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International Journal of Psychophysiology

Brian M Hughes, Wei Lü, Siobhán Howard
Cardiovascular reactivity to stress is an established marker of lifetime disease risk, with both elevated and blunted reactions empirically identified as being predictive of ill-health. However, in the relevant studies, traditional laboratory protocols do not account for patterns of response adaptation across time, patterns that may be particularly important in the prediction of future health outcomes. We outline the evidence suggesting that habituation to repeated or prolonged stress represents an informative and health-relevant aspect of the cardiovascular stress response...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Natalie C Ebner, Tian Lin, Melis Muradoglu, Devon H Weir, Gabriela M Plasencia, Travis S Lillard, Hossein Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Ronald A Cohen, C Sue Carter, Jessica J Connelly
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in a wide range of affiliative processes. OT exerts its functions via OT receptors, which are encoded by the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Epigenetic modification of OXTR through the process of DNA methylation has been associated with individual differences in behavioral phenotypes. Specifically, lower levels of OXTR methylation have been linked to better social and affective functioning. However, research on epigenetic mechanisms of OXTR is scarce in non-clinical populations, and even less is known about epigenetic variability across adulthood...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Diana Karamacoska, Robert J Barry, Genevieve Z Steiner, Elle P Coleman, Emily J Wilson
Substantial research into the brain dynamics underlying cognitive functioning during tasks links the brain's EEG activity to the stimulus-evoked ERP activity. This study focused on examining how the resting state intrinsic EEG, and the change from rest to the task, affect these stimulus-response processes. Forty young adults (aged 20.3 ± 2.3 years) had EEG recorded during eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO) resting states, and then during an auditory Go/NoGo task. Amplitude in the delta to beta bands was analyzed for the overall resting state EEG, the reactive change from EC to EO, and for the change from EO to the task (termed task-related change here)...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Derek P Spangler, DeWayne P Williams, Lassiter F Speller, Justin R Brooks, Julian F Thayer
The relationships between vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance can be elucidated with ex-Gaussian modeling-an approach that quantifies two different forms of intra-individual variability (IIV) in reaction time (RT). To this end, the current study examined relations of resting vmHRV to whole-distribution and ex-Gaussian IIV. Subjects (N = 83) completed a 5-minute baseline while vmHRV (root mean square of successive differences; RMSSD) was measured...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Shukhan Ng, Brennan R Payne, Elizabeth A L Stine-Morrow, Kara D Federmeier
We investigated how struggling adult readers make use of sentence context to facilitate word processing when comprehending spoken language, conditions under which print decoding is not a barrier to comprehension. Stimuli were strongly and weakly constraining sentences (as measured by cloze probability), which ended with the most expected word based on those constraints or an unexpected but plausible word. Community-dwelling adults with varying literacy skills listened to continuous speech while their EEG was recorded...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Lynda Mainwaring, Kaleigh M Ferdinand Pennock, Sandhya Mylabathula, Benjamin Z Alavie
PURPOSE: To identify and evaluate the evidence that examines subconcussive impacts in sport-specific settings, and address two objectives: a) to determine how 'subconcussion' is characterized in the current literature, and b) to identify directions for future research. RESEARCH DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: CINAHL, EMBASE, MedLine, PsycINFO, SportDiscus, and Web of Science were searched for articles that sought to assess subconcussive impacts or outcomes related to non-concussive head impact exposure...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Paige Ethridge, Anna Weinberg
Reward-related event-related potentials (ERPs) are often used to index individual differences that signal the presence or predict the onset of psychopathology. However, relatively little research has explored the psychometric properties of reward-related ERPs. Without understanding their psychometric properties, the value of using ERPs as biomarkers for psychopathology is limited. The present study, therefore, sought to establish the internal consistency reliability and convergent validity of the reward positivity (RewP) and feedback negativity (FN) elicited by two types of incentives commonly used in individual differences research - monetary and social rewards...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Carina Höfler, Andreas Gremsl, Anne Schienle
The knowledge about effects of placebos and nocebos on specific visual attention processes is still very limited. In the present eye-tracking study, it was analyzed if a nocebo (sham transcranial magnetic stimulation) is able to elicit left-sided attentional deficits (pseudo-neglect). Fifty-two healthy participants performed a search task on the computer, once with and once without the nocebo. Indicators of left-biased search behavior (e.g. fixation count, reaction times for left vs. right-sided target detection) and affective state (e...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Maximilian Lueckel, Christian Panitz, Urs M Nater, Erik M Mueller
External and internal performance feedback triggers not only neural but also cardiac modulations, suggesting communication between brain and heart during feedback processing. Using Cardio-Electroencephalographic Covariance Tracing (CECT), it has accordingly been shown that feedback-evoked centromedial single-trial EEG at the P300 latency intraindividually predicts subsequent changes in heart period - the so called N300H phenomenon. While previous findings suggest that the N300H depends on serotonin, its relationship to central dopamine and noradrenaline is currently unknown...
