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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Takuya Koseki, Mai Ishikawa, Mayu Kawasaki, Yoshihito Shiono
Flavonoid glycoside degradation can proceed through two alternative enzymatic pathways: one that is mediated by monoglycosidases, and the other catalyzed by a diglycosidase. β-Diglycosidase performs the flavonoid deglycosylation in a single reaction. The characterized β-diglycosidase activities recognize the following disaccharidic sugar moieties: β-primeverose, acuminose, vicianose, and β-rutinose. The present paper reviews the biochemical characteristics and potential industrial applications of microbial β-diglycosidases that break down plant diglycoconjugated flavonoids...
August 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xiaohui Wang, Minghan Zhu, Feifei Li, Congxuan Zhang, Xiaobiao Zhu
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) released into the sewage may cause negative and/or positive effects on the treatment system. The objective of this study was to explore over 110 days' effect of MWCNTs on the performance of anaerobic granular sludge and microbial community structures in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The results showed that MWCNTs had no significant effect on the removal of chemical oxidation demand (COD) and ammonia in UASB reactor, but the total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency increased by 29...
August 15, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Qiang Ding, Qiuling Luo, Jie Zhou, Xiulai Chen, Liming Liu
Microbial L-malate production from renewable feedstock is a promising alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. However, high L-malate production of Aspergillus oryzae was achieved to date using organic nitrogen, with inorganic nitrogen still unable to meet industrial applications. In the current study, we constructed a screening system and nitrogen supply strategy to improve L-malate production with ammonium sulphate [(NH4 )2 SO4 ] as the sole nitrogen source. First, we generated and identified a high-producing mutant FMME218-37, which stably boosted L-malate production from 30...
August 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kevin T Finneran, Jovan Popovic
Xylose is the second most abundant sugar derived from lignocellulose; it is considered less desirable than glucose for fermentation, and strategies that specifically increase xylose utilization in wild type or engineered cells are goals for biofuel production. Issues arise with xylose utilization because of carbohydrate catabolite repression, which is the preferential utilization of glucose relative to xylose in fermentations with both pure and mixed cultures. Taken together the low substrate utilization rates and solvent yields with xylose compared to glucose, many industrial fermentations ignore the xylolytic portion of the reaction in lieu of methods to maintain high glucose...
August 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Takahisa Kogure, Masayuki Inui
Recent progress in synthetic and systems metabolic engineering technologies has explored the potential of microbial cell factories for the production of industrially relevant bulk and fine chemicals from renewable biomass resources in an eco-friendly manner. Corynebacterium glutamicum, a workhorse for industrial amino acid production, has currently evolved into a promising microbial platform for bioproduction of various natural and non-natural chemicals from renewable feedstocks. Notably, it has been recently demonstrated that metabolically engineered C...
August 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Masahiro Watanabe, Tomohiko Matsuzawa, Katsuro Yaoi
Glycosidases are used in the food, chemical, and energy industries. These proteins are some of the most frequently used such enzymes, and their thermostability is essential for long-term and/or repeated use. In addition to thermostability, modification of the substrate selectivity and improvement of the glycosidase activities are also important. Thermostabilization of enzymes can be performed by directed evolution via random mutagenesis or by rational design via site-directed mutagenesis; each approach has advantages and disadvantages...
August 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Bin Wei, Pan-Pan Wang, Zhi-Xiang Yan, Ru Yan
Glycyrrhizin (GL), the principal sweet-tasting bioactive ingredient of licorice (root of Glycyrrhiza glabra), shows poor oral absorption and gut microbial transformation of GL to glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) plays a major role for its multiple pharmacological effects. Co-administration of GL-hydrolyzing bacteria appears to be a feasible strategy to enhance GA exposure. This study reported a gut bacterial strain Staphylococcus pasteuri 3I10 which exhibited moderate p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucuronide (PNPG)-hydrolyzing activity but low GL deglucuronidation activity in its crude lysate...
