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International Journal of Psychophysiology

Etienne Sallard, Lea Hartmann, Radek Ptak, Lucas Spierer
Exaggerated attentional biases toward specific elements of the environment contribute to the maintenance of several psychiatric conditions, such as biases to threatening faces in social anxiety. Although recent literature indicates that attentional bias modification may constitute an effective approach for psychiatric remediation, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. We addressed this question by recording EEG in 24 healthy participants performing a modified dot-probe task in which pairs of neutral cues (colored shapes) were replaced by probe stimuli requiring a discrimination judgment...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Laura E Müller, Katja Bertsch, Konstatin Bülau, Sabine C Herpertz, Anna Buchheim
Early life maltreatment (ELM) is the major single risk factor for impairments in social functioning and mental health in adulthood. One of the most prevalent and most rapidly increasing forms of ELM is emotional neglect. According to bio-behavioral synchrony assumptions, the oxytocin and attachment systems play an important mediating role in the interplay between emotional neglect and social dysfunctioning. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether fear and avoidance of social functioning, two important and highly prevalent facets of social dysfunctioning in adulthood, are shaped by emotional neglect, plasma oxytocin levels and attachment representations...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Sandra J E Langeslag, Jan W van Strien
Fear of snakes and spiders are common animal phobias. Emotion regulation can change the response to emotional stimuli, including snakes and spiders. It is well known that emotion regulation modulates the late positive potential (LPP), which reflects sustained motivated attention. However, research concerning the effect of emotion regulation on the early posterior negativity (EPN), which reflects early selective attention, is scarce. The present research question was whether the EPN and LPP amplitudes are modulated by regulation of emotional responses to snake and spider stimuli...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ferenc Kemény, Chiara Banfi, Melanie Gangl, Corinna M Perchtold, Ilona Papousek, Kristina Moll, Karin Landerl
Findings on the neurophysiological correlates of developmental dyslexia are mixed, due to the differential conceptualization of the impairment. Studies differ on whether participants with developmental dyslexia are recruited based on reading skills only or reading as well as spelling skills. The current study contrasts the contribution of impaired reading and spelling to ERP correlates of print sensitivity, lexico-semantic access and sensitivity to orthographic regularities. Four groups of children were recruited: isolated reading deficit, isolated spelling deficit, combined reading and spelling deficit, and typically developing...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
M Alexandra Kredlow, Scott P Orr, Michael W Otto
A common challenge in fear conditioning studies is that a relatively large proportion of individuals fail to acquire a differential conditioned skin conductance response (SCR). Researchers have identified demographic factors associated with poorer fear learning and explored the use of different fear conditioning paradigms across various populations. However, few studies have strategically aimed to enhance acquisition by manipulating the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). In the current manuscript, we examined whether demographic factors predicted failure to condition (n = 274) and explored whether modifications to the UCS enhanced fear learning (n = 143)...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Giuseppe A Chiarenza, Stefania Villa, Lidice Galan, Pedro Valdes-Sosa, Jorge Bosch-Bayard
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but no clear neurophysiological evidence exists that distinguishes the two groups. Our aim was to identify biomarkers that distinguish children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined subtype (ADHD_C) from children with ADHD_C + ODD, by combining the results of quantitative EEG (qEEG) and the Junior Temperament Character Inventory (JTCI). 28 ADHD_C and 22 ADHD_C + ODD children who met the DSMV criteria participated in the study...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Necati Serkut Bulut, Axel Würz, Neşe Yorguner Küpeli, Gresa Çarkaxhıu Bulut, Mehmet Zihni Sungur
Previous research has increased understanding of the neurobiological basis of emotional regulation. However, less is known concerning the unconscious processing of affective information. Three experiments were performed to investigate the extent to which complex affective stimuli can be processed outside of consciousness and demonstrate possible mechanisms for regulation of resulting emotional responses. In Experiment 1, participants were either instructed to passively observe blocked-picture cues (neutral and negative) or to downregulate their emotions by distancing...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Frances M De Blasio, Robert J Barry
Ongoing EEG activity contributes to ERP outcomes of stimulus processing, and each of these measures is known to undergo (sometimes significant) age-related change. Variation in their relationship across the life-span may thus elucidate mechanisms of normal and pathological ageing. This study assessed the relationships between low-frequency EEG prestimulus brain states, the ERP, and behavioural outcomes in a simple equiprobable auditory Go/NoGo paradigm, comparing these for 20 young (Mage  = 20.4 years) and 20 healthy older (Mage  = 68...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Przemysław Tużnik, Paweł Augustynowicz, Piotr Francuz
The primary objective of the present study was to verify whether the differences in imagined timbre are reflected by the event-related potentials (ERPs). It was verified the hypotheses that imagining of sounds, varying in spectral characteristics of timbre, influence the amplitude of the late positive component (LPC), associated with auditory imagery-related processes. It was also verified whether the manipulation of the perceived timbre corresponds to the amplitude fluctuations of the auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) N1 and P2...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Anna Fiveash, William F Thompson, Nicholas A Badcock, Genevieve McArthur
Both music and language rely on the processing of spectral (pitch, timbre) and temporal (rhythm) information to create structure and meaning from incoming auditory streams. Previous behavioural results have shown that interrupting a melodic stream with unexpected changes in timbre leads to reduced syntactic processing. Such findings suggest that syntactic processing is conditional on successful streaming of incoming sequential information. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether (1) the effect of alternating timbres on syntactic processing is reflected in a reduced brain response to syntactic violations, and (2) the phenomenon is similar for music and language...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Jing Sheng, Chao Xie, Dong-Qiong Fan, Xu Lei, Jing Yu
