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Minerva Endocrinologica

Cristina Lamas, Araceli García-Martínez, Rosa Cámara, Carmen Fajardo-Montanana, Legna Viguera, Ignacio Aranda
Silent somatotroph pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (or silent growth hormone pituitary neuroendocrine tumors, SGH-PitNET) are neoplasias with positive immunostaining for growth hormone (GH), in patients with no signs and symptoms of acromegaly nor biochemical evidence of GH hypersecretion. From a clinical stand-point they are considered and managed as non-functioning pituitary tumors, since they usually come to evidence due to mass-effects (headache, visual impairment, hypopituitarism) or as asymptomatic pituitary incidentalomas...
December 7, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Manuel Puig-Domingo, Monica Marazuela
Acromegaly is a chronic disorder usually diagnosed late in the disease evolution, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality related to this long period of undiagnosed state as well as the difficulty in achieving normalization of GH hypersecretion and controlling tumour mass. First generation somatostatin analogues (SSA) are accepted as the first-line medical therapy or as second-line therapy in patients undergoing unsuccessful surgery. However, because a high percentage of patients experience SSA treatment failure, the inclusion of biomarkers associated with a successful or non-successful response to these drug ( as well as to all classes of medical therapy) is necessary to better guide the choice of treatment, potentially allowing for a quicker achievement of disease control...
December 7, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Jacqueline Trouillas, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Marion Lapoirie, Laura Chinezu, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Gérald Raverot
Acromegaly is mainly due to the somatotroph pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNET)s. These have been subtyped into densely granulated (DG) and sparsely granulated (SG) tumors, which differ in clinical, histological and biological characteristics and in response to somatostatin analogs (SA)s. The variable remission rate after surgical resection, as first line treatment, has increased interest in identifying pathological markers to better predict the response to medical treatment. Several techniques have shown somatotroph tumors to express somatostatin receptors (SSTR)s, and mainly SSTR2 and SSTR5...
December 7, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Yanfang Guo, Ling Zhu, Yi Ge, Hao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D, a fat-soluble secosteroid, plays a key role in several metabolic diseases like diabetes. Diabetes is becoming a third leading chronic disease in the world, which seriously threatens human health. METHODS: In current study, we found the beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation in obesity-related diabetes rat. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, biochemical testing, real-time PCR and western blot were carried to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on diabetes...
December 7, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Maria García-Alvarez, Vicente Climent
Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by high levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin- like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The excess of GH leads to the development of different manifestations in different organs, from subtle signs in the bones and soft tissues to the development of respiratory and cardiac insufficiency. In the cardiovascular system, the GH/IGF-1 axis exerts its influence on three major aspects: myocyte growth and structure, cardiac contractility and vascular function. In this article, we review the different cardiovascular and respiratory complications as well as the effects of the different treatments on these complications...
November 26, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Juan Wang, Meixiang Zhang, Zhenzhen Liu, Xiujie Wang, Yuanxin Pang, Ye Lu, Zhengqing Liu
BACKGROUND: To observe the clinical features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with ketosis as the initial symptom, and investigate its differences from clinical features of non-ketotic T2DM patients. METHODS: A total of 385 T2DM patients treated in our hospital from 2014 to 2017 were selected and divided into ketosis-prone T2DM group and non-ketotic T2DM group. Ketosis-prone T2DM patients refer to DM patients with the urine ketone body++ or above or the blood ketone body ≥1...
November 26, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Huai H Loh, Anne Yee, Huai S Loh
BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed a possible association between hyperaldosteronism and secondary hyperparathyroidism leading to reduced bone health, however results are conflicting. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between primary aldosteronism (PA) with bone biochemical markers and to assess bone mineral density in patients with primary aldosteronism. RESULTS: A total of 939 subjects were examined (37.5% with PA)...
November 26, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Giuliana Cardinale, Sabino Pesce, Dario Ingletto, Matteo Mariano, Alessandra Catucci, Nicola Corciulo, Enrico Fidotti
BACKGROUND: A poor adherence to r-hGH therapy is associated to a low growth rate in patients with growth deficiency. For this reason, the choice of an objective method, such as an electronic device, for monitoring treatment adherence is very important. This retrospective study evaluated the r-hGH treatment adherence of patients with growth deficiency, monitored through the easypodTM device. METHODS: Data from 90 patients (52 males; mean age at the end of the study: 11...
November 26, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
María Luisa Granada
INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly is a rare disease caused by excess growth hormone (GH) secretion leading to an excess IGF-1 which is the major mediator of GH action. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Biochemical diagnosis of GH excess is accomplished by the combined measurement of baseline serum IGF-I concentration and the response of GH on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Several drawbacks regarding the interpretation of biochemical tests that include measurement of GH have been widely described in the literature, including different protocols for obtaining serum samples, great differences in the results obtained by different immunoassays, different cut-off points used to differentiate the normal status of the hypersecretion of GH...
