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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528766/when-zoster-hits-close-to-home-impact-of-personal-zoster-awareness-on-zoster-vaccine-uptake-in-the-u-s
#1
Rafael Harpaz, Jessica Leung
U.S. zoster vaccine uptake has been sluggish. Most adults are aware of zoster but unaware of its distressing manifestations. We found that vaccine uptake is markedly increased immediately following occurrence of zoster in a spouse. Thus, personal zoster awareness can prompt vaccination. Our findings have implications in terms of both vaccine promotion and interpretations of vaccine performance.
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528765/impact-and-effectiveness-of-childhood-varicella-vaccine-program-in-queensland-australia
#2
Sarah L Sheridan, Helen E Quinn, Brynley P Hull, Robert S Ware, Keith Grimwood, Stephen B Lambert
BACKGROUND: In November 2005, Australia introduced a publicly funded single dose of varicella vaccine for children aged 18-months. We describe the impact of this program on varicella hospitalisations in Queensland and provide the first assessment of single-dose varicella vaccine effectiveness in Australia since the program commenced. METHODS: Age-standardised varicella hospitalisation rates were calculated for 2000-2014 and pre- and post-public funding period rates compared...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528764/dengue-vaccine-safety-signal-immune-enhancement-waning-immunity-or-chance-occurrence
#3
Bradford D Gessner, Neal Halsey
A new dengue vaccine was associated with increased risk of hospitalized virologically-confirmed disease during year 3 of follow-up among children age 2-5years. Among hypotheses to explain this finding, we could not distinguish definitively between antibody dependent enhancement, waning immunity, or chance occurrence. However, any theory must account for the following: (a) the signal occurred mainly because of decreased dengue among controls rather than increased dengue among vaccinees; (b) among 48 data points, a statistically significant increase in hospitalization among vaccinated children occurred for only one age group, during one year, and in one region; (c) cumulative risk was similar for vaccinated vs...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528763/evaluation-of-recombinant-chinese-avian-hepatitis-e-virus-cahev-orf2-and-orf3-proteins-for-protection-of-chickens-against-cahev-infection
#4
Shahid Faraz Syed, Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Yiyang Chen, Baoyuan Liu, Xinjie Wang, Huixia Li, Yuchen Nan, En-Min Zhou, Qin Zhao
Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the etiologic agent of big liver and spleen disease in chickens. In 2010, the Chinese avian HEV (CaHEV) strain was isolated from chickens and demonstrated to cause the decreased egg production in layer hens. No avian HEV commercial vaccine has yet been developed to prevent virus infection in China. In this study, recombinant CaHEV truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were evaluated separately for immunoprotection of chickens against CaHEV infection. First, truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528762/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-prototype-anti-chlamydia-pecorum-recombinant-protein-vaccine-in-lambs-and-pregnant-ewes
#5
Marion Desclozeaux, Martina Jelocnik, Katrina Whitting, Siamak Saifzadeh, Sankhya Bommana, Andrew Potter, Volker Gerdts, Peter Timms, Adam Polkinghorne
Arthritis and kerato-conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia pecorum in lambs are difficult to diagnose and treat. We tested the ability of a prototype C. pecorum vaccine (SC-vaccine), comprised of C. pecorum major outer membrane protein (MOMP-G) and polymorphic membrane protein G (PmpG), to trigger a Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune response in lambs and pregnant ewes. Vaccinations with the SC-vaccine (one and two injections) were very well tolerated by all ewes and lambs. Although the overall immune responses of ewes to SC-vaccination was poor, their lambs showed stronger antigen-specific immune response than lambs from control vaccine ewes...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528761/responding-to-a-cvdpv1-outbreak-in-ukraine-implications-challenges-and-opportunities
#6
Nino Khetsuriani, Ihor Perehinets, Dorit Nitzan, Dragoslav Popovic, Thomas Moran, Vusala Allahverdiyeva, Shahin Huseynov, Eugene Gavrilin, Liudmyla Slobodianyk, Olha Izhyk, Anna Sukhodolska, Sahar Hegazi, Katerina Bulavinova, Sergei Platov, Patrick O'Connor
BACKGROUND: The European Region, certified polio-free in 2002, remains at risk of wild poliovirus reintroduction and emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) until global polio eradication is achieved, as demonstrated by the cVDPV1 outbreak in Ukraine in 2015. METHODS: We reviewed epidemiologic, clinical and virology data on cVDPV cases, surveillance and immunization coverage data, and reports of outbreak-related surveys, country missions, and expert group meetings...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527689/comparison-of-inflation-of-third-dose-diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-dtp3-administrative-coverage-to-other-vaccine-antigens
#7
Samantha B Dolan, Adam MacNeil
Third dose diphtheria tetanus pertussis (DTP3) administrative coverage is a commonly used indicator for immunization program performance, although studies have demonstrated data quality issues with administrative DTP3 coverage. It is possible that administrative coverage for DTP3 may be inflated more than for other antigens. To examine this, theory, we compiled immunization coverage estimates from recent country surveys (n=71) and paired these with corresponding administrative coverage estimates, by country and cohort year, for DTP3 and 4 other antigens...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527688/clinical-development-of-a-var2csa-based-placental-malaria-vaccine-pamvac-quantifying-vaccine-antigen-specific-memory-b-t-cell-activity-in-beninese-primigravidae