With advanced age, older adults show functional deterioration in sleep. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation, modulates individuals' behavioral performance in various cognitive domains. However, the modulation effect and neural mechanisms of tDCS on sleep, especially for the elderly population are not clear. Here, we aimed to investigate whether high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) could modulate community-dwelling older adults' subjective sleep and whether these potential improvements are associated with the large-scale brain activity alterations recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Einat K Brenner, Frank G Hillary, Emily C Grossner, Rachel A Bernier, Nicholas Gilbert, K Sathian, Benjamin M Hampstead
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is widely regarded as an intermediate stage between typical aging and dementia, with nearly 50% of patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's dementia (AD) within 30 months of follow-up (Fischer et al., 2007). The growing literature using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals both increased and decreased connectivity in individuals with MCI and connectivity loss between the anterior and posterior components of the default mode network (DMN) throughout the course of the disease progression (Hillary et al...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Adreanna T M Watts, Anne V Tootell, Spencer T Fix, Selin Aviyente, Edward M Bernat
The neurophysiological mechanisms involved in the evaluation of performance feedback have been widely studied in the ERP literature over the past twenty years, but understanding has been limited by the use of traditional time-domain amplitude analytic approaches. Gambling outcome valence has been identified as an important factor modulating event-related potential (ERP) components, most notably the feedback negativity (FN). Recent work employing time-frequency analysis has shown that processes indexed by the FN are confounded in the time-domain and can be better represented as separable feedback-related processes in the theta (3-7 Hz) and delta (0-3 Hz) frequency bands...
April 29, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
R Davis Moore, Jacob J Kay, Dave Ellemberg
Although the field of concussion research is rapidly growing, the majority of research has focused on injured adults, with children being an often-neglected population (Kirkwood et al., 2006). Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in children (Langlois et al., 2003), with over 1.5 million cases being treated in North America annually (Yeates et al., 1999). Approximately 75% of these injuries are classified as a concussion (Faul et al., 2010). Further, children are disproportionately affected by sports-related injuries, with 65% of all pediatric concussions occurring during sport and recreation (CDC, 2007)...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Cecile S Sunahara, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Niall Bolger, Gentiana Sadikaj, Simcha Samuel, Ian Gold, Barbara Hayton, Nancy Feeley, C Sue Carter, Jennifer A Bartz
It is well-known that the neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role regulating the formation of adult-adult pairbonds in non-human animals, and recent work suggests oxytocin may similarly play an important role in romantic bonding in humans. Specifically, endogenous oxytocin is predictive of a host of relationship-enhancing behaviors, relationship quality, and even relationship survival amongst newly dating couples. This work suggests that oxytocin can buffer romantic relationships, possibly during especially difficult transition periods...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Maciej Behnke, Lukasz D Kaczmarek
Cardiovascular responses to challenge and threat have been used extensively in psychophysiological research. In this meta-analysis, we scrutinized the body of evidence for the role of challenge and threat hemodynamic responses in predicting positive behavioral outcomes, i.e., performance quality. We accounted for cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR), and Challenge-Threat Index (CTI). With 17 articles covering 19 studies (total N = 1045), we observed that the literature might have been biased towards positive results...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
John M Ruiz, David Sbarra, Patrick R Steffen
It is not wise to generalize psychophysiological findings from WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic) samples to all people and yet this occurs frequently in research. Case-in-point is our understanding of psychophysiological responses to stress which suggest universality despite our knowledge that these pathways are moderated by factors such as ethnicity and culture. Here we discuss the epidemiological phenomenon commonly referred to as the Hispanic health paradox to illustrate the importance of culture in understanding stress...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Wendy C Birmingham, Julianne Holt-Lunstad
There is a rich literature on social support and physical health, but research has focused primarily on the protective effects of social relationship. The stress buffering model asserts that relationships may be protective by being a source of support when coping with stress, thereby blunting health relevant physiological responses. Research also indicates relationships can be a source of stress, also influencing health. In other words, the social buffering influence may have a counterpart, a social aggravating influence that has an opposite or opposing effect...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Eva Montero-López, Ana Santos-Ruiz, M Carmen García-Ríos, Manuel Rodríguez-Blázquez, Heather L Rogers, María Isabel Peralta-Ramírez
The menstrual cycle involves significant changes in hormone levels, causing physical and psychological changes in women that are further influenced by stress. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and salivary cortisol patterns during the day as well as the salivary cortisol response to the Virtual Reality Version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-VR). Forty two women not taking oral contraceptives (24 in follicular phase and 18 in luteal phase) participated in the study...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
John E Kiat
Prior research has shown contextual manipulations involving temporal and sequence related factors significantly moderate attention-related responses, as indexed by the P3b event-related-potential, towards infrequent (i.e., deviant) target oddball stimuli. However, significantly less research has looked at the influence of cross-modal switching on P3b responding, with the impact of target-to-target cross-modal transitions being virtually unstudied. To address this gap, this study recorded high-density (256 electrodes) EEG data from twenty-five participants as they completed a cross-modal visual-auditory oddball task...
July 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
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