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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647779/transcriptome-profiling-and-digital-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-skin-of-dybowski-s-frog-rana-dybowskii-exposed-to-aeromonas-hydrophila
#1
Yi-Gang Xu, Long-Hui Chai, Wen Shi, Dan-Dan Wang, Jing-Yu Zhang, Xiang-Hong Xiao
Recently, populations of Rana dybowskii, an important amphibian species in Northeast China, have decreased, mainly owing to the disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. However, effective control methods have not yet been developed. In order to explore the immune responses of R. dybowskii upon exposure to A. hydrophila infection, Illumina high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) technology were employed to investigate transcriptomic changes in the skin of R. dybowskii exposed to A...
June 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646448/purification-of-the-exopolysaccharide-produced-by-alteromonas-infernus-identification-of-endotoxins-and-effective-process-to-remove-them
#2
Alicia Grivaud-Le Du, Agata Zykwinska, Corinne Sinquin, Jacqueline Ratiskol, Pierre Weiss, Claire Vinatier, Jérôme Guicheux, Christine Delbarre-Ladrat, Sylvia Colliec-Jouault
Alteromonas infernus bacterium isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents can produce by fermentation a high molecular weight exopolysaccharide (EPS) called GY785. This EPS described as a new source of glycosaminoglycan-like molecule presents a great potential for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. However, this unusual EPS is secreted by a Gram-negative bacterium and can be therefore contaminated by endotoxins, in particular the lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Biochemical and chemical analyses of the LPS extracted from A...
June 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646447/microbial-transformations-of-selenite-by-methane-oxidizing-bacteria
#3
Abdurrahman S Eswayah, Thomas J Smith, Andreas C Scheinost, Nicole Hondow, Philip H E Gardiner
Methane-oxidizing bacteria are well known for their role in the global methane cycle and their potential for microbial transformation of wide range of hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon pollution. Recently, it has also emerged that methane-oxidizing bacteria interact with inorganic pollutants in the environment. Here, we report what we believe to be the first study of the interaction of pure strains of methane-oxidizing bacteria with selenite. Results indicate that the commonly used laboratory model strains of methane-oxidizing bacteria, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, are both able to reduce the toxic selenite (SeO3(2-)) but not selenate (SeO4(2-)) to red spherical nanoparticulate elemental selenium (Se(0)), which was characterized via energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)...
June 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643182/fvstr1-a-striatin-orthologue-in-fusarium-virguliforme-is-required-for-asexual-development-and-virulence
#4
Kazi T Islam, Jason P Bond, Ahmad M Fakhoury
The soil-borne fungus Fusarium virguliforme causes sudden death syndrome (SDS), one of the most devastating diseases of soybean in North and South America. Despite the importance of SDS, a clear understanding of the fungal pathogenicity factors that affect the development of this disease is still lacking. We have identified FvSTR1, a F. virguliforme gene, which encodes a protein similar to a family of striatin proteins previously reported to regulate signalling pathways, cell differentiation, conidiation, sexual development, and virulence in filamentous fungi...
June 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643181/promoting-acid-resistance-and-nisin-yield-of-lactococcus-lactis-f44-by-genetically-increasing-d-asp-amidation-level-inside-cell-wall
#5
Panlong Hao, Dongmei Liang, Lijie Cao, Bin Qiao, Hao Wu, Qinggele Caiyin, Hongji Zhu, Jianjun Qiao
Nisin fermentation by Lactococcus lactis requires a low pH to maintain a relatively higher nisin activity. However, the acidic environment will result in cell arrest, and eventually decrease the relative nisin production. Hence, constructing an acid-resistant L. lactis is crucial for nisin harvest in acidic nisin fermentation. In this paper, the first discovery of the relationship between D-Asp amidation-associated gene (asnH) and acid resistance was reported. Overexpression of asnH in L. lactis F44 (F44A) resulted in a sevenfold increase in survival capacity during acid shift (pH 3) and enhanced nisin desorption capacity compared to F44 (wild type), which subsequently contributed to higher nisin production, reaching 5346 IU/mL, 57...
