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Vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919634/a-commercial-porcine-circovirus-pcv-type-2a-based-vaccine-reduces-pcv2d-viremia-and-shedding-and-prevents-pcv2d-transmission-to-na%C3%A3-ve-pigs-under-experimental-conditions
#1
Tanja Opriessnig, Chao-Ting Xiao, Patrick G Halbur, Priscilla F Gerber, Shannon R Matzinger, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination has been effective in protecting pigs from clinical disease and today is used extensively. Recent studies in vaccinated populations indicate a major PCV2 genotype shift from the predominant PCV2 genotype 2b towards 2d. The aims of this study were to determine the ability of the commercial inactivated PCV2a vaccine Circovac® to protect pigs against experimental challenge with a 2013 PCV2d strain and prevent transmission. Thirty-eight pigs were randomly divided into four groups with 9-10 pigs per group: NEG (sham-vaccinated, sham-challenged), VAC (PCV2a-vaccinated, sham-challenged), VAC+CHAL (PCV2a-vaccinated and PCV2d-challenged), and CHAL (sham-vaccinated, PCV2d-challenged)...
December 2, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919633/greater-activation-of-peripheral-t-follicular-helper-cells-following-high-dose-influenza-vaccine-in-older-adults-forecasts-seroconversion
#2
Mark A Pilkinton, Katherine J Nicholas, Christian M Warren, Rita M Smith, Sandra M Yoder, H Keipp Talbot, Spyros A Kalams
BACKGROUND: Influenza related morbidity and mortality disproportionately impacts older adults. The serologic response to vaccine is diminished in older adults; however, high dose inactivated influenza vaccine (HD IIV) has shown improved rates of seroconversion compared to standard dose (SD IIV). We hypothesize this may be due to the superior ability of high dose vaccine to activate T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and provide B cell dependent T cell help. METHODS: We measured peripheral Tfh (pTfh) activation in 50 community dwelling adults 65years or older who were randomly assigned to receive either the HD IIV or SD IIV...
December 2, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919632/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-and-an-mf59-adjuvanted-influenza-vaccine-after-concomitant-vaccination-in-%C3%A2-60-year-old-adults
#3
Joon Young Song, Hee Jin Cheong, Hak Jun Hyun, Yu Bin Seo, Jacob Lee, Seong-Heon Wie, Min Joo Choi, Won Suk Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Jae Won Yun, Jin Gu Yun, Woo Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Concomitant administration of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines could be an efficient strategy to increase vaccine uptake among older adults. Nevertheless, immune interference and safety issues have been a concern when more than one vaccines are administered at the same time. METHODS: Subjects aged ⩾60years were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive MF59-adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (MF59-aTIV)+13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) (Group 1), PCV13 alone (Group 2), or MF59-aTIV alone (Group 3)...
December 2, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919631/effect-of-seasonal-vaccination-on-the-selection-of-influenza-a-h3n2-epidemic-variants
#4
Yong Chong, Hideyuki Ikematsu
The effect of vaccination on the dynamics of influenza virus variants remains largely unknown in humans, unlike in poultry. In this study, we compared influenza hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences isolated from vaccinated and unvaccinated populations with the yearly vaccine strains. In total, 181 influenza A/H3N2 virus samples isolated from 82 vaccinated and 99 unvaccinated patients (2011-15, four Japanese influenza seasons) were genetically analyzed using a next-generation sequencer. Amino acid (AA) differences from corresponding vaccine strains were found in 74 of 329 HA1 sites...
December 2, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919630/knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-influenza-vaccination-of-health-care-workers-in-emergency-services
#5
Sébastien Hulo, Alexandra Nuvoli, Annie Sobaszek, Alexandra Salembier-Trichard
Annual vaccination rates among French health care workers (HCWs) are in decline even in Emergency Services to which patients at highest risk of influenza complications are admitted, and in which HCWs have the greatest risk of exposure to influenza from patients. We aimed here to identify knowledge and attitudes towards influenza vaccination of HCWs in Emergency Services. We collected 344 self-administered questionnaires of 1060 HCWs. Only 18% of HCWs were vaccinated against influenza. Physicians were vaccinated more often (55%) than nurses (16%) or aid nurses (11%)...
