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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Conor F McGee
Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom species in the world. Cultivation is commenced by inoculating beds of semi-pasteurised composted organic substrate with a pure spawn of A. bisporus. The A. bisporus mycelium subsequently colonises the composted substrate by degrading the organic material to release nutrients. A layer of peat, often called "casing soil", is laid upon the surface of the composted substrate to induce the development of the mushroom crop and maintain compost environmental conditions...
December 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Bárbara C S Farias, Denise C Hissa, Camila T M do Nascimento, Samuel A Oliveira, Davila Zampieri, Marcos N Eberlin, Deivid L S Migueleti, Luiz F Martins, Maíra P Sousa, Danuza N Moyses, Vânia M M Melo
Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are non-ribosomal biosurfactants produced by Bacillus species that exhibit outstanding interfacial activity. The synthesis of CLPs is under genetic and environmental influence, and representatives from different families are generally co-produced, generating isoforms that differ in chemical structure and biological activities. This study to evaluate the effect of low and high NaCl concentrations on the composition and surface activity of CLPs produced by Bacillus strains TIM27, TIM49, TIM68, and ICA13 towards microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)...
December 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Rui Guo, Guangli Cao, Renyu Xue, Dhiraj Kumar, Fei Chen, Wei Liu, Yue Jiang, Yahong Lu, Liyuan Zhu, Zi Liang, Sulan Kuang, Xiaolong Hu, Chengliang Gong
Bombyx mori cypovirus (BmCPV) is one of the major viral pathogen for silkworm, and the genome of BmCPV is composed of 10 dsRNA segments. As construction system of recombinant BmCPV (rBmCPV) is scanty, researchers achieved little progress in studying gene function of BmCPV in recent decades. Here, 10 recombinant plasmids with a full-length cDNA of viral genome segments S1-S10 containing T7 promoter were constructed. After cotransfecting the BmN cells with the mixture of 10 in vitro-transcribed RNAs, pathological changes were observed...
December 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Víctor M Luque-Almagro, Purificación Cabello, Lara P Sáez, Alfonso Olaya-Abril, Conrado Moreno-Vivián, María Dolores Roldán
Cyanide is one of the most toxic chemicals for living organisms described so far. Its toxicity is mainly based on the high affinity that cyanide presents toward metals, provoking inhibition of essential metalloenzymes. Cyanide and its cyano-derivatives are produced in a large scale by many industrial activities related to recovering of precious metals in mining and jewelry, coke production, steel hardening, synthesis of organic chemicals, and food processing industries. As consequence, cyanide-containing wastes are accumulated in the environment becoming a risk to human health and ecosystems...
December 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
John P Hegarty, David B Stewart
Antisense therapeutics are a biotechnological form of antibiotic therapy using chemical analogues of short single-stranded nucleic acid sequences modified to form stable oligomers. These molecules are termed antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) because their sequence is complementary, via Watson-Crick specific base pairing, to their target messenger RNA (mRNA). ASOs modify gene expression in this sequence-dependent manner by binding to its complementary mRNA and inhibiting its translation into protein through steric blockage and/or through RNase degradation of the ASO/RNA duplex...
December 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Milena A Wasik, Luca Eichwald, Yvonne Genzel, Udo Reichl
Defective interfering particles (DIPs) lack an essential portion of the virus genome, but retain signals for replication and packaging, and therefore, interfere with standard virus (STV) replication. Due to this property, DIPs can be potential antivirals. The influenza A virus DIP DI244, generated during propagation in chicken eggs, has been previously described as a potential candidate for influenza antiviral therapy. As a cell culture-based manufacturing process would be more suitable to fulfill large-scale production needs of an antiviral and enables full process control in closed systems, we investigated options to produce DI244 in the avian cell line AGE1...
December 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Juan Jose Aponte-Ubillus, Daniel Barajas, Joseph Peltier, Cameron Bardliving, Parviz Shamlou, Daniel Gold
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are increasingly popular tools for gene therapy applications. Their non-pathogenic status, low inflammatory potential, availability of viral serotypes with different tissue tropisms, and prospective long-lasting gene expression are important attributes that make rAAVs safe and efficient therapeutic options. Over the last three decades, several groups have engineered recombinant AAV-producing platforms, yielding high titers of transducing vector particles. Current specific productivity yields from different platforms range from 103 to 105 vector genomes (vg) per cell, and there is an ongoing effort to improve vector yields in order to satisfy high product demands required for clinical trials and future commercialization...
