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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535678/reverse-metabolic-engineering-in-lager-yeast-impact-of-the-nadh-nad-ratio-on-acetaldehyde-production-during-the-brewing-process
#1
Xin Xu, Jinjing Wang, Min Bao, Chengtuo Niu, Chunfeng Liu, Feiyun Zheng, Yongxian Li, Qi Li
Acetaldehyde is synthesized by yeast during the main fermentation period of beer production, which causes an unpleasant off-flavor. Therefore, there has been extensive effort toward reducing acetaldehyde to obtain a beer product with better flavor and anti-staling ability. In this study, we discovered that acetaldehyde production in beer brewing is closely related with the intracellular NADH equivalent regulated by the citric acid cycle. However, there was no significant relationship between acetaldehyde production and amino acid metabolism...
December 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535579/heavy-water-labeled-raman-spectroscopy-reveals-carboxymethylcellulose-degrading-bacteria-and-degradation-activity-at-the-single-cell-level
#2
Oladipo Oladiti Olaniyi, Kai Yang, Yong-Guan Zhu, Li Cui
Biodegradation of cellulose-rich substrates is an indispensable process for soil carbon replenishment in various ecological niches. Biodegradation of cellulose has been studied extensively via an enzyme assay to quantify the amount of cellulase with a view to identify effective cellulose degraders. However, a bulk enzyme assay undermines the role of physiological heterogeneity between cells; it is therefore imperative to opt out for a more effective method such as single-cell Raman spectroscopy combined with heavy water (D2 O) to reveal active cellulose degraders...
December 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535578/suhuai-suckling-piglet-hindgut-microbiome-metabolome-responses-to-different-dietary-copper-levels
#3
Feng Zhang, Weijiang Zheng, Yongqiang Xue, Wen Yao
Unabsorbed copper accumulates in the hindgut of pigs that consume high levels of dietary copper, which enhances the coselection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and is considered detrimental to the environment and to porcine health. In our study, a combination of 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and nontargeted metabolomics was used to investigate the microbiome-metabolome responses to dietary copper levels in the hindgut of suckling piglets. The results showed that the dietary copper level affected the abundance of several Clostridia genera and that the relative abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Coprococcus, Roseburia, and Acidaminococcus, was reduced in the 300 mg kg-1 (high) Cu group...
December 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535577/cultivar-and-phosphorus-effects-on-switchgrass-yield-and-rhizosphere-microbial-diversity
#4
Anne Sawyer, Christopher Staley, John Lamb, Craig Sheaffer, Thomas Kaiser, Jessica Gutknecht, Michael J Sadowsky, Carl Rosen
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native perennial grass identified as a promising biofuel crop for production on marginal agricultural lands. As such, research into switchgrass fertility and the switchgrass rhizosphere microbiome has been ongoing in an effort to increase production sustainability. We examined the effects of cultivar and phosphorus (P) fertilization on biomass yield, P removal, and rhizosphere bacterial and fungal community structure in three switchgrass cultivars: Sunburst, Shawnee, and Liberty...
December 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523372/biological-synthesis-of-high-conductive-pili-in-aerobic-bacterium-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#5
Xi Liu, Shiwei Wang, Anming Xu, Li Zhang, Hongsheng Liu, Luyan Z Ma
Bioelectrical nanowires as ecomaterials have great potential on environmental applications. A wide range of bacteria can express type IV pili (T4P), which are long protein fibers assembled from PilA. The T4P of Geobacter sulfurreducens are well known as "microbial nanowires," yet T4P of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaT4P) was believed to be poorly conductive. P. aeruginosa is an aerobic and electrochemically active bacterium. Its T4P have been known to be responsible for surface attachment, twitching motility and biofilm formation...
December 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523371/structure-based-design-of-agarase-agwh50c-from-agarivorans-gilvus-wh0801-to-enhance-thermostability
#6
Pujuan Zhang, Jinru Zhang, Lujia Zhang, Jianan Sun, Yuan Li, Lian Wu, Jiahai Zhou, Changhu Xue, Xiangzhao Mao
AgWH50C, an exo-β-agarase of GH50 isolated from Agarivorans gilvus WH0801, plays a key role in the enzymatic production of neoagarobiose, which has great application prospect in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. In contrast, the poor thermostability becomes the main obstructive factor of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 50 agarases, including AgWH50C. Herein, based on the AgWH50C crystal structure, we designed several mutants by a multiple cross-linked rational design protocol used thermostability predicting softwares ETSS, PoPMuSiC, and HotMuSiC...
December 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515550/study-on-expression-and-action-mode-of-recombinant-alginate-lyases-based-on-conserved-domains-reconstruction
#7
Min Yang, Nannan Li, Suxiao Yang, Yuan Yu, Zhenlian Han, Li Li, Haijin Mou
Understanding the effect of conserved domains reconstruction of alginate lyases on action mode is essential for their application and in-depth study. We report the expression and action mode of recombinant alginate lyase (AlyM) and its conserved domain reconstruction forms (AlyMΔCBM, cAlyM, and AlyMΔ58C). The enzymatic activities of AlyM, AlyMΔCBM, cAlyM, and AlyMΔ58C were 61.77, 150.57, 388.97, and 308.21 U/mg, respectively. The transcription level of cAlyM was 49.89-fold of AlyM. cAlyM and AlyMΔ58C showed higher thermal stability than AlyM, indicating that the removal of F5_F8_type_C domain was beneficial for the increase of thermal stability...
