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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547568/biofertilizers-and-sustainable-agriculture-exploring-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#1
REVIEW
Nicholas O Igiehon, Olubukola O Babalola
Worldwide agricultural food production has to double in 2050 so as to feed the global increasing population while reducing dependency on conventional chemical fertilizers plus pesticides. To accomplish this objective, there is the need to explore the several mutualistic interactions between plant roots and rhizosphere microbiome. Biofertilization is the process of boosting the abundance of microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the natural plant rhizosphere which depicts a beneficial alternative to chemical fertilization practices...
May 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547567/effects-of-electron-acceptors-on-sulphate-reduction-activity-in-activated-sludge-processes
#2
Francisco Rubio-Rincón, Carlos Lopez-Vazquez, Laurens Welles, Tessa van den Brand, Ben Abbas, Mark van Loosdrecht, Damir Brdjanovic
The concentration of sulphate present in wastewater can vary from 10 to 500 mg SO4(2-)/L. During anaerobic conditions, sulphate is reduced to sulphide by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulphide generation is undesired in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Previous research indicated that SRB are inhibited by the presence of electron acceptors (such as O2, NO3 and NO2). However, the contact times and concentrations used in those studies are by far higher than occur in WWTPs. Since sulphide can influence the biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes, this research aimed to understand how the different electron acceptors commonly present in biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems can affect the proliferation of SRB...
May 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540426/genetic-analysis-of-heterogeneous-sub-clones-in-recombinant-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#3
Kaiming Chen, Dong Li, Hongwen Li, Bing Li, Jie Li, Lei Huang, Renhao Li, Xiaoqing Xu, Lingxiao Jiang, Cizhong Jiang, Hua Gu, Jianmin Fang
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been widely used for production of recombinant proteins and therapeutic antibodies. However, owing to the instability and heterogeneity of CHO cells, the development of stable and high-expression recombinant CHO cell lines is often time-consuming. To investigate the mechanisms associated with heterogeneity in protein productivity, we performed transcriptome analysis on the subclones derived from a stable parental CHO clone. Two high-expression subclones and one low-expression subclone were selected based on their similar genomic background and subjected to RNA-seq analysis...
May 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540425/contribution-of-plasmid-encoded-peptidase-s8-prtp-to-adhesion-and-transit-in-the-gut-of-lactococcus-lactis-ibb477-strain
#4
Joanna Maria Radziwill-Bienkowska, Véronique Robert, Karolina Drabot, Florian Chain, Claire Cherbuy, Philippe Langella, Muriel Thomas, Jacek Karol Bardowski, Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Magdalena Kowalczyk
The ability of Lactococcus lactis to adhere to the intestinal mucosa can potentially prolong the contact with the host, and therefore favour its persistence in the gut. In the present study, the contribution of plasmid-encoded factors to the adhesive and transit properties of the L. lactis subsp. cremoris IBB477 strain was investigated. Plasmid-cured derivatives as well as deletion mutants were obtained and analysed. Adhesion tests were performed using non-coated polystyrene plates, plates coated with mucin or fibronectin and mucus-secreting HT29-MTX intestinal epithelial cells...
May 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540424/screening-and-optimizing-of-inhibitors-for-ammonia-oxidizing-bacteria-in-sediments-of-malodorous-river
#5
Jianhua Wang, Yan He, Jin Zhu, Huimin Guan, Minsheng Huang
The proper use of selective ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and/or ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) inhibitors is critical to distinguish AOA and AOB contribution. In this research, three inhibitors including ampicillin, dicyandiamide (DCD), and allylthiourea (ATU) were examined mainly focusing on inhibiting dosage, adaptability, and effects. The results showed that the optimized inhibitory dosage of ampicillin, DCD, and ATU was separately 1.5 g L(-1), 1 mM, and 25 μM. Among the three inhibitors, ATU exhibited the strongest and persistent inhibition effects and resulted in up to 90% inhibition in the AOB-enriched culture...
May 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540423/direct-treatment-of-high-strength-soft-drink-wastewater-using-a-down-flow-hanging-sponge-reactor-performance-and-microbial-community-dynamics
#6
Junhui Liao, Curtis Fang, Jimmy Yu, Arun Sathyagal, Eric Willman, Wen-Tso Liu
A stand-alone down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system with a two-stage configuration was operated for 700 days to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater at 3000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD). Throughout the operation, >90% COD and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency was obtained by the first stage, and a final effluent of COD <60 mg/L (TOC <20 mg/L) was consistently maintained with the second stage. Lower organic removal efficiency was observed to closely correlate with lower pH, higher volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, and higher suspended solid (SS) in the effluent...