December 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Slavica Janevska, Bettina Tudzynski
The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes bakanae disease of rice due to its ability to produce the plant hormones, the gibberellins. The fungus is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins (e.g., fusaric acid and fusarins) and pigments (e.g., bikaverin and fusarubins). However, for a long time, most of these well-known products could not be linked to biosynthetic gene clusters. Recent genome sequencing has revealed altogether 47 putative gene clusters. Most of them were orphan clusters for which the encoded natural product(s) were unknown...
December 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Nobuyuki Yokota, Yasutsugu Watanabe, Takaaki Tokutomi, Tomohiro Kiyokawa, Tomoyuki Hori, Daisuke Ikeda, Kang Song, Masaaki Hosomi, Akihiko Terada
The goal of this study was to develop a startup strategy for a high-rate anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor to treat waste brine with high concentrations of ammonium from a natural gas plant. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) anammox reactor with an effective volume of 294 L was fed continuously with waste brine with a salinity of 3% and a NH4+ concentration of 180 mg-N/L, as well as a NaNO2 solution. By inoculating a methanogenic granular biomass as a biomass carrier, the reactor attained the maximum volumetric nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 10...
December 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Thomas Kickenweiz, Anton Glieder, Jin Chuan Wu
Cellulose is a highly available and renewable carbon source in nature. However, it cannot be directly metabolized by most microbes including Komagataella phaffii (formerly Pichia pastoris), which is a frequently employed host for heterologous protein expression and production of high-value compounds. A K. phaffii strain was engineered that constitutively co-expresses an endoglucanase and a β-glucosidase both from Aspergillus niger and an exoglucanase from Trichoderma reesei under the control of bidirectional promoters...
December 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Miao Liu, Siqi Li, Yongzhen Xie, Shiru Jia, Ying Hou, Yang Zou, Cheng Zhong
Oxygen plays a key role during bacterial cellulose (BC) biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. In this study, the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb)-encoding gene vgb, which has been widely applied to improve cell survival during hypoxia, was heterologously expressed in G. xylinus via the pBla-VHb-122 plasmid. G. xylinus and G. xylinus-vgb + were statically cultured under hypoxic (10 and 15% oxygen tension in the gaseous phase), atmospheric (21%), and oxygen-enriched conditions (40 and 80%) to investigate the effect of oxygen on cell growth and BC production...
December 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Li Ou, Li Ang, Zhang Chujun, Huang Jingyu, Meng Yongli, Yuan Shenjing, Huang Junhua, Gao Xu, Yao Yulong, Yin Rui, Hu Jinpan, Ding Bin, Hu Xiufang
Paenibacillus elgii B69 produces a new xylose-containing exopolysaccharide (EPS) that effectively removes the pollutants from wastewater through flocculation. However, information about the biosynthesis of this EPS is limited. In this study, sequence analysis showed six putative glycosyltransferases (GTs) genes in polysaccharide gene clusters involved in glycosidic linkages of repeating units. Each gene was deleted and phenotypes were examined to understand the functions of these genes. Two of the genes were deleted successfully to encode a priming glucose GT and a side-chain xylose GT, but other genes were unsuccessfully deleted because of the accumulation of toxic intermediate products...
December 3, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shen Wang, Yong Li, Chao Jiang, Haishan Tian
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 subfamily is a member of the FGF family, including FGF9, 16, and 20, potentially sharing similar biochemical functions due to their high degree of sequence homology. Unlike other secreted proteins which have a cleavable N-terminal secreted signal peptide, FGF9/16/20 have non-cleaved N-terminal signal peptides. As an intercellular signaling molecule, they are involved in a variety of complex responses in animal development. Cardiogenesis is controlled by many members of the transcription factor family...