December 4, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515549/brewing-with-malted-barley-or-raw-barley-what-makes-the-difference-in-the-processes
#8
REVIEW
Yee Jiun Kok, Lijuan Ye, Jeroen Muller, Dave Siak-Wei Ow, Xuezhi Bi
Malted barley is the main source for fermentable sugars used by yeasts in the traditional brewing of beers but its use has been increasingly substituted by unmalted barley and other raw grain adjuncts in recent years. The incorporation of raw grains is mainly economically driven, with the added advantage of improved sustainability, by reducing reliance on the malting process and its associated cost. The use of raw grains however, especially in high proportion, requires modifications to the brewing process to accommodate the lack of malt enzymes and the differences in structural and chemical composition between malted and raw grains...
December 4, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515548/selectable-marker-recycling-in-the-nonconventional-yeast-xanthophyllomyces-dendrorhous-by-transient-expression-of-cre-on-a-genetically-unstable-vector
#9
Ning Zhang, Jiaxin Li, Fuli Li, Shi'an Wang
Selectable marker recycling is a basic technique in bioengineering. However, this technique is usually unavailable in non-model microorganisms. In this study, we proposed a simple and efficient method for selectable marker recycling in the astaxanthin-synthesizing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. This method was based on a Cre-loxP system, in which the transient expression of the Cre recombinase was controlled by a genetically unstable vector independent of episomal plasmids and inducible promoters. The selectable markers in single-gene locus and multigene loci were removed along with the loss of the Cre vector with a ratio of 100% and 29%, respectively...
December 4, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511262/pha-synthase-phac-interpreting-the-functions-of-bioplastic-producing-enzyme-from-a-structural-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Min Fey Chek, Ayaka Hiroe, Toshio Hakoshima, Kumar Sudesh, Seiichi Taguchi
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers synthesized by a wide range of bacteria, which serve as a promising candidate in replacing some conventional petrochemical-based plastics. PHA synthase (PhaC) is the key enzyme in the polymerization of PHA, and the crystal structures were successfully determined using the catalytic domain of PhaC from Cupriavidus necator (PhaCCn -CAT) and Chromobacterium sp. USM2 (PhaCCs -CAT). Here, we review the beneficial mutations discovered in PhaCs from a structural perspective...
December 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506277/a-comprehensive-insight-into-the-functional-bacteria-and-genes-and-their-roles-in-simultaneous-denitrification-and-anammox-system-at-varying-substrate-loadings
#11
Depeng Wang, Yang He, Xu-Xiang Zhang
Simultaneous denitrification and anammox process are newly developed wastewater treatment processes with high-nitrogen removal efficiency, but little information is available regarding its optimal operational conditions and molecular mechanisms. In this study, a lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor fed with nitrate and ammonia was continuously operated for 180 days to establish the simultaneous denitrification and anammox system, so as to investigate the changing patterns of nitrogen removal efficiency and functional bacteria and genes at varying substrate loadings...
November 30, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498978/ethanol-effects-on-the-overexpression-of-heterologous-catalase-in-escherichia-coli-bl21-de3
#12
Hongchen Zheng, Zhenxiao Yu, Wenju Shu, Xiaoping Fu, Xingya Zhao, Shibin Yang, Ming Tan, Jianyong Xu, Yihan Liu, Hui Song
A novel method involving ethanol-induced increase in the heterologous recombinant protein expression in E. coli cells was commonly used in recent studies. However, the detailed mechanism of this method is still to be revealed. This work used comparative transcriptomic analysis and numerous experiments to uncover the mechanism of ethanol effects on the expression of heterologous catalase in the recombinant strain E. coli BL21 (pET26b-katA). The key regulatory genes malK and prpD were found to have the most significant effects on the expression of heterologous catalase...
November 29, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498977/evolutionary-engineered-candida-intermedia-exhibits-improved-xylose-utilization-and-robustness-to-lignocellulose-derived-inhibitors-and-ethanol
#13
Antonio D Moreno, Antonella Carbone, Rosita Pavone, Lisbeth Olsson, Cecilia Geijer
The development of robust microorganisms that can efficiently ferment both glucose and xylose represents one of the major challenges in achieving a cost-effective lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Candida intermedia is a non-conventional, xylose-utilizing yeast species with a high-capacity xylose transport system. The natural ability of C. intermedia to produce ethanol from xylose makes it attractive as a non-GMO alternative for lignocellulosic biomass conversion in biorefineries. We have evaluated the fermentation capacity and the tolerance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors and the end product, ethanol, of the C...