June 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639010/modulation-of-calcium-carbonate-precipitation-by-exopolysaccharide-in-bacillus-sp-jh7
#6
Hyun Jung Kim, Bora Shin, Yun Suk Lee, Woojun Park
Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is proposed to facilitate calcium ion supersaturation through its nucleation effect during the microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. However, the supersaturation effect of Ca(2+) via EPS in MICP has not been clearly demonstrated. Enhanced exopolysaccharide production of the alkali- and halotolerant MICP-capable bacteria, Bacillus sp. JH7, was achieved through glycerol addition. This was demonstrated by measuring cellular precipitation and Congo red binding...
June 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634851/multi-step-biocatalytic-depolymerization-of-lignin
#7
Pere Picart, Haifeng Liu, Philipp M Grande, Nico Anders, Leilei Zhu, Jürgen Klankermayer, Walter Leitner, Pablo Domínguez de María, Ulrich Schwaneberg, Anett Schallmey
Lignin is a biomass-derived aromatic polymer that has been identified as a potential renewable source of aromatic chemicals and other valuable compounds. The valorization of lignin, however, represents a great challenge due to its high inherent functionalization, what compromises the identification of chemical routes for its selective depolymerization. In this work, an in vitro biocatalytic depolymerization process is presented, that was applied to lignin samples obtained from beech wood through OrganoCat pretreatment, resulting in a mixture of lignin-derived aromatic monomers...
June 21, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634850/novel-vitamin-b12-producing-enterococcus-spp-and-preliminary-in-vitro-evaluation-of-probiotic-potentials
#8
Ping Li, Qing Gu, Yuejiao Wang, Yue Yu, Lanlan Yang, Jieyan V Chen
Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been attracting increased attentions currently because of the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Most of recent studies focused on Lactobacillus, and little is known about B12-producing Enterococcus. In the present study, five Enterococcus strains isolated from infant feces were identified as vitamin B12 producers. Among them, Enterococcus faecium LZ86 had the highest B12 production (499...
June 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634849/characterization-of-new-recombinant-3-ketosteroid-%C3%AE-1-dehydrogenases-for-the-biotransformation-of-steroids
#9
Xiaojun Wang, Jinhui Feng, Dalong Zhang, Qiaqing Wu, Dunming Zhu, Yanhe Ma
3-Ketosteroid-Δ(1)-dehydrogenases (KstDs [EC 1.3.99.4]) catalyze the Δ(1)-dehydrogenation of steroids and are a class of important enzymes for steroid biotransformations. In this study, we cloned 12 putative KstD-encoding (kstd) genes from both fungal and Gram-positive microorganisms and attempted to overproduce the recombinant proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3). Five successful recombinant enzymes catalyzed the Δ(1)-desaturation of a variety of steroidal compounds such as 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD), 9α-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (9-OH-AD), hydrocortisone, cortisone, and cortexolone...
June 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634848/erratum-to-towards-novel-cry-toxins-with-enhanced-toxicity-broader-a-new-chimeric-cry4ba-cry1ac-toxin
#10
Raida Zribi Zghal, Jihen Elleuch, Mamdouh Ben Ali, Frédéric Darriet, Ahmed Rebaï, Fabrice Chandre, Samir Jaoua, Slim Tounsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631221/effects-of-gas-condition-on-acetic-acid-fermentation-by-clostridium-thermocellum-and-moorella-thermoacetica-c-thermoaceticum
#11
Harifara Rabemanolontsoa, Dung Van Nguyen, Piradee Jusakulvjit, Shiro Saka
Fermentation with acetogens can be affected by cultivation gas phase, but to date, there is not enough evidence on that matter for Clostridium thermocellum and Moorella thermoacetica. In this work, the effects of sparged CO2 as well as sparged and non-sparged N2 on these microorganisms were studied using glucose and cellobiose as substrates. It was revealed that sparged CO2 and non-sparged N2 supported growth and acetic acid production by C. thermocellum and M. thermoacetica, while sparged N2 inhibited both of the microorganisms...
