviniene, Olga Reshetko, Roberto Gasparini, Petr Pazdiora, Doina Plesca, Maria Giuseppina Desole, Rimantas Kevalas, Giovanni Gabutti, Michael Povey, Bruce Innis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Vaccine
Zhifen Wen, Zhichao Xu, Qingfeng Zhou, Wei Li, Yunyan Wu, Yunping Du, Li Chen, Yun Zhang, Chunyi Xue, Yongchang Cao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects pigs of all ages by invading villous epithelial cells of the small intestine causing severe diarrhea with high mortality rate in suckling piglets. Mucosal immunity is believed to play an important role in PEDV control and mucosal delivery of vaccines induces mucosal immunity more efficiently than parenteral vaccination. In this study, coated PEDV-loaded microspheres with the size range of 700-900 μm in diameter were developed by centrifugal granulation-fluidized bed coating and demonstrated as an effective oral delivery system to protect PEDV antigens against the complex gastrointestinal environment by detecting the live virus particles in microspheres after the simulated gastric fluid treatment and the PEDV RNA in fecal swabs collected from all weaned piglets (100%) orally inoculated with coated PEDV-loaded microspheres...
September 19, 2018: Vaccine
Anup Srivastav, Carla L Black, Chelsea S Lutz, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Sarah W Ball, Rebecca Devlin, Laura J Pabst, Walter W Williams, David K Kim
BACKGROUND: The Standards for Adult Immunization Practice (Standards), revised in 2014, emphasize that adult-care providers assess vaccination status of adult patients at every visit, recommend vaccination, administer needed vaccines or refer to a vaccinating provider, and document vaccinations administered in state/local immunization information systems (IIS). Providers report numerous systems- and provider-level barriers to vaccinating adults, such as billing, payment issues, lower prioritization of vaccines due to competing demands, and lack of information about the use and utility of IIS...
September 19, 2018: Vaccine
Haruka Momose, Eita Sasaki, Madoka Kuramitsu, Isao Hamaguchi, Takuo Mizukami
Influenza becomes epidemic worldwide every year, and many individuals receive vaccination annually. Quality control relating to safety and potency of influenza vaccines is important to maintain public confidence. The safety of influenza vaccines has been assessed by clinical trials, and animal safety tests are performed to monitor the consistent quality between vaccines used for clinical trials and marketing; the biological responses in vaccinated animals are evaluated, including changes in body weight and white blood cell count...
September 19, 2018: Vaccine
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Miria F Criado, Charles L Balzli, Lindsay F Killmaster, Darrell R Kapczynski, David E Swayne
Maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with active immunity in young chicks. In highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV)-enzootic countries, broiler chickens typically have MDA to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and H5 HPAIV, and their impact on active immunity from recombinant vectored vaccines is unclear. We assessed the effectiveness of a spray-applied recombinant NDV vaccine with H5 AIV insert (rNDV-H5) and a recombinant turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine with H5 AIV insert (rHVT-H5) in commercial broilers with MDA to NDV alone (MDA:AIV- NDV+ ) or to NDV plus AIV (MDA:AIV+ NDV+ ) to provide protection against homologous HPAIV challenge...
September 18, 2018: Vaccine
Warda Haque, Jahurul Haque, Dipan Barai, Sezanur Rahman, Sayra Moni, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Shahnawaz Ahmed, K Zaman, Mustafizur Rahman
Group A rotavirus causes a substantial proportion of diarrhoea related deaths worldwide among children under five years. We analyzed rotavirus prevalence and genotypes distribution among patients admitted with diarrhoea at icddr,b hospital in Dhaka during 2012-16. Stool specimens (n = 1110) were collected from diarrhoea patients and tested for RVA antigen using enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus positive samples were G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotyped by RT-PCR and sanger sequencing. Data on clinical manifestations were collected from icddr,b hospital surveillance system...
September 17, 2018: Vaccine
L David Wise, Jayanthi J Wolf, Lisa M Plitnick
GARDASIL®9, a 9-valent vaccine against human papillomavirus (9vHPV), was developed to prevent diseases mediated by HPV types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58. During the development of the vaccine, three nonclinical safety studies were conducted to evaluate repeat-dose toxicity and prenatal and postnatal developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. In all studies, the vaccine was administered via intramuscular injections of 0.5 mL (the human dose) divided equally into each quadriceps muscle. In the repeat-dose toxicity study, potential local and systemic toxic effects of the 9vHPV vaccine were evaluated after 4 doses given 21 days apart and after a 21-day recovery period...
September 17, 2018: Vaccine
Azfar Hossain, Claudio Politi, Nikhil Mandalia, Adam L Cohen
Despite the importance of vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) surveillance, little is known about the costs of monitoring disease. We used Comprehensive Multi-Year Plans for Immunization (cMYPs) - developed by countries following guidelines from the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund - to estimate expenditures on VPD surveillance at the country level in 2015 US Dollars (USD) in 63 low- and middle-income countries. To evaluate the reliability of cMYP estimates, we also compared cMYP data with findings from previous research studies and assessed whether countries explicitly budgeted for major categories of surveillance activities in their plans for immunization...
September 17, 2018: Vaccine
Sophie Edouard, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A Memish, Saber Yezli, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: The Islamic Hajj pilgrimage is the largest annual mass gathering in the world. The overcrowding of people promotes the acquisition, spread and transmission of respiratory pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: We conducted a methodological review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. The objective was to summarize the available data regarding the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage among Hajj pilgrims and about carriage acquisition and circulation of S...