December 2, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Dong Wu, Jan Dolfing, Bing Xie
Domestic wastes, ranging from sewage and sludge to municipal solid waste, are usually treated in bioprocessing systems. These systems are regarded as main conduits for the elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) observed in the environment. This paper mainly reviews recent studies on the occurrence and dynamics of ARGs in wastewater bio-treatment systems and discusses the ins and outs of ARG dissemination from the perspective of the microbial community. Our analysis shows that concentration of antibiotics through adsorption to microbial aggregates triggers the bacteria to acquire ARGs, which can be facilitated by the presence of mobile genetic elements...
December 2, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Matthias Frommhagen, Adrie H Westphal, Roelant Hilgers, Martijn J Koetsier, Sandra W A Hinz, Jaap Visser, Harry Gruppen, Willem J H van Berkel, Mirjam A Kabel
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have recently been shown to significantly enhance the degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides and are of interest for the production of biochemicals and bioethanol from plant biomass. The copper-containing LPMOs utilize electrons, provided by reducing agents, to oxidatively cleave polysaccharides. Here, we report the development of a β-glucosidase-assisted method to quantify the release of C1-oxidized gluco-oligosaccharides from cellulose by two C1-oxidizing LPMOs from Myceliophthora thermophila C1...
December 2, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
K Regnat, R L Mach, A R Mach-Aigner
Erythritol is a naturally abundant sweetener gaining more and more importance especially within the food industry. It is widely used as sweetener in calorie-reduced food, candies, or bakery products. In research focusing on sugar alternatives, erythritol is a key issue due to its, compared to other polyols, challenging production. It cannot be chemically synthesized in a commercially worthwhile way resulting in a switch to biotechnological production. In this area, research efforts have been made to improve concentration, productivity, and yield...
December 1, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Renata Novakova, Luz Elena Núñez, Dagmar Homerova, Renata Knirschova, Lubomira Feckova, Bronislava Rezuchova, Beatrica Sevcikova, Nuria Menéndez, Francisco Morís, Jesús Cortés, Jan Kormanec
Mithramycin A is an antitumor compound used for treatment of several types of cancer including chronic and acute myeloid leukemia, testicular carcinoma, hypercalcemia and Paget's disease. Selective modifications of this molecule by combinatorial biosynthesis and biocatalysis opened the possibility to produce mithramycin analogues with improved properties that are currently under preclinical development. The mithramycin A biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces argillaceus ATCC12956 was cloned by transformation assisted recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans TK24 was evaluated...
December 1, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tzu-Hsing Lin, Chih-Hui Lin, Tzu-Ming Pan
The current oral health crisis, whose causes are varied and complex, necessitates timely oral evaluation and early detection and treatment of oral health problems. Dramatic changes in eating habits and lifestyles are associated with the recent decline in oral health. Probiotics are "good" bacteria that support digestion and a healthy immune system and offer various health benefits to the host. Traditionally, probiotics have been used to improve gut health; the most common uses have historically been as a treatment or prevention of gastrointestinal infections and disease...
November 30, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Giada Giusi Picceri, Pamela Leonardi, Mirco Iotti, Michele Gallo, Franco Baldi, Alessandra Zambonelli, Antonella Amicucci, Luciana Vallorani, Giovanni Piccoli, Giovanni Ciccimarra, Marselina Arshakyan, Sabrina Burattini, Elisabetta Falcieri, Laura Chiarantini
Iron exopolysaccharide nanoparticles were biogenerated during ferric citrate fermentation by Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614. Before investigating their effects on Tuber borchii ("bianchetto" truffle) mycelium growth and morphology, they were tested on human K562 cell line and Lentinula edodes pure culture and shown to be non-toxic. Using these nanoparticles as iron supplement, the truffles showed extremely efficient iron uptake of over 300 times that of a commercial product. This avoided morphological changes in T...
November 30, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Abolfazl Masoudi, John Lad Koprowski, Upendra Raj Bhattarai, Dun Wang
Entomopathogenic fungi are considered to be a safe microbiological pesticide alternative to chemical control. Efforts are underway to understand precisely their taxonomy and natural distribution through mycological and biodiversity studies based on molecular markers. Here, we present descriptions of the diversity of the entomopathogenic fungi in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria found along the elevational gradients of the Qinling subtropical and temperate forests of Shaanxi province in China, using morphological aspects and molecular markers...
November 30, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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