June 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631220/applicability-of-upflow-anaerobic-sludge-blanket-and-dynamic-membrane-coupled-process-for-the-treatment-of-municipal-wastewater
#12
Pei Jun Quek, Tsuey Shan Yeap, How Yong Ng
This study investigated the applicability of dynamic membrane filter (DMF) technology in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and DMF-coupled process for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The overall treatment performance and effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), operating flux, and mesh pore size on the UASB + DMF were assessed. The UASB + DMF-coupled process demonstrated removal efficiencies of over 64 and 86% for TCOD and TSS, respectively. The effects of filtration flux and support mesh pore size were investigated and it was found that while there was little impact on the treatment performance, a 67% increase in operating flux resulted in a 25% increase in fouling rate...
June 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631219/agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-transformation-of-oleaginous-yeast-lipomyces-species
#13
Ziyu Dai, Shuang Deng, David E Culley, Kenneth S Bruno, Jon K Magnuson
Interest in using renewable sources of carbon, especially lignocellulosic biomass, for the production of hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals has fueled interest in exploring various organisms capable of producing hydrocarbon biofuels and chemicals or their precursors. The oleaginous (oil-producing) yeast Lipomyces starkeyi is the subject of active research regarding the production of triacylglycerides as hydrocarbon fuel precursors using a variety of carbohydrate and nutrient sources. The genome of L. starkeyi has been published, which opens the door to production strain improvements through the development and use of the tools of synthetic biology for this oleaginous species...
June 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623382/carbon-and-hydrogen-isotope-fractionation-during-aerobic-biodegradation-of-quinoline-and-3-methylquinoline
#14
Mingchao Cui, Wenbing Zhang, Jun Fang, Qianqiong Liang, Dongxuan Liu
Compound-specific isotope analysis has been used extensively to investigate the biodegradation of various organic pollutants. To date, little isotope fractionation information is available for the biodegradation of quinolinic compounds. In this study, we report on the carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation during quinoline and 3-methylquinoline aerobic microbial degradation by a Comamonas sp. strain Q10. Degradation of quinoline and 3-methylquinoline was accompanied by isotope fractionation. Large hydrogen and small carbon isotope fractionation was observed for quinoline while minor carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation effects occurred for 3-methylquinoline...
June 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620689/silencing-of-a-second-dimethylallyltryptophan-synthase-of-penicillium-roqueforti-reveals-a-novel-clavine-alkaloid-gene-cluster
#15
Ángeles Fernández-Bodega, Rubén Álvarez-Álvarez, Paloma Liras, Juan F Martín
Penicillium roqueforti produces several prenylated indole alkaloids, including roquefortine C and clavine alkaloids. The first step in the biosynthesis of roquefortine C is the prenylation of tryptophan-derived dipeptides by a dimethylallyltryptophan synthase, specific for roquefortine biosynthesis (roquefortine prenyltransferase). A second dimethylallyltryptophan synthase, DmaW2, different from the roquefortine prenyltransferase, has been studied in this article. Silencing the gene encoding this second dimethylallyltryptophan synthase, dmaW2, proved that inactivation of this gene does not prevent the production of roquefortine C, but suppresses the formation of other indole alkaloids...
June 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620688/controlling-microbial-phb-synthesis-via-crispri
#16
Dan Li, Li Lv, Jin-Chun Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen
Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of biopolyesters with properties similar to petroleum plastics such as polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP). Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most common PHA known so far. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi), a technology recently developed to control gene expression levels in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes, was employed to regulate PHB synthase activity influencing PHB synthesis. Recombinant Escherichia coli harboring an operon of three PHB synthesis genes phaCAB cloned from Ralstonia eutropha, was transformed with various single guided RNA (sgRNA with its guide sequence of 20-23 bases) able to bind to various locations of the PHB synthase PhaC, respectively...