September 17, 2018: Vaccine
John S Richardson, Mark L Messonnier, Lisa A Prosser
PURPOSE: Measure the preferences of decision makers and researchers associated with the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the recommended format for presenting health economics studies to the ACIP. METHODS: We conducted key informant interviews and an online survey of current ACIP work group members, and current and previous ACIP voting members, liaison representatives, and ex-officio members to understand preferences for health economics presentations...
September 17, 2018: Vaccine
Anita Verma, Drusilla L Burns
Development of recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based anthrax vaccines has been hindered by a lack of stability of the vaccines associated with spontaneous deamidation of asparagine (Asn) residues of the rPA antigen during storage. In this study, we explored the role that two deamidation-prone Asn residues located directly adjacent to the receptor binding site of PA, Asn713 and Asn719 , play in the stability of rPA-based anthrax vaccines. We modified these residues to glutamine (Gln) and generated rPA(N713Q/N719Q), since Gln would not be expected to deamidate on a time scale relevant to vaccine storage...
September 15, 2018: Vaccine
Stella Maria de Souza Morais, Naiara Ferreira Rodigues, Natalia Ingrid Oliveira da Silva, Ezequiel Aparecido Salvador, Isabella Rodrigues Franco, Gabriel Augusto Pires de Souza, Pedro Henrique Cruvinel da Silva, Luiz Gustavo Nogueira de Almeida, Raissa Prado Rocha, Anna Carolina Toledo da Cunha Pereira, Gustavo Portela Ferreira, Patrick Veras Quelemes, Matheus Pereira de Araújo, Felipe Fornias Sperandio, Lorena Júnia de Souza Santos, Olindo Assis Martins Filho, Luiz Cosme Cotta Malaquias, Luiz Felipe Leomil Coelho
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe infections in immunocompromised individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis. A range of vaccines to prevent infections caused by P. aeruginosa has already been tested, yet no vaccine against this pathogen is currently available. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA-NPs) associated with total P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 antigens in inducing protection against the infection with virulent P...
September 15, 2018: Vaccine
Megan A Smith, Michaela Hall, Jie-Bin Lew, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer rates are over twice as high, and screening coverage is lower, in Māori women compared to other women in New Zealand, whereas uptake of HPV vaccine is higher in Maori females. We aimed to assess the impact of HPV vaccination and the proposed transition to 5-yearly primary HPV screening in Māori and other women in New Zealand, at current participation levels; and additionally to investigate which improvements to participation in Māori females (in vaccination, screening, or surveillance for screening-defined higher-risk women) would have the greatest impact on cervical cancer incidence/mortality...
September 14, 2018: Vaccine
Marta L DeDiego, Kevin Chiem, David J Topham
Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins elicit protective antibody responses and therefore, are used as targets for vaccination, especially the HA protein. However, these proteins are subject to antigenic drift, decreasing vaccine efficacy, and few to no studies have analyzed antigenic variability of these proteins by growing the viruses under immune pressure provided by human sera. In this work, we show that after growing different influenza virus strains under immune pressure, the selection of amino acid changes in the NA protein is much more limited than the selection in the HA protein, suggesting that the NA protein could remain more conserved under immune pressure...
September 14, 2018: Vaccine
Aldiouma Diallo, John C Victor, Jodi Feser, Justin R Ortiz, Niranjan Kanesa-Thasan, Moussa Ndiaye, Bou Diarra, Sathie Cheikh, Djibril Diene, Tofene Ndiaye, Assane Ndiaye, Kathryn E Lafond, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Kathleen M Neuzil
INTRODUCTION: Effective, programmatically suitable influenza vaccines are needed for low-resource countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This phase II, placebo-controlled, randomized safety and immunogenicity trial (NCT01819155) was conducted in Senegal using the 2012-2013 Northern Hemisphere trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) formulation. Participants were allocated in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive TIV (full-dose for all age groups), adjuvanted TIV (aTIV), or placebo. Participants were stratified into age groups: 6-11, 12-35, and 36-71 months...
September 14, 2018: Vaccine
Mansi Purwar, Jonathan K Pokorski, Pranveer Singh, Sanchari Bhattacharyya, Heather Arendt, Joanne DeStefano, Celia C La Branche, David C Montefiori, M G Finn, Raghavan Varadarajan
The broadly neutralizing antibody against HIV-1, b12, binds to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the outer domain (OD) of the gp120 subunit of HIV-1 Env. We have previously reported the design of an E. coli expressed fragment of HIV-1 gp120, b122a, containing about 70% of the b12 epitope with the idea of focusing the immune response to this structure. Since the b122a structure was found to be only partially folded, as assessed by circular dichroism and protease resistance, we attempted to stabilize it by the introduction of additional disulfide bonds...
September 14, 2018: Vaccine
Alain Gagnon, Enrique Acosta, Matthew S Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2018: Vaccine
Angela Toepp, Mandy Larson, Geneva Wilson, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Carolyne Bennett, Adam Leal-Lima, Bryan Anderson, Molly Parrish, Michael Anderson, Hailie Fowler, Jessica Hinman, Eric Kontowicz, Jane Jefferies, Marvin Beeman, Jesse Buch, Jill Saucier, Phyllis Tyrrell, Radhika Gharpure, Caitlin Cotter, Christine Petersen
Better tools are necessary to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Modeling studies for regional Leishmania elimination indicate that an effective vaccine is a critical tool. Dogs are the reservoir host of L. infantum in Brazil and the Mediterranean basin, and therefore are an important target for public health interventions as well as a relevant disease model for human VL. No vaccine has been efficacious as an immunotherapy to prevent progression of already diagnostically positive individuals to symptomatic leishmaniasis...
September 12, 2018: Vaccine
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