October 10, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Ruta Kriksciuniene, Birute Zilaitiene, Saulius Lukosevicius, Egle Ereminiene, Raimonda Klimaite, Rasa Verkauskiene
AIM: To identify the main predictors of the enlargement of ascending aorta and to assess the possible relation between reduced bone mineral density and a diameter of ascending aorta in the specific Turner syndrome (TS) population. METHODS: 50 adult females diagnosed with TS have been enrolled into the cross-sectional study. Dimensions of ascending aorta have been measured in four positions using thoracic magnetic resonance imaging, aortic size index (ASI) has been calculated...
October 1, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Asala Abu-Ahmad, Carmela Shechner, Mohammad Sheikh-Ahmad, Maria Reut, Limor Chen-Konak, Nizar Jiries, Leonard Saiegh
BACKGROUND: Earlier research on 1 μg low-dose test (LDT) performed using 20.3 cm plastic IV tubing on healthy volunteers, has shown that afternoon testing was associated with a sevenfold increased likelihood of failing the test. Nevertheless, it has been claimed that subnormal cortisol response using plastic tubes might have resulted from cosyntropin adherence to the tube and, thus, loss of the delivered dosage. Following from our previous study, which showed that using a short (2.5 cm) plastic tube does not alter in-vitro-cosyntropin dosage delivery or healthy-volunteers' morning cortisol responses, we predicted that, when using the same short plastic tube, LDT would show comparable morning and afternoon cortisol stimulation...
September 24, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Paolo Del Rio, Federico Cozzani, Luigi Corcione, Lorenzo Viani, Tommaso Loderer, Matteo Rossini
BACKGROUND: Solitary thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine occurance in general population. With the introduction of Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology (BSRTC) to FNA specimens we found a reliable standard method to evaluate malignancy risk in thyroid neoplasms. This study evaluates the correlation between BSRTC and real results in our center investigating the role of several factors as confounding factors for cytological diagnosis. The study has been designed as a retrospective study conducted on 637 patients that underwent thyroid surgery in a single center (General Surgery Unit, Parma University Hospital, Italy)...
September 24, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Antonio Nicolucci, Giuseppe Prosperini, Raffaella Buzzetti, Salvatore De Cosmo, Carmine G Fanelli, Raffaele Napoli, Francesco Giorgino
INTRODUCTION: Hypoglycemia is the major limiting factor in the glycemic management of diabetes. Aim of this study was to produce a risk stratification tool to support the medical decision making, by facilitating the identification of patients at higher risk of hypoglycemia. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A multistep approach was adopted, including a systematic review of observational studies investigating risk factors for severe hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), followed by an expert input forum to identify factors perceived as relevant and at the same time reliably detectable, to be used for the development of a risk score...
December 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Gianni Testino, Silvia Leone, Patrizia Balbinot, Rinaldo Pellicano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Stephan Petersenn
Secondary adrenal insufficiency may pose specific challenges during pregnancy. The interpretation of diagnostic tests is hindered by physiological adaptations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Due the relevant increases in cortisol-binding globulin, measurement of salivary cortisol may be preferable, but lacks sufficiently established cut-offs both for early-morning evaluation and during dynamic testing. Hydrocortisone should be used for replacement to avoid overexposure of the fetus, with dose adjustments according to clinical judgement...
December 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Stephan Petersenn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Greisa Vila, Anton Luger
Growth hormone (GH) is not approved for use during conception and pregnancy. Nevertheless, data from the clinical care practice reveal that most women concieve on GH replacement therapy (GHRT), and more than half continue on GHRT also during pregnancy. GH stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis at all levels, and there is evidence that GH deficiency impacts the morphology of reproductive organs, onset of puberty, ovarian function and fertility. Patients with hypopituitarism often conceive using assisted reproductive techniques and several studies support the benefit of GH supplementation for achieving fertility in women with GH deficiency...
December 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Jürgen Honegger, Sabrina Giese
Pregnancy-related hypophysitis (PR-Hy) that typically occurs during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period is considered an autoimmune disorder. Knowledge and awareness of characteristic clinical symptoms and specific endocrine and neuroradiological features mostly enables a correct diagnosis and guarantees best possible management. In the presence of mild clinical symptoms, a "wait-and-watch" approach is recommended. Transsphenoidal surgery or glucocorticoid therapy is indicated if progressive clinical signs or severe visual symptoms are observed...
December 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Elena Vorona, Eberhard Nieschlag
Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes and hemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke...
December 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Julie Refardt, Mirjam Christ-Crain
Diabetes insipidus, characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is a rare disease during pregnancy. Nevertheless, its recognition is important to avoid complications due to dehydration and hypernatremia. Its manifestation during pregnancy ranges from exacerbation of pre-existing central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus to transient pregnancy-induced diabetes insipidus due to the increased metabolism of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) by the placental vasopressinase. Diagnosis can be challenging, as urinary frequency is common during pregnancy and primary polydipsia also needs to be excluded...
December 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
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