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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Mary Atieno, Neil Wilson, Andrea Casteriano, Ben Crossett, Didier Lesueur, Rosalind Deaker
Inoculation of legume seed with rhizobia is an efficient and cost-effective means of distributing elite rhizobial strains to broad-acre crops and pastures. However, necessary drying steps after coating seed expose rhizobia to desiccation stress reducing survival and limiting potential nitrogen fixation by legumes. Rhizobial tolerance to desiccation varies with strain and with growth conditions prior to drying. Cells grown in peat generally survive desiccation better than cells grown in liquid broth. We aimed to identify peat-induced proteomic changes in rhizobia that may be linked to desiccation tolerance...
June 23, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Abhirup Mookherjee, Ramalingam Dineshkumar, Nithya N Kutty, Tarun Agarwal, Ramkrishna Sen, Adinpunya Mitra, Tapas Kumar Maiti, Mrinal Kumar Maiti
Quorum sensing, the microbial communication system, is gaining importance as a therapeutic target against pathogens. The two key reasons for the rising demand of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory molecules are low selective pressure to develop resistance by pathogens and possibility of more species-specific effects. Due to complex interactions in a unique niche of live plant tissues, endophytes, as a survival mechanism, potentially produce various bioactive compounds such as QS inhibitors. We report the isolation of an endophytic fungus Kwoniella sp...
June 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Liwia Rajpert, Andreas Schäffer, Markus Lenz
The environmental fate of major (e.g. C, N, S, Fe and Mn) and trace (e.g. As, Cr, Sb, Se and U) elements is governed by microbially catalysed reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. Mesocosms are routinely used to elucidate trace metal fate on the basis of correlations between biogeochemical proxies such as dissolved element concentrations, trace element speciation and dissolved organic matter. However, several redox processes may proceed simultaneously in natural soils and sediments (particularly, reductive Mn and Fe dissolution and metal/metalloid reduction), having a contrasting effect on element mobility...
June 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Raheleh Norouzi, Zohreh Hojati, Moein Dehbashi
Interferon beta (IFNβ) is transiently expressed in response to viral infections and widely used to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). We introduced mutations in the IFNβ gene (in the 27th and 101st codons and in the Kozak sequence, and also deletion of 3' and 5' unstable, untranslated region, UTR) with the aim of increasing the expression of IFNβ. Computational analyses of mutant and wild-type RNAs and proteins of IFNβ by RNAfold, ASAView, HOPE and Ramachandran plot, and iStable web servers showed that the mutations could decrease RNA stability, protein solvent accessibility, and protein stability but could not change correct folding...
June 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Marie-Ève Lacombe-Harvey, Ryszard Brzezinski, Carole Beaulieu
Actinobacteria, a large group of Gram-positive bacteria, secrete a wide range of extracellular enzymes involved in the degradation of organic compounds and biopolymers including the ubiquitous aminopolysaccharides chitin and chitosan. While chitinolytic enzymes are distributed in all kingdoms of life, actinobacteria are recognized as particularly good decomposers of chitinous material and several members of this taxon carry impressive sets of genes dedicated to chitin and chitosan degradation. Degradation of these polymers in actinobacteria is dependent on endo- and exo-acting hydrolases as well as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases...
June 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jun Zhao, Xing Zhou, Anqi Jiang, Juanzi Fan, Tao Lan, Jinbo Zhang, Zucong Cai
Soil disinfestation is an important agricultural practice to conquer soil-borne diseases and thereby ensure crop productivity. Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) had been developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical soil disinfestation (CSD). However, the differences between CSD and RSD on soil-borne pathogen suppression and fungal community structure remain poorly understood. In this work, five treatments, i.e., untreated soil (CK), CSD with 0.5 t ha-1 dazomet (DZ), RSD with 10 t ha-1 ethanol (ET), 15 t ha-1 sugarcane bagasse (SB), and 15 t ha-1 bean dregs (BD), were performed to investigate their influences on disinfestation efficiency, fungal abundance, diversity, and community structure via quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing...
