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Journal of Neurogenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790823/the-world-of-the-identified-or-digital-neuron
#1
Ian A Meinertzhagen
In general, neurons in insects and many other invertebrate groups are individually recognizable, enabling us to assign an index number to specific neurons in a manner which is rarely possible in a vertebrate brain. This endows many studies on insect nervous systems with the opportunity to document neurons with great precision, so that in favourable cases we can return to the same neuron or neuron type repeatedly so as to recognize many separate morphological classes. The visual system of the fly's compound eye particularly provides clear examples of the accuracy of neuron wiring, allowing numerical comparisons between representatives of the same cell type, and estimates of the accuracy of their wiring...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790814/a-de-novo-mutation-in-prickle1-associated-with-myoclonic-epilepsy-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Brittany P Todd, Alexander G Bassuk
Homozygous recessive mutations in the PRICKLE1 gene were first described in three consanguineous families with myoclonic epilepsy. Subsequent studies have identified neurological abnormalities in humans and animal models with both heterozygous and homozygous mutations in PRICKLE1 orthologs. We describe a 7-year-old with a novel de novo missense mutation in PRICKLE1 associated with epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder and global developmental delay.
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790805/climbing-the-ladder-from-neuron-to-brain-in-harold-atwood-s-laboratory
#3
J Martin Wojtowicz
Twenty years spent in one laboratory is sufficient to build a legacy of publications and a body of work to make an impact. However, the impact of our work was highest at the personal level, and time spent in Harold Atwood's laboratory was not a culmination of my career but rather a crucial path toward learning and maturing as a researcher. During that time, I experienced discoveries and lessons that shaped the next steps of my career. This article is written in gratitude for wonderful experiences and describes a few highlights that were especially memorable and influential...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757057/-necessary-and-sufficient-in-biology-is-not-necessarily-necessary-confusions-and-erroneous-conclusions-resulting-from-misapplied-logic-in-the-field-of-biology-especially-neuroscience
#4
Motojiro Yoshihara, Motoyuki Yoshihara
In this article, we describe an incorrect use of logic which involves the careless application of the 'necessary and sufficient' condition originally used in formal logic. This logical fallacy is causing frequent confusion in current biology, especially in neuroscience. In order to clarify this problem, we first dissect the structure of this incorrect logic (which we refer to as 'misapplied-N&S') to show how necessity and sufficiency in misapplied-N&S are not matching each other. Potential pitfalls of utilizing misapplied-N&S are exemplified by cases such as the discrediting of command neurons and other potentially key neurons, the distorting of truth in optogenetic studies, and the wrongful justification of studies with little meaning...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718753/glia-from-just-glue-to-essential-players-in-complex-nervous-systems-a-comparative-view-from-flies-to-mammals
#5
Maria Losada-Perez
In the last years, glial cells have emerged as central players in the development and function of complex nervous systems. Therefore, the concept of glial cells has evolved from simple supporting cells to essential actors. The molecular mechanisms that govern glial functions are evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to mammals, highlighting genetic similarities between these groups, as well as the great potential of Drosophila research for the understanding of human CNS. These similarities would imply a common phylogenetic origin of glia, even though there is a controversy at this point...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718742/an-rnai-mediated-screen-identifies-novel-targets-for-next-generation-antiepileptic-drugs-based-on-increased-expression-of-the-homeostatic-regulator-pumilio
#6
Wei-Hsiang Lin, Miaomiao He, Yuen Ngan Fan, Richard A Baines
Despite availability of a diverse range of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), only about two-thirds of epilepsy patients respond well to drug treatment. Thus, novel targets are required to catalyse the design of next-generation AEDs. Manipulation of neuron firing-rate homoeostasis, through enhancing Pumilio (Pum) activity, has been shown to be potently anticonvulsant in Drosophila. In this study, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in S2R + cells, using a luciferase-based dPum activity reporter and identified 1166 genes involved in dPum regulation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718741/high-throughput-behavioral-assay-to-investigate-seizure-sensitivity-in-zebrafish-implicates-zfhx3-in-epilepsy
