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Mercedes Macias Parra, Angela Gentile, Jorge Alejandro Vazquez Narvaez, Alejandro Capdevila, Angel Minguez, Monica Carrascal, Arnold Willemsen, Chiranjiwi Bhusal, Daniela Toneatto
BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease has its highest incidence in infants. Co-administration of serogroup B (4CMenB) and quadrivalent conjugate (MenACWY-CRM) vaccines could protect against 5 clinically-relevant meningococcal serogroups. METHODS: This phase 3b, open, multicenter study (NCT02106390), conducted in Mexico and Argentina, enrolled and randomized (1:1:1) 750 healthy infants to receive either 4CMenB co-administered with MenACWY-CRM (4CMenB/MenACWY group), 4CMenB (4CMenB group), or MenACWY-CRM alone (MenACWY group) at ages 3, 5, 7 and 13 months...
November 7, 2018: Vaccine
Eleanor Burnett, Nguyen Van Trang, Ajit Rayamajhi, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Syed M Satter, Dang Duc Anh, Anupama Thapa, Saqib Hamid Qazi, James D Heffelfinger, Pham Hoang Hung, Anjana Karki Rayamajhi, Nasir Saddal, Meerjady S Flora, Tran Minh Canh, Syed Asad Ali, Emily S Gurley, Jacqueline E Tate, Catherine Yen, Umesh D Parashar
Intussusception is the invagination of one segment of the bowel into a distal segment, characterized by symptoms of bloody stool, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Previous studies have found regional differences in incidence but the etiology of most intussusception cases is unknown. Rotavirus vaccines were associated with a slightly of increased risk of intussusception in post-licensure evaluations in high- and middle-income countries, but not in low income African countries. To describe the baseline epidemiology of intussusception in young children prior to rotavirus vaccine implementation, active sentinel hospital surveillance for intussusception in children < 2 years of age was conducted in 4 low income Asian countries (Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam)...
November 7, 2018: Vaccine
Silas P Trumbo, Marcela Contreras, Ana Gabriela Félix García, Fabio Alberto Escobar Díaz, Misael Gómez, Verónica Carrión, Karim Jaqueline Pardo Ruiz, Renee Aquije, M Carolina Danovaro-Holliday, Martha Velandia-González
INTRODUCTION: The Global Vaccine Action Plan and the Regional Immunization Action Plan of the Americas call for countries to improve immunization data quality. Immunization information systems, particularly electronic immunization registries (EIRs), can help to facilitate program management and increase coverage. However, little is known about efforts to develop and implement such systems in low- and middle-income countries. We present the experiences of Mexico and Peru in implementing EIRs...
November 7, 2018: Vaccine
Mary E Wood, Philip Griebel, Matthew L Huizenga, Samuel Lockwood, Cole Hansen, Andrew Potter, Neil Cashman, John W Mapletoft, Scott Napper
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease affecting multiple cervid species. Effective management tools for this disease, particularly in free-ranging populations, are currently limited. We evaluated a novel CWD vaccine in elk (Cervus canadensis) naturally exposed to CWD through a prion-contaminated environment. The vaccine targets a YYR disease-specific epitope to induce antibody responses specific to the misfolded (PrPSc ) conformation. Female elk calves (n = 41) were captured from western Wyoming and transported to the Thorne-Williams Wildlife Research Center where CWD has been documented since 1979...
November 7, 2018: Vaccine
Patricia Therese Campbell, Hannah Frost, Pierre R Smeesters, Joseph Kado, Michael F Good, Michael Batzloff, Nicholas Geard, Jodie McVernon, Andrew Steer
Sustained control of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in settings of poverty has proven to be challenging, and an effective vaccine may be the most practical long-term strategy to reduce GAS-related disease burden. Candidate GAS vaccines based on the J8 peptide have demonstrated promising immunogenicity in mice, however, less is known about the role of J8 antibodies in the human immune response to GAS infection. We analysed the stimulation of J8 antibodies in response to infection, and the role of existing J8 antibodies in protection against subsequent infection, using data collected in the Fijian population: (1) cross sectional population serosurvey; (2) paired serum collection for assessment of M-specific and J8 antibody responses; and (3) longitudinal assessment of GAS infection and immunity...