December 2, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919629/pre-clinical-development-of-a-hydrogen-peroxide-inactivated-west-nile-virus-vaccine
#6
Elizabeth A Poore, Dawn K Slifka, Hans-Peter Raué, Archana Thomas, Erika Hammarlund, Benjamin K Quintel, Lindsay L Torrey, Ariel M Slifka, Justin M Richner, Melissa E Dubois, Lawrence P Johnson, Michael S Diamond, Mark K Slifka, Ian J Amanna
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted pathogen with a wide geographical range that can lead to long-term disability and death in some cases. Despite the public health risk posed by WNV, including an estimated 3 million infections in the United States alone, no vaccine is available for use in humans. Here, we present a scaled manufacturing approach for production of a hydrogen peroxide-inactivated whole virion WNV vaccine, termed HydroVax-001WNV. Vaccination resulted in robust virus-specific neutralizing antibody responses and protection against WNV-associated mortality in mice or viremia in rhesus macaques (RM)...
December 2, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919628/trivalent-pneumococcal-protein-vaccine-protects-against-experimental-acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-an-infant-murine-model
#7
Qingfu Xu, Karin Pryharski, Michael E Pichichero
BACKGROUND: Currently licensed serotype-based pneumococcal vaccines are effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal diseases, but less effective in preventing non-bacteremic pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM). We previously reported that a trivalent pneumococcal protein recombinant vaccine (PPrV) protected against pneumonia in a murine model. Here we evaluated PPrV protection against AOM in an infant murine model. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were intramuscularly vaccinated at 1-3weeks of age with monovalent pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), or pneumococcal choline binding protein A (PcpA), or detoxified pneumolysin (PlyD1), or trivalent vaccine, and transtympanically challenged at 7-8weeks of age with 1×10(2)CFU of pneumococcal strain BG7322 (6A) or 1×10(4)CFU of pneumococcal nontypeable strain 0702064MEF...
December 2, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916414/ensuring-access-to-oral-cholera-vaccine-to-those-who-need-them-most
#8
LETTER
Francisco J Luquero, Anne Ballard, David A Sack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916413/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-a-single-dose-live-non-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-oral-vaccine-against-f4-positive-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-challenge-in-pigs
#9
John Morris Fairbrother, Éric Nadeau, Louise Bélanger, Cindy-Love Tremblay, Danielle Tremblay, Mélanie Brunelle, Regina Wolf, Klaus Hellmann, Álvaro Hidalgo
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains expressing F4 (K88) fimbriae (F4-ETEC) are one of the most important causes of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs. F4, a major antigen, plays an important role in the early steps of the infection. Herein, the efficacy of a live oral vaccine consisting of a non-pathogenic E. coli strain expressing F4 for protection of pigs against PWD was evaluated. Three blinded, placebo-controlled, block design, parallel-group confirmatory experiments were conducted, using an F4-ETEC PWD challenge model, each with a different vaccination-challenge interval (3, 7, and 21days)...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916412/kinetics-of-antibody-secreting-cell-and-fecal-iga-responses-after-oral-cholera-vaccination-in-different-age-groups-in-a-cholera-endemic-country
#10
Marjahan Akhtar, Firdausi Qadri, Taufiqur R Bhuiyan, Sarmin Akter, Tanzeem A Rafique, Arifuzzaman Khan, Laila N Islam, Amit Saha, Ann-Mari Svennerholm, Anna Lundgren
Immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in children and infants may be influenced by factors such as age, previous priming with related microorganisms and breast feeding. In this study, we aimed to determine optimal time points to assess immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in different clinical specimens. This was done by investigating antibody secreting cell (ASC) and fecal antibody responses on different days after vaccination using the licensed oral cholera vaccine Dukoral, containing cholera toxin B-subunit (rCTB) and inactivated Vibrio cholerae bacteria, as a model vaccine...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916411/beyond-expectations-post-implementation-data-shows-rotavirus-vaccination-is-likely-cost-saving-in-australia
#11
J F Reyes, J G Wood, P Beutels, K Macartney, P McIntyre, R Menzies, N Mealing, A T Newall