#8
Komi Gbédandé, Nadine Fievet, Firmine Viwami, Sem Ezinmegnon, Saadou Issifou, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Yannelle Dossou, Kabirou Moutairou, Achille Massougbodji, Nicaise Ndam, Willem Adriaan de Jongh, T Max M Søgaard, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen, Meral Esen, Benjamin Mordmüller, Philippe Deloron, Adrian J F Luty
BACKGROUND: The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC's clinical development, we quantified naturally acquired vaccine antigen-specific memory B and T cell responses in Beninese primigravidae recruited at the beginning of pregnancy and followed up to delivery and beyond...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527687/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-in-five-endemic-low-and-middle-income-settings
#9
Marina Antillón, Joke Bilcke, A David Paltiel, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries. Programmatic use of existing vaccines is limited, but upcoming typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) could warrant wider use. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of five TCV delivery strategies in three urban areas (Delhi and Kolkata, India and Nairobi, Kenya) and two rural settings (Lwak, Kenya and Dong Thap, Vietnam) with varying incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated routine infant vaccination with and without catch-up campaigns among older individuals...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527686/local-innate-responses-and-protective-immunity-after-intradermal-immunization-with-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-e2-protein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-in-cattle
#10
Sams M A Sadat, Marlene Snider, Ravendra Garg, Robert Brownlie, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogens in cattle. Recently, we developed a novel adjuvant platform (TriAdj) that includes a toll-like receptor 3 agonist, poly (I:C); an innate defense regulatory peptide; and water-soluble polymer, poly[di(sodiumcarboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP). To develop a needle-free intradermal (ID) subunit vaccine, the BVDV type-2 E2 protein was formulated with TriAdj, and immune protection was evaluated in calves against a BVDV-2 strain. Intradermal delivery of E2/TriAdj elicited robust virus neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526331/prevalence-of-oral-human-papillomavirus-by-vaccination-status-among-young-adults-18-30years-old
#11
Jacqueline M Hirth, Mihyun Chang, Vicente A Resto
BACKGROUND: Although there is evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may protect against oral HPV infection, no current research has demonstrated this in the general population. METHODS: We used repeated cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2009 and 2014. Participants 18-30years who indicated whether they had received the HPV vaccine and provided an adequate oral sample were included (N=3040)...
May 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526330/going-social-success-in-online-recruitment-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-for-prevention-hiv-vaccine-research
#12
Lindsey Buckingham, Julie Becher, Chelsea D Voytek, Danielle Fiore, Debora Dunbar, Annet Davis-Vogel, David S Metzger, Ian Frank
OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of four different social media sites to recruit men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women to a phase 2b HIV prevention vaccine trial, HVTN 505. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. METHODS: The University of Pennsylvania HIV Vaccine Trials Unit (Penn HVTU) employed street outreach and online recruitment methods to recruit participants for HVTN 505 using a combination of national recruitment images/messages with Philadelphia-specific language and imagery...
May 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522011/vaccination-with-a-live-attenuated-acinetobacter-baumannii-deficient-in-thioredoxin-provides-protection-against-systemic-acinetobacter-infection
#13
Sarah Ainsworth, Patrick M Ketter, Jieh-Juen Yu, Rose C Grimm, Holly C May, Andrew P Cap, James P Chambers, M Neal Guentzel, Bernard P Arulanandam
Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-Ab), an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial and combat related infections, has a high mortality due to its virulence and limited treatment options. Deletion of the thioredoxin gene (TrxA) from a clinical isolate of MDR-Ab resulted in a 100-fold increase in 50% lethal dose (LD50) in a systemic challenge murine model. Thus, we investigated the potential use of this attenuated strain as a live vaccine against MDR-Ab. Mice were vaccinated by subcutaneous (s...
May 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511853/immunologic-evaluation-of-10-different-adjuvants-for-use-in-vaccines-for-chickens-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#14
Nazir Ahmed Lone, Erica Spackman, Darrell Kapczynski
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a threat to poultry production worldwide. Vaccination is utilized as a component of control programs for both high pathogenicity (HP) and low pathogenicity (LP) AIV. Over 95% of all AIV vaccine used in poultry are inactivated, adjuvanted products. To identify the best formulations for chickens, vaccines were prepared with beta-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated A/British Columbia/314514-1/2004 H7N3 LP AIV using ten commercially available or experimental adjuvants. Each vaccine formulation was evaluated for immunogenicity in chickens...