May 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536735/effects-of-co-inoculating-rice-straw-with-ruminal-microbiota-and-anaerobic-sludge-digestion-performance-and-spatial-distribution-of-microbial-communities
#7
Yuying Deng, Zhenxing Huang, Mingxing Zhao, Wenquan Ruan, Hengfeng Miao, Hongyan Ren
Ruminal microbiota (RM) were co-inoculated with anaerobic sludge (AS) at different ratios to study the digestion of rice straw in batch experiments. The CH4 yield reached 273.64 mL/g volatile solid (VS) at a co-inoculum ratio of 1:1. The xylanase and cellulase activities were 198.88-212.88 and 24.51-29.08 U/mL in co-inoculated samples, respectively, and were significantly different compared to the results for single inoculum (p < 0.05). Higher ratios of AS enhanced acetoclastic methanogenesis, and propionate accumulation could be the main reason for the longer lag phase observed in samples with a higher RM ratio...
May 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534062/insights-into-the-prevalence-and-underlying-causes-of-clonal-variation-through-transcriptomic-analysis-in-pichia-pastoris
#8
Rochelle Aw, Geraint R Barton, David J Leak
Clonal variation, wherein a range of specific productivities of secreted proteins are observed from supposedly identical transformants, is an accepted aspect of working with Pichia pastoris. It means that a significant number of transformants need to be tested to obtain a representative sample, and in commercial protein production, companies regularly screen thousands of transformants to select for the highest secretor. Here, we have undertaken a detailed investigation of this phenomenon by characterising clones transformed with the human serum albumin gene...
May 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528426/building-a-bio-based-industry-in-the-middle-east-through-harnessing-the-potential-of-the-red-sea-biodiversity
#9
REVIEW
Jens Nielsen, John Archer, Magbubah Essack, Vladimir B Bajic, Takashi Gojobori, Ivan Mijakovic
The incentive for developing microbial cell factories for production of fuels and chemicals comes from the ability of microbes to deliver these valuable compounds at a reduced cost and with a smaller environmental impact compared to the analogous chemical synthesis. Another crucial advantage of microbes is their great biological diversity, which offers a much larger "catalog" of molecules than the one obtainable by chemical synthesis. Adaptation to different environments is one of the important drives behind microbial diversity...
May 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526981/rubisco-mutants-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-display-divergent-photosynthetic-parameters-and-lipid-allocation
#10
M G Esquível, A R Matos, J Marques Silva
Photosynthesis and lipid allocation were investigated in Rubisco small subunit mutants of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Comparative analyses were undertaken with cells grown photoheterotrophically under sulphur-replete or sulphur-depleted conditions. The Y67A Rubisco mutant, which has previously demonstrated a pronounced reduction in Rubisco levels and higher hydrogen production rates than the wild type, also shows the following divergences in photosynthetic phenotype and lipid allocation: (i) low Fv/Fm (maximum photochemical efficiency), (ii) low effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), (iii) low effectiveness at protection against high light intensities, (iv) a higher level of total lipids per pigment and (v) changes in the relative proportions of different fatty acids, with a marked decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (FAs)...
May 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526980/a-multiomics-approach-to-study-the-microbiome-response-to-phytoplankton-blooms
#11
REVIEW
Liyan Song
Phytoplankton blooms are predictable features of marine and freshwater habitats. Despite a good knowledge base of the environmental factors controlling blooms, complex interactions between the bacterial and archaeal communities and phytoplankton bloom taxa are only now emerging. Here, the current research on bacterial community's structural and functional response to phytoplankton blooms is reviewed and discussed and further research is proposed. More attention should be paid on structure and function of autotrophic bacteria and archaea during phytoplankton blooms...
May 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523397/the-heterogeneity-of-composition-and-assembly-processes-of-the-microbial-community-between-different-nutrient-loading-lake-zones-in-taihu-lake
#12
Dayong Zhao, Xinyi Cao, Rui Huang, Jin Zeng, Feng Shen, Huimin Xu, Sichen Wang, Xiaowei He, Zhongbo Yu
To investigate the differences in the microbial community composition and assembly process in two lake zones (Meiliang Bay (MLB) and Xukou Bay (XKB) in Taihu Lake, China) with different nutrient loadings, water samples were collected. Both the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene for the bacterial community and the 18S rRNA gene for the microeukaryote community were investigated using the Illumina second-generation sequencing platform (2 × 250 paired-end). The results indicated that both the bacterioplankton and microeukaryote community composition derived from the two lake zones were significantly different...
May 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523396/clostridium-perfringens-beta-toxin-dna-prime-protein-boost-elicits-enhanced-protective-immune-response-in-mice
#13
Amit Kumar Solanki, Bharati Bhatia, Himani Kaushik, Sachin K Deshmukh, Aparna Dixit, Lalit C Garg
Clostridium perfringens beta toxin (CPB) is the primary pathogenic factor responsible for necrotic enteritis in sheep, cattle and humans. Owing to rapid progression of the disease, vaccination is the only possible recourse to avoid high mortality in animal farms and huge economic losses. The present study reports evaluation of a cpb gene-based DNA vaccine encoding the beta toxin of C. perfringens with homologous as well as heterologous booster strategy. Immunization strategy employing heterologous booster with heat-inactivated rCPB mounted stronger immune response when compared to that generated by homologous booster...