August 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hong Yang, Yueqi Zhang, Xinxin Li, Yingguo Bai, Wei Xia, Rui Ma, Huiying Luo, Pengjun Shi, Bin Yao
A new cellulase (TaCel45) of glycoside hydrolase family 45 was identified in the thermophilic fungus Thielavia arenaria XZ7 and was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. The specific activities of TaCel45 towards lichenin, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na), and barley β-glucan were 769, 498, and 486 U/mg protein, respectively, which are higher than the values for all other reported GH45 cellulases. TaCel45 had maximum activity at pH 5.0-6.0 and 60-65 °C with barley β-glucan and CMC-Na as substrates and had a melting temperature (Tm ) of 68...
August 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jia Jia Zhang, Bradley S Moore, Xiaoyu Tang
The marine actinomycete genus Salinispora is a remarkably prolific source of structurally diverse and biologically active secondary metabolites. Herein, we select the model organism Salinispora tropica CNB-440 for development as a heterologous host for the expression of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) to complement well-established Streptomyces host strains. In order to create an integratable host with a clean background of secondary metabolism, we replaced three genes (salA-C) essential for salinosporamide biosynthesis with a cassette containing the Streptomyces coelicolor ΦC31 phage attachment site attB to generate the mutant S...
August 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hirokazu Suzuki, Tomoaki Abe, Katsumi Doi, Toshihisa Ohshima
Indigo is an insoluble blue dye historically used for dyeing textiles. A traditional approach for indigo dyeing involves microbial reduction of polygonum indigo to solubilize it under alkaline conditions; however, the mechanism by which microorganisms reduce indigo remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to identify an enzyme that catalyzes indigo reduction; for this purpose, from alkaline liquor that performed microbial reduction of polygonum indigo, we isolated indigo carmine-reducing microorganisms. All isolates were facultative anaerobic and alkali-tolerant Bacillus spp...
August 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xiao-Tao Jiang, Lin Ye, Feng Ju, Bing Li, Li-Ping Ma, Tong Zhang
Bacterial community in activated sludge (AS) is diverse and highly dynamic. Little is known about the mechanism shaping bacterial community composition and dynamics of AS and no study had quantitatively compared the contribution of abiotic environmental factors and biotic associations to the temporal dynamics of AS microbial communities with significantly different diversity. In this study, two full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) with distinct operational parameters and influent composition were sampled biweekly over 1 year to reveal the correlating factors to whole and sub-groups of AS bacterial community diversity and dynamics...
August 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Regine Eibl, Philipp Meier, Irène Stutz, David Schildberger, Tilo Hühn, Dieter Eibl
The production of drugs, cosmetics, and food which are derived from plant cell and tissue cultures has a long tradition. The emerging trend of manufacturing cosmetics and food products in a natural and sustainable manner has brought a new wave in plant cell culture technology over the past 10 years. More than 50 products based on extracts from plant cell cultures have made their way into the cosmetics industry during this time, whereby the majority is produced with plant cell suspension cultures. In addition, the first plant cell culture-based food supplement ingredients, such as Echigena Plus and Teoside 10, are now produced at production scale...
August 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yuki Maruyama, Yoshihiro Toya, Hiroshi Kurokawa, Yuka Fukano, Atsushi Sato, Hiroyasu Umemura, Kaoru Yamada, Hideaki Iwasaki, Norio Tobori, Hiroshi Shimizu
Lipomyces starkeyi is an oil-producing yeast that can produce triacylglycerol (TAG) from glycerol as a carbon source. The TAG was mainly produced after nitrogen depletion alongside reduced cell proliferation. To obtain clues for enhancing the TAG production, cell metabolism during the TAG-producing phase was characterized by metabolomics with 13 C labeling. The turnover analysis showed that the time constants of intermediates from glycerol to pyruvate (Pyr) were large, whereas those of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates were much smaller than that of Pyr...
August 10, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Svenja Nicolin Bolten, Ursula Rinas, Thomas Scheper
Heparin is a highly sulfated polysaccharide which belongs to the family of glycosaminoglycans. It is involved in various important biological activities. The major biological purpose is the inhibition of the coagulation cascade to maintain the blood flow in the vasculature. These properties are employed in several therapeutic drugs. Heparin's activities are associated with its interaction to various proteins. To date, the structural heparin-protein interactions are not completely understood. This review gives a general overview of specific patterns and functional groups which are involved in the heparin-protein binding...