May 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506516/waning-protection-following-5-doses-of-a-3-component-diphtheria-tetanus-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccine
#15
Nicola P Klein, Joan Bartlett, Bruce Fireman, Laurie Aukes, Philip O Buck, Girishanthy Krishnarajah, Roger Baxter
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines wanes substantially after the 5(th) dose given at ages 4-6years, but has not been described following 5 doses of the same type of DTaP vaccine. We investigated waning effectiveness against pertussis in California over nearly 10years, which included large pertussis outbreaks, following 5 doses of GSK DTaP vaccines (DTaP3). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study (NCT02447978) of children who received 5 doses of DTaP at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 01/2006 through 03/2015...
May 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506515/combined-semi-empirical-screening-and-design-of-experiments-doe-approach-to-identify-candidate-formulations-of-a-lyophilized-live-attenuated-tetravalent-viral-vaccine-candidate
#16
Ashaben Patel, Steven M Erb, Linda Strange, Ravi S Shukla, Ozan Kumru, Lee Smith, Paul Nelson, Sangeeta B Joshi, Jill A Livengood, David B Volkin
A combination experimental approach, utilizing semi-empirical excipient screening followed by statistical modeling using design of experiments (DOE), was undertaken to identify stabilizing candidate formulations for a lyophilized live attenuated Flavivirus vaccine candidate. Various potential pharmaceutical compounds used in either marketed or investigative live attenuated viral vaccine formulations were first identified. The ability of additives from different categories of excipients, either alone or in combination, were then evaluated for their ability to stabilize virus against freeze-thaw, freeze-drying, and accelerated storage (25°C) stresses by measuring infectious virus titer...
May 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504194/vaccination-with-recombinant-paramyosin-in-montanide-isa206-protects-against-schistosoma-japonicum-infection-in-water-buffalo
#17
Hannah Wei Wu, Zhi-Qiang Fu, Ke Lu, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Rui Meng, Yang Hong, Kai Chu, Hao Li, Mario Jiz, Jin-Ming Liu, Ming Hou, Sangshin Park, Jiao-Jiao Lin, Jonathan D Kurtis
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonosis and presents significant public health problems in China and the Philippines. Vaccines targeting domestic animals constitute attractive control measures. METHODS: We conducted three vaccine trials to evaluate the protective efficacy of recombinant full-length paramyosin (rSj97) in water buffalo. Animals were immunized with 3 doses of rSj97 adjuvanted with ISA206 at 250μg/dose or 500μg/dose at 4wk intervals before challenge with 1000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504193/global-economic-evaluations-of-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Surachai Kotirum, Naaon Vutipongsatorn, Khachen Kongpakwattana, Raymond Hutubessy, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Rotavirus vaccines to prevent and control rotavirus infections. Economic evaluations (EE) have been considered to support decision making of national policy. Summarizing global experience of the economic value of rotavirus vaccines is crucial in order to encourage global WHO recommendations for vaccine uptake. Therefore, a systematic review of economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccine was conducted. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, NHS EED, EconLit, CEA Registry, SciELO, LILACS, CABI-Global Health Database, Popline, World Bank - e-Library, and WHOLIS...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504192/correlates-of-protection-for-enteric-vaccines
#19
Jan Holmgren, Umesh D Parashar, Stanley Plotkin, Jacques Louis, Su-Peing Ng, Eric Desauziers, Valentina Picot, Mitra Saadatian-Elahi
An immunological Correlate of Protection (CoP) is an immune response that is statistically interrelated with protection. Identification of CoPs for enteric vaccines would help design studies to improve vaccine performance of licensed vaccines in low income settings, and would facilitate the testing of future vaccines in development that might be more affordable. CoPs are lacking today for most existing and investigational enteric vaccines. In order to share the latest information on CoPs for enteric vaccines and to discuss novel approaches to correlate mucosal immune responses in humans with protection, the Foundation Mérieux organized an international conference of experts where potential CoPs for vaccines were examined using case-studies for both bacterial and viral enteric pathogens...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504191/lethal-factor-antibodies-contribute-to-lethal-toxin-neutralization-in-recipients-of-anthrax-vaccine-precipitated
#20
Eric K Dumas, Lori Garman, Hannah Cuthbertson, Sue Charlton, Bassam Hallis, Renata J M Engler, Shyamal Choudhari, William D Picking, Judith A James, A Darise Farris
A major difference between two currently licensed anthrax vaccines is presence (United Kingdom Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated, AVP) or absence (United States Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) of quantifiable amounts of the Lethal Toxin (LT) component Lethal Factor (LF). The primary immunogen in both vaccine formulations is Protective Antigen (PA), and LT-neutralizing antibodies directed to PA are an accepted correlate of vaccine efficacy; however, vaccination studies in animal models have demonstrated that LF antibodies can be protective...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
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