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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828628/different-substrate-regimes-determine-transcriptional-profiles-and-gene-co-expression-in-methanosarcina-barkeri-dsm-800
#1
Qiang Lin, Xiaoyu Fang, Adrian Ho, Jiaying Li, Xuefeng Yan, Bo Tu, Chaonan Li, Jiabao Li, Minjie Yao, Xiangzhen Li
Methanosarcina barkeri (DSM 800) is a metabolically versatile methanogen and shows distinct metabolic status under different substrate regimes. However, the mechanisms underlying distinct transcriptional profiles under different substrate regimes remain elusive. In this study, based on transcriptional analysis, the growth performances and gene expressions of M. barkeri fed on acetate, H2 + CO2, and methanol, respectively, were investigated. M. barkeri showed higher growth performances under methanol, followed by H2 + CO2 and acetate, which corresponded well with the variations of gene expressions...
August 21, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828521/recombinant-lactococcus-lactis-expressing-bioactive-exendin-4-to-promote-insulin-secretion-and-beta-cell-proliferation-in-vitro
#2
Zhu Zeng, Rui Yu, Fanglei Zuo, Bo Zhang, Huiqin Ma, Shangwu Chen
In recent years, therapeutic peptides have garnered great interest in the pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of diabetes. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an appealing vehicle for safe and convenient oral delivery of bioactive peptide and protein drugs. Exendin-4 (Exd4) is a glucagon-like protein-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is considered an excellent therapeutic peptide drug for type 2 diabetes due to its longer-lasting bioactivity, resulting from resistance to dipeptidyl peptidase 4. We explored Lactococcus lactis with the nisin-controlled gene expression (NICE) system as an oral delivery system for recombinant (r) Exd4 peptide in situ...
August 21, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823035/armored-dna-in-recombinant-baculoviruses-as-controls-in-molecular-genetic-assays
#3
Andrea Freystetter, Christian Paar, Herbert Stekel, Jörg Berg
The widespread use of molecular PCR-based assays in analytical and clinical laboratories brings about the need for test-specific, stable, and reliable external controls (EC) as well as standards and internal amplification controls (IC), in order to arrive at consistent test results. In addition, there is also a growing need to produce and provide stable, well-characterized molecular controls for quality assurance programs. In this study, we describe a novel approach to generate armored double-stranded DNA controls, which are encapsulated in baculovirus (BV) particles of the species Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus...
August 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812146/engineering-rhodosporidium-toruloides-for-the-production-of-very-long-chain-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-rich-oils
#4
Sandy Fillet, Carmen Ronchel, Carla Callejo, María-José Fajardo, Helena Moralejo, José L Adrio
Erucic acid (cis-docosa-13-enoic acid, C22:1∆13) and nervonic acid (cis-tetracosa-15-enoic acid, C24:1 ∆15) are important renewable feedstocks in plastic, cosmetic, nylon, and lubricant industries. Furthermore, nervonic acid is also applied to the treatment of some neurological diseases. However, the production of these two very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) is very limited as both are not present in the main vegetable oils (e.g., soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, and palm). Ectopic integration and heterologous expression of fatty acid elongases (3-ketoacyl-CoA synthases, KCS) from different plants in Rhodosporidium toruloides resulted in the de novo synthesis of erucic acid and nervonic acid in this oleaginous yeast...
August 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812142/tcdd-administered-on-activated-carbon-eliminates-bioavailability-and-subsequent-shifts-to-a-key-murine-gut-commensal
#5
Robert D Stedtfeld, J Brett Sallach, Robert B Crawford, Tiffany M Stedtfeld, Maggie R Williams, Hassan Waseem, Cliff T Johnston, Hui Li, Brian J Teppen, Norbert E Kaminski, Stephen A Boyd, James M Tiedje, Syed A Hashsham
Activated carbon (AC) is an increasingly attractive remediation alternative for the sequestration of dioxins at contaminated sites globally. However, the potential for AC to reduce the bioavailability of dioxins in mammals and the residing gut microbiota has received less attention. This question was partially answered in a recent study examining 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced hallmark toxic responses in mice administered with TCDD sequestered by AC or freely available in corn oil by oral gavage...
August 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812125/recombinant-expression-and-biochemical-characterization-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-3fe-4s-ferredoxin-rv1786
#6
Yun Lu, Feng Qiao, Yue Li, Xiao-Hong Sang, Cong-Ran Li, Jian-Dong Jiang, Xin-Yi Yang, Xue-Fu You
Ferredoxins are iron-sulfur protein that mediate electron transfer in cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase (CYP)-related catalytic reactions in a wide variety of organisms. Rv1786 is a putative ferredoxin, encoded by a gene located downstream of the gene encoding CYP143A1 in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. However, the structure and function of Rv1786 have remained unclear. Here, the recombinant Mtb Rv1786 was expressed, purified as a His-tagged form and characterized with [3Fe-4S] clusters as its cofactors using a series of measurements including SDS-PAGE, western blot, UV/Visible, MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis...