August 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Chendi Yu, Lijun Hou, Yanling Zheng, Min Liu, Guoyu Yin, Juan Gao, Cheng Liu, Yongkai Chang, Ping Han
Complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox), as novel microbial communities, are predicted to play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. Here we reported the presence of complete nitrification in tidal sediments and examined the diversity and abundance of comammox in natural ecosystems. Metagenome and metatranscriptome of the enrichment culture from tidal sediments harbored the genes of comammox. Near-complete comammox AmoA/B/C- and Hao-like sequences showed close relationships to the known comammox (with sequence identity from 79 to 99%) rather than classical betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (β-AOB) (57 to 66%) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) (24 to 38%)...
August 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Alexander Nikolay, Arnaud Léon, Klaus Schwamborn, Yvonne Genzel, Udo Reichl
A live-attenuated, human vaccine against mosquito-borne yellow fever virus has been available since the 1930s. The vaccine provides long-lasting immunity and consistent mass vaccination campaigns counter viral spread. However, traditional egg-based vaccine manufacturing requires about 12 months and vaccine supplies are chronically close to shortages. In particular, for urban outbreaks, vaccine demand can be covered rarely by global stockpiling. Thus, there is an urgent need for an improved vaccine production platform, ideally transferable to other flaviviruses including Zika virus...
August 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Marriam Yamin, Ancelmo R Souza, Bianca G Castelucci, Juliana G Mattoso, Carlos Francisco Sampaio Bonafe
The sterilization of transplant and medical devices should be effective but not detrimental to the structural properties of the materials used. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of chemical and physical agents for inactivating Staphylococcus aureus, a gram-positive bacterium and important cause of infections and biofilm production. The treatment conditions in this work were chosen to facilitate their subsequent use with sensitive materials. The effects of temperature, high hydrostatic pressure, and glutaraldehyde disinfectant on the growth of two strains of S...
August 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mengya Wang, Kuili Fang, Sung Min Choi Hong, Inwha Kim, Ik-Soon Jang, Seok Hoon Hong
Persisters represent a small bacterial population that is dormant and that survives under antibiotic treatment without experiencing genetic adaptation. Persisters are also considered one of the major reasons for recalcitrant chronic bacterial infections. Although several mechanisms of persister formation have been proposed, it is not clear how cells enter the dormant state in the presence of antibiotics or how persister cell formation can be effectively controlled. A fatty acid compound, cis-2-decenoic acid, was reported to decrease persister formation as well as revert the dormant cells to a metabolically active state...
August 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jingxia Mei, Nan Zhang, Yuanyuan Yu, Qiang Wang, Jiugang Yuan, Ping Wang, Li Cui, Xuerong Fan
Proteases can cause unacceptable fiber damage when they are singly applied to wool anti-felting treatment which can make wool textiles machine-washable. Even if protease is attached by synthetic polymers, the modified protease plays a limited role in the degradation of keratin with dense structure consisting of disulfide bonds in the scales. Here, to obtain "machine-washable" wool textiles, a novel "trifunctional protease" with reducibility, hydrolysis, and localization is developed by means of covalent bonding of protease molecules with poly (ethylene glycol) bis (carboxymethyl) ether (HOOC-PEG-COOH) and L-cysteine using carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling, aiming at selectively degrading the scales on the surface of wool...
August 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ji-Won Moon, Jeremy R Eskelsen, Ilia N Ivanov, Christopher B Jacobs, Gyoung Gug Jang, Michelle K Kidder, Pooran C Joshi, Beth L Armstrong, Eric M Pierce, Ronald S Oremland, Tommy J Phelps, David E Graham
Sequential NanoFermentation (SNF) is a novel process which entails sparging microbially produced gas containing H2 S from a primary reactor through a concentrated metal-acetate solution contained in a secondary reactor, thereby precipitating metallic sulfide nanoparticles (e.g., ZnS, CuS, or SnS). SNF holds an advantage over single reactor nanoparticle synthesis strategies, because it avoids exposing the microorganisms to high concentrations of toxic metal and sulfide ions. Also, by segregating the nanoparticle products from biological materials, SNF avoids coating nanoparticles with bioproducts that alter their desired properties...
August 4, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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