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Pharmaceutical Research

A S Sediq, S K D Waasdorp, M R Nejadnik, M M C van Beers, J Meulenaar, R Verrijk, W Jiskoot
PURPOSE: To investigate whether particle sedimentation velocity tracking using a flow imaging microscope (FlowCAM) can be used to determine microparticle porosity. METHODS: Two different methods were explored. In the first method the sedimentation rate of microparticles was tracked in suspending media with different densities. The porosity was calculated from the average apparent density of the particles derived by inter- or extrapolation to the density of a suspending medium in which the sedimentation velocity was zero...
February 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Pyry Välitalo, Merja Kokki, Veli-Pekka Ranta, Klaus T Olkkola, Andrew C Hooker, Hannu Kokki
PURPOSE: The aim of the current population pharmacokinetic study was to quantify oxycodone pharmacokinetics in children ranging from preterm neonates to children up to 7 years of age. METHODS: Data on intravenous or intramuscular oxycodone administration were obtained from three previously published studies (n = 119). The median [range] postmenstrual age of the subjects was 299 days [170 days-7.8 years]. A population pharmacokinetic model was built using 781 measurements of oxycodone plasma concentration...
February 15, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Celeste Alvarez, David R Andes, Jeong Yeon Kang, Carmen Krug, Glen S Kwon
PURPOSE: Amphotericin B (AmB) and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) exhibit additive to synergistic activity against systemic mycoses. Incompatibility of prescribed formulations precludes concomitant IV administration, a route with distinct advantages. Previously, we used PEG-DSPE micelles to produce a reformulation of Fungizone (AmB-SD), AmB solubilized by sodium deoxycholate, called mAmB-90. Herein, we describe a second reformulation that facilitates co-delivery of mAmB-90 and 5-FC, and evaluate the effect of PEG-DSPE micelles on the combination's activity against Candida albicans...
February 15, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Cristina Fornaguera, Natàlia Feiner-Gracia, Aurora Dols-Perez, Maria José García-Celma, Conxita Solans
PURPOSE: Gold nanoparticles have been proved useful for many biomedical applications, specifically, for their use as advanced imaging systems. However, they usually present problems related with stability and toxicity. METHODS: In the present work, gold-nanoparticles have been encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles using a novel methodology based on nano-emulsion templating. Firstly, gold nanoparticles have been transferred from water to ethyl acetate, a solvent classified as class III by the NIH guidelines (low toxic potential)...
February 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Naoyuki Nakada
PURPOSE: YM543 is a novel selective inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the utility of mice with humanized livers to predict human drug metabolites using YM543 as a case example. METHODS: Metabolites of YM543 generated in humans and experimental animals including chimeric mice with humanized liver, PXB mice, were analyzed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-radiometric detector or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer...
February 13, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Richard Kendall, Joke Lenoir, Stephen Gerrard, Rebekah L Scheuerle, Nigel K H Slater, Catherine Tuleu
PURPOSE: Neonates are particularly challenging to treat. A novel patented drug delivery device containing a rapidly disintegrating tablet held within a modified nipple shield (NSDS) was designed to deliver medication to infants during breastfeeding. However concerns exist around dermatological nipple tolerability with no pharmaceutical safety assessment guidance to study local tissue tolerance of the nipple and the areola. This is the first Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) study to evaluate irritancy potential of GRAS excipients commonly used to manufacture rapidly disintegrating immediate release solid oral dosage form METHODS: Zinc sulphate selected as the antidiarrheal model drug that reduces infant mortality, was blended with functional excipients at traditional levels [microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate]...
February 13, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Sander van den Ban, Daniel J Goodwin
PURPOSE: The impact of granule densification in high-shear wet granulation on tabletting and product performance was investigated, at pharmaceutical production scale. Product performance criteria need to be balanced with the need to deliver manufacturability criteria to assure robust industrial scale tablet manufacturing processes. A Quality by Design approach was used to determine in-process control specifications for tabletting, propose a design space for disintegration and dissolution, and to understand the permitted operating limits and required controls for an industrial tabletting process...