#7
Tyson D Fuller, Trudi A Westfall, Tirthasree Das, Deborah V Dawson, Diane C Slusarski
Epilepsy, which affects ∼1% of the population, is caused by abnormal synchronous neural activity in the central nervous system (CNS). While there is a significant genetic contribution to epilepsy, the underlying causes for the majority of genetic cases remain unknown. The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Project (UDP) utilized exome sequencing to identify genetic variants in patients affected by various conditions with undefined etiology, including epilepsy. Confirming the functional relevance of the candidate genes identified by exome sequencing in a timely manner is crucial to translating exome data into clinically useful information...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688104/two-novel-forms-of-erg-oscillation-in-drosophila-age-and-activity-dependence
#8
Atsushi Ueda, Scott Woods, Ian McElree, Tristan C D G O'Harrow, Casey Inman, Savantha Thenuwara, Muhammad Aftab, Atulya Iyengar
Over an animal's lifespan, neuronal circuits and systems often decline in an inherently heterogeneous fashion. To compare the age-dependent progression of changes in visual behavior with alterations in retinal physiology, we examined phototaxis and electroretinograms (ERGs) in a wild-type D. melanogaster strain (Canton-S) across their lifespan. In aged flies (beyond 50% median lifespan), we found a marked decline in phototaxis, while motor coordination was less disrupted, as indicated by relatively stronger negative geotaxis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644913/possible-modifier-genes-in-the-variation-of-neurofibromatosis-type-1-clinical-phenotypes
#9
Parisa Sharafi, Sükriye Ayter
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common neurogenetic disorder worldwide, caused by mutations in the (NF1) gene. Although NF1 is a single-gene disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance, its clinical expression is highly variable and unpredictable. NF1 patients have the highest known mutation rate among all human disorders, with no clear genotype-phenotype correlations. Therefore, variations in NF1 mutations may not correlate with the variations in clinical phenotype. Indeed, for the same mutation, some NF1 patients may develop severe clinical symptoms whereas others will develop a mild phenotype...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495936/mnb-dyrk1a-orchestrates-a-transcriptional-network-at-the-transition-from-self-renewing-neurogenic-progenitors-to-postmitotic-neuronal-precursors
#10
Mirja N Shaikh, Francisco J Tejedor
The Down syndrome and microcephaly related gene Mnb/Dyrk1A encodes an evolutionary conserved protein kinase subfamily that plays important roles in neurodevelopment. minibrain (mnb) mutants of Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) exhibit reduced adult brains due to neuronal deficits generated during larval development. These deficits are the consequence of the apoptotic cell death of numerous neuronal precursors that fail to properly exit the cell cycle and differentiate. We have recently found that in both the Dm larval brain and the embryonic vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), a transient expression of Mnb/Dyrk1A promotes the cell cycle exit of newborn neuronal precursors by upregulating the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27kip1 (called Dacapo in Dm)...
March 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199528/gene-networks-associated-with-non-syndromic-intellectual-disability
#11
Soohyun Lee, Stephen Rudd, Jacob Gratten, Peter M Visscher, Johannes B Prins, Paul A Dawson
Non-syndromic intellectual disability (NS-ID) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, with more than 200 candidate genes to date. Despite the increasing number of novel mutations detected, a relatively low number of recurrently mutated genes have been identified, highlighting the complex genetic architecture of the disorder. A systematic search of PubMed and Medline identified 245 genes harbouring non-synonymous variants, insertions or deletions, which were identified as candidate NS-ID genes from case reports or from linkage or pedigree analyses...
March 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191114/gene-cg15630-fipi-is-involved-in-regulation-of-the-interpulse-interval-in-drosophila-courtship-song
#12
Sergey A Fedotov, Julia V Bragina, Natalia G Besedina, Larisa V Danilenkova, Elena A Kamysheva, Nikolai G Kamyshev
To study the central pattern generators functioning, previously we identified genes, whose neurospecific knockdowns led to deviations in the courtship song of Drosophila melanogaster males. Reduced expression of the gene CG15630 caused a decrease in the interpulse interval. To investigate the role of CG15630, which we have called here fipi (factor of interpulse interval), in the courtship song production, at first, we have characterized fipi transcripts and protein (FIPI) in the mutant flies carrying P insertion and deletions in this gene and in flies with its RNAi knockdown...