June 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620687/identification-and-characterization-of-a-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-for-tryptophan-dimers-in-deep-sea-derived-streptomyces-sp-scsio-03032
#17
Liang Ma, Wenjun Zhang, Yiguang Zhu, Guangtao Zhang, Haibo Zhang, Qingbo Zhang, Liping Zhang, Chengshan Yuan, Changsheng Zhang
Tryptophan dimers (TDs) are an important class of natural products with diverse bioactivities and share conserved biosynthetic pathways. We report the identification of a partial gene cluster (spm) responsible for the biosynthesis of a class of unusual TDs with non-planar skeletons including spiroindimicins (SPMs), indimicins (IDMs), and lynamicins (LNMs) from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 03032. Bioinformatics analysis, targeted gene disruptions, and heterologous expression studies confirmed the involvement of the spm gene cluster in the biosynthesis of SPM/IDM/LNMs, and revealed the indispensable roles for the halogenase/reductase pair SpmHF, the amino acid oxidase SpmO, and the chromopyrrolic acid (CPA) synthase SpmD, as well as the positive regulator SpmR and the putative transporter SpmA...
June 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620686/evaluation-and-optimization-of-pcr-primers-for-selective-and-quantitative-detection-of-marine-anme-subclusters-involved-in-sulfate-dependent-anaerobic-methane-oxidation
#18
Peer H A Timmers, H C Aura Widjaja-Greefkes, Caroline M Plugge, Alfons J M Stams
Since the discovery that anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) are involved in the anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction in marine sediments, different primers and probes specifically targeting the 16S rRNA gene of these archaea have been developed. Microbial investigation of the different ANME subtypes (ANME-1; ANME-2a, b, and c; and ANME-3) was mainly done in sediments where specific subtypes of ANME were highly enriched and methanogenic cell numbers were low. In different sediments with higher archaeal diversity and abundance, it is important that primers and probes targeting different ANME subtypes are very specific and do not detect other ANME subtypes or methanogens that are also present...
June 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616644/synergistic-hydrolysis-of-xylan-using-novel-xylanases-%C3%AE-xylosidases-and-an-%C3%AE-l-arabinofuranosidase-from-geobacillus-thermodenitrificans-ng80-2
#19
Di Huang, Jia Liu, Yanfei Qi, Kexin Yang, Yingying Xu, Lu Feng
Lignocellulosic biomass from various types of wood has become a renewable resource for production of biofuels and biobased chemicals. Because xylan is the major component of wood hemicelluloses, highly efficient enzymes to enhance xylan hydrolysis can improve the use of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, a xylanolytic gene cluster was identified from the crude oil-degrading thermophilic strain Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2. The enzymes involved in xylan hydrolysis, which include two xylanases (XynA1, XynA2), three β-xylosidases (XynB1, XynB2, XynB3), and one α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AbfA), have many unique features, such as high pH tolerance, high thermostability, and a broad substrate range...
June 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612104/production-of-paclitaxel-with-anticancer-activity-by-two-local-fungal-endophytes-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-alternaria-tenuissima
#20
Ahmed A Ismaiel, Ashraf S Ahmed, Ismail A Hassan, El-Sayed R El-Sayed, Al-Zahraa A Karam El-Din
Among 60 fungal endophytes isolated from twigs, bark, and mature leaves of different plant species, two fungal isolates named TXD105 and TER995 were capable of producing paclitaxel in amounts of up to 84.41 and 37.92 μg L(-1), respectively. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequence, and phylogenetic characteristic analysis, the two respective isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria tenuissima. In the effort to increase paclitaxel magnitude by the two fungal strains, several fermentation conditions including selection of the proper fermentation medium, agitation rate, incubation temperature, fermentation period, medium pH, medium volume, and inoculum nature (size and age of inoculum) were tried...
June 13, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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