February 10, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Jasmine A Luzum, Kevin M Sweet, Philip F Binkley, Tara J Schmidlen, Joseph P Jarvis, Michael F Christman, Wolfgang Sadee, Joseph P Kitzmiller
PURPOSE: This study examined whether a CYP2D6 polymorphism (CYP2D6*4) was related to beta-blocker maintenance dose in patients with heart failure. METHODS: Logistic regression modeling was utilized in a retrospective chart-review analysis of heart-failure patients (60% Male, 90% of European descent) to assess whether CYP2D6*4 (non-functional CYP2D6 allele present in 1 of 5 individuals of European descent) is associated with maintenance dose of carvedilol (n = 65) or metoprolol (n = 33)...
February 8, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Tiphany Grisin, Christian Bories, Martina Bombardi, Philippe M Loiseau, Valérie Rouffiac, Audrey Solgadi, Jean-Maurice Mallet, Gilles Ponchel, Kawthar Bouchemal
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to design new chitosan conjugates able to self-organize in aqueous solution in the form of micrometer-size platelets. When mixed with amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB-DOC), micro-platelets act as a drug booster allowing further improvement in AmB-DOC anti-Candida albicans activity. METHODS: Micro-platelets were obtained by mixing oleoyl chitosan and α-cyclodextrin in water. The formulation is specifically-engineered for mucosal application by dispersing chitosan micro-platelets into thermosensitive pluronic(®) F127 20 wt% hydrogel...
February 6, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Benjamin Guiastrennec, Erik Söderlind, Sara Richardson, Alexandra Peric, Martin Bergstrand
PURPOSE: To develop a model linking in vitro and in vivo erosion of extended release tablets under fasting and postprandial status. METHODS: A nonlinear mixed-effects model was developed from the in vitro erosion profiles of four hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrix tablets studied under a range of experimental conditions. The model was used to predict in vivo erosion of the HPMC matrix tablets in different locations of the gastrointestinal tract, determined by magnetic marker monitoring...
February 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Daniel Markl, Johanna Sauerwein, Daniel J Goodwin, Sander van den Ban, J Axel Zeitler
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish the suitability of terahertz (THz) transmission measurements to accurately measure and predict the critical quality attributes of disintegration time and the amount of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) dissolved after 15, 20 and 25 min for commercial tablets processed at production scale. METHODS: Samples of 18 batches of biconvex tablets from a production-scale design of experiments study into exploring the design space of a commercial tablet manufacturing process were used...
February 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Kelvin Bai, Gregory V Barnett, Sambit R Kar, Tapan K Das
PURPOSE: Characterization of submicron protein particles continues to be challenging despite active developments in the field. NTA is a submicron particle enumeration technique, which optically tracks the light scattering signal from suspended particles undergoing Brownian motion. The submicron particle size range NTA can monitor in common protein formulations is not well established. We conducted a comprehensive investigation with several protein formulations along with corresponding placebos using NTA to determine submicron particle size distributions and shed light on potential non-particle origin of size distribution in the range of approximately 50-300 nm...
February 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Wenbo Zhan, Davis Yohanes Arifin, Timothy Ky Lee, Chi-Hwa Wang
PURPOSE: Convection enhanced delivery (CED) is a promising method of anticancer treatment to bypass the blood-brain barrier. This paper is aimed to study drug transport under different CED operating conditions. METHODS: The convection enhanced delivery of chemotherapeutics to an intact and a remnant brain tumour after resection is investigated by means of mathematical modelling of the key physical and physiological processes of drug transport. Realistic models of brain tumour and its holding tissue are reconstructed from magnetic resonance images...
February 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Doaa Nabih Maria, Abd-Elgawad Helmy Abd-Elgawad, Osama Abd-Elazeem Soliman, Marwa Salah El-Dahan, Monica M Jablonski
PURPOSE: Preparation and evaluation of topical ophthalmic formulations containing nimodipine-CD complexes prepared using HP-β-CD, SBE-β-CD and M-β-CD for the management of glaucoma. METHODS: Nimodipine-CD complexes were prepared using a freeze-drying method. Two different molar ratios (NMD:CD) were used for each cyclodextrin. The inclusion complexes were characterized using DSC, FTIR, yield (%), drug content and in vitro release characteristics. NMD-CD complexes incorporated into chitosan eye drops and a temperature-triggered in situ gelling system were evaluated for their pH, viscosity and in vitro release characteristics...