May 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523395/evaluating-the-association-between-body-weight-and-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-weaned-piglets-via-16s-rrna-sequencing
#14
Geon Goo Han, Jun-Yeong Lee, Gwi-Deuk Jin, Jongbin Park, Yo Han Choi, Byung Jo Chae, Eun Bae Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi
Due to the ban on the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in livestock feeds, understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota and the physiology of the host has become very important for improving livestock performance. In this study, we investigated the relationship between intestinal microbiota and body weights of weaned piglets. Lighter (n = 9) and heavier (n = 9) 9-week-old weaned piglets were selected from approximately one hundred individuals based on their body weights. Their fecal microbial communities were analyzed by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
May 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516207/enhancing-h2o2-resistance-of-an-esterase-from-pyrobaculum-calidifontis-by-structure-guided-engineering-of-the-substrate-binding-site
#15
Pengfei Zhou, Dongming Lan, Grzegorz Maria Popowicz, Xuping Wang, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
Green technologies are attracting increasing attention in industrial chemistry where enzymatic reactions can replace dangerous and environmentally unfriendly chemical processes. In situ enzymatic synthesis of peroxycarboxylic acid is an attractive alternative for several industrial applications although concentrated H2O2 can denature the biocatalyst, limiting its usefulness. Herein, we report the structure-guided engineering of the Pyrobaculum calidifontis esterase (PestE) substrate binding site to increase its stability and perhydrolysis activity...
May 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516206/identification-expression-and-characterization-of-an-r-%C3%AF-transaminase-from-capronia-semiimmersa
#16
César Iglesias, Paola Panizza, Sonia Rodriguez Giordano
Chiral amines are essential precursors in the production of biologically active compounds, including several important drugs. Among the biocatalytic strategies that have been developed for their synthesis, the use of ω-transaminases (ω-TA) appears as an attractive alternative allowing the stereoselective amination of prochiral ketones. However, the problems associated with narrow substrate specificity, unfavourable reaction equilibrium and expensive amine donors still hamper its industrial application. The search for novel enzymes from nature can contribute to expand the catalytic repertoire of ω-TA and help to circumvent some of these problems...
May 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516205/applications-of-white-rot-fungi-in-bioremediation-with-nanoparticles-and-biosynthesis-of-metallic-nanoparticles
#17
REVIEW
Kai He, Guiqiu Chen, Guangming Zeng, Zhenzhen Huang, Zhi Guo, Tiantian Huang, Min Peng, Jiangbo Shi, Liang Hu
White rot fungi (WRF) are important environmental microorganisms that have been widely applied in many fields. To our knowledge, the application performance of WRF in bioremediation can be greatly improved by the combination with nanotechnology. And the preparation of metallic nanoparticles using WRF is an emerging biosynthesis approach. Understanding the interrelation of WRF and nanoparticles is important to further expand their applications. Thus, this mini-review summarizes the currently related reports mainly from the two different point of views...
May 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512676/different-fermentation-processes-produced-variants-of-an-anti-cd52-monoclonal-antibody-that-have-divergent-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characteristics
#18
Chao Zhuang, Chen Zheng, Yantian Chen, Zheng Huang, Yanchao Wang, Qiang Fu, Chen Zeng, Tong Wu, Liming Yang, Nianmin Qi
The anti-CD52 antibody has already been approved for the treatment of patients with resistant chronic lymphocytic leukemia, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and has demonstrable efficacy against stem cell transplantation rejection. A CHO cell line expressing a humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody (mAb-TH) was cultivated in both fed-batch and perfusion modes, and then purified. The critical quality attributes of these mAb variants were characterized and the pharmacokinetics (PK) properties were investigated...
May 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512675/selection-and-characterization-of-an-anaerobic-microbial-consortium-with-high-adaptation-to-crude-glycerol-for-1-3-propanediol-production
#19
Jin-Jie Zhou, Jun-Tao Shen, Li-Li Jiang, Ya-Qin Sun, Ying Mu, Zhi-Long Xiu
Crude glycerol is an ideal feedstock for bioproduction of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) while pure culture always shows low substrate tolerance and limited productivity. In this study, an anaerobic microbial consortium for conversion of crude glycerol was selected and its 1,3-PDO production capacity was evaluated. The consortium was obtained from anaerobic activated sludge by 19 serial transfers and mainly consisted of 94.64% Clostridiaceae and 4.47% Peptostreptococcaceae. The consortium adapted well with high glycerol concentration of 120 g/L as well as wide substrate concentration fluctuation from 15 to 80 g/L, producing 60...
May 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510801/characterization-of-an-autotrophic-bioreactor-microbial-consortium-degrading-thiocyanate
#20
Mathew Paul Watts, Liam Patrick Spurr, Han Ming Gan, John William Moreau
Thiocyanate (SCN(-)) forms as a by-product of cyanidation during gold ore processing and can be degraded by a variety of microorganisms utilizing it as an energy, nitrogen, sulphur and/or carbon source. In complex consortia inhabiting bioreactor systems, a range of metabolisms are sustained by SCN(-) degradation; however, despite the addition or presence of labile carbon sources in most bioreactor designs to date, autotrophic bacteria have been found to dominate key metabolic functions. In this study, we cultured an autotrophic SCN(-)-degrading consortium directly from gold mine tailings...
May 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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