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International Journal of Psychophysiology

Christopher A Mark, Dmitri V Poltavski, Thomas Petros, Alan King
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has shown cognitive dysfunction in adults with a history of child abuse. The purpose of the present study was to measure differences that exist in executive functioning skills between individuals who have been abused as children versus those without the history of childhood abuse. METHODS: The present study recruited 43 students from the University of North Dakota (33 women) between ages 18 and 23 years of age. The participants were administered several prescreening measures, including a measure of physical child abuse, emotional child abuse, and sexual child abuse...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Katrina A D'Urzo, Cherie L La Rocque, Jennifer S Williams, Troy J R Stuckless, Trevor J King, Meghan D Plotnick, Brendon J Gurd, Kate L Harkness, Kyra E Pyke
Endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), may be transiently attenuated in healthy adults following acute mental stress. However, the impact of acute mental stress on endothelial function in the context of clinical depression is unknown. This study examined the impact of acute mental stress on FMD in women with a diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Forty-three otherwise healthy women (33 ± 14 years) participated. Brachial artery diameter and blood velocity were assessed with ultrasound...
December 6, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Matt Craddock, Ekaterini Klepousniotou, Wael El-Deredy, Ellen Poliakoff, Donna Lloyd
Ongoing, pre-stimulus oscillatory activity in the 8-13 Hz alpha range has been shown to correlate with both true and false reports of peri-threshold somatosensory stimuli. However, to directly test the role of such oscillatory activity in behaviour, it is necessary to manipulate it. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offers a method of directly manipulating oscillatory brain activity using a sinusoidal current passed to the scalp. We tested whether alpha tACS would change somatosensory sensitivity or response bias in a signal detection task in order to test whether alpha oscillations have a causal role in behaviour...
December 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Katja Volz, Rudolf Stark, Dieter Vaitl, Wolfgang Ambach
Several studies investigating psychophysiological correlates of false memories suggest that psychophysiology may provide incremental information to subjectively reported memory. Based on previous findings in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, we examined three components of event-related EEG potentials of memory in a misleading information paradigm. 39 participants watched a video that included eight randomized details (e.g., the color of an envelope). After a retention interval of one week, four out of eight details were replaced by misleading details in a narrative text...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Richard P Brooks, Monica T Jones, Matthew W Hale, Thorsten Lunau, Nico Dragano, Bradley J Wright
Effort-reward imbalance in the workplace has been related with poor mental and physical health and a variety of negative organisational outcomes including increased rates of absenteeism, presentism, and job turnover, but the model has rarely been assessed using experimental designs. Female participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to positive verbal feedback and no verbal feedback conditions. Within a simulated office environment, all participants were under time-pressure to successfully complete computer-based tasks in order to gain remuneration...
November 23, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
R T Pivik, Aline Andres, Kevin B Tennal, Yuyuan Gu, Heather Downs, Betty J Bellando, Kelly Jarratt, Mario A Cleves, Thomas M Badger
Gamma band activity (30-50 Hz) plays an essential role in brain development and function, but neither the early postnatal development nor subject and environmental factors influencing this development have been reported. We documented the development of resting gamma power using high density EEG recordings obtained each month from postnatal month 2 to 6 in 518 healthy infants who were breast-fed (170; 85 boys), fed milk formula (186; 97 boys), or fed soy formula (162; 90 boys). Gamma power was determined for 44 sites distributed over major brain regions and analyses were adjusted for background variables relevant to neurodevelopment...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Arcady A Putilov, Olga G Donskaya, Evgeniy G Verevkin
Accurate measurement of objective level of sleepiness can have important implications for experimental and field studies of sleep deprived individuals. We proposed to accurately quantify changes in sleepiness level with single electroencephalographic (EEG) measures obtained from EEG spectra consisting of 16 spectral powers within the frequency interval from 1 to 16 Hz. The EEG signal was recorded every other hour from 19:00 of Friday to 19:00 of Sunday in 48 study participants. The differential spectra were calculated for the 1st minute with eyes closed as the differences between EEG spectra for pairs of distinct subjective sub-states (alert, neither alert nor sleepy, sleepy, and very sleepy sub-states scored on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale as 3, 5, 7, and 9, respectively)...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Samuel Stuart, Lisa Alcock, Lynn Rochester, Rodrigo Vitorio, Annette Pantall
Performance of several tasks simultaneously (dual-tasks) is common in everyday walking. Studies indicate that dual-task walking performance declines with age together with cognitive function, but neural mechanisms underpinning deficits remain unclear. Recent developments in mobile imaging techniques, such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), allow real-time monitoring of cortical activity during walking. This study aimed to: 1) examine activity in motor and cognitive cortical regions when walking with a dual-task in young and older adults; and 2) determine the effect of cognition on dual-task cortical activity changes...
November 21, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Urszula Górska, Marek Binder
Previous research on auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) demonstrated sensitivity of 40 Hz ASSR to changes in the level of arousal, both in sleep and in general anaesthesia. In this study we extended the range of stimulation frequencies, using also low and medium stimulation frequencies (4, 6, 8, 12, 20, 40 Hz) and studied their susceptibility to the loss of consciousness in NREM sleep (N2 and N3 stages). Effects of NREM sleep were examined in power domain with relative power (RP), and in phase domain using inter-trial phase coherence (PC) parameter...
November 16, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Yi Lei, Jinxia Wang, Haoran Dou, Yiwen Qiu, Hong Li
The conceptual properties of a conditional stimulus could contribute to human fear generalization, but how typicality influences fear generalization involving different conceptual hierarchies remains unclear. This study used event-related potential technology to investigate this in four categories of generalized stimulus (GS). We divided the GS into four categories: inferior typical members of conditioned stimulus (CS+) (TCS+), inferior atypical members of CS+ (ATCS+), inferior typical members of CS- (TCS-), and inferior atypical members of CS- (ATCS-)...
