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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

Rick L Paul
A combination of cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (CNPGAA) and thermal neutron (TN) PGAA was used to determine sulfur in fuel oils to develop a method to provide values for certification. CNPGAA was used to measure S/H mass ratios, and TNPGAA to measure hydrogen mass fractions. Measurements were combined to determine sulfur mass fractions (with expanded uncertainties) of 2.159 % ± 0.072 % for SRM 1622e, 0.7066 % ± 0.0120 % for SRM 1619b, and 0.1266 % ± 0.0030 % for SRM 1617b, in agreement with certified values...
February 2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Richard M Lindstrom
Nearly fifty years ago, two landmark papers appeared that should have cured the problem of ambiguous uncertainty statements in published data. Eisenhart's paper in Science called for statistically meaningful numbers, and Currie's Analytical Chemistry paper revealed the wide range in common definitions of detection limit. Confusion and worse can result when uncertainties are misinterpreted or ignored. The recent stories of cold fusion, variable radioactive decay, and piezonuclear reactions provide cautionary examples in which prior probability has been neglected...
February 2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Donato Barbesi, Víctor Vicente Vilas, Sylvain Millet, Miguel Sandow, Jean-Yves Colle, Laura Aldave de Las Heras
A LabVIEW(®)-based software for the control of the fully automated multi-sequential flow injection analysis Lab-on-Valve (MSFIA-LOV) platform AutoRAD performing radiochemical analysis is described. The analytical platform interfaces an Arduino(®)-based device triggering multiple detectors providing a flexible and fit for purpose choice of detection systems. The different analytical devices are interfaced to the PC running LabVIEW(®)VI software using USB and RS232 interfaces, both for sending commands and receiving confirmation or error responses...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Zsolt Varga, Judit Krajkó, Maxim Peńkin, Márton Novák, Zsuzsanna Eke, Maria Wallenius, Klaus Mayer
The paper describes the applicability of different characteristics (signatures) in nuclear safeguards and forensics for assessment of uranium material provenance in terms of production process. The study follows a uranium ore concentrate production from an ore to a U3O8 product. It turned out that rare-earth elemental pattern, radiochronometry (age of ore body and material production date), sulphur and organic impurities are useful to find out the origin or history of the material, while certain trace-elements and isotopics of Pb or Sr were found to be inconclusive...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
S Adam Stratz, Steven J Jones, Austin D Mullen, Manny Mathuthu, Colton J Oldham, John D Auxier, Howard L Hall
Newly-established adsorption enthalpy and entropy values of 12 lanthanide hexafluoroacetylacetonates, denoted Ln[hfac]4, along with the experimental and theoretical methodology used to obtain these values, are presented for the first time. The results of this work can be used in conjunction with theoretical modeling techniques to optimize a large-scale gas-phase separation experiment using isothermal chromatography. The results to date indicate average adsorption enthalpy and entropy values of the 12 Ln[hfac]4 complexes ranging from -33 to -139 kJ/mol K and -299 to -557 J/mol, respectively...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
H Bem, M Długosz-Lisiecka, S Janiak, D Mazurek, P Szajerski
The indoor (222)Rn radionuclide was directly absorbed in typical 20 ml glass scintillation vials by passing -3 dm(3) of ambient air through 16 ml of water-immiscible non-volataile scintillation cocktail Ultima-Gold F for 10 min. The activity of radon and its two α-emitting daughters: (218)Po and (214)Po, was determined with the BetaScout low-background liquid scintillation counter. The limit of (222)Rn detection is 9 Bq/m(3), and the quantification limit with 20% relative accuracy is 28 Bq/m(3). The results of the indoor Rn measurement in different houses showed good consistency with results obtained from a Sarad EQF 3220 device...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Kun Ren, Xiaodong Pan, Jie Zeng, Youjun Jiao
Sulfur and oxygen isotopes were employed to identify SO4(2-) sources in surface water and groundwater in the Babu subterranean river basin (BSRB). Our study revealed SO4(2-) enrichment in the BSRB waters compared with adjacent areas. The SO4(2-) in some samples originated mainly from precipitation; in others, it was derived mainly from sulfide dissolution in coal seams or from gypsum dissolution. In the water at the subterranean river exit, 13% of SO4(2-) originated from precipitation, 40% from sulfide oxidation in coal seams, and 47% from gypsum dissolution...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
E M van Es, B C Russell, P Ivanov, M García Miranda, D Read, C Dirks, S Happel
Accurate, low-level measurement of (226)Ra in high volume water samples requires rapid pre-concentration and robust separation techniques prior to measurement in order to comply with discharge limits and drinking water regulations. This study characterises the behaviour of (226)Ra and interfering elements on recently developed TK100 (Triskem International) extraction chromatography resin. Distribution coefficients over a range of acid concentrations are given, along with an optimised procedure that shows rapid pre-concentration and separation of (226)Ra on TK100 resin is achievable for high volume (1 L) water samples without the need for sample pre-treatment...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Ivan Kajan, Teemu Kärkelä, Ari Auvinen, Christian Ekberg
Ruthenium is a fission product that can be released from the fuel in case of a severe nuclear accident. In this work the impact of the atmosphere composition, including air radiolysis products, on the transport of ruthenium through a primary circuit was examined. Experiments were performed at temperatures 1300, 1500 and 1700 K in a slightly humid air. In the experiments significant effect of nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO2) and nitric acid on the ruthenium chemistry in the model primary circuit was observed. The obtained results indicate a strong effect of air radiolysis products on the quantity partitioning of transported ruthenium to gaseous and aerosol compounds...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
R Jakopič, Y Aregbe, S Richter, E Zuleger, S Mialle, S D Balsley, U Repinc, J Hiess
In the frame of the accountancy measurements of the fissile materials, reliable determinations of the plutonium and uranium content in spent nuclear fuel are required to comply with international safeguards agreements. Large-sized dried (LSD) spikes of enriched (235)U and (239)Pu for isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) analysis are routinely applied in reprocessing plants for this purpose. A correct characterisation of these elements is a pre-requirement for achieving high accuracy in IDMS analyses. This paper will present the results of external verification measurements of such LSD spikes performed by the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Paweł Jodłowski, Przemysław Wachniew, Jakub Nowak
In the presented paper analysis of sensitivity of self-attenuation correction Cs to the accuracy of chemical composition analysis is presented. The analyses were done by means of Monte Carlo simulation for cylindrical samples and for four sample materials: peat, water, ash and soil. For each of these materials the major elements were selected whose determination in the analysed material is necessary. For the remaining elements threshold levels of their concentration were determined-if expected element concentration in a sample exceeds this value, its determination is indispensable, assuming the accuracy of Cs determination at 3 %...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Georg Steinhauser
After the Fukushima nuclear accident, beef proved to be a problematic food item with several exceedances entering the market. The reason was contaminated rice straw that was fed to cattle. Japanese authorities responded quickly to the exceedances and made beef one of the most-monitored food items after the Fukushima accident with more than a million samples within 5 years. Activity levels dropped quickly and are now considerably below the regulatory limit. No exceedance of the regulatory limit was observed after October 2012...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Ewelina Chajduk, Halina Polkowska-Motrenko
In this work a determination of selected elements in the infant formulas commercially available on the Polish market was done. 14 different materials (milk-based formulas and grain porridges) were analyzed. Both, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were applied for the determination of As, Cr, Fe and Se, which are recognized as the problematic elements for ICP-MS. For As and Se, the radiochemical NAA was also used. The daily intake of Se and Fe in the age 0-6 months for non-breast fed infants was estimated and compared with present safety limits...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Katarzyna Rzemek, Andrzej Czerwiński, Jakub Ośko, Katarzyna Tymińska, Małgorzata Dymecka, Tomasz Pliszczyński
The aim of this work is to present the method for sequential plutonium and americium activity determination in air filters using chromatographic radionuclide separation and alpha spectrometry measurement. The developed method may be employed for the purposes of workplace monitoring and as an indicator of the need of introducing the individual monitoring as well as a useful complementation of individual monitoring. Basic parameters describing the developed method such as values of chemical recoveries and minimum detectable activities for plutonium and americium isotopes have been determined...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Yuichiro Kumamoto, Michio Aoyama, Yasunori Hamajima, Hisao Nagai, Takeyasu Yamagata, Yoshimi Kawai, Eitarou Oka, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Keiri Imai, Akihiko Murata
In 2014, we measured activity concentration of radiocesium in the western North Pacific Ocean. In the north of Kuroshio Front high activity concentration of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in surface mixed layer in 2012 had been transported eastward by 2014. In the south of the front we found a radiocesium subsurface maximum in 200-600 m depth, which was similar to that observed in 2012. The subsurface maximum spread southward from 18°N to 15°N between 2012 and 2014, which suggests spreading of Fukushima-derived radiocesium into the whole western subtropical area by 2014 due to formation and subduction of the subtropical mode water...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
A P J Hodgson, K E Jarvis, R W Grimes, O J Marsden
To assist in nuclear forensic investigations, new techniques are required to evaluate radioactive materials that may be discovered outside of regulatory control. Using a recently developed pressure digestion method for iridium powder, assessments have been made of this techniques suitability for undertaking iridium target material evaluations. In addition to determining the reaction conditions necessary for total dissolution, these investigations have provided an insight into the elemental impurities that are present within unirradiated iridium targets that are used in QSA Global radiography sources, and established the speciation of the iridium solutions that are formed during this process...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Stina Holmgren Rondahl, Annika Tovedal, Oscar Björnham, Henrik Ramebäck
This work presents an optimized method for the determination of multiple samples containing (90)Sr when its daughter (90)Y is measured after chemical separation and in sequence, i.e. during its decay. Consequently the measurement times will increase for each subsequent sample, since there has been a longer time for decay before measurement. Compared to a previously published approach, when (90)Y is measured during its ingrowth, the gain in total analysis time (time for ingrowth+ summation of measurement times) is not that large, particularly not for low background instruments...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Tomoko M Nakanishi
Research carried out by me and my group over the last almost four decades are summarized here. The main emphasis of my work was and continues to be on plant physiology using radiation and radioisotopes. Plants live on water and inorganic elements. In the case of water, we developed neutron imaging methods and produced (15)O-labeled water (half-life 2 min) and applied them to understand water circulation pattern in the plant. In the case of elements, we developed neutron activation analysis methods to analyze a large number of plant tissues to follow element specific distribution...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Renáta Buják, Laurens Delva, Mustafa Erkoç, Jeroen Bauwens, Rožle Jakopič, Laszlo Vincze, Yetunde Aregbe, Ludwig Cardon
Characterization of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) thin films with 17, 35 and 52 wt% butyryl is carried out to select the most suitable matrix material for the U and Pu containing large-sized dried spike reference material. The virgin CAB samples were aged by vibrations, heat, humidity, UV light and X-rays. Characterization was done by thermo-analytical techniques, gel permeation chromatography, mechanical tests and via Rayleigh and Compton scattering. The results show that CAB with lower butyryl content can withstand higher operational temperatures and has greater mechanical strength while CAB with higher butyryl content seems to be more resistant to radiation...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Alicja Boryło, Grzegorz Romańczyk, Bogdan Skwarzec
In the study the activities of polonium (210)Po and uranium (234)U, (238)U radionuclides in moss and lichen samples were determined using the alpha spectrometry. Different lichens and mosses were collected around the Sobieszewo Island (northern Poland) and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for (210)Po and (238)U deposition. Mosses and lichens have a high efficiency in capturing (210)Po and (238)U from atmospheric fallout. The obtained results showed that (210)Po, (238)U concentrations are changing in analyzed thallophytes samples depending on the type of thallus...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
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