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International Journal of Psychophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088351/neural-activity-reveals-perceptual-grouping-in-working-memory
#1
Laura R Rabbitt, Daniel M Roberts, Craig G McDonald, Matthew S Peterson
There is extensive evidence that the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a scalp recorded event-related brain potential, provides a reliable index of the number of objects held in visual working memory. Here we present evidence that the CDA not only indexes visual object working memory, but also the number of locations held in spatial working memory. In addition, we demonstrate that the CDA can be predictably modulated by the type of encoding strategy employed. When individual locations were held in working memory, the pattern of CDA modulation mimicked previous findings for visual object working memory...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088350/the-emotive-nature-of-conflict-monitoring-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#2
Blair Saunders, Hause Lin, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht
The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082129/effects-of-stimulus-mode-and-ambient-temperature-on-cerebral-responses-to-local-thermal-stimulation-an-eeg-study
#3
Bin Lv, Chang Su, Lei Yang, Tongning Wu
The physiological responses to human thermal stimulation have been widely investigated, but most of them are mainly concerned about the whole body thermal stimulation. In this study, we investigated the effects of stimulus mode and ambient temperature on cerebral responses during local thermal stimulation on hand. The left hands were stimulated by metal thermostat based and thermostatic water based stimulators at different stimulated temperatures (38°C, 40°C, 42°C and 44°C) and different ambient temperatures (25°C and 32°C)...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077270/instructions-to-suppress-semantic-memory-enhances-or-has-no-effect-on-p300-in-a-concealed-information-test-cit
#4
J Peter Rosenfeld, Anne Ward, Jesse Drapekin, Elena Labkovsky, Samuel Tullman
The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress semantic memory as indexed with the P300 ERP and the autobiographical implicit association test (aIAT). In EXP 1, participants (22) were run in a counterbalanced repeated measures study in both simply knowledgeable (SK) and knowledgeable with suppression (SP) conditions. A P300-based, concealed information test ("Complex Trial Protocol"; CTP) with a 50/50 Target/Nontarget (T/NT) ratio was given both with and without instructions to suppress semantic memories...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077269/association-of-an-individual-s-ability-to-overcome-desire-to-fall-asleep-with-a-higher-anterior-posterior-gradient-in-electroencephalographic-indexes-of-sleep-pressure
#5
Arcady A Putilov, Olga G Donskaya
Individual differences in ability to overcome desire to fall asleep cannot be accurately predicted from subjective and objective measurements of sleepiness level. Previously, we showed that an exponential buildup of sleep pressure during prolonged wakefulness can be accurately traced with electroencephalographic (EEG) indexes, such as Spectral Sleep Pressure Component (SSPC) score and score on the 2nd principal component (2PC) of the EEG spectrum. The anterior-posterior gradients in SSPC and 2PC scores were calculated as the differences between frontal and occipital scores and examined as possible correlates of individual's ability to overcome desire of falling asleep...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057475/motivation-emotion-regulation-and-the-latent-structure-of-psychopathology-an-integrative-and-convergent-historical-perspective
#6
Theodore P Beauchaine, Aimee Zisner
Motivational models of psychopathology have long been advanced by psychophysiologists, and have provided key insights into neurobiological mechanisms of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. These accounts emphasize individual differences in activity and reactivity of bottom-up, subcortical neural systems of approach and avoidance in affecting behavior. Largely independent literatures emphasize the roles of top-down, cortical deficits in emotion regulation and executive function in conferring vulnerability to psychopathology...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043892/genetic-influences-on-functional-connectivity-associated-with-feedback-processing-and-prediction-error-phase-coupling-of-theta-band-oscillations-in-twins
#7
Şükrü Barış Demiral, Simon Golosheykin, Andrey P Anokhin
Detection and evaluation of the mismatch between the intended and actually obtained result of an action (reward prediction error) is an integral component of adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Extensive human and animal research has shown that evaluation of action outcome is supported by a distributed network of brain regions in which the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a central role, and the integration of distant brain regions into a unified feedback-processing network is enabled by long-range phase synchronization of cortical oscillations in the theta band...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041984/exploring-the-possible-mechanisms-of-blunted-cardiac-reactivity-to-acute-psychological-stress
#8
Ryan C Brindle, Anna C Whittaker, Adam Bibbey, Douglas Carroll, Annie T Ginty