November 29, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488284/role-of-microorganisms-in-bioleaching-of-rare-earth-elements-from-primary-and-secondary-resources
#14
REVIEW
Homayoun Fathollahzadeh, Jacques J Eksteen, Anna H Kaksonen, Elizabeth L J Watkin
In an era of environmental degradation, and water, and mineral scarcity, enhancing microbial function in sustainable mining has become a prerequisite for the future of the green economy. In recent years, the extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) in green and smart technologies has led to an increase in the focus on recovery and separation of REEs from ore matrices. However, the recovery of REEs using traditional methods is complex and energy intensive, leading to the requirement to develop processes which are more economically feasible and environmentally friendly...
November 28, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488283/improving-ethanol-yields-in-sugarcane-molasses-fermentation-by-engineering-the-high-osmolarity-glycerol-pathway-while-maintaining-osmotolerance-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Rutuja Shivaji Jagtap, Dheeraj Madhukar Mahajan, Sanjay Ratilal Mistry, Megha Bilaiya, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Rishi Jain
The ever-increasing demand of energy has made it imperative to increase the production of renewable fuels like ethanol. Many studies have reported increase in ethanol production by reducing fermentation by-products like glycerol. Deletion of structural genes like gpd1and gpd2 leads to an increase in ethanol by reducing glycerol; however, it makes the yeast osmosensitive that is not desirable for industrial strains. In this study, genes in the HOG pathway which regulates glycerol synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were targeted for improving ethanol yields in fermentation of sugarcane molasses...
November 28, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483847/towards-the-biofilm-characterization-and-regulation-in-biological-wastewater-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Hui Huang, Chong Peng, Pengcheng Peng, Yuan Lin, Xuxiang Zhang, Hongqiang Ren
There is an increasing need for application of biofilm process in the upcycling of wastewater treatment plants all around the world in recent years, yet there are few literatures on summarizing wastewater biofilm during the life cycle. In particular, there is a vacancy on characterization at various stages of biofilm and its regulation. This review provided a whole look at biofilm formation and its development, accompanied by microbial physiology, ecology, and activity, where the initialization of biofilm formation and its characterization were stressed...
November 28, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483846/habitat-specificity-and-diversity-of-culturable-cold-adapted-yeasts-of-a-cold-based-glacier-in-the-tianshan-mountains-northwestern-china
#17
Baolong Luo, Hailong Sun, Yan Zhang, Yanling Gu, Wenli Yan, Ruirui Zhang, Yongqing Ni
Asian cold-based glacier yeasts with respect to their abundance, distribution, and taxonomy, in contrast to other continental cryosphere areas, have been little investigated. The present study reports the diversity and phylogeny of culturable cold-adapted yeasts in six cold habitats of the Glacier No.1 in the Tianshan Mountains (northwestern China). Of the total 591 yeast isolates, 401 were identified as basidiomycetous yeasts represented by 41 species of 15 genera, while 190 ascomycetous yeast isolates were assigned to the 8 species of 7 genera...
November 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30474729/bacteriophage-production-processes
#18
REVIEW
Katja Jurač, Dominik Nabergoj, Aleš Podgornik
High quantities of bacteriophages are currently used in the food industry and agriculture. However, growing antibiotic resistance of bacteria has recently awakened the interest to use bacteriophages for the treatment of bacterial infections in humans indicating that even higher quantities will be required in the future. High demand combined with a wide range of applications requires also efficient bacteriophage production processes operating at low production costs and with high productivity. To achieve this goal, different approaches were introduced and extensive studies of various parameters affecting bacteriophage formation were investigated...
November 24, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30474728/methanotrophic-contribution-to-biodegradation-of-phenoxy-acids-in-cultures-enriched-from-a-groundwater-fed-rapid-sand-filter
#19
Aikaterini Papadopoulou, Mathilde J Hedegaard, Arnaud Dechesne, Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen, Sanin Musovic, Barth F Smets
Drinking water supply is in many parts of the world based on groundwater. Groundwater often contains methane, which can be oxidized by methanotrophs upon aeration. Sand from rapid sand filters fed with methane-rich groundwater can remove some pesticides (Hedegaard and Albrechtsen in Water Res 48:71-81, 2014). We enriched methanotrophs from filter sand and investigated whether they could drive the degradation of various pesticides. To enrich for methanotrophs, we designed and operated four laboratory-scale, continuously methane-fed column reactors, inoculated with filter sand and one control column fed with tap water...
November 24, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30474727/diazotrophic-microbial-community-and-abundance-in-acidic-subtropical-natural-and-re-vegetated-forest-soils-revealed-by-high-throughput-sequencing-of-nifh-gene
#20
Han Meng, Zhichao Zhou, Ruonan Wu, Yongfeng Wang, Ji-Dong Gu
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is an important natural biochemical process converting the inert dinitrogen gas (N2 ) in the atmosphere to ammonia (NH3 ) in the N cycle. In this study, the nifH gene was chosen to detect the diazotrophic microorganisms with high-throughput sequencing from five acidic forest soils, including three natural forests and two re-vegetated forests. Soil samples were taken in two seasons (summer and winter) at two depth layers (surface and lower depths). A dataset of 179,600 reads obtained from 20 samples were analyzed to provide the microbial community structure, diversity, abundance, and relationship with physiochemical parameters...
November 24, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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