August 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808748/erratum-to-characterization-of-three-pathway-specific-regulators-for-high-production-of-monensin-in-streptomyces-cinnamonensis
#7
Zheng-Kun Tang, Xiao-Mei Li, Ai-Ping Pang, Chun-Yan Lin, Yue Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jianjun Qiao, Guang-Rong Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804802/improvement-of-glycerol-catabolism-in-bacillus-licheniformis-for-production-of-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid
#8
Yangyang Zhan, Chengjun Zhu, Bojie Sheng, Dongbo Cai, Qin Wang, Zhiyou Wen, Shouwen Chen
Bacillus licheniformis WX-02 is a well-studied strain to produce poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) with numerous applications. This study is to improve WX-02 strain's capability of assimilating glycerol, a major byproduct of biofuels industries, through metabolic manipulation. Through gene knockout, the GlpK pathway was identified as the sole functional glycerol catabolism pathway, while the DhaK pathway was inactive for this strain under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The enhancement of glycerol utilization was attempted by substituting the native glpFK promoter with the constitutive promoter (P43), ytzE promoter (PytzE), and bacABC operon promoter (PbacA), respectively...
August 13, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801839/biotransformation-with-cellulase-hemicellulase-and-yarrowia-lipolytica-boosts-health-benefits-of-okara
#9
Weng Chan Vong, Xin Ying Lim, Shao-Quan Liu
Okara (soybean residue) is a highly perishable food processing by-product from soymilk and tofu manufacture. It contains a large proportion of insoluble dietary fibre (40-60% on a dry basis), as well as digestion-resistant proteins, trypsin inhibitors and phytic acid. These factors contribute lead to the under-utilisation of okara. To improve the overall nutritional quality of okara, sequential saccharification of okara by Celluclast® 1.5L (cellulase) or Viscozyme® L (cellulase and hemicellulase) and fermentation by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica were performed...
August 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801829/cloning-and-characterization-of-halomonas-elongata-l-asparaginase-a-promising-chemotherapeutic-agent
#10
Ali Ghasemi, Sedigheh Asad, Mahboubeh Kabiri, Bahareh Dabirmanesh
L-asparaginase has been used in the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) for more than 30 years. Rapid clearance of the enzyme from blood stream and its L-glutaminase-dependent neurotoxicity has led to searching for new L-asparaginases with more desirable properties. In the present study, L-asparaginase coding gene of Halomonas elongata was isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The purified protein was found to have a molecular mass of 39.5 kDa and 1000-folds more activity towards L-asparagine than L-glutamine...
August 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801795/storage-lipid-and-polysaccharide-metabolism-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-and-umbelopsis-isabellina
#11
Marianna Dourou, Panagiotis Mizerakis, Seraphim Papanikolaou, George Aggelis
Complex biochemical mechanisms are being involved in oleaginous microorganisms during storage lipid and polysaccharide metabolism. Detailed biochemical analyses and monitoring of key enzymes involved in carbon metabolism were performed in Yarrowia lipolytica and Umbelopsis isabellina, which are often used as model oleaginous microorganisms. It was found that during the early oleaginous phase, the carbon source (glucose) was channeled to lipid accumulation, but also to polysaccharide biosynthesis. However, during transition from the early to the late oleaginous phase, glucose was exclusively converted to lipids, while in U...
August 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799032/biosynthesis-of-copper-carbonate-nanoparticles-by-ureolytic-fungi
#12
Qianwei Li, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
In this research, the ureolytic fungi Neurospora crassa, Pestalotiopsis sp. and Myrothecium gramineum were investigated for the preparation of nanoscale copper carbonate and the role of fungal extracellular protein in such mineral formation. After incubation in urea-modified media, carbonate-laden fungal supernatants were used for the precipitation of copper carbonate, with experimental results agreeing closely with those obtained using geochemical modelling (Geochemist's Workbench). Compared with commercial and chemically synthesized copper carbonate, the minerals obtained using fungal supernatants were nanoscale and showed varying morphologies...
August 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795221/development-of-the-first-gene-expression-system-for-salinicoccus-strains-with-potential-application-in-bioremediation-of-hypersaline-wastewaters
#13
Dahe Zhao, Haibo Yang, Junyu Chen, Feiyue Cheng, Sumit Kumar, Jing Han, Ming Li, Jian Zhou, Hua Xiang
Salinicoccus salsiraiae IM408 (=CGMCC13032) is a novel halophilic bacterium that we isolated from the saline soil of Da Gang Oilfield. It tolerates 60 g/l sodium chloride and up to 123 g/l (1.5 M) sodium acetate and has shown a potential application in bioremediation of wastewater with high salt and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). Two plasmids, pS408-1 and pS408-2, were identified in S. salsiraiae IM408, and the sequences and copy numbers of the plasmids were determined. Based on these plasmids, two shuttle vectors containing a replicon for Escherichia coli, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol resistance genes, as well as the replicon from pS408-1 or pS408-2, were constructed and named as pTCS101 and pTCS201, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791446/key-role-of-alternative-oxidase-in-lovastatin-solid-state-fermentation
#14
Ailed Pérez-Sánchez, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Alfredo Cabrera-Orefice, Javier Barrios-González
Lovastatin is a commercially important secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus terreus, either by solid-state fermentation or by submerged fermentation. In a previous work, we showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in idiophase positively regulates lovastatin biosynthetic genes. In addition, it has been found that lovastatin-specific production decreases with aeration in solid-state fermentation (SSF). To study this phenomenon, we determined ROS accumulation during lovastatin SSF, under high and low aeration conditions...