November 14, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Tamami Nakano, Yuta Miyazaki
The temporal pattern of spontaneous blinks changes greatly depending on an individual's internal cognitive state. For instance, when several individuals watch the same video, blinks can be synchronized at attentional breakpoints. The present study examined the degree of this blink synchronization, as reflecting an interest level, while viewing various video clips. In the first experiment, participants interested in soccer, shogi (Japanese chess), or a specific musical group watched a video clip related to each category and rated their interest level after viewing...
November 11, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ningxuan Chen, Ping Wei
We investigated the effects of reward learning on the processing of emotional faces using event-related potentials (ERPs). A simple choice game was used to imbue angry and happy faces with a high or low probability of reward. ERPs were recorded in a subsequent test phase in which participants performed a visual search task to discriminate the emotion of a face singleton as being angry or happy without any reward. Results revealed a significant interaction between reward-history and emotion for the N1 and P2 components, in which the difference between the mean amplitudes for angry and happy faces was smaller in the high-reward association condition than in the low-reward association condition...
November 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Andrew R Fox, Lauren E Hammond, Amy H Mezulis
Research suggests that both respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and emotion regulation are related to maladaptive outcomes. However, little is known about how these factors jointly contribute to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). We examined how resting RSA and RSA withdrawal to stress predicted NSSI among young adults, and whether adaptive emotion regulation strategies moderated this effect. We examined this relation in a sample of 70 young adults (Mage  = 19.25, SDage  = 0.92, 94% female), 35 with a recent history of NSSI and 35 who had never engaged in NSSI...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
L J Ney, M Wade, A Reynolds, D V Zuj, S Dymond, A Matthews, K L Felmingham
Fear conditioning and extinction is a construct integral to understanding trauma-, stress- and anxiety-related disorders. In the laboratory, associative learning paradigms that pair aversive with neutral stimuli are used as analogues to real-life fear learning. These studies use physiological indices, such as skin conductance, to sensitively measure rates and intensity of learning and extinction. In this review, we discuss some of the potential limitations in interpreting and analysing physiological data during the acquisition or extinction of conditioned fear...
December 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ruifang Cui, Yang Liu, Changquan Long
The premise monotonicity effect during category-based induction is a robust effect that occurs when generalization of a novel property shared by many cases is more likely than one shared by few cases. The timing of brain activity during this effect is unclear. Therefore, the event-related potentials (ERPs) underpinning this effect were measured by manipulating the premise sample size (single [S] vs. two [T]) in a semantic category-based induction task, with the conclusion categories either including the premise categories (congruent induction) or not (incongruent induction)...
December 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Suhao Peng, Yue Leng, Sheng Ge, Dan Tao, Mengyuan Ding, Wenming Zheng, Huihua Deng
Visual perspective taking (VPT) is crucial for reasoning about other people's mental states. To explore the modulation of behavioral and neural responses to visual perspective taking by social rejection, we firstly manipulated rejection using get-acquainted oral communication and a two-person visual perspective task, then explored how the experience of social rejection affected the behavioral and neural responses during the follow-up classical one-person visual perspective task. The subjective rating and behavior results showed that social rejection increased individuals' negative affect level and feelings of need-threat, decreased self-regulation and impulsive control...
December 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Guannan Shen, Staci M Weiss, Andrew N Meltzoff, Peter J Marshall
How the body is represented in the developing brain is a topic of growing interest. The current study takes a novel approach to investigating neural body representations in infants by recording somatosensory mismatch negativity (sMMN) responses elicited by tactile stimulation of different body locations. Recent research in adults has suggested that sMMN amplitude may be influenced by the relative distance between representations of the stimulated body parts in somatosensory cortex. The current study uses a similar paradigm to explore whether the sMMN can be elicited in infants, and to test whether the infant sMMN response is sensitive to the somatotopic organization of somatosensory cortex...
December 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Krystyna Golonka, Justyna Mojsa-Kaja, Tadeusz Marek, Magda Gawlowska
Professional burnout is a syndrome that is characterized by psychophysical or emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished professional efficacy. Research on burnout often indicates deficits in cognitive functioning, such as memory problems or impaired voluntary control over attention. Many studies focus on behavioral and self-reported measures of burnout consequences; however, a limited number have focused on its consequences on a neural level. In our EEG study (N = 88; 42 with burnout), we analyzed the event-related potentials (ERP) associated with stimulus, response and feedback processing using two experimental procedures - the Go/NoGo Task and the Doors Task...
December 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Jamie N Hershaw, Mark L Ettenhofer
Despite increasing use of pupillometry to understand cognitive deficits in clinical populations, there is no consensus on what pupillary metrics are most useful. In this study, we compare the reliability, sensitivity to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cognitive load differences, and the likelihood of replication between various pupillary metrics. Raw pupil diameter was recorded from 15 patients with chronic mild TBI and 23 uninjured controls while they performed a cognitive task with three levels of cognitive load...
December 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Antonio Arjona, Elena Rodríguez, Manuel Morales, Carlos M Gómez
Global and local probability effects were explored in a visuo-auditory version of the central cue Posner's paradigm through the analysis of the neural Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) generated in the interaction between validity sequence effects (local probability) and block validity effects (global probability). Four behavioral measures (response times, correct/incorrect anticipations, and incorrect responses), three pre-target ERPs (visual P1/N1 and Contingent Negative Variation (CNV)), and six post-target ERPs (auditory N1, P2, Processing Negativity (PN), P3a, P3b and Late Slow Positivity (LSP)) were considered...
December 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
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