March 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191078/novel-mutation-in-the-kcnj10-gene-in-three-siblings-with-seizures-ataxia-and-no-electrolyte-abnormalities
#13
Muna A Al Dhaibani, Ayman W El-Hattab, Kathryn B Holroyd, Jennifer Orthmann-Murphy, Valerie A Larson, Khurram A Siddiqui, Miklos Szolics, Nicoline Schiess
We report a consanguineous family with three affected siblings with novel mutation in the KCNJ10 gene. All three presented with central nervous system symptoms in the form of infantile focal seizures, ataxia, slurred speech with early developmental delay and intellectual disability in two siblings. None had any associated electrolyte abnormalities and no symptomatic hearing deficits were observed.
March 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191065/physiological-responses-of-the-drosophila-labellum-to-amino-acids
#14
Joori Park, John R Carlson
We have systematically studied the physiological responses elicited by amino acids from the principal taste organ of the Drosophila head. Although the detection and coding of sugars and bitter compounds have been examined extensively in this organism, little attention has been paid to the physiology of amino acid taste. We find that one class of sensilla, the S sensilla, yield the strongest responses to amino acids, although these responses were much weaker than the most robust responses to sugar or bitter compounds...
March 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187021/correction-to-alizadeh-et-al-association-of-transcription-factor-4-tcf4-gene-mrna-level-with-schizophrenia-its-psychopathology-intelligence-and-cognitive-impairments
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168413/computational-prediction-of-the-phenotypic-effects-of-genetic-variants-basic-concepts-and-some-application-examples-in-drosophila-nervous-system-genes
#16
Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, Sara Guirao-Rico, Silvia Hinojosa-Alvarez, Julio Rozas
Predicting the phenotypic impact of mutations is a central challenge in population and functional genetics. The analysis of DNA and amino acid sequence variation in an evolutionary context is a robust approach to infer the fitness effects of genetic variants. In this review, we discuss the most popular methods based on this approach, covering both theoretical and practical aspects, and introduce compelling software for predicting the functional effects of mutations, and to highlight functionally relevant nucleotide or amino acid candidate positions...
December 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148276/correction-to-albury-et-al-re-six-novel-rare-non-synonymous-mutations-for-migraine-without-aura-identified-by-exome-sequencing
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125005/neurogenetics-in-spain
#18
Alberto Ferrús
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119859/novel-genetic-approaches-to-behavior-in-drosophila
#19
Fernando Martín, Esther Alcorta
The study of behavior requires manipulation of the controlling neural circuits. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an ideal model for studying behavior because of its relatively small brain and the numerous sophisticated genetic tools that have been developed for this animal. Relatively recent technical advances allow the manipulation of a small subset of neurons with temporal resolution in flies while they are subject to behavior assays. This review briefly describes the most important genetic techniques, reagents, and approaches that are available to study and manipulate the neural circuits involved in Drosophila behavior...
December 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117754/generation-and-characterization-of-new-alleles-of-quiver-qvr-that-encodes-an-extracellular-modulator-of-the-shaker-potassium-channel
#20
Hongyu Ruan, Atsushi Ueda, Xiaomin Xing, Xuxuan Wan, Benjamin Strub, Spencer Mukai, Kaan Certel, David Green, Kyle Belozerov, Wei-Dong Yao, Wayne Johnson, Jim Jung-Ching Lin, Arthur J Hilliker, Chun-Fang Wu
Our earlier genetic screen uncovered a paraquat-sensitive leg-shaking mutant quiver1 (qvr1 ), whose gene product interacts with the Shaker (Sh) K+ channel. We also mapped the qvr locus to EY04063 and noticed altered day-night activity patterns in these mutants. Such circadian behavioral defects were independently reported by another group, who employed the qvr1 allele we supplied them, and attributed the extreme restless phenotype of EY04063 to the qvr gene. However, their report adopted a new noncanonical gene name sleepless (sss) for qvr...
December 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
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