August 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791444/design-and-development-of-a-workflow-for-microbial-spray-formulations-including-decision-criteria
#15
Ana Bejarano, Ursula Sauer, Claudia Preininger
Herein, we present a workflow for the development of talc-based microbial inoculants for foliar spray consisting of four steps. These include together with decision-making criteria (1) the selection of additives based on their capability to wet juvenile maize leaves, (2) their adhesion on the plant, (3) their interaction with the biological systems, and (4) the choice of thickener for good dispersion stability. In total, 29 additives including polysaccharides and proteins, polyols, glycosides, oils, waxes, and surfactants (e...
August 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791440/therapeutic-potentials-of-short-interfering-rnas
#16
REVIEW
Chit Tam, Jack Ho Wong, Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Tao Zuo, Tzi Bun Ng
Short interfering RNA (siRNA) is one of the members of the family of RNA interference (RNAi). Coupled with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), siRNA is able to trigger the cleavage of target RNAs which serve as a defensive system against pathogens. Meanwhile, siRNA in gene silencing opens a new avenue for the treatment of various diseases. SiRNA can effectively inhibit viral infection and replication and suppress tumorigenesis and various inflammation-associated diseases and cardiovascular diseases by inactivation of viral genes and downregulation of oncogene expression...
August 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785897/2-deoxyribosyltransferase-from-leishmania-mexicana-an-efficient-biocatalyst-for-one-pot-one-step-synthesis-of-nucleosides-from-poorly-soluble-purine-bases
#17
N Crespo, P A Sánchez-Murcia, F Gago, J Cejudo-Sanches, M A Galmes, Jesús Fernández-Lucas, José Miguel Mancheño
Processes catalyzed by enzymes offer numerous advantages over chemical methods although in many occasions the stability of the biocatalysts becomes a serious concern. Traditionally, synthesis of nucleosides using poorly water-soluble purine bases, such as guanine, xanthine, or hypoxanthine, requires alkaline pH and/or high temperatures in order to solubilize the substrate. In this work, we demonstrate that the 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from Leishmania mexicana (LmPDT) exhibits an unusually high activity and stability under alkaline conditions (pH 8-10) across a broad range of temperatures (30-70 °C) and ionic strengths (0-500 mM NaCl)...
August 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782075/extracellular-enzymatic-activity-of-two-hydrolases-in-wastewater-treatment-for-biological-nutrient-removal
#18
Jorge Mario Berrio-Restrepo, Julio César Saldarriaga, Mauricio Andrés Correa, Néstor Jaime Aguirre
Due to the complex nature of the wastewater (both domestic and non-domestic) composition, biological processes are widely used to remove nutrients, such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P), which cause instability and hence contribute to the damage of water bodies. Systems with different configurations have been developed (including anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions) for the joint removal of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The goal of this research is to evaluate the extracellular activity of β-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes in a University of Cape Town (UCT) system fed with two synthetic wastewaters of different molecular complexity...
August 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780605/subcellular-membrane-fluidity-of-lactobacillus-delbrueckii-subsp-bulgaricus-under-cold-and-osmotic-stress
#19
Julie Meneghel, Stéphanie Passot, Stéphanie Cenard, Matthieu Réfrégiers, Frédéric Jamme, Fernanda Fonseca
Cryopreservation of lactic acid bacteria may lead to undesirable cell death and functionality losses. The membrane is the first target for cell injury and plays a key role in bacterial cryotolerance. This work aimed at investigating at a subcellular resolution the membrane fluidity of two populations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when subjected to cold and osmotic stresses associated to freezing. Cells were cultivated at 42 °C in mild whey medium, and they were exposed to sucrose solutions of different osmolarities (300 and 1800 mOsm L(-1)) after harvest...
August 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779291/recombinant-bcg-vaccines-molecular-features-and-their-influence-in-the-expression-of-foreign-genes
#20
REVIEW
Thaís Larré Oliveira, Caroline Rizzi, Odir Antônio Dellagostin
Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccines (rBCG) were first developed in the 1990s as a means of expressing antigens from multiple pathogens. This review examines the key structural factors of recombinant M. bovis that influence the expression of the heterologous antigens and the generation of genetic and functional stability in rBCG, which are crucial for inducing strong and lasting immune responses. The fundamental aim of this paper is to provide an overview of factors that affect the expression of recombinant proteins in BCG and the generation of the immune response against the target antigens, including mycobacterial promoters, location of foreign antigens, and stability of the vectors...
August 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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