Blunted cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress has been linked to a range of adverse health and behavioral outcomes. However, the origins of blunted reactivity remain unclear. The current study aimed to explore the following possibilities: different appraisals of task stressfulness and/or difficulty, diminished task effort, or reduced physiological capacity to respond. Individuals characterized, via pre-screening, as blunted (n=17) or exaggerated (n=16) heart rate (HR) reactors to acute psychological stress (socially evaluative mental arithmetic) were exposed to a psychological stress, cold pressor and exercise tasks during a follow-up testing session while HR and blood pressure (BP) were measured...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041983/basic-discriminative-and-semantic-processing-in-patients-in-the-vegetative-and-minimally-conscious-state
#9
Helena Erlbeck, Ruben G L Real, Boris Kotchoubey, Donatella Mattia, Jakob Bargak, Andrea Kübler
Patients who survive injuries to the brain following accidents or diseases often acquire a disorder of consciousness (DOC). Assessment of the state of consciousness in these patients is difficult since they are usually incapable of reproducible motor movements. The application of event-related potentials (ERP) recorded via EEG constitutes one promising approach to complement the assessment of cognitive functions in DOC patients. For these assessments, a hierarchical approach was suggested which means that paradigms aiming at higher order ERPs are only presented if early responses were found...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040410/a-genome-wide-association-study-of-fast-beta-eeg-in-families-of-european-ancestry
#10
Jacquelyn L Meyers, Jian Zhang, Niklas Manz, Madhavi Rangaswamy, Chella Kamarajan, Leah Wetherill, David B Chorlian, Sun J Kang, Lance Bauer, Victor Hesselbrock, John Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, John I Nurnberger, Jay Tischfield, Jen Chyong Wang, Howard J Edenberg, Alison Goate, Tatiana Foroud, Bernice Porjesz
BACKGROUND: Differences in fast beta (20-28 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory activity distinguish some individuals with psychiatric and substance use disorders, suggesting that it may be a useful endophenotype for studying the genetics of disorders characterized by neural hyper-excitability. Despite the high heritability estimates provided by twin and family studies, there have been relatively few genetic studies of beta EEG, and to date only one genetic association finding has replicated (i...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017638/the-influence-of-self-construal-type-on-outcome-evaluation-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#11
Xiangru Zhu, Haiyan Wu, Suyong Yang, Ruolei Gu
Recent studies have revealed a close relationship between the self and reward networks. One of our previous studies has found that outcome evaluation (including the processing of reward and punishment) is modulated by self-reflection. A question remaining unclear is how different types of self-construal influence outcome evaluation. Self-construal refers to the way in which people perceive themselves to be linked (or not) with other people. Two subtypes of self-construal have been identified: independent self and interdependent self...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017637/psychological-and-neural-mechanisms-associated-with-effort-related-cardiovascular-reactivity-and-cognitive-control-an-integrative-approach
#12
Nicolas Silvestrini
Numerous studies have assessed cardiovascular (CV) reactivity as a measure of effort mobilization during cognitive tasks. However, psychological and neural processes underlying effort-related CV reactivity are still relatively unclear. Previous research reliably found that CV reactivity during cognitive tasks is mainly determined by one region of the brain, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and that this region is systematically engaged during cognitively demanding tasks. The present integrative approach builds on the research on cognitive control and its brain correlates that shows that dACC function can be related to conflict monitoring and integration of information related to task difficulty and success importance-two key variables in determining effort mobilization...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993611/socio-emotionally-significant-experience-and-children-s-processing-of-irrelevant-auditory-stimuli
#13
Alice C Schermerhorn, John E Bates, Aina Puce, Dennis L Molfese
Theory and research indicate considerable influence of socio-emotionally significant experiences on children's functioning and adaptation. In the current study, we examined neurophysiological correlates of children's allocation of information processing resources to socio-emotionally significant events, specifically, simulated marital interactions. We presented 9- to 11-year-old children (n=24; 11 females) with 15 videos of interactions between two actors posing as a married couple. Task-irrelevant brief auditory probes were presented during the videos, and event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to the auditory probes were measured...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993610/a-kcnj6-gene-polymorphism-modulates-theta-oscillations-during-reward-processing
#14
Chella Kamarajan, Ashwini K Pandey, David B Chorlian, Niklas Manz, Arthur T Stimus, Howard J Edenberg, Leah Wetherill, Marc Schuckit, Jen-Chyong Wang, Samuel Kuperman, John Kramer, Jay A Tischfield, Bernice Porjesz