BACKGROUND: Universal vaccination against rotavirus was included in the funded Australian National Immunisation Program in July 2007. Predictive cost-effectiveness models assessed the program before introduction. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective economic evaluation of the Australian rotavirus program using national level post-implementation data on vaccine uptake, before-after measures of program impact and published estimates of excess intussusception cases...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916410/meeting-report-who-consultation-on-considerations-for-regulatory-expectations-of-zika-virus-vaccines-for-use-during-an-emergency
#12
K S Vannice, B K Giersing, D C Kaslow, E Griffiths, H Meyer, A Barrett, A P Durbin, D Wood, J Hombach
On 1 February 2016, in the context of the ongoing Zika virus epidemic, the WHO declared that the recently reported clusters of microcephaly and other neurological disorders constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In response, WHO in collaboration with UNICEF and a working group of independent subject matter experts developed a Zika virus vaccine Target Product Profile (TPP) for use in an emergency, or in a future outbreak scenario. The drafting process of the Zika virus vaccine TPP included the opportunity for public comment, as well as consultation with epidemiologists, flavivirus vaccine subject matter experts, vaccine developers and global regulators to consider the regulatory expectations and potential emergency use pathways for a vaccine with the characteristics described in the TPP...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916409/bluetongue-disabled-infectious-single-animal-disa-vaccine-studies-on-the-optimal-route-and-dose-in-sheep
#13
Piet A van Rijn, Franz J Daus, Mieke A Maris-Veldhuis, Femke Feenstra, René G P van Gennip
Bluetongue (BT) is a disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides genus. Outbreaks have been controlled successfully by vaccination, however, currently available BT vaccines have several shortcomings. Recently, we have developed BT Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccines based on live-attenuated BTV without expression of dispensable non-structural NS3/NS3a protein. DISA vaccines are non-pathogenic replicating vaccines, do not cause viremia, enable DIVA and are highly protective...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916408/safety-tolerability-and-immunogenicity-of-a-4-antigen-staphylococcus-aureus-vaccine-sa4ag-results-from-a-first-in-human-randomised-placebo-controlled-phase-1-2-study
#14
Robert W Frenck, C Buddy Creech, Eric A Sheldon, David J Seiden, Martin K Kankam, James Baber, Edward Zito, Robin Hubler, Joseph Eiden, Joseph M Severs, Shite Sebastian, Jasdeep Nanra, Kathrin U Jansen, William C Gruber, Annaliesa S Anderson, Douglas Girgenti
BACKGROUND: A prophylactic Staphylococcus aureus four-antigen vaccine (SA4Ag) is under development for prevention of invasive S. aureus disease. A preliminary S. aureus three-antigen vaccine (SA3Ag) was reformulated to include a novel manganese transporter protein (MntC or rP305A). This study describes the first-in-human dose-finding, safety, and immunogenicity results for SA4Ag. METHODS: In this double-blind, sponsor-unblind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 study, 454 healthy adults aged 18-64years were randomised to receive a single dose of one of three formulations of SA4Ag with escalating dose levels of rP305A or placebo...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914744/persistence-of-bactericidal-antibodies-following-booster-vaccination-with-4cmenb-at-12-18-or-24months-and-immunogenicity-of-a-fifth-dose-administered-at-4years-of-age-a-phase-3-extension-to-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Mildred A Iro, Matthew D Snape, Merryn Voysey, Sena Jawad, Adam Finn, Paul T Heath, Gianni Bona, Susanna Esposito, Javier Diez-Domingo, Roman Prymula, Adefowope Odueyungbo, Daniela Toneatto, Peter Dull, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: 4CMenB is immunogenic in infants and toddlers. We assessed persistence of human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) following a fourth dose administered at 12, 18 or 24months and characterised the antibody response to a fifth dose administered at 4years of age. METHODS: A phase 3, open label, multi-centre extension to a randomised controlled trial conducted in four countries (number of centres): Czech Republic (nineteen), Italy (four), Spain (four) and the United Kingdom (four)...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914743/sequential-immunization-with-consensus-influenza-hemagglutinins-raises-cross-reactive-neutralizing-antibodies-against-various-heterologous-ha-strains
#16
Hui Zhou, Yang Huang, Songhua Yuan, Yuanyuan Li, Shuyan Wu, Jianqing Xu, Rui Huang