February 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Mariya A Pindrus, Steven J Shire, Sandeep Yadav, Devendra S Kalonia
PURPOSE: To determine the intrinsic viscosity of several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) under varying pH and ionic strength solution conditions. METHODS: An online viscosity detector attached to HPLC (Viscotek®) was used to determine the intrinsic viscosity of mAbs. The Ross and Minton equation was used for viscosity prediction at high protein concentrations. Bulk viscosity was determined by a Cambridge viscometer. RESULTS: At 15 mM ionic strength, intrinsic viscosity of the mAbs determined by the single-point approach varied from 5...
February 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Dmitry Kryndushkin, Wells W Wu, Ramesh Venna, Michael A Norcross, Rong-Fong Shen, V Ashutosh Rao
PURPOSE: Protein carbonylation is an irreversible modification of Lys, Arg, Thr and Pro amino acids under conditions of oxidative stress. Previous studies have reported specific carbonylated residues in purified recombinant albumins, albeit with a lack of agreement between the studies. Currently, structural factors that determine site-specific protein carbonylation are not well understood. METHODS: In this study, we utilized metal-catalyzed oxidizing conditions to generate carbonylation in recombinant human serum albumin (HSA) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), two proteins with distinct metal-binding abilities...
February 1, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Elena V Parfenyuk, Ekaterina S Dolinina
PURPOSE: The work is devoted to synthesis and study of warfarin composites with unmodified, methyl and phenyl modified silica in order to develop controlled release formulation of the anticoagulant. METHODS: The composites were prepared by two routes, adsorption and sol-gel, and characterized with FTIR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and DSC methods. The drug release behavior from the composites in media with pH 1.6, 6.8 and 7.4 was analyzed in vitro. The release kinetics of the warfarin - silica composites prepared by the two routes was compared among each other and with analogous silica composites with water soluble drug molsidomine...
January 30, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Yonglin Huang, Yechun Pei, Huai Guan, Shuangshuang Wei, Hao Wu, Yuan Zhou, Jinli Pei, Lintao Chen, Yuerong Wang, Yibo Chen, Qian Han, Daming Wang, Dayong Wang
PURPOSE: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is the only medicine for treating infantile spasms, however, it is catabolized rapidly. In order to make an ACTH derivative with prolonged effects, we prepared genetically engineered wild type (WT) and mutant ACTH candidates based on protease database analysis, and compared their stability and pharmacological effects. METHODS: For analysis of stability, serum concentration of WT and mutant ACTH candidates were tested at different time after intravenous injection, and elimination curves were calculated to compare pharmacokinetic properties of WT and E5D-mutant ACTH...
January 26, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Liang Li, Lizhi Zhang, Philip F Binkley, Wolfgang Sadee, Danxin Wang
PURPOSE: Protein kinase C α (PRKCA) is involved in multiple functions and has been implicated in heart failure risks and treatment outcomes. This study aims to identify regulatory variants affecting PRKCA expression in human heart, and evaluate attributable risk of heart disease. METHODS: mRNA expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) were extracted from the Genotype and Tissue Expression Project (GTEx). Allelic mRNA ratios were measured in 51 human heart tissues to identify cis-acting regulatory variants...
January 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Karolina Żółtowska, Urszula Piotrowska, Ewa Oledzka, Marzena Kuras, Anna Zgadzaj, Marcin Sobczak
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop the perspective biodegradable poly(ester-urethane) (PUR) carriers based on "predominantly isotactic" and atactic polylactides (PLAs), and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), for the controlled release of epirubicin (EPI). METHODS: The biodegradable PURs containing different soft segments as new and effective carriers of EPI have been obtained. The preliminary studies on toxicity and degradation of obtained polymers, and the release of the EPI from PUR carriers were carried out...
January 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
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