June 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jingyu Wang, Jilong Wang, Yi-Shu Tai, Qiuge Zhang, Wenqin Bai, Kechun Zhang
Mesaconate, a branched unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, has drawn great interest because of its versatile applications. In this work, we optimized the fermentation efficiency of Escherichia coli to produce mesaconate from glucose. We first drove the carbon flux to 2-ketoglutarate by overexpressing genes involved in TCA precursor pathway and anaplerotic pathways. Then, to increase the pool of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), an upstream precursor for 2-ketoglutarate, the phosphotransferase system (PTS) of E. coli was inactivated by deleting glucose PTS permease and the import of glucose was altered by overexpressing galactose/H+ symporter GalP...
June 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Maria Gullo, Salvatore La China, Pasquale Massimiliano Falcone, Paolo Giudici
Bacterial cellulose is an attractive biopolymer for a number of applications including food, biomedical, cosmetics, and engineering fields. In addition to renewability and biodegradability, its unique structure and properties such as chemical purity, nanoscale fibrous 3D network, high water-holding capacity, high degree of polymerization, high crystallinity index, light transparency, biocompatibility, and mechanical features offer several advantages when it is used as native polymer or in composite materials...
June 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Azusa Saika, Hideaki Koike, Tokuma Fukuoka, Tomotake Morita
Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are a type of glycolipid biosurfactant produced by basidiomycetous yeasts, most notably those belonging to the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago. Mannosylerythritol lipids are environmentally friendly and possess many unique functions, such as gene delivery, bio-activation, and human skin repair, and thus have potential applications in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, and environmental industries. However, MELs will require overcoming same issues related to the commercialization, e...
June 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Cheng Li, Luguang Wang, Hong Liu
A possible approach to enhance the performance of microbial electrochemical system such as microbial fuel cells is to increase the conductivity of catalytic biofilms and thereby the direct extracellular electron transfer within the biofilms and from the electrode. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of static low-intensity magnetic field on the anodic biofilms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Results demonstrated that the application of a low-intensity magnetic field (105 and 150 mT) can significantly shorten the startup time and enhance the overall performance of single-chamber MFCs in terms of current density (300%) and power density (150%)...
June 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shuo Mi, Chunkai Gu, Pengfei Wu, Hongjuan Liu, Xiang Yan, Dongyue Li, Xiang Tang, Xiaorui Duan, Genyu Wang, Jianan Zhang
Butanol fermentation comprises two successive and distinct stages, namely acidogenesis and solventogenesis. The current lack of clarity regarding the underlying metabolic regulation of fermentation impedes improvements in biobutanol production. Here, a proteomics study was performed in the acidogenesis phase, the lowest pH point (transition point), and the solventogenesis phase in the butanol-producing symbiotic system TSH06. Forty-two Clostridium acetobutylicum proteins demonstrated differential expression levels at different stages...
June 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Zhaoyuan Liu, Wenli Yu, Christopher T Nomura, Junhui Li, Shouwen Chen, Yong Yang, Qin Wang
The dodecapeptide antibiotic bacitracin, produced by several strains of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis, is widely used as an antibacterial animal feed additive. Several genetic strategies were explored to enhance its production. The availability of building block amino acids for bacitracin production was found to play an important role in its synthesis. In this study, the TCA cycle in the industrial strain B. licheniformis DW2 was strengthened by overexpression of the key enzymes citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH)...
June 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Gaspar Banfalvi
The insufficient basic and clinical knowledge about invasive mold infections necessitated to review aspergillosis rodent models. The scope of this review has two major aspects. (1) It briefly summarizes Aspergillus toxicoses, the adverse effects of Aspergillus mycotoxins, the virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus, and how mild Aspergillus infections can turn to immunosuppressive diseases, ultimately to lethal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. (2) The second major aspect of the review deals with earlier and recent murine models of pulmonary aspergillosis...