Event related oscillations (EROs) are heritable measures of neurocognitive function that have served as useful phenotype in genetic research. A recent family genome-wide association study (GWAS) by the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) found that theta EROs during visual target detection were associated at genome-wide levels with several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including a synonymous SNP, rs702859, in the KCNJ6 gene that encodes GIRK2, a G-protein inward rectifying potassium channel that regulates excitability of neuronal networks...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989405/aberrant-default-mode-network-homogeneity-in-patients-with-first-episode-treatment-naive-melancholic-depression
#15
Xilong Cui, Wenbin Guo, Yi Wang, Tian-Xiao Yang, Xin-Hua Yang, Yefei Wang, Jingbo Gong, Changlian Tan, Guangrong Xie
BACKGROUND: Melancholic depression is a relatively homogenous subtype of major depressive disorders (MDD). The condition has several endogenous symptoms and represents strong biological components. However, its specific neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Previous neuroimaging findings indicated that default mode network (DMN) is closely related to MDD. The present study examined the network homogeneity (NH) of the DMN in patients with melancholic MDD. METHODS: A total of 33 first-episode, treatment-naive melancholic MDD patients and 32 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988179/shifting-of-attentional-set-is-inadequate-in-severe-burnout-evidence-from-an-event-related-potential-study
#16
Laura Sokka, Marianne Leinikka, Jussi Korpela, Andreas Henelius, Jani Lukander, Satu Pakarinen, Kimmo Alho, Minna Huotilainen
Individuals with prolonged occupational stress often report difficulties in concentration. Work tasks often require the ability to switch back and forth between different contexts. Here, we studied the association between job burnout and task switching by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to stimulus onset during a task with simultaneous cue-target presentation and unpredictable switches in the task. Participants were currently working people with severe, mild, or no burnout symptoms. In all groups, task performance was substantially slower immediately after task switch than during task repetition...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979740/the-impact-of-luminance-on-tonic-and-phasic-pupillary-responses-to-sustained-cognitive-load
#17
Vsevolod Peysakhovich, François Vachon, Frédéric Dehais
Pupillary reactions independent of light conditions have been linked to cognition for a long time. However, the light conditions can impact the cognitive pupillary reaction. Previous studies underlined the impact of luminance on pupillary reaction, but it is still unclear how luminance modulates the sustained and transient components of pupillary reaction - tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the luminance on these two components under sustained cognitive load...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965058/apathy-and-higher-level-of-gait-control-in-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#18
Gilles Allali, Magali Laidet, Stéphane Armand, Arnaud Saj, Paul Krack, Frédéric Assal
Apathy represents the most common behavioral disturbance in patients with suspicion of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and has a major impact on quality of life. However, its impact on gait -the hallmark motor disturbance of iNPH - has never been studied yet. This study aims to evaluate the impact of apathy on higher level of gait control in patients with suspicion of iNPH. Stride time variability (STV), a marker of higher level of gait control, was quantified during usual walking (single task) and during walking while performing simultaneously cognitive tasks (dual task) of counting and verbal fluency...
December 11, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888065/comparing-the-effects-of-sustained-and-transient-spatial-attention-on-the-orienting-towards-and-the-processing-of-electrical-nociceptive-stimuli
#19
Rob H J Van der Lubbe, Jorian H G Blom, Elian De Kleine, Ernst T Bohlmeijer
We examined whether sustained vs. transient spatial attention differentially affect the processing of electrical nociceptive stimuli. Cued nociceptive stimuli of a relevant intensity (low or high) on the left or right forearm required a foot pedal press. The cued side varied trial wise in the transient attention condition, while it remained constant during a series of trials in the sustained attention condition. The orienting phase preceding the nociceptive stimuli was examined by focusing on lateralized EEG activity...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884692/delta-beta-coupling-is-associated-with-paternal-caregiving-behaviors-during-preschool
#20
Reema Najjar, Rebecca J Brooker
Neural systems that index self-regulation have been associated with mental health outcomes, including risk for anxiety problems, from early in life. Yet, little is known about the environmental factors that may impact the development of neural systems of regulation. Behavioral work suggests that sensitive parenting, or parents' ability to correctly interpret and respond to children's signals, supports the development of regulation. Conversely, harsh parenting, or uninvolved or punitive parent behaviors, is thought to compromise developing regulatory systems...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
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