Seasonal and emerging epidemics caused by influenza virus remain as a public health concern and an economic burden. The weak immunogenicity of conserved epitopes on hemagglutinin that induces broad protective immune responses is the main obstacle to the development of universal vaccines. In the present report, we designed the cross-subtypic sequential vaccination strategy and evaluated its neutralizing antibody (nAb) activity by pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The results clearly indicated that compared with traditional vaccines strategy, the cross-subtypic sequential immunization could significantly induce a broad serum cross-reactive nAb response in mice as well as against homologous strains, and provide protection from heterologous virus PR8 (H1N1) challenge...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914742/influenza-virus-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytoxicity-induced-by-vaccination-or-natural-infection
#17
Rory D de Vries, Nella J Nieuwkoop, Mark Pronk, Erwin de Bruin, Geert Leroux-Roels, Elisabeth G W Huijskens, Rob S van Binnendijk, Florian Krammer, Marion P G Koopmans, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Influenza viruses are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality during seasonal epidemics. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent infection, however due to antigenic drift of the viral surface protein hemagglutinin (HA), annual influenza virus vaccination is required. In addition to seasonal viruses, certain (avian) influenza A viruses of other subtypes, like H5N1 or H7N9, cause sporadic zoonotic infections. Therefore, the availability of game-changing novel vaccines that induce "universal" immune responses to a wide variety of influenza A virus subtypes is highly desirable...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914741/maternal-bcg-scar-is-associated-with-increased-infant-proinflammatory-immune-responses
#18
Patrice Akusa Mawa, Emily L Webb, Abdelali Filali-Mouhim, Gyaviira Nkurunungi, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Swaib Abubaker Lule, Sarah Prentice, Stephen Nash, Hazel M Dockrell, Alison M Elliott, Stephen Cose
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposures such as infections and immunisation may influence infant responses. We had an opportunity to undertake an analysis of innate responses in infants within the context of a study investigating the effects of maternal mycobacterial exposures and infection on BCG vaccine-induced responses in Ugandan infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal and cord blood samples from 29 mother-infant pairs were stimulated with innate stimuli for 24h and cytokines and chemokines in supernatants were measured using the Luminex® assay...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912987/gp85-protein-vaccine-adjuvanted-with-silica-nanoparticles-against-alv-j-in-chickens
#19
Jia Cheng, Shiyong Wen, Shenghua Wang, Pan Hao, Ziqiang Cheng, Yongxia Liu, Peng Zhao, Jianzhu Liu
This study focused on the effect of silica nanoparticles as adjuvant for vaccine applications comprised of gp85, a dominating structural protein of J Subgroup Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV-J), and which was evaluated by comparing with the responsiveness induced by that emulsified in Freund adjuvant. Thirty-six chickens were inoculated twice with gp85 adjuvanted with the silica nanoparticles or Freund's adjuvant at the 2nd and 3rd week old. Two weeks later, the inoculated chickens were challenged with a 10(2.2) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of ALV-J...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912986/a-phase-iii-observer-blind-randomized-controlled-study-to-evaluate-the-immune-response-and-the-correlation-with-nasopharyngeal-carriage-after-immunization-of-university-students-with-a-quadrivalent-meningococcal-acwy-glycoconjugate-or-serogroup-b-meningococcal
#20
Robert C Read, Peter Dull, Xilian Bai, Kate Nolan, Jamie Findlow, Rohit Bazaz, Annett Kleinschmidt, Maggie McCarthy, Huajun Wang, Daniela Toneatto, Ray Borrow
BACKGROUND: University students have high rates of pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Interruption of carriage acquisition is an important mechanism of vaccines for inducing herd protection. 4CMenB and MenACWY-CRM vaccines have been shown to be immunogenic against meningococcal serogroups B and ACWY respectively in younger age groups, and also to elicit a modest impact on meningococcal carriage in vaccinated students. However, vaccine responses in university students and the impact of serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers on meningococcal carriage are undetermined...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
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