June 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xin Wu, Huijun He, William L Yang, Jiaping Yu, Chunping Yang
A novel bionanomaterial comprising Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in a sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (SA-PVA) matrix was synthesized for the efficient removal of atrazine from aqueous solutions. The effects of the operating parameters, nitrogen source, and glucose and Fe3+ contents on atrazine removal were investigated, and the intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the synthesized Fe3 O4 particles were characterized by XRD, EDX, HR-TEM, FTIR, and hysteresis loops, and the bionanomaterial was characterized by SEM...
June 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sebastián Cerminati, Luciana Paoletti, Salvador Peirú, Hugo G Menzella, María Eugenia Castelli
βγ-crystallin has emerged as a superfamily of structurally homologous proteins with representatives across all domains of life. A major portion of this superfamily is constituted by microbial members. This superfamily has also been recognized as a novel group of Ca2+ -binding proteins with a large diversity and variable properties in Ca2+ binding and stability. We have recently described a new phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (LS-PIPLC) which was shown to efficiently remove phosphatidylinositol from crude vegetable oil...
June 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Saeid Tamadoni Jahromi, Noora Barzkar
The marine ecosystem has been known to be a rich source of novel enzymes. Agarase is a key enzyme that can hydrolyze agar in the marine environment. Marine bacterial agarase has been isolated from various sources, such as sediments, coastal water, and deep sea and from the surface of crustaceans and seaweeds. This review presents an account of the agarase production of marine bacteria. General information about agar, agarase, isolation, and purification of marine bacterial agarases; the biochemical properties of native agarase from marine bacteria; the biochemical properties of recombinant marine bacterial agarases from engineered microorganisms; and the industrial future of marine bacterial agarases is analyzed...
June 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Min Zhu, Xiaolong Hu, Guangli Cao, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
A large number of DNAs in eukaryote genomes can code for atypical transcripts, and their functions are controversial. It has been reported that the transcripts contain many small open reading frames (sORFs), which were originally considered as non-translatable RNAs. However, increasing evidence has suggested that some of these sORFs can encode for small peptides and some are conserved across large evolutionary distances. It has been reported that the small peptides have functions and may be involved in varieties of cellular processes, playing important roles in development, physiology, and metabolism...
June 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Roberto Mazzoli, Maria Gabriella Giuffrida, Enrica Pessione
Ancient documents and milestones of human history such as manuscripts and textiles are fragile and during aging undergo chemical, physical, and biological deterioration. Among the different causes of damage, also human intervention plays a role since some restoration strategies proved to be transient and/or they generated further damage. Outdoor monuments undergo deterioration since they are exposed to pollution, weathering, microbial attack (giving rise to undesired pigmentation, discoloration or true dissolution, corrosion, and overall decay), as well as man-made damage (i...
June 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kiyoka Uebayashi, Hiroshi Shimizu, Fumio Matsuda
Industrial diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are selected from natural populations and then domesticated by optimizing the preferred properties for producing products such as bread, wine, and sake. In this study, for comparing the fermentation performance of various industrial yeasts, seven diploid strains of S. cerevisiae, namely, BY4947 (laboratory yeast derived from S288C), Kyokai7 and Kyokai9 (sake yeasts), Red Star and NBRC0555 (bread yeasts), and QA23 and EC1118 (wine yeasts), were cultivated in a synthetic medium...
June 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Muhammad Ovais, Ali Talha Khalil, Nazar Ul Islam, Irshad Ahmad, Muhamamd Ayaz, Muthupandian Saravanan, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Sudip Mukherjee
Metal-based nanoparticles have gained tremendous popularity because of their interesting physical, biological, optical, and magnetic properties. These nanoparticles can be synthesized using a variety of different physical, chemical, and biological techniques. The biological means are largely preferred as it provides an environmentally benign, green, and cost-effective route for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. These bioresources can act as a scaffold, thereby playing the role of reducing as well as capping agents in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles...
June 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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