January 27, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ryan L Olson, Christopher J Brush, Peter J Ehmann, Jennifer F Buckman, Brandon L Alderman
Previous research has demonstrated long-term deficits in neurocognitive function in individuals with a history of sport-related concussion. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a history of concussion and behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) indices of pre- and post-response conflict and error monitoring. A secondary aim was to determine whether years of high risk sport participation were related to impairments in these cognitive control processes. Forty-seven former athletes (age = 20...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Yael Arbel, Kayleigh N McCarty, Mark Goldman, Emanuel Donchin, Ty Brumback
The study examined age related changes in the magnitude of the Feedback Related Negativity (FRN) in 8-14 year old children performing a variation of a Go/No-Go task. Participants were presented with four stimuli and tasked with mapping each of them either to a response or to a "no response" by trial and error guided by feedback. Feedback was valid for two stimuli (Go and No-Go) and invalid (.5 positive; .5 negative feedback) for the other two stimuli. The amplitude of the FRN was evaluated as a function of age separately for Go and No-Go trials...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Yunna Kwan, Chorom Baek, Sunhye Chung, Tae Hui Kim, Sungwon Choi
Insomnia is known to show hyperarousal in the central nervous system. However, depression that often coexists with insomnia exhibits hypo-activity in the frontal lobe, which is very different from insomnia. In the present study, we examined wake resting state EEG of insomniac patients with depression to investigate whether they could be conceptualized as spectrum of insomnia or significantly different from insomnia. We compared the absolute power values of EEG spectra of three groups: 15 insomniacs with comorbid depression (CD), age- and sex-matched 15 comorbid-free insomniacs (CFI), and 15 good sleep controls (GSC)...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Alberto Megías, Miguel Angel Torres, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, Antonio Maldonado
The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Tobias T Pohl, Larry J Young, Oliver J Bosch
In humans and rodent animal models, the brain oxytocin system is paramount for facilitating social bonds, from the formation and consequences of early-life parent-infant bonds to adult pair bond relationships. In social species, oxytocin also mediates the positive effects of healthy social bonds on the partners' well-being. However, new evidence suggests that the negative consequences of early neglect or partner loss may be mediated by disruptions in the oxytocin system as well. With a focus on oxytocin and its receptor, we review studies from humans and animal models, i...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Christoph Benke, Manuela G Alius, Alfons O Hamm, Christiane A Pané-Farré
Interoceptive threats play a crucial role in the etiology of panic disorder (PD). While body sensations may become conditioned stimuli (CS) when paired with such interoceptive threats (cue conditioning), the environment in which such interoceptive threats occur may also be learned as a predictor of threat (context conditioning). Suffocation fear (SF) might facilitate these associative learning processes if threats of suffocation become relevant as unconditioned stimuli (US). To investigate whether SF affects associative learning during such respiratory threat, we used mild dyspnea as CS that predicted the occurrence of strong dyspnea (US) in one context (predictable), was not related to the occurrence of the US in another context (unpredictable) or was presented in a different context (safe) in which no US was delivered...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Yoko Tsui Caldwell, Patrick R Steffen
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a significant marker of health outcomes with decreased HRV predicting increased disease risk. HRV is decreased in major depressive disorder (MDD) but existing treatments for depression do not return heart rate variability to normal levels even with successful treatment of depression. Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) increases heart rate variability but no studies to date have examined whether combining HRVB with psychotherapy improves outcome in MDD treatment. The present study used a randomized controlled design to compare the effects of HRVB combined with psychotherapy on MDD relative to a psychotherapy treatment as usual group and to a non-depressed control group...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Raúl Aguilar, Carlos Martínez, José R Alvero-Cruz
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) was examined over a 45days stay at extreme altitudes (above of about 5500m) on Mount Kangchenjunga. The CAR refers to a peak cortisol response during the waking period that is superimposed to the diurnal rhythmicity in cortisol secretion, whose function has been proposed to be the anticipation of demands of the upcoming day (the CAR anticipation hypothesis). According to this hypothesis, we distinguished between resting days on which the expedition team engaged in routine activities in the base camp, and ascent days on which it planned to climb up a very demanding track...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
D A Camfield, T K Burton, F M De Blasio, R J Barry, R J Croft
Recent research has provided evidence to suggest that emotional stimuli may interfere with response inhibition, due to automatic capture of attention. Whilst previous studies have provided data regarding changes to event-related potentials (ERPs) in emotional Go/NoGo tasks, few studies to-date have utilized an emotional stop signal task (SST). Thirty-five participants were included in the study; 21 healthy controls and 14 depressed. An indirect emotional SST was employed, which consisted of the presentation of neutral, negative or positive visual images...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
A Hunter Threadgill, Philip A Gable
Traditionally, the reward positivity (RewP) is thought to index a binary performance monitoring system sensitive to approach motivation. However, recent theoretical models have argued that feedback processing extends beyond simple "good" vs. "bad" associations, such that performance monitoring incorporates the complex, multi-step sequence of behaviors often necessary to attain rewards. The present study sought to go beyond simple stimulus-response paradigms to examine how approach-motivated states occurring in multi-step goal pursuit impacts the RewP...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Kaylin E Hill, Belel Ait Oumeziane, Keisha D Novak, David Rollock, Dan Foti
Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been widely applied to the study of individual differences in reward and error processing, including recent proposals of several ERPs as possible biomarkers of mental illness. A criterion for all biomarkers, however, is that they be generalizable across the relevant populations, something which has yet to be demonstrated for many commonly studied reward- and error-related ERPs. The aim of this study was to examine variation in reward and error-related ERPs across core demographic variables: age, gender, race, and ethnicity...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
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