November 3, 2018: Vaccine
Christopher R Wilcox, Kathryn Bottrell, Pauline Paterson, William S Schulz, Tushna Vandrevala, Heidi J Larson, Christine E Jones
INTRODUCTION: Online media may influence women's decision to undergo vaccination during pregnancy. The aims of this mixed-methods study were to: (1) examine the portrayal of maternal vaccination in online media and (2) establish the perceived target of vaccine protection as viewed by pregnant women and maternity healthcare professionals (HCPs). METHODS: Online media articles on maternal vaccination (published July-December 2012 or November 2015-April 2016) were identified through the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine's Vaccine Confidence Database and thematically analysed...
November 3, 2018: Vaccine
Xin Wang, Min Li, Zhijie Lin, Huirong Pan, Zimin Tang, Zizheng Zheng, Shaowei Li, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia, Qinjian Zhao
The integrity of functional epitopes is a critical quality attribute for recombinant protein based vaccines since the presence of these native-like epitopes is the structural basis for vaccines to elicit functional antibodies. To demonstrate the quality and quantity of functional epitopes on vaccine antigens, a toolbox of assessing antigen characteristics is essential. Among the physicochemical, biophysical, immunochemical and in vivo potency analyses, the epitope-specific assays are most critical assessment of the antigen functionality...
November 2, 2018: Vaccine
Hanne M Haatveit, Kjartan Hodneland, Stine Braaen, Elisabeth F Hansen, Ingvild B Nyman, Maria K Dahle, Petter Frost, Espen Rimstad
Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) causes heart- and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Erythrocytes are the main target cells for PRV. HSMI causes significant economic losses to the salmon aquaculture industry, and there is currently no vaccine available. PRV replicates and assembles within cytoplasmic structures called viral factories, mainly organized by the non-structural viral protein µNS. In two experimental vaccination trials in Atlantic salmon, using DNA vaccines expressing different combinations of PRV proteins, we found that expression of the non-structural proteins µNS combined with the cell attachment protein σ1 was associated with an increasing trend in lymphocyte marker gene expression in spleen, and induced moderate protective effect against HSMI...
November 2, 2018: Vaccine
K G Pollock, B Tait, J Tait, K Bielecki, A Kirolos, L Willocks, D R Gorman
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are currently utilised globally in national immunisation programmes. Many new European migrants have settled in the United Kingdom (UK) since the 2004 European Union expansion with approximately 91,000 Polish people resident in Scotland. Following anecdotal reports from several NHS Boards within Scotland of lower HPV vaccine uptake in Polish communities compared with other ethnic minorities, an extract containing both forename and surname, was taken from the Scottish Immunisation Recall System (SIRS) for all girls in S2 and S3 in school years 2014/15 to 2016/17...
November 2, 2018: Vaccine
Changxing Gao, Xinpin Zhuang, Lingzhi Zhang, Mingyan Li, Jing J Li, Jing B Li, Qing Zhu
The CD8+ T-cell response is an essential part of the adaptive immunity. Adjuvants are routinely required for priming of T cells against antigens encountered in lymph nodes (LNs) to generate antigen-specific immunity but may concomitantly trigger unexpected inflammatory responses. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) induces transient desensitization of S1P receptors on LN T cells and temporarily blocks their egress, leading to prolonged intranodal retention that allows effective immunosurveillance and increases the chance of priming...
November 2, 2018: Vaccine
Shalini Desai, Dena L Schanzer, Anada Silva, Jenny Rotondo, Susan G Squires
OBJECTIVE: The acellular pertussis vaccine was introduced into the routine childhood immunization schedule across Canada in 1997-98 and adolescent booster doses were added between 1999 and 2005. We sought to assess the impact of these changes on infant pertussis hospitalizations and admissions to intensive care units (ICU) in Canada. METHODS: Hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of pertussis were extracted from the Canadian Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) for cases with hospital discharge dates between 1981 and 2016 using relevant ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes...
November 1, 2018: Vaccine
Silas P Trumbo, Dana Silver, Oxana Domenti, Hamlet Gasoyan, Eka Paatashvili, Bruce G Gellin, Jennifer L Gordon
BACKGROUND: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, delivers life-saving vaccines to children in the world's poorest countries and encourages countries to assume increasing ownership of their immunization programs as their economies grow. Vaccination legislation may promote country ownership and immunization program sustainability. However, despite establishment of vaccination laws as an indicator of national commitment to immunization through the Global Vaccine Action Plan, little is known about the content of vaccination legislation in low- and middle-income countries and the processes by which countries strengthen their legal frameworks...
November 1, 2018: Vaccine
Aurélie Bocquier, Lisa Fressard, Sébastien Cortaredona, Anna Zaytseva, Jeremy Ward, Arnaud Gautier, Patrick Peretti-Watel, Pierre Verger
BACKGROUND: The relations between vaccine hesitancy (VH) and individual socioeconomic status (SES) vary with context and remain poorly understood. We examined associations between parental SES and VH levels and their potential mediation by two attitudinal factors: commitment to making "good" health-related decisions and trust in mainstream medicine. METHODS: Data come from the 2016 Baromètre santé, a random cross-sectional telephone survey of the French general population...
October 31, 2018: Vaccine
Xiaoqin Yang, Dongmu Zhang, Wanmei Ou
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the patterns of pneumococcal disease vaccination, the time between two different pneumococcal vaccine doses and factors associated with series completion. METHODS: A retrospective claims database analysis was conducted using the Clinformatics DataMart™ database. Adults who turned 65 years between January 1st, 2013 to June 30th, 2017 and were continuously enrolled (≥15 months) in the Medicare Advantage plans to June 30th, 2017 were included in this study...
October 31, 2018: Vaccine
Brian E Gilbert, Nita Patel, Hanxin Lu, Ye Liu, Mimi Guebre-Xabier, Pedro A Piedra, Gregory Glenn, Larry Ellingsworth, Gale Smith
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in newborns, young children, elderly, and immune-compromised. The RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein is a major focus of vaccine development and the target of palivizumab (Synagis®) which is licensed as an immuno-prophylactic for use in newborn children at high risk of infection. However, clinical use of a narrowly targeted monoclonal antibodies leads to the generation of escape mutant strains that are fully resistant to neutralization by the antibody...
October 30, 2018: Vaccine
Jacqueline U McDonald, Peter Rigsby, Thomas Dougall, Othmar G Engelhardt
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), a leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness, has been a focus of vaccine development efforts in recent years. RSV neutralisation assays are particularly useful in the evaluation of immunogenicity of RSV vaccine candidates. Here we report a collaborative study that was conducted with the aim to establish the 1st International Standard for antiserum to RSV, to enable the standardisation of results across multiple assay formats. Two candidate standards were produced from serum samples donated by healthy adult individuals...
October 30, 2018: Vaccine
Baldassarre Martire, Chiara Azzari, Raffaele Badolato, Clementina Canessa, Emilia Cirillo, Vera Gallo, Simona Graziani, Tiziana Lorenzini, Cinzia Milito, Raffaella Panza, Viviana Moschese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Vaccine
Naheed Ahmed, Sandra C Quinn, Gregory R Hancock, Vicki S Freimuth, Amelia Jamison
Influenza vaccination rates in the U.S. remain low at 41% among adults over 18 years according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2016 data. Reasons for the low rate vary and include factors such as risk perception, vaccine hesitancy, and access to health care. This cross-sectional study sought to examine the relationship between social media use and influenza vaccine uptake among a sample of White and African Americans over 18 years of age. Using bivariate, and unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression tests, this study examined the relationship among social media use, social media as a source of health information, and influenza vaccination status in 2015...
October 30, 2018: Vaccine
Yangtao Ji, Xiaoxu Han, Wen Tian, Yang Gao, Su Jin, Linqi Zhang, Hong Shang
To date, inducing the production of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 in humans has been unsuccessful. Several studies have explored the coevolution of HIV-1 and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), but little is known about what affects the lack of bnAbs after long-term infection. A better understanding of the coevolution of the virus and nAbs in cases involving no bnAb production will help in the design of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. An individual with acute CRF01_AE HIV-1 infection who lacked bnAbs at just over 2 years post-infection (p...
October 30, 2018: Vaccine
Marcos Roberto A Ferreira, Francisco D Dos Santos, Carlos Eduardo P da Cunha, Clóvis Moreira, Rafael A Donassolo, Carolina G Magalhães, Alessandra S Belo Reis, Carlos Magno C Oliveira, José D Barbosa, Fábio P L Leite, Felipe M Salvarani, Fabricio R Conceição
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Vaccine
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