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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

Chung Hun Han, Jae Woo Park
This study analyzed the concentrations of potassium, thorium and uranium of the atmospheric PM10 aerosols which were collected at Gosan of Jeju Island during the year of 2014. The mean mass concentration of PM10 was 47.31 μg/m3 . The mean radioactive concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U were 7.89, 0.25 and 0.30 μBq/m3 , respectively. The 232 Th/238 U activity concentration ratio of PM10 was 0.830. The 232 Th/238 U ratio during Asian Dust days is 1.073, which is higher than those in other atmospheric conditions...
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Pavel P Povinec
Recent developments in radiometric and mass spectrometry technologies have been associated in the radiometric sector mainly with underground operations of large volume Ge detectors, while the mass-spectrometry sector, represented mainly by accelerator mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has become the most sensitive technique for ultra-low-level analyses of long-lived radionuclides. These new developments have had great impact on investigations of rare nuclear processes and applications of radionuclides in environmental, life and space sciences...
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Daniel Lundberg
The use of replacement lanthanoid ions in actinoid chemistry is commonplace, which requires a full understanding of the similarities and differences between the two series. This overview lists, compares and discusses the available crystallographic data for N -donors for the lanthanoids and the actinoids using their trivalent state as a natural starting point for comparison.
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
H Mohamud, P Ivanov, B C Russell, P H Regan, N I Ward
The effect of competing ions on the sorption behaviour of uranium onto carboxyl-functionalised graphene oxide (COOH-GO) were studied in batch experiments in comparison to graphene oxide (GO) and graphite. The effect of increasing the abundance of select chemical functional groups, such as carboxyl groups, on the selectivity of U sorption was investigated. In the course of the study, COOH-GO demonstrated superior performance as a sorbent material for the selective removal of uranyl ions from aqueous solution with a distribution coefficient of 3...
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Johannes H Sterba
The main focus for neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the Atominstitut in Vienna has moved to the analysis of archaeological ceramics. The workflow for NAA has been adapted for this material and the elemental spectrum quantified has been expanded for compatibility with international databases. Statistical methods for the grouping of the archaeometric data have been implemented, following the methods applied by Mommsen et al. in Bonn (Archaeometry 30(1):47-57, 1988). Limits of detection specific for ceramics have been calculated and are at the ng/g level...
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Sandor Demeter, Roman Szweda, Judy Patterson, Marine Grigoryan
Given potential worldwide shortages of fission sourced 99 Mo/99m Tc medical isotopes there is increasing interest in alternate production strategies. A neutron activated 99 Mo source was utilized in a single center phase III open label study comparing 99m Tc, as 99m Tc Methylene Diphosphonate ([99m Tc]Tc-MDP), obtained from solvent generator separation of neutron activation produced 99 Mo, versus nuclear reactor produced 99 Mo (e.g., fission sourced) in oncology patients for which an [99m Tc]Tc-MDP bone scan would normally have been indicated...
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Agnieszka Dżaluk, Dariusz Malczewski, Jerzy Żaba, Maria Dziurowicz
The natural radioactivities of five characteristic igneous rocks of the eastern foreland of the Opava Mountains (Eastern Sudetes, Poland), obtained in the laboratory and under in situ conditions, are presented. The activity concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U, and 40 K were measured using an HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry system. The ranges of the activity concentrations of 232 Th were 7-71 Bq kg-1 in the laboratory and 6-68 Bq kg-1 for the in situ measurements. For 238 U, the ranges of the activity concentrations were 5-52 Bq kg-1 in the laboratory and 9-48 Bq kg-1 for the in situ measurements, and for 40 K, the ranges were 520-1560 Bq kg-1 in the laboratory and 537-1700 Bq kg-1 for the in situ measurements...
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
L Lakosi, J Zsigrai, A Kocsonya, T C Nguyen, H Ramebäck, T Parsons-Moss, N Gharibyan, K Moody
Low enriched uranium samples of unknown origin were analyzed by 16 laboratories in the context of a Collaborative Materials Exercise (CMX), organized by the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG). The purpose was to compare and prioritize nuclear forensic methods and techniques, and to evaluate attribution capabilities among participants. This paper gives a snapshot of the gamma spectrometric capabilities of the participating laboratories and summarizes the results achieved by gamma spectrometry...
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Stina Holmgren Rondahl, Fabien Pointurier, Linnea Ahlinder, Henrik Ramebäck, Olivier Marie, Brice Ravat, François Delaunay, Emma Young, Ned Blagojevic, James R Hester, Gordon Thorogood, Aubrey N Nelwamondo, Tshepo P Ntsoane, Sarah K Roberts, Kiel S Holliday
This work presents the results for identification of chemical phases obtained by several laboratories as a part of an international nuclear forensic round-robin exercise. In this work powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) is regarded as the reference technique. Neutron diffraction produced a superior high-angle diffraction pattern relative to p-XRD. Requiring only small amounts of sample, µ-Raman spectroscopy was used for the first time in this context as a potentially complementary technique to p-XRD. The chemical phases were identified as pure UO2 in two materials, and as a mixture of UO2 , U3 O8 and an intermediate species U3 O7 in the third material...
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Anthony D Appelhans, John E Olson, David A Dahl, Michal B Ward, Troy A Robinson, James E Delmore
A new isotope separator has been designed, constructed, and put into routine operation for separation of 133 Xe providing a major advancement and significant cost reduction in preparation of this radioactive isotope. The design features and advantages are discussed that expedite high purity separation of relatively small quantities of this isotope. These advantages could be easily used to expedite separation of other shorter-lived radioactive isotopes.
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Rolf Zeisler, Hana Cho, Iberê Souza Ribeiro Junior, Martin G Shetty, Danyal Turkoglu
A new γγ coincidence system has been set up at NIST. It is operated with a digital data finder supported by new software developed at NIST. The system is used to explore possible enhancements in instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and study applicability to neutron capture prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). The performance of the system is tested with certified reference materials for efficiency calibration and quantitative performance. Comparisons of INAA results based on conventional gamma-ray spectrometry data with INAA results based on coincidence data obtained from the same samples show improvements in the counting uncertainties and demonstrates the quantitative accuracy of the new system...
October 2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Rick L Paul
A combination of cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (CNPGAA) and thermal neutron (TN) PGAA was used to determine sulfur in fuel oils to develop a method to provide values for certification. CNPGAA was used to measure S/H mass ratios, and TNPGAA to measure hydrogen mass fractions. Measurements were combined to determine sulfur mass fractions (with expanded uncertainties) of 2.159 % ± 0.072 % for SRM 1622e, 0.7066 % ± 0.0120 % for SRM 1619b, and 0.1266 % ± 0.0030 % for SRM 1617b, in agreement with certified values...
February 2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Richard M Lindstrom
Nearly fifty years ago, two landmark papers appeared that should have cured the problem of ambiguous uncertainty statements in published data. Eisenhart's paper in Science called for statistically meaningful numbers, and Currie's Analytical Chemistry paper revealed the wide range in common definitions of detection limit. Confusion and worse can result when uncertainties are misinterpreted or ignored. The recent stories of cold fusion, variable radioactive decay, and piezonuclear reactions provide cautionary examples in which prior probability has been neglected...
February 2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Janusz Lekki, Marta Matosz, Czesława Paluszkiewicz, Ewa Pięta, Tomasz Pieprzyca, Zbigniew Szklarz, Julio M Del Hoyo Meléndez
The collection of denarii from the time of development of a Polish medieval state was studied using the proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. The major elements detected for these denarii are Ag and Cu, while minor elements such as Pb, Fe, Au, Bi, and Zn may also be present. The aim of the study was to cross-compare the results with a previous micro-X-ray fluorescence data and to perform a better quantification of the denarii elemental composition, especially for trace elements, providing suggestions of the origin of alloy compounds...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Małgorzata Pająk, Marianna Kańska
The kinetic (KIE) and solvent (SIE) isotope effect methods were used to investigate the mechanism of enzymatic hydroxylation of halogenated derivatives of l-tyrosine to l-DOPA catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosinase (EC The values of deuterium KIE and SIE were obtained using the non-competitive method with spectrophotometric measurements. The Lineweaver-Burk plots were used for determination of the inhibition mode of 3'-iodo-l-tyrosine. Based upon kinetic effects values the mechanism of action of enzyme tyrosinase was proposed...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Biying Chen, Sheng Xu, Gordon T Cook, Stewart P H T Freeman, Xiaolin Hou, Cong-Qiang Liu, Philip Naysmith, Katsuhiko Yamaguchi
Radiocarbon (14 C) has been measured in single tree ring samples collected from the southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Our data indicate south-westwards dispersion of radiocarbon and the highest14 C activity observed so far in the local environment during the 2011 accident. The abnormally high14 C activity in the late wood of 2011 ring may imply an unknown source of radiocarbon nearby after the accident. The influence of14 C shrank from 30 km during normal reactor operation to 14 km for the accident in the northwest of FDNPP, but remains unclear in the southwest...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Phillip E Warwick, Ian W Croudace
This paper describes an early-stage evaluation of a purpose-designed extraction/detection system that can be deployed by non-specialists either on-site or as part of a mobile laboratory. The system comprises three main components; (1) an optimised compact extraction system for recovery of radionuclides from the waste form; (2) an extraction test strip designed to recover the radionuclides from the waste digest; (3) a scintillation-based detection system capable of quantification of alpha, low energy beta and high energy beta emitting radionuclides...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Pawel Gaca, Phillip E Warwick, Ian W Croudace
Liquid scintillation spectrometry is widely used for the analysis of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides. Robust calibration of liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometers is fundamental to accurate LS measurement but at the same time is time consuming and costly, particularly if a wide range of radionuclides are analysed by the laboratory. The frequency of the calibration varies in different laboratories and is based on many practical and operational factors. This work summarizes the observations regarding variations in 1220 Quantulus spectrometers efficiency calibrations performed annually using various radionuclides:3 H63 Ni,55 Fe,36 Cl,45 Ca,147 Pm,241 Pu,99 Tc for a period of 9 years and discusses the implication to calibration frequency...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Richard I Marsh, Ian W Croudace, Phillip E Warwick, Natasha Cooper, Nadereh St-Amant
Quantitative extraction of tritium from a sample matrix is critical to efficient measurement of the low-energy pure beta emitter. Oxidative pyrolysis using a tube furnace (Pyrolyser) has been adopted as an industry standard approach for the liberation of tritium (Warwick et al. in Anal Chim Acta 676:93-102, 2010) however pyrolysis of organic-rich materials can be problematic. Practically, the mass of organic rich sample combusted is typically limited to <1 g to minimise the possibility of incomplete combustion...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Maciej Chotkowski, Damian Połomski
The extraction of pertechnetate ions from aquous solutions containing various concentrations of nitric acid into hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) has been examined at 25, 50 and 70 °C. The results show that the distribution ratio of Tc (DTc) between both phases weakly depends on the temperature and HNO3 concentration when IL's with relatively short aliphatic chains are used. The DTc obtained for all examined ILs, except methyltrioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and 1-butyl-3-methylimidasolium hexafluorophosphate, are lower than 1...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
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