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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

Ge Xiao, David Saunders, Robert L Jones, Kathleen L Caldwell
Quantification of (241)Am in urine at low levels is important for assessment of individuals' or populations' accidental, environmental, or terrorism-related internal contamination, but no convenient, precise method has been established to rapidly determine these low levels. Here we report a new analytical method to measure (241)Am as developed and validated at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by means of the selective retention of Am from urine directly on DGA resin, followed by SF-ICP-MS detection...
July 2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Martin Shetty, Dağıstan Şahin
Coincidence counting in neutron activation analysis has well-known advantages, most importantly improvement of detection limits. One obstacle to the wider use of this technique is the complexity of the data acquisition and reduction systems that it requires. The usual approaches to multi-detector data acquisition incur significant dead-time, involve redundant work in repeatedly developing limited tools and risk potential errors in low-level code. The paper describes progress made in developing a software framework to address these shortcomings...
July 2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Stephen P LaMont, Samuel E Glover
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Sheng Xu, Gordon T Cook, Alan J Cresswell, Elaine Dunbar, Stewart P H T Freeman, Xiaolin Hou, Helen Kinch, Philip Naysmith, David W C Sanderson, Luyuan Zhang
Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ(14)C values reflect ambient atmospheric (14)C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year(s). The elevated (129)I and (134,137)Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Jerzy W Mietelski, Renata Kierepko, Edyta Łokas, Anna Cwanek, Krzysztof Kleszcz, Ewa Tomankiewicz, Tomasz Mróz, Robert Anczkiewicz, Mirosław Szałkowski, Bogdan Wąs, Mirosław Bartyzel, Ryszard Misiak
The paper summarizes results of investigation of the current state of radioactive contamination on site being under consideration for planned nuclear power plant in northern Poland. Thanks to use of sequential procedure it was possible to determine activity concentrations for radioisotopes of nine elements, both natural and artificial. Results show that observed levels of radioactive contamination are rather typical for central Europe and global fallout is dominant factor of presence of artificial radionuclides...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Iga Kużelewska, Halina Polkowska-Motrenko, Bożena Danko
A procedure based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis was developed for the determination of chromium in biological materials. The procedure consists of irradiation of reference and test samples in a nuclear reactor, microwave sample digestion, selective and quantitative radiochemical separations of chromium and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement of (51)Cr. Separation of chromium from the accompanying elements was done on the column packed with inorganic resin MnO2 Resin. Distribution coefficients of Cr, Zn, Co, Cs and Sc were determined in the system: MnO2 Resin-HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Hongtao Liu, Nanping Wang, Xingming Chu, Ting Li, Ling Zheng, Shouliang Yan, Shijun Li
In order to identify radon-prone areas and evaluate radon risk level, a soil gas radon survey combined with gamma-ray spectrometry measurements was carried out in Shenzhen City, south China. Meanwhile, the statistical analysis was applied to evaluate the distribution of measured results. This paper presents the methodology of the radon risk assessment. A radon risk map was accomplished based on a combination of soil gas radon concentration (RC), soil air permeability (Perm.) and uranium ((238)U) concentration...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Judit Krajkó, Zsolt Varga, Maria Wallenius, Klaus Mayer, Rudy Konings
The applicability and limitations of sulphur isotope ratio as a nuclear forensic signature have been studied. The typically applied leaching methods in uranium mining processes were simulated for five uranium ore samples and the n((34)S)/n((32)S) ratios were measured. The sulphur isotope ratio variation during uranium ore concentrate (UOC) production was also followed using two real-life sample sets obtained from industrial UOC production facilities. Once the major source of sulphur is revealed, its appropriate application for origin assessment can be established...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Magdalena Długosz-Lisiecka
The two counting modes: a normal with a single HPGE detector and second with the additional anti-Compton shield of the annular NaI(Tl) detector have been compared for fast determination of the activity concentration of thorium (232)Th in the building materials. The (232)Th activity concentration was calculated by measurement of its decay products: (212)Pb, (212)Bi and (208)Tl as well (228)Ac content. Although the Compton suppression mode applied in gamma spectrometry systems in general increase sensitivity of the analysis, but in case of 583 keV the most abundant (208)Tl γ-line, the significant reduction of photon counting rate was observed...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Stefaan Pommé, Ljudmila Benedik
Pommé et al. published a paper claiming that the (209)Po half-life is 20 % higher than the erroneous value of 102 (5) a used for 50 years. Collé and Collé published a critique saying that 'this claim cannot withstand critical scrutiny'. In this work, counterarguments are presented to the critique. The experiment has been continued and a new intermediate half-life value of 122.7 (27) a was obtained. A brief review is made of the (209)Po half-life value by Collé et al. and a recommended value of 122.9 (23) a is derived from both experiments...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Łukasz Steczek, Magdalena Rejnis, Jerzy Narbutt, Marie-Christine Charbonnel, Philippe Moisy
1:1 and 1:2 complexes of americium(III) with a hydrophilic anionic SO3-Ph-BTP(4-) ligand were detected in acidic aqueous nitrate solutions by a solvent extraction method. The determined conditional stability constants of these complexes, logβ 1 = 4.35 ± 0.07 and logβ 2 = 7.67 ± 0.06, related to 1 M aqueous solutions, are much lower than the literature values for the analogous curium species, determined by TRLFS in very dilute aqueous solutions. There is also no evidence for the existence of the 1:3 Am(3+) complex similar to the reported curium(III) complex...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Menno Blaauw
In gamma-ray spectrometry with high-resolution detectors, full-energy peaks are often to be detected by a peak-search algorithm, with a threshold for detection. Detection limits can be derived from this. Detection limits are often computed along with measured activities or concentrations. When an analyte is not detected, the detection limit remains as the only available information. This leads to inhomogeneous datasets that are difficult or impossible to process correctly without introducing artefacts or biases...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Sergey S Pavlov, Andrey Yu Dmitriev, Marina V Frontasyeva
The present status of development of software packages and equipment designed for automation of NAA at the reactor IBR-2 of FLNP, JINR, Dubna, RF, is described. The NAA database, construction of sample changers and software for automation of spectra measurement and calculation of concentrations are presented. Automation of QC procedures is integrated in the software developed. Details of the design are shown.
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Peter Bode, Antonia Denkova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Kinga Polaczek-Grelik, Jan Kisiel, Agata Walencik-Łata, Jerzy W Mietelski, Paweł Janowski, Małgorzata Harańczyk, Jan Jurkowski, Agnieszka Zalewska, Jan Kobziński, Paweł Markowski, Andrzej Sadowski
The studies of lead shielding efficiency from the gamma background measurements were performed in the salt cavern of the copper mine - a site considered for an underground laboratory. Within the energy range of 50-2700 keV, the measured gamma-ray count rates normalized to the mass of the high-purity detectors germanium crystal are 5.93 and 6.32 s(-1)kg(-1) for the used low-background and portable spectrometers, respectively. The gamma-ray flux of 0.124 (2) cm(-2)s(-1) connected with the natural radioisotopes was observed by the portable HPGe, including 0...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
C Venchiarutti, Z Varga, S Richter, A Nicholl, J Krajko, R Jakopič, K Mayer, Y Aregbe
The IRMM-1000a and IRMM-1000b uranium reference materials, of 20 and 50 mg uranium, respectively, were produced by the European Commission Joint Research Centre's Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM) in collaboration with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (EC-JRC-ITU). They are novel uranium reference materials certified for the production date based on the (230)Th/(234)U radiochronometer, i.e. the date of the last chemical separation of these two radionuclides. The certified reference value and its uncertainty, homogeneity and stability of the material were established in accordance with the ISO Guide 34:2009 and the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Grzegorz Olszewski, Alicja Boryło, Bogdan Skwarzec
The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle (Urtica dioica) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The values of (234)U/(238)U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Zsolt Varga, Adrian Nicholl, Maria Wallenius, Klaus Mayer
This paper describes rapid methods for the determination of the production date (age dating) of plutonium (Pu) materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for nuclear forensic and safeguards purposes. One of the presented methods is a rapid, direct measurement without chemical separation using (235)U/(239)Pu and (236)U/(240)Pu chronometers. The other method comprises a straightforward extraction chromatographic separation, followed by ICP-MS measurement for the (234)U/(238)Pu, (235)U/(239)Pu, (236)U/(240)Pu and (238)U/(242)Pu chronometers...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Stefan Merz, Katsumi Shozugawa, Georg Steinhauser
Published pre-Fukushima food monitoring data from 1963 to 1995 were used to study the long-term presence of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in rice and wheat. Effective half-lives (T eff) were calculated for rice ((137)Cs: 5.6 years; (90)Sr: 6.7 years) and wheat ((137)Cs: 3.5 years; (90)Sr: 6.2 years), respectively. In rice, (137)Cs exhibits a longer T eff because putrefaction processes will lead to the formation of NH4 (+) ions that are efficient ion exchangers for mineral-adsorbed cesium ions, hence making it more readily available to the plant...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Georg Steinhauser, Paul R J Saey
The impact of Chernobyl on the (137)Cs activities found in wild boars in Europe, even in remote locations from the NPP, has been much greater than the impact of Fukushima on boars in Japan. Although there is great variability within the (137)Cs concentrations throughout the wild boar populations, some boars in southern Germany in recent years exhibit higher activity concentrations (up to 10,000 Bq/kg and higher) than the highest (137)Cs levels found in boars in the governmental food monitoring campaign (7900 Bq/kg) in Fukushima